United States	Office of	January 1981
Environmental Protection	Regional Workforce Coordinator
Agency	J.F. Kennedy Federal Building
Region I	Boston, MA 02203
Senior Environmental
Employment Programs

The Christian Science Monitor
LePelley in The Christian Science Monitor © 1977 TCSPS

At a time of mounting pressure to constrain federal spending the
Environmental Protection Agency is deeply concerned with the effective
use of appropriated funds. Critical issues are the expeditious processing
and efficient management of funds distributed through the grant award
process to meet statutory requirements.
This procedural manual was developed for the National Workforce De-
velopment Staff, Office of the Assistant Administrator for Research and
Development to meet the critical issues enumerated. While it has been
designed to enhance the operations of the Senior Environmental Employment
Program it is equally applicable to other grant programs authorized for
the Environmental Protection Agency and listed in the Federal Catalogue
of Domestic Assistance. The developmental, operational and management
techniques are basic to any successful grant programs.
The following acknowledgements are in order:
Stephen J. Gage, Assistant Administrator, Office of Research and De-
velopment, for his consistent support of the development and enhancement
of the environmental agencies human resources.
Patricia Powers, Acting Director, National Workforce Development Staff,
Office of the Assistant Administrator, Research and Development, for her
ideas, review, editing and stimulation.
Louis F. Gitto, Director, Management Division, Region I, for providing
the time and administrative support.

Jeanne B. Bernard, my wife, for her patience, critical review, editing
and carments.
Eugene K. Parker, Graphics Office, Management Division, Region I, for
his consultation, advice and services in design and format.
Allyn St. Clair Richardson, Water Division, Region I, for his crit-
ical review of construction and verbiage.
Ruth A. Clougherty, Personnel Branch, Management Division, Region I,
for typing and preparation of several drafts and the final copy.
The Christian Science Monitor, Boston, Massachusetts for permission to
use the LePelley cartoon.
Edgar L. Bernard
Regional Workforce Coordinator
Region I

Table of Contents
Preface		i
Introduction		1
I Determination of Need		3
II Development of Resources		6
III Investigation of Methods of Inplementation		8
IV Issuance of Official Document		11
V Monitoring, Evaluation & Reporting Systems		15
VI Execution of Controls		19
VII Coordination of Operational Elements		23
VIII Dissemination of Information		24
IX Phasing Out Programs		27
X Final Reports		28
XI Retrospection					30
1. Procedure Graphic		32

A.	Purpose
This manual is designed to provide guidelines for employment of Senior
Citizens in the environmental, ecological and energy areas of govern-
mental effort.
B.	Objective
The conservation and utilization of talent and experience of Senior
Citizens is of paramount importance to provide direct support to the
wide range of statutory programs established by federal, state and
local governments.
C.	Benefits
Current governmental retrenchment restricts activity in many areas
and requires such augmentation as can be provided by Senior Citizens.
Such augmentation permits the acconplishment of supplemental and crisis
activities, enabling government agencies to more closely comply with
their assigned and/or desired goals. The inprovement in environmental
health will be the direct benefit of the Senior Environmental Employ-
ment Program. The human factor benefits are also important and vital.
Enployment of Senior Citizens benefits the government directly, as
well as the individual, with consequent improvement in individual
well-being, raising of many incomes above the poverty level, and
reducing demand on governmental income transfer and support programs.

D. Approach
The guidelines presented are set forth in a logical, progressive man-
ner so as to enable the user to establish the fundamental basis and
rationale for a specific program, its development, its conduct, and
its closure. Through application of proper procedures, with atten-
tion to governmental constraints, Senior Environmental Employment
Programs can be initiated and operated in an orderly fashion and
produce the mutual benefits desired.

The first task toward the establishment of any program is the identi-
fication and delineation of specific needs, and development of a rationale
for meeting them. The rationale must be in harmony with statutory
authority and agency policy to withstand the close scrutiny of repeated
reviews. The chances of success will also be enhanced in proportion to
its conformity with the specific priorities and methods favored by the
reviewing and approving officials.
Often it happens that managers whose programs could benefit
substantially from the augmented resources which the Senior Environmental
Employment Program could provide are initially uninterested or even
antagonistic to seemingly compelling arguments and demonstrable benefits.
This attitude is just one more hurdle to be sun.ounted. The paradox of
managers who consistently decry the insufficiency of personnel resources
for meeting targeted objectives on schedule, and at the same time resist
accepting proffered help in an innovative format, is not at all unusual.
Such inconsistent management attitudes must be approached obliquely and
with diplomacy, since direct confrontation is sure to harden opposition
and defeat efforts to provide needed assistance.
The following outline provides the essential steps required to
develop a supportive program. In some cases, enlightened management
concerned with human resources will provide invaluable help. In some
cases, it will be necessary to conduct the research and investigation
without initial program participation.

