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STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
AND
PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS
WATER QUA
%
RDS SUMMARY
JOINT PUBLICATION BY
UNITED STATES	RHODE ISLAND DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY DIVISION OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL

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PREFACE
The information contained herein has been condensed frcm the
report on Water Quality Standards for Interstate Waters, State of
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, prepared by the Rhode Island
Department of Health, Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control,
and approved by the Federal Government. This surrmary is intended for
all who have an interest in the quality of water in the State.
A summary of this type, by design, emits many pertinent details.
For more detailed information, consult the Division of Water Supply
and Pollution Control or the text of the report on Water Quality
Standards for Interstate Waters.
December 1971

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TABLE OF CCNTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION	1
WATER USES	4
WATER QUALITY CRITERIA	9
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN	31
SPECIAL PROBLEMS	32
LIST OF TABLES
I FUTURE WATER QUALITY SUITABLE FOR INDICATED
INTERSTATE WATER USES	7
II STATE OF RHODE ISLAND WATER QUALITY STANDARDS	10
III SUMMARY TABLE CF RHODE ISLAND WATER QUALITY
CRITERIA FOR FRESH WATER	25
IV SUMMARY TABIE OF RHODE ISLAND WATER QUALITY
CRITERIA FOR SEA WATERS	27
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LIST OF FIGURES
Follows Page
I Major Interstate Waters of Rhode Island
WAITER QUALITY STANDARDS ADOPTED BY RHODE
ISLAND DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
II	Adamsville Brook Basin
III	Blacks tone River Basin
IV	Narragansett Bay and Coastal Basins
V	Pawcatuck River Basin
VI	Ten Mile River Basin
Vii	Thames River Basin
APPENDICES
I STATE LMflS FOR THE PJOWI/^TION
AND EHFORCQ1ENT OF WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
II INTERSTATE WATERS TO WHICH WATER QUALITY
STANDARDS APPLY UNDER THE FEDERAL WATER
POLLUTION CONTROL ACT
III GLOSSARY OF TERMS
IV ADDRESSES OF WATER POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCIES
-ii-

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SUMMARY OF WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
FOR
THE INTERSTATE WATERS OF RHODE ISLAND

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SUNMARY OF WATER OUALITY STANDARDS
FOR
THE INTERSTATE WATERS OF PHODE ISLAND
INTRODUCTION
In the Water Oualitv Act of 1965, Goneness authorized the estab-
lishment of water oualitv standards for interstate (including coastal)
waters. Hie purpose of these standards is to protect and enhance the
quality and productivity of the Nation's interstate waters to serve a
variety of beneficial uses, such as public water sunplv, recreation
and protection of aquatic life, and industrial and aarricultural uses.
This publication suirmarlzes the standards for the aeneral information
of the public and Federal, State and local officials as to the uses
and associated requirements for interstate waterways.
The Act, which anended the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
provided for the States to have the first opportunity to establish
standards for their interstate waters, which were then subiect to
review and approval by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection
Agency.1 All of the States, the District of Columbia and the Territories
of Guam, Puerto Rioo and the Virgin Islands participated in this land-
mark effort to set standards. In the course of establishino the
standards, public hearings were held by the States and other jurisdic-
tions noted above to give the public an opportunity to participate in
setting water quality objectives and standards.
^Prior to December 2, 1970, the Secretary of the Interior

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The State of Rhode Island adopted standards for its interstate
waters in June 1967, which were then submitted to the Federal Govern-
ment. Subsequently, certain revisions were made by the State in the
original standards, and the Federal Government approved the Standards,
as revised, on January 20, 1971.
The approved standards are thus both State and Federal standards,
enforceable under the State water pollution control statutes and the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Section 10). The
waters for which standards were adopted are shown on the maps in
Figures 1-5.
The standards consist of three major components: designation of
the uses which interstate waters are to serve, specification of narra-
tive and numerical criteria to protect and enhance water quality, and
specification of a plan of implementation and enforcement, which in-
cludes treatment and control requirements for municipal, industrial and
other waste discharged to or affecting interstate waters. These com-
ponents are discussed in the following sections; all three are essential
to a ocrplete standards program.
Rhode Island has also classified all its intrastate waters, and
applies the same water quality criteria to them as applied to inter-
state waters.
Hie standards are now being implemented. However, there will be
continuing research on water quality requirements for various beneficial
uses and improved collection and evaluation of water quality data. As
more information becomes available and experience with implementing
-2-