Factors for Determination of Need
A.	Research Legal Authorizations
1.	Applicable Public Laws
Acquire information covering the broad agency charges and
goals for the specific program. A list of these will provide
a check sheet or control for subsequent steps.
2.	Applicable Federal Regulations
Obtain information covering the agency response in carrying
out the public laws and the specific agency regulations and
policy directives. The data obtained here when compared to
section A.l, will provide information indicating which elements
of public law the agency intends to prosecute and which elements
to play down, thus narrowing the areas of consideration.
3.	Applicable Zero-Based Program Budget
This review will provide information covering the immediate,
short-term agency objectives and priorities. This information
when compared to sections A.l and A.2 will further refine the
agency commitments and directly indicate the activities in
need of support.
B.	Review Organizational Structure and Functions.
The information developed in this study, when compared to results
obtained in Section A will indicate the strengths and weaknesses
of the program organization. Frequently one may find that concen-
tration upon the end-results specified in the objectives and goals
results in overlooking some of the basic elements required to at-

tain those goals. This may lead to imbalance of resources pro-
vided for management, administrative, professional, technical,
and clerical functions.
C. Development of Preliminary Proposal
The application of problem identification and problem solving tech-
niques in the investigative and analytical work accomplished in
Sections A & B will provide the specific areas of need, human re-
source requirements, and specific skills necessary to support
the activity and improve its productivity. While this information
provides the essential elements of the preliminary proposal,
exceptional care is required in its construction, to address the
particular interests of the individual manager to whcm it will be
presented and to emphasize the organizational and programmatic
benefits to that individual.

Completion of Section I determinations will provide the program devel-
oper with the basic information required to consider the available resour-
ces, the providers, and the rationale or justification for the use. In
some instances the program developer will have initiated action and com-
pleted all parts of Section I. In other instances where program admini-
strators have instigated requests, it may be necessary for the program
developer to confer with the program administrator to obtain the essential
elements of information necessary to establish a sound basis for justifi-
In either case, the program developer will now be prepared to review
the variety of senior and other applicable programs and options, to
analyze and select the most appropriate source, and to determine the
degree of involvement and support to be provided by the program desiring
augmentation. This last point is one to be stressed.
The agency to be supported must make a corranitment and become involved
in support of the senior program assistance to be provided. Commitment of
resources for administration, for limited supervisory activity, and for limi-
ted orientation and training are essential. All or a combination of these
must be an inherent part of the agreement. Programs which provide "free"
support to an agency, without some direct involvement by the supported
agency are doomed to failure and should be eliminated at this point. Pro-

gram administrators who have the vision to invest a very small portion of
their allocated resources in order to expand their staff efforts obtain
the maximum benefits.
The following outline provides a selection of the resources to be re-
viewed for determining those most suitable and appropriate for the parti-
cular project. This list may not be considered all-inclusive because of
the vagaries regularly experienced in the statutory authorization, appro-
priation, and administrative processes of the governmental system.
Maintaining a continual awareness of changes in support programs and
their implications is an essential activity for the program developer.
It must always be considered that the basic intent of federal subsidized
enployment programs is to lead to unsubsidized employment, and this is one
of the critical evaluation factors in determining a program's success.
Senior Employment Programs
A - Senior Environmental Enployment Corps
B - Senior Community Service Enployment Programs
C - Comprehensive Enployment and Training Programs
D - Senior Opportunities and Services
E - Retired Senior Volunteer Program
F - Volunteers in Service to America
G - State Volunteer Services Coordinator Program
H - Environmental Protection Agency Grants Assistance Programs
I - Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance (Basic Reference)

The basic work acotnplished in Sections I & II provide the program
developer with the information required to compare the desired program
objectives with the range of potential resources selected. The program
developer is now faced with making decisions that will directly influence
successful initiation of the program and its ultimate consummation. Ob-
jectivity will be established that will clarify many of the specific details
essential to preparation of official documents.
A. Analyze in Detail the Elements of the Selected Funding Source
The following elements are generally found in the Catalogue of
Federal Domestic Assistance.
Federal Agency
Types of Assistance
Use Restrictions
Eligibility Requirements
Application and Award Process
Assistance Considerations
Post Assistance Requirements
Financial Information
Criteria for Selection