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the standards is gained, the standards will he refined and improved to
reflect this new knowledge.
Should more detailed information be reauired on any asnect of
the standards, it may be obtained from the Rhode Island Division of Water
Supply and Pollution Control, or the Regional Office of the Environmental
Protection Agencv in Boston, Massachusetts. Fhode Island is also a
member of the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Ccrrmission
which assists the States of the New England Compact area in the
administration of their water pollution control programs.
The New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Comnact, which
was approved by Congress and ratified bv the legislatures of the
seven States, is the legal instrument for cooperation between the
States in interstate water pollution control matters.
Ihe addresses of these agencies are oiven in Appendix IV.
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WATER USES
The State of Rhode Island designates the following classes and
uses to be protected in various interstate waters:
FRESH WATER
CLASS A - Suitable for water supply and all other water uses;
character uniformly excellent. (See Note 11)
CLASS B - Suitable for bathing, other recreational purposes,
agricultural uses, industrial processes and cooling;
excellent fish and wildlife habitat; good aesthetic
value; acceptable for public water supply with
appropriate treatment.
CLASS C - Suitable for fish and wildlife habitat; recreational
boating, and industrial processes and cooling; under
seme conditions acceptable for public water supply
with appropriate treatment; good aesthetic value.
CLASS D - Suitable for navigation, power, certain industrial
processes and cooling, and migration of fish; good
aesthetic value.
SEA WATER
CLASS SA- Suitable for all sea water uses, including shellfish
harvesting for direct human consumption (approved
shellfish areas), bathing, and other water contact
sports.
CLASS SB- Suitable for bathing, other recreational purposes,
industrial cooling and shellfish harvesting for human ccn-
surrption after depuration (restricted shellfish area);
excellent fish and wildlife habitat; good aesthetic value.
CLASS SC- Suitable fish, shellfish and wildlife habitat; suitable
for recreational boating and industrial cooling; good
aesthetic value.
CLASS SD- Suitable for navigation, industrial cooling and migration
of fish; good aesthetic value.
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The general aim in designating uses for particular interstate
waters is to recognize present uses and practicable future uses, to
provide where possible for a variety of uses, and to assure compati-
bility of standards with Federal, State and local resource planning.
In order to satisfy the intent of the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act to enhance water quality, the standards specifically provide that
no interstate waters may be used solely or primarily for waste assimi-
lation. All.interstate waters must be aesthetically pleasing, and
this quality is usually protected by narrative criteria preventing
unsightly or obnoxious conditions such as floating debris, oil slicks,
unpleasant odors, and colors.
Specific proposed use designations for all interstate waters
covered by the Standards are provided in Table 1.
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FUTURE WATER QUALITY FOR INDICATED WATER USES
Table I
f J i /If/ o
Interstate Waters
Kdamsville Brock Basin
Adamsvilie Brook
flackstcne River Basin
Blackstone River
Abbott Run Brook
Branch River
Burnt Svairp Brock
Clear River
Mill River
Misooe Lake
Nipnuc River
Pascoag River
Peters River
Round Top Brook
Wallum Lake
Narragansett Bay and Coastal
iBASins
Appcnaug Cove
Barrington River
Block Island Sound and
Coastal Ponds
Bristol Harbor - East of
Bristol Neck
West of
Bristol Neck
Greenwich Cove
South of Lang Point
North of Long Point to
Chepianoxet Island
Jamestown - East Ferry
West Ferry
Kickamuit River
Mount I Icpe Bay
Narragansett Bay
Point Judith Pond
Providence River
Providence to Gaspee
Point
Gaspee Point to Nyatt
Point
Sakonnet River
Seekonk River
Sucker Brook
B
C
A
C
A
M,q
B
A
A
B,D
B
A
cp
fcA,sq
SA
sc
SA
SC
SB
SC
SC
A,B
SA
PA,SI}
Pa!si|
SC
,sq
SABB
SC
SB
5A
,sq
SD
B
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
XX
X
XX
X
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
X
XX
XX
X
XX
X
XX
X
X
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
X
XX
XX
XX
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
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WATER USES (Continued)
Pawcatuck River
Ashaway River
Little Narragansett Bay
[ran Mile River Basin
Table I
Interstate Woters
Narragansett Bay and Coastal
Basins
Warren River
Warwick Cove
Wick ford Harbor
Pawcatuck River Basin
SC
SB
|SA,Sf
SC
Ten Mile River
•Thames River Basin
Beach Pond
Blackmore Brock
Cody Brook
Koch Brook
Mary Brown Brock
Moosup River
Quaduck Brook
Rcbbins Brook
Whetstone Brook
rSee page 12 for explanation o:
Note:
X - Indicates other than w.
XX - Indicates primary watezj
P,c,d
pBfSq
A,C
SA
B,C
f thd
afce
r
com
, x
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
clasb
dontait
ittact
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
XX
t re
fecrei
ifiqaticai
freati.cn
Ltionl
x
x
x
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
\s
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
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WATER QUALITY CRITERIA
The protection of water quality and vises requires the establish-
ment of numerical and narrative limits on pollutants which damage
these uses. The water quality criteria in this section reflect the
best scientific judgment available as to the water quality require-
ments for the assigned uses. Numerical criteria are used wherever it
is reasonable to do so. However, narrative criteria are also neces-
sary in seme cases, particularly with respect to aesthetic considera-
tions.
Same interstate waters have a higher quality than the minirnun
levels assigned for protection of water uses, and the standards seek
to protect this higher quality as much as possible in the face of
increasing social and economic development. Scientific knowledge
about the exact water quality requirements for uses is limited, and
by preventing degradation of high quality waters, the standards seek
to assure optimum, not marginal, conditions to protect the uses
associated with clean waters.
Table II shows the water quality criteria for the various stand-
ards of classification. There is also given a statement of general
policy applicable to all waters of Rhode Island and a statement on
controlling degradation of high quality waters. These statements
follow.
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TABLE II
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
AITD
PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS
~EPARITGiM1 OF HEALTH
DIVISION OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
STANDARDS OF QUALITY FOR CLASSIFICATION
OF WATERS OF THE STATE
GENERAL POLICY
The following are the standards of water quality adopted
for use in the classification of the waters of the state. In
classification of the waters, consideration is given to all factors
involved, including public health, public enjoyment, propagation
and protection of fish and wildlife, and economic and social
development. Classifications are not intended to permit indiscrim-
inate waste disposal or to allow minimum efforts of waste treatment
under any circumstances.
In the discharge of waste treatment plant effluents to the
receiving waters, cognizance shall be given both in time and
distance to allow for mixing of effluent and stream. Such distances
required for ample te mixing shall not affect the water usage Class
adopted, but shall be defined and controlled by the regulatory
authority.
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1. Antidegradation Policy
Rhode Island has adopted the following antidegradation policy:
"Waters whose existing quality is better than the
established standards as of the date on which such standards
become effective will be maintained at such high quality
unless it has been affirmatively demonstrated to the State
that a change is justifiable as a result of necessary economic
or social development and will not result in a significant
loss of a use presently possible in such waters. Any
industrial, public, or private project or development which
would constitute a new source of pollution or an increased
source of pollution to high quality waters will be required
to provide the highest and best practicable means of waste
treatment to maintain high water quality. In implementing
this policy, the Secretary of the Interiors/ill be kept
advised and will be provided with such information as he
will need to discharge his responsibilities under the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, on August 31, 1970."
2As of Decenber 12, 1970, the Administrator, Environmental
Protection Agency
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WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
In accordance with Title 46, Chapter 12 of the General Laws of
1956, the interstate inland and sea waters and intrastate waters
have been classified according to the water quality standards adopted
by the Rhode Island Department of Health. These standards are com-
parable to those revised and adopted on April 18, 1967 by the New
England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission. Hie standards
are in two parts providing for the classification of fresh and sea
waters. Sea waters or tidal waters are defined as those waters
subject to the rise and fall of the tide. When definite additional
parameters for the various water uses are developed, they will be
included in the standards. Bio-assays will continue to be used to
determine the limits for substances discharged into waters used for
the propagation of fish if established limits are not available.
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FRESH WATER
CLASS A Suitable for water supply and all other water uses;
character uniformly excellent. (See Note 11)
Standards of Water Quality
Item	Water Quality Criteria
1.	Dissolved oxygen	75% saturation, 16 hours/day 5 mg/1
at any time
2.	Sludge deposits—solid refuse None allowable
—floating solids, oils, and
grease—scum
3.	Color and turbidity	None other than of natural origin
4.	Coliform bacteria per 100 ml Not to exceed a median of 100 per 100 ml
nor more than 500 in more than 10% of
sanples collected
5.	Taste and odor	None other than of natural origin
6.	pH	As naturally occurs
7.	Allowable terrperature increase None other than of natural origin
8.	Chemical constituents	(See Note 5)
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CLASS B Suitable for bathing, other recreational purposes,
agricultural uses, industrial processes and cooling;
excellent fish and wildlife habitat; good aesthetic
value; acceptable for public water supply with
appropriate treatment.
Item
1. Dissolved oxygen
Standards of Water Quality
Water Quality Criteria
2.	Sludge deposits—solid refuse
—floating solids, oils, and
grease—scum
3.	Color and turbidity
75% saturation, 16 hours/day 5 mg/1
at any time
None allowable
None in such ooncentraticns that would
inpair any usages specifically assigned
to this Class
4. Coliform bacteria per 100 ml
5. Taste and odor
Not to exceed a median of 1,000 per 100
ml nor more than 2,400 in more than 20%
of sarrples collected
None in such concentrations that would
inpair any usages specifically assigned
to this Class nor cause taste and odor
in edible fish
6. pH
6.5 - 8.0
7. Allowable temperature increase Only such increases that will not inpair
any usages specifically assigned to
this Class (See Note 7)
8. Chemical constituents
(See Note 5)
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CLASS C Suitable for fish and wildlife habitat; recreational
boating, and industrial processes and cooling; under
sane conditions acceptable for public water supply
with appropriate treatment; good aesthetic value.
Item
1. Dissolved oxygen
Standards of Water Quality
Water Quality Criteria
Minimum 5 mg/1 any tine. Normal seasonal
and diurnal variations above 5 mg/1 will
be maintained. For sluggish eutrophic
waters, not less than 4 mg/1 at any
tine. Normal seasonal and diurnal
variations above 4 mg/1 will be maintained.
2.	Sludge deposits—solid refuse
—floating solids, oils and
grease—scum
3.	Color and turbidity
4. Coliform bacteria per 100 ml
5. Taste and odor
None (See Note 8)
None in such concentrations that would
irtpair any usages specifically assigned
to this Class
None in such concentrations that would
impair any usages specifically assigned
to this Class
None in such concentrations that would
irtpair any usages specifically assigned
to this Class nor cause taste and odor
in edible fish
6.0 - 8.5
6.	pH
7.	Allowable temperature increase Only such increases that will not inpair
any usages specifically assigned to this
Class (See Note 7)
8. Chemical constituents
(See Note 5)
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CLASS D Suitable for navigation, power, certain industrial
processes and cooling, and migration of fish; good
aesthetic value.
Item
1. Dissolved oxygen
Standards of Water Quality
Water Quality Criteria
A minirnum of 2 mg/1 at any time
2. Sludge deposits—solid refuse None (See Note 8)
—floating solids, oils and
grease—scum
3. Color and turbidity
None in such concentrations that would
iitpair any usages specifically assigned
to this Class
4. Coliform bacteria per 100 ml
None in such oancentraticns that would
iitpair any usages specifically assigned
to this Class
5. Taste and odor
Ncne in such concentrations that would
iitpair any mages specifically assigned
to this Class
6. pH
6.0 - 9.0
7. Allowable tenperature increase Ncne except where the increase will not
exceed the reoonrnended limits on the
most sensitive water use and in no case
exceed 90^
8. Chemical constituents
(See Note 5)
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NOTES:
1.	Ihese Standards do not apply to conditions brought about by natural
causes.
2.	Class D waters will be assigned only where a higher water use Class
cannot be attained after all appropriate waste treatment methods
are utilized. Appropriate waste treatment shall be secondary
treatment with disinfection or the equivalent. Lesser degrees of
treatment will be permitted only where it can be demonstrated that
attainment of the specified water use class standard of quality
can be effectuated.
3.	All sewage treatment plant effluents shall receive disinfection
before discharge into a watercourse.
4.	Any water falling below tlie standards of quality for a given Class
shall be considered unsatisfactory for the uses indicated for that
Class. Waters falling below the standards of quality for Class D
shall be Class E and considered to be in a nuisance condition.
5.	Waters shall be free frcm chemical constituents and radioactive
materials in concentrations or ocrbinaticns which would be harmful
to human, animal, or aquatic life for the appropriate, most sensi-
tive and governing water class use. In areas where fisheries are
the governing considerations and approved limits have not been
established, bio-assays shall be performed as required by the
appropriate agencies. For public drinking water supplies the
limits prescribed by the United States Public Health Service will
be vised where not superseded by more stringent signatory State
requirements.
6.	Deleted
7.	The temperature increase shall not raise the tenperature of the
receiving waters above 68°F for waters supporting cold water