Completion of the above will enable the program developer to firmly
establish the proper match between the desired program and the selected
funding resource. Ocasionally at this point some adjustments in the pro-
gram objectives may be required to mesh more closely with the objectives
of the funding resource. Some flexibility on the part of the agency re-
ceiving support is essential to meet the demands of the supplier of
assistance and enhance the potential for procurement of funds. Under-
standing of the restrictions and requirements placed upon the supplier
is fundamental to obtaining the interest in and favorable reception of
a proposal.
B. Draft the Proposal
1.	Purpose
2.	Benef ici aries
3.	Social and Economic Costs
4.	Nature of the Problem (substantiated)
5.	Alternatives, or Inplications Upon Project Completion
6.	Manner in Which Problem Will Be Solved
7.	Hew Resources Will Be Used
8.	Budget Construction
9.	Evaluation Design
10.	Reporting System

This draft constitutes the working paper and basic resource for prep-
aration of the formal application. It will supply the essential information
required. Continuous attention must be exercised to effect coordination
of the parts and selection of verbiage to ensure that the proposal com-
bines the objectives of both the supplier and the recipient with clarity.
Mutual objectives and benefits must be firmly established. A sound, fac-
tual presentation promotes favorable reception.

OCLC Connexion
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040 EHA *b eng *e rda *c EHA
088 EPA 901-B-81-002
099 EPA 901-B-81-002
049 EHAD
245 0 0 Procedural manual: *b senior environmental employment programs / *c United States
Environmental Protection Agency, Region I, Office of Regional Workforce Coordinator.
264 1 Boston, MA : *b United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region I, Office of Regional
Workforce Coordinator, *c 1981.
300 iii, 32 pages : *b table ; #c 28 cm
336	text ^b txt +2 rdacontent
337	unmediated ^b n #2 rdamedia
338	volume *b nc *2 rdacarrier
500 Cover title.
500 "January 1981."
650 0 Older people #x Employment *z United States *v Handbooks, manuals, etc.
710 1 United States. *b Environmental Protection Agency. *b Region I. *b Office of Regional Workforce
Coordinator, *e issuing body.
Delete Holdings- Export- Label- Produce- Submit- Replace- Report Error- Update Holdings- ya|jdate q

The previous steps have been preparatory to this critical and es-
sential function of completing the issuance of official documentation
that is agreeable to all parties involved in the specific project. The
basic purpose of such documentation is to obtain official approval and
funding for the project. Whatever form of documentation is chosen, it
is a legal agreement between the parties constructed clearly and con-
cisely to assure mutual understanding and to obviate future disagreement
in interpretation.
A. Critical Elements of Construction
1.	Selection of Appropriate Vehicle
a.	Contract
b.	Grant
c.	Cooperative Agreement
d.	Interagency Agreement
e.	Intra-agency Agreement
2.	Selection of Appropriate Funding
a.	Appropriation
b.	Account(s)
c.	Program Media
d.	Agency Code

3.	Determination of Authorizing Official
a.	Name
b.	Title
c.	Authority Delegation
4.	Determination of Currently Required Forms
a.	Environmental Protection Agency
b.	Other Agencies
5.	Method for Transfer of Funds to Issuing Unit, Department,
Bureau or Division
6.	Detailed Understanding of Specific Forms Packet to be Used,
Including Ancillary Certifications and Depositions
7.	Detailed Understanding of Procedural Routes Required to Obtain
a.	Internal
b.	External
8.	Determination of Congressional Districts Which Will Be Impacted
by the Project
9.	Careful, Complete and Accurate Execution of Required Forms
10. Preparation of the Narrative Description
a.	Project Objectives
b.	Requirement for the Project
c.	Activities to be Conducted
d.	Rationale for the Methods to be Used
e.	Resources and Staff Required for the Project

f.	Reasons the Methods Chosen are Preferable to Other Options
or Alternatives
g.	Schedule of Proposed Time Frames for Elements of the Project
h.	Proposed Evaluation Design
i.	Progress Reporting System, Including Frequency and Format
11. Preparation of the Detailed Budget
a.	Justify Each Line Item of the Budget by Listing Basic
Costs and Conputations
b.	Rationale for Selection of Method of Funding Chosen
c.	Financial Reporting System, Including Frequency and Format
d.	Conformance with Applicable Office of Management and Budget
B. Method Chosen for Processing of Forms Through the System and Anti-
cipated Time Frame
1.	Expediting by Hand Carrying Through the Administrative Offices
Personal Delivery and Pick Up (one week)
2.	Expediting by Telephone Follow Up on a Weekly Basis (one month)
3.	Routine (Two to three months)
The above covers essential details involved in the formulation of legal
documents necessary to initiate a project. Throughout this formalization
process complete coordination is implied. Developing an understanding
with and tacit agreement by the processing officer during construction of
formal documents is a cardinal activity. Preparation for satisfactory
processing of the documents, reduces delays and obviates requirements for

reworking and reprocessing of the instrument. Development of cooperative
relations with program management, financial management, grants management
and/or contracts management during the preparatory stage provides reason-
able assurance that the documents will adhere more closely to their critical
review requirements and will be subject to more expeditious handling.

Coirponents of the official document indicate intended actions to
be taken by the recipient of the award in reporting and evaluating the
progress and financial status of the activity. Coordination during the
drafting of the application has developed the key items required by the
awarding agency to maintain continuous supervision of the project, to
determine effective operation and to assure proper use of funds in a
timely manner. The awarding agency must determine what additional actions
it must take to supplement the written reports submitted by the project
Establishment of internal controls by the project officer may be
accomplished through the use of a performance and evaluation review
technique or similar system. The following outline suggests key points
for consideration. Other factors may be added to meet special
needs of a particular award.
A. Progress Reports by Project Manager
1.	Frequency
2.	Timeliness
3.	Adequacy
4.	Accuracy
5.	Processing by Project Officer

Financial Reports by Project Manager
1.	Frequency
2.	Timeliness
3.	Adequacy
4.	Accuracy
5.	Processing by Project Officer
Evaluation Reports by Project Manager
1.	Frequency
2.	Timeliness
3.	Adequacy
4.	Accuracy
5.	Soundness of Recommendations
6.	Processing by Project Officer
Progress Review by Project Officer
1.	Frequency
2.	Distribution List
3.	Disseminat ion
Financial Review by Project Officer
1.	Frequency
2.	Analysis (Rate of line item expenditures with respect to plan)
3.	Adjustment (Issuance of amendments when appropriate)

F.	Pfonitoring by Project Officer
1.	Personal Visitations to Site
a.	Frequency
b.	Report Format
c.	Dissemination
2.	Telephone Visitations
a.	Frequency
b.	Report Format
c.	Dissemination
G.	Ongoing Evaluation by Project Officer
1.	Frequency
2.	Corrective Actions (where required)
3.	Report Format
H.	Final Evaluation by Project Officer
Review and Comment on Project Manager's Evaluation Report
Project History
Relative Attainment of Objectives
Negative Observations
Scheduling of the above events and requiring pronptness in meeting
the schedule enables the project manager and the project officer to take
appropriate corrective action to eliminate unanticipated deficiencies.

Such action enhances the opportunity for completing the project successfully
and promotes the most efficient use of government funds. Each event must
be considered and acted upon as an entity, even though the schedule may
indicate several events occur simultaneously.

Systematic control of federal funds allocated to federally sponsored
activities, as developed in Section V, is an effective procedure to attain
optimum results. The bases and authorities for such controls are numerous;
however, their prime legitimacy evolves from the executed legal document
establishing the project and approving the specific use of funds. Certain
restrictions exist in the application of controls to a contract, a grant,
a cooperative agreement or other types of agreement. Such applicable
restrictions should have been one of the factors considered in selecting
the proper instrument for the specific activity, so that exercise of
such control will be no suprise to the Project Manager.
The following list encanpasses some controls that generally apply to
all types of instruments and should be exercised.
A. Project Progress
1.	Require prompt submission of progress reports in accordance
with established schedule.
2.	Acknowledge receipt of report pronptly and include remarks
regarding attainments and deficiencies with recommendations
to the Project Manager for corrective actions.
3.	Reference attainments to anticipated milestones, inter-
mediate objectives or to fined objective as a measure of