fisheries and 83°F for waters supporting a warm water fishery.
In no case shall the tenperature of the receiving water be raised
more than 4°F.
8.	Sludge deposits, floating solids, oils, grease and scum shall not he
allowed, except for such small amounts that may result from the
discharge of appropriately treated sewage or industrial waste
effluents.
9.	Hie minimum average daily flow for seven consecutive days that can
be expected to occur cnae in ten years shall be the minimum flow
to which the standards apply.
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10.	Class B and C waters shall be substantially free of pollutants
that:
a)	Unduly affect the composition of bottom fauna,
b)	Unduly affect the physical or chemical nature of the
bottom,
c)	Interfere with the propagation of fish.
11.	Class A waters in use for drinking water supply may be subject to
restricted use by State and local authorities.
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SEA WATER
CLASS SA: Suitable for all sea water uses including shellfish
harvesting for direct human oonsunptian (approved
shellfish areas), bathing, and other water contact
sports.
1.
2.
Item
Dissolved oxygen
Standards of Quality
Water Quality Criteria
Sludge deposits—solid refuse
—floating solids—oil—
grease—scum
3. Color and turbidity
4. Coliform bacteria per 100 ml
6.
7.
Odor
PH
Not less than 6.0 mg/1 at any time
None allowable
None in such concentrations that will
impair any usages specifically assigned
to this Class
Not to exceed a median MFN of 70 and
not more than 10% of the sanples shall
ordinarily exaeed an MFN of 230 for a
5-tube decimal dilution or 330 for a
3-tvbe decimal dilution (See Note S.6)
None allowable
6.8 - 8.5
Allowable temperature increase None except where the increase will not
exceed the reccrmended limits for the
most sensitive water use
8. Chemical constituents
None in concentrations or ocrbinatians
which would be harmful to human, animal,
or aquatic life or which would make the
waters unsafe or unsuitable for fish or
shellfish or their propagation, impair
the palatability of same, or inpair the
waters for any other uses
9. Radioactivity
(See Note S.8)
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CLASS SB: Suitable for bathing, other recreational purposes, industrial
cooling and shellfish harvesting for human oansunption after
depuration (restricted shellfish area); excellent fish and
wildlife habitat; good aesthetic value.
Item
1. Dissolved oxygen
Standards of Quality
Water Quality Criteria
Not less than 5.0 mg/1 at any time
2. Sludge deposits—solid refuse None allowable
—floating solids—oils—
grease—scum
3. Color and turbidity
4. Coliform bacteria per 100 ml
Taste and odor
6. pH
None in such concentrations that would
ixtpair any usages specifically assigned
to this class
Not to exceed a median value of 700 and
not more than 2,3000 in more than 10%
of the samples (See Note S6)
None in such concentrations that would
inpair any usages specifically assigned
to this class and none that would cause
taste and odor in edible fish or shellfish
6.8 - 8.5
7. Allowable temperature increase None except where the increase will not
exceed the reccmended limits on the rrost
sensitive water use assigned to this class
8. Chemical constituents
None in concentrations or oorrbinations
which would be harmful to human, animal
or aquatic life or which would make the
waters unsafe or unsuitable for fish or
shellfish or their propagation, or inpair
the water for any other usage assigned to
this class
9. Radioactivity
(See Note S8)
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CLASS SC: Suitable for fish, shellfish and wildlife habitat;
suitable for recreational boating, and industrial
cooling; good aesthetic value.
Item
1. Dissolved oxygen
Standards of Quality
Water Quality Criteria
Not less than 5 nig/1 during at least 16
hours of any 24-hour period, nor less
than 4 mg/1 at any time
2. Sludge deposits—solid refuse
—floating solids—oils—
grease—scum
3. Color and turbidity
4. Coli form bacteria
5. Taste and odor
None except that amount that may
result from the discharge frcm a waste
treatment facility providing appropriate
treatment
None in such concentrations that would
inpair any usages specifically assigned
to this class
None in such concentrations that would
inpair any usages specifically assigned
to this class
None in such concentrations that would
inpair any usages specifically assigned
to this class and none that would cause
taste and odor in edible fish or shellfish
6. pH
6.5 - 8.5
7. Allowable temperature increase None except where the increase will not
exceed the reocrmended limits on the most
sensitive water use assigned to this class
8. Chemical constituents
None in concentrations or oorbinations
which would be harmful to human, animal
or aquatic life or which would make the
waters unsafe or unsuitable for fish or
shellfish or their propagation, or inpair
the water for any other usage assigned
to this class
9. Radioactivity
(See Note S.8)
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CLASS SD: Suitable for navigation, industrial cooling and migration
of fish; good aesthetic value
Standards of Quality
Item
1.	Dissolved oxygen
2.	Sludge deposits—solid refuse
—floating solids—oils
grease—scum
3.	Color and turbidity
4. Coliform bacteria
5. Taste and odor
6. pll
Water Quality Criteria
Not less than 2 mg/1 at any time
None except that amount that may result
frcm the discharge frcm a waste treatment
facility providing appropriate treatment
None in such concentrations that would
impair any usages specifically assigned
to this class
None in such concentrations that would
iirpair any usages specifically assigned
to this class
None in such concentrations that would
inpair any usages specifically assigned
to this class and none that would cause
taste and odor in edible fish or shellfish
6.5 - 8.5
7. Allowable tapper ature increase None except where the increase will not
exceed the reccmnended limits an the most
sensitive water use
8. Chemical constituents
None in concentrations or ccrbinations
which would be harmful to human, animal
or aquatic life or which would make the
waters unsafe or unsuitable for fish or
shellfish or their propagation, inpair
the palatability of same, or inpair the
water for any other usage
9. Radioactivity
(See Note S.8)
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NOTES:
S.l Sea waters are those waters subject to the rise and fall of the
tide.
S. 2 Class SD waters will be assigned only where a higher water use
Class cannot be attained after appropriate waste treatment methods
are utilized. Appropriate waste treatment shall be secondary treat-
ment with disinfection or the equivalent. Lesser degrees of treatment
will be permitted only where it can be demonstrated that attainment
of the specified water use class standard of quality can be effectuated.
5.3	All sewage treatment plant effluents shall receive disinfection
before discharge to sea waters.
5.4	Ihe water quality standards do not apply to conditions brought about
by natural causes.
5.5	Ihe waters shall be substantially free of pollutants that will:
a)	Unduly affect the ccrrpositian of bottom fauna,
b)	Unduly affect the physical or chemical nature of the bottom,
c)	Interfere with the propagation of fish.
5.6	Bacteriological surveys of sea waters should include sanpling during
periods when the most unfavorable hydrographic and pollution conditions
prevail.
5.7	Any water falling below the standards of quality for a given Class
shall be considered unsuitable for the uses indicated for that Class.
Waters falling below the standards of quality for Class SD shall be
Class SE and considered to be in a nuisance condition.
5.8	The level of radioactive materials in all waters shall not be in
concentrations or ocnt>inations which would be harmful to human,
animal or aquatic life.
-23-