B. Financial Expenditures
1.	Require prompt submission of financial reports in accordance
with established schedule.
2.	Acknowledge receipt of report promptly. Include remarks regarding
proportions of budgeted line items and total project expenditures
used relative to the proportion of progress attained in the pro-
ject. Notify the project manager of recommendations for corrective
actions, where appropriate.
C.	Personal Site Monitoring
1.	Visit project manager and discuss overall activities, financial
expenditures, and progress toward intermediate and final ob-
2.	Visit a random sample of persons actively involved in prosecu-
tion of the project at their normal work site.
3.	Review and spot check the project personnel, legal, progress,
and financial records, maintained by the project manager's office.
4.	Discuss findings and observations with the project manager,
making appropriate recommendations.
5.	Prepare report of visit.
D.	Telephone Monitoring
1. Initiate regularly scheduled telephone communication with the pro-
ject manager to discuss problems and establish project officer's
continued interest in the project.

2.	Respond pronptly to project manager's calls and inquiries
with authoritative information and suggestions.
3.	Maintain record of conversations and their content.
E. Control Actions Available to the Project Officer
1.	Recommendations
2.	Directives
3.	Amendment to the award
4.	Withholding of interim funding reimbursement pending
corrective actions by the project manager
5.	Request for audit/investigation of the project where
flagrant misuse of funds, violations of agreement and
failure to take corrective action is noted.
6.	Cancellation of the award
Controls should be exerceglsed to enhance the mutual agreement, to
develop the common interest in successful accomplishment of the project
objectives and to promote a spirit of cooperative effort between the
project officer and the project manager. Negotiation as a means of
resolution of operational problems is the preferable and the most success-
ful method of carrying the project through to successful conclusion.
The use of threats, intimidation and adverse actions must be reserved for
crisis situations. Such maneuvers are generally deleterious to inter-
personal relations and to the project itself.

Emphasis has been placed upon adherence to the agreement, record
keeping and continuity for the protection of both the project officer and
the project manager. This approach has been designed to obviate professional
and financial embarrassment from adverse action reccranendations resulting
fran audit/investigation subsequent to completion of the project.

In the preceding part, "Execution of Controls," emphasis was placed
upon the direct relations between the project officer and the project
manager. These two are the chief protagonists in the prosecution of a
successful project. However, they are not the only interested parties.
Involvement is required of all persons and agencies interested in the pro-
Continual awareness of the status and progress of the project among
all interested elements is most desirable, for it continually displays the
progress being made in the project and the problems being encountered.
Frequently, operational problems can be resolved as a result of discussions
with those sponsoring or interested in the project and from their observations,
even though they are not directly involved in the control process.
The project officer and the project manager must be sensitive and
flexible in their response to minor changes or adjustments in project
objectives and procedures which frequently arise during management of the
project. Such changes are inevitable, since no plan, however well conceived,
will function perfectly when placed in operation. The primary responsibility
for making necessary project adjustments falls upon the two principal
operating officers who have the authority to initiate and execute the
procedures required to implement the changes.

The progress of any project is measured by the collection and analysis
of information during its operation. In previous sections we have
considered information flow under "Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting
Systems" and "Execution of Controls". These are primarily oriented
towards the program management level. Other resources of information
that should be tapped are the characteristics and reactions of the
participating workers in the project. Together, these two resources
provide the information required to evaluate the project management,
operation, progress and reception. This is essential to the development
of a plan for dissemination of information which will maintain a con-
tinuing interest in the project and a public awareness of the activities.
The following is an outline of key points for consideration in
establishing an information distribution plan.
A.	Execution of Agreement
1.	Distribution
2.	News Release
B.	Progress Reports
1.	Distribution
2.	News Release
C.	Financial Reports
1. Distribution

D.	Monitoring Reports
1.	Distribution
2.	News Release
E.	Participant Surveys
1.	Distribution of Results
2.	News Release
F.	Final Report
1.	Distribution
2.	News Release
All of the above are covered specifically in separate sections, with
the exception of Participant Surveys. These are an important part of the
information flow process and provide a balance to the information obtained
from the project management information system. Care should ^^taiken in
construction of the participant surveys to exclude material obtained from
the progress and financial reports, to include additional information
necessary, to refine the selected data base and to provide material for
development of human interest aspects of the project. The survey forms
developed by the Foundation for Applied Research for the model Senior
Environmental Employment Program (1977-1979) may be used as a format and
adapted to suit the specific project. Reference to the General Accounting
Office report Number HRD-75-95 of September 20, 1979, "Conditions of
Older People" will be helpful in preparing a section addressed to the
effects of the employment provided on the well being of senior participants
in the project. Compatibility with the other agency data systems, or ele-
ments thereof, will enhance the value of the collection effort.