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TABLE III
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
DUPARTHEtW OF HEALTH
DIVISION OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR FRESH WATERS
Item
Class A
Class B
1. Dissolved oxygen
75% saturation, 16
hours/day 5 mg/1 at
any tine
75% saturation, 16
hours/day 5 mg/1 at
any time
i
to
cn
i
Class C
Class D
Minimum 5 mg/1 any time.
Normal seasonal and di-
urnal variations above
5 mg/1 will be main-
tained. For sluggish
eutrophic waters, not
less than 4 mg/1 at any
time. Normal seasonal
and diurnal variations
above 4 mg/1 will be
maintained
A minimum of 2 mg/1 at
any time
2.
Sludge deposits- None allowable
solid refuse-
floating solids-
oils-grease-
Ucne allowable
scvxn
3.
Color and
turbidity
None other than of
natural origin
Ncne (See Note 8)
None in such concen-
trations that would
iirpair any visages
None in such concen-
trations that would
iitpair any usages
specifically assigned specifically assigned
to this Class	to this Class
None (See Note 8)
None in such concen-
trations that would
iitpair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class

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TABLE III (Continued)
Item
Class A
Class B
Class C
Coliform bacteria Hot to exceed a median Not to exceed a median None in such canoen-
of 100 per 100 ml nor of 1,000 per 100 ml traticns that would
more than 500 in more nor more than 2,400
in more than 20% of
sanples collected
than 10% of sanples
collected
inpair any visages
specifically assigned
to this Class
Class D
None in such concen-
trations that would
impair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class
Taste and odor
i
to
0
1
None other than of
natural origin
None in such concen-
trations that would
inpair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class nor
cause taste and odor
in edible fish
6. pH
As naturally occurs 6.5 - 8.0
None in such concen-
trations that would
inpair any visages
specifically assigned
to this Class nor
cause taste and odor
in edible fish
6.0 - 8.5
None in such concen-
trations that would
inpair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class
6.0 - 9.0
7. Allowable
tenperature
increase
Ncne other than of
natural origin
Only such increases
that will not inpair
any visages specif-
ically assigned to
this Class (See Note
7)
Only such increases
that will not inpair
any usages specifi-
cally assigned to this
Class (See Note 7)
None except where the
increase will not exceed
the reoamended limits
on the most sensitive
water use and in no
case exceed 90°F.
8. Chemical 6cn- (See Note 5)
stituents
(See Note 5)
(See Note 5)
(See Note 5)

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TABLE IV
STKTE OF RHODE ISLAND
DEPAF2THOT OF HEALTH
DIVCSICN OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SEA WATER
Item	Class SA	Class SB	Class SC	Class SD
1. Dissolved oxygen
Sludge deposits-
solid refuse-
floating solids-
oils-grease-
scum
Mot less than 6.0
rag/1 at any time
None allowable
Not less than 5.0
rog/1 at any tine
None allowable
Not less than 5 mg/1
during at least 16
hours of any 24-hour
period nor less than
4 mg/1 at any time
None exaept that amount
that may result from
the discharge from a
waste treatment facil-
ity providing appro-
priate treatment
Not less than 2 mg/1
at any time
None exoept that amount
that may result fran
the discharge frcn a
waste treatment facility
providing appropriate
treatment
3.
Color and
turbidity
None in such ocricen-
trations that will
impair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class
None in such concen-
trations that would
impair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class
Ncne in such concen-
trations that would
iitpair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class
4. Coliform bacteria Not to exceed a med- Not to exceed a med- Ncne in such ccncen-
per 100 ml
ian MPN of 70 and
not noxe than 10% of
the sanples shall
ordinarily exceed an
MEN of 230 for a 5-
tube decimal dilution
or 330 for a 3-ttfae
decimal dilution (see
Note S.6)
ian value of 700 and trations that would
not more than 2300
in more than 10% of
the sanples (See Note
S.6)
mpair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class
None in such concen-
trations that would
iitpair any usages
specifically assigned
to this Class
Ncne in such concen-
trations that would
inpair any usages
specifically assigned
to this class