It must be noted that the outline suggests consideration of a news
release in each case, except for financial reports. While each element
provides some information suitable for public release, it is most practical
to schedule periodic or regular news releases to include essential
information collected from the various sources. The news release schedule
should be coordinated with the schedule of submissions for the reporting

The proper closing of a program is a critical stage for all parties
concerned. Those involved; the sponsor, project officer, project manager,
and participants, have a specific interest in the successful culmination
of the project. Each have special concerns and a different set of value
judgements to be addressed and accommodated at this juncture. On the
assumption that the monitoring, evaluation, reporting, and control systems
have been executed in accordance with the plans, the project officer and
the project manager are in a position to close the project with a minimum
of effort. Active involvement and supervision will have provided the
background and the material for this action.
Checklist of Closure Actions Usually Required:
A.	Review of Official Document File
1.	Basic Document
2.	Amendments or Change Orders
B.	Review of Progress Report File
1.	Complete File of Regular Reports
2.	Timely Submission Record
C.	Review of Financial Report File
1.	Conplete File of Regular Reports
2.	Timely Submission Record
3.	Final Balances by Line Iten and Total
D.	Review of Monitoring Report File
1.	Complete File
2.	Timely Preparation Record

All of the preceding actions, assiduously accomplished, are preparatory
to the construction of the final reports. Two of these are required; the
final narrative progress report and the final financial report. These
should be composed to present a complete picture of the project as
conducted. The following outline suggests elements of the report that
should be considered in its development.
A.	History
1.	Rationale for the Project
2.	Project Objective
3.	Funding Development and Processing
B.	Operations
1.	Initiation or Start-Up
2.	Operational Functions
3.	Administrative Functions
4.	Phasing out Procedures
C.	Conclusions and Recommendations
1.	Corranents and Observations on each of the above Items
2.	Data Representation Supporting Comments
a.	Personnel Analysis
b.	Financial Analysis
c.	Attainment of Objectives

3. Recommendations
a.	Statutory
b.	Administrative
c.	Financial
d.	Successive Activities
The final financial report should be completed on a form provided by
the appropriate agency administrative office, after closing of the project.
It essentially cortprises a balancing of items designated in the budget
with actual expenditures. It thus enables an expeditious transfer of
funds between the parties, where warranted, to close the account.
A news release would be most appropriate to accompany the final
progress report. It should display the effectiveness and viability of
the project and sh(«uld include visual representations, media accounts
and other material establishing the appropriate use of public funds. The
beneficial results of the project should be stressed.

In this manual, you have been exposed to an orderly, progressive
approach to the development, validation, authorization, operation,
control, and cessation of a project. Every attempt has been made to
provide a rational guide or pathway to follow and execute. You may
have noted periodic references to statutes, authorities, regulations,
circulars or other such directives. No attempt has been made to specifically
detail or list such restraints. To do so would have resulted in a manual
that would be excessively voluminous and distracting to the basic intent.
In addition to confusing the reader, it would result in rapid obsolescence
of the manual due to periodic changes in government directives.
What is displayed are the principles and procedures to be applied in
order to prosecute a program or project successfully. To do this you are
faced with the application of planning, organizational and management prin-
ciples. The details to be attentively prosecuted are emphasized. With an
understanding of the reasons for these details, your approach and prosecution
will be constructive and productive. Granted that such details are restric-
tive, they are the result of previous experiences and problems such as in-
appropriate and sometimes illegal use of resources. They represent the bureau-
cratic response to such improper activities, an effective means of avoiding
such problems, and are designed primarily for the protection of both the
government and other involved parties. Provision of this information to those
required to execute various facets of the project will generally produce
psychological acceptance and a more positive response.

The attached graphic in figure 1 depicts the procedures in a sim-
plified manner. It is supplied on a separate page in order that you
may make a ccpy and post it as a constant reminder. It is constructed
in the shape of a wheel to represent the interlocking continuity described
in preceding sections. The numbers refer to the specific sections of
the manual and display the order or progression of procedures. The hub
or axis of the wheel is the key element to be supported. This is vital.
Every step in the process must refer to the objectives at all times and
in every consideration to ensure successful accomplishment.