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Item
Class SA
Class SD
5. Taste and odor None allowable
i
tO
00
1
6.	pH
7.	Allowable
temperature
increase
6.8 - 8.5
None except where the
increase will not ex-
ceed the neocrmended
limits for the most
sensitive water use
None in such concen-
trations that would
inpair arty usages
specifically assigned
to this Class and none
that would cause taste
and odor in edible
fish or shellfish
6.8 - 8.5
None except where the
increase will not ex-
ceed the reocrnended
limits on the most
sensitive water use
None in such concen-
trations that would
inpair any usages
specifically assigned to
this Class and none that
would cause taste and
odor in edible fish or
shellfish
6.5 - 8.5
None in such concen-
trations that would
iirpair any usages
specifically assigned to
this Class and none that
would cause taste and
odor in edible fish or
shellfish
6.5 - 8.5
assigned to this Class this Class
None except where the None except where the
increase will not exceed increase will not exceed
the reccmended limits the reccmencled limits
on the most sensitive on the most sensitive
water use assigned to water use
8. Chemical con-
stituents
None in concentra-
tions or oonbina-
ticns which would be
harmful to human,
animal or aquatic life
or which would make
the waters unsafe or
unsuitable for fish or
shellfish or their
propagation, inpair
the palatability of
same, or inpair the
waters for any other
uses
None in concentrations
or ocrrbinaticns which
would be harmful to
human, animal or
aquatic life or which
would make the waters
unsafe or unsuitable
for fish or shellfish
or their propagation,
or impair the water
for any other usage
assigned to this Class
None in concentrations
or oerbinatiens which
would be harmful to
human, animal or aquatic
life or which would make
the waters unsafe or
unsuitable for fish or
shellfish or their propa-
gation, or iirpair the
water for any other
usage assigned to this
Class
None in concentrations
or examinations which
would be harmful to
human, animal or aquatic
life or which would make
the waters unsafe or
unsuitable for fish or
•shellfish or their propa-
gation, or inpair the
water for any other
usage
9. Radioactivity
(See Note S.8)
(See Note S.8)
(See Note S.8)
(See Note S.8)

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IMPLLMEOTATICN plan
The "action" plan of the standards is the plan of implementa-
tion and enforcement. This plan sets forth the requirements for
treatment and/or control of all conventional municipal and indus-
trial waste discharges in the State which affect interstate waters,
specifies the time within which this is to be acccnplished, and
contains programs for dealing with other water pollution control
problems. In general, the standards call for installation of
secondary treatment or the equivalent, or higher, for essentially
all municipal and industrial wastes by October 1972. Information on
the requirements for any particular discharges may be obtained from
the Rhode Island Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control.
-29-

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SPECIAL PROBLEMS
Ccrrbined Sewer Overflows
"The overflow of a mixture of storm water and untreated sewage
frcm oorrbined sewers occurs during storm periods in the cities of
Providence, Pawtucket, Central Falls and Newport. These ocmbined
sewers were constructed many years ago. Further construction of com-
bined sewers in Rhode Island has not been permitted for a nurrber
of years.
"Although portions of the sewer systems in the cities of
Central Falls and Pawtucket are of the oorrbined type, the overflow
of sewage into the Blacks tcne River occurs only during storms of
unusual intensity. During rainfalls of average intensity, all
sewage and storm water are conveyed to the Blacks tone Valley Sewer
District plant in East Providence for treatment.
"The overflow of sewage frcm ccnbined sewers into Narragansett
Bay is a problem in Providence and I Newport. Providence is proceed-
ing to separate its sewerage system on a piecemeal basis as oppor-
tunities to do so arise in conjunction with road work and urban
renewal. Newport is taking aggressive action to eliminate ccrbined
sewer overflows. A long range plan for sewer separation is being
developed. A firm of consulting engineers was hired in 1966 to lay
out details for separating ccrbined sewers in one significant por-
tion of the city."
-30-

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RIVER BASIN MAPS OF WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
ADOPTED BY
RHODE ISLAND DEPARTMENT OP HEALUI
NOTE: The following maps indicate by name only the larger
of the interstate streams. To determine if a stream,
which is not shorn, is an interstate stream consult
the Water Uses Table or apply the definition as given
in Appendix III.
-31-

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INDEX OF MAJOR INTERSTATE WATERWAYS
Blackstone River Basin	Figure 1
Narragansett Bay and Coastal Waters Basin	Figures 2 and 3
Pawcatuck River Basin	Figure 4
Thames River Basin	Figure 5
-33-

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BLACKSTONE RIVER BASIN
MASS.
THAMES RIVER
BASIN -s.
PAWCATUCK
RIVER BASIN
NARRA6ANSETT BAY AND
- COASTAL BASIN
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
MAJOR INTERSTATE WATERS

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©
c
30
BASIN
BOUNDARY
MASSACHUSETTS
RHODE (SLAND
woiium
re«*»tdote > **	y.	/
WOON SO CwK E T
BURRIL L ( VI L L E
B) Gttndole /©
• INHorr/jiville
NORTH SMITHFIELD
t/OokJond
Poscoog
AIbion

Ashton
Btrk«J»y
Ch«pocH«t
snri/rs t*ove
POND
\ LIN COLN
vol ley! IFoils
6L0CEST ER
MILES
CENTRAL
FALLS-O^
Kcecu
roivo
A)[ B)[C)(D) WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
CLASSIFICATION CHANGE
INTERSTATE STREAMS WITH FEDERALLY
APPROVED WATER OUALITY STANDARDS
Blockstone River
Abbott Run Brook
Branch River
Burnt Swomp Brook
Clear River
Mill River
Miscoe Lake
Nipmuc River
Peters River
Round Top Brook
Wallum Lake
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
ADOPTED BY
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
DIVISION OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
BLACKSTONE RIVER BASIN CLASSIFICATION

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INTERSTATE waters with federally
APPROVED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
Barrington River
Kickamuit River
Pettaquamscutt River (tidal
portion)
Warren River
All Tidal Waters
WEST
GREENWICH
MILES
; (SA¥SB)(SC)fA)(B)(CXD) - WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
CLASSIFICATION CHANGE
N
PAWTUCKET
LINCOLN *
/ „
PROVIDENCE Sn /
EAST
PROVIDENCE
CRANSTON
BASIN BOUNDARY
•!\
BARRINGTON
WEST
WARWICK l
STOL
Srttnmcfi
V
KUDtNCt
NORTH
Tl VER1TON

PORTSMOUTH
EXETER
little
COMPTON
SOUTH
KINGSTOWN
PORT
SO on 0

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
ADOPTED BY
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
DIVISION OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
NARRAGANSETT BAY
DRAINAGE BASIN CLASSIFICATION
FIGURE 2

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2	3
MILES
(SA)(SB)(SC)(SD)WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
CLASSIFICATION CHANGE
N
BASIN BOUNDARY
Judith
NGSTOWN
CHAR
®
©
INTERSTATE WATERS WITH FEDERALLY
APPROVED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
Block Island Sound and Coastal Woters
Block Island Tidal Waters
Tidal Ponds
•*»
©
c
TO
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
ADOPTED BY
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
DIVISION OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
NARRAGANSETT BAY
AND
COASTAL DRAINAGE BASINS CLASSIFICATION
TOUT-;-mo" '
JUOlTH	sou""
Grtot Soft
Pd
BLOCK ISLAND

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0 I
2 3 4
MILES
(a)^B)(c)<0) - WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
— CLASSIFICATION CHANGE
BAH.CY PJ.
\©
r BASIN
BOUNDARY
KENT

HAZARD K
rAmooe PO.
NDtteo
HOP* I NIT
NORTH
KINGSTOWN
WMHrly
WESTERLY
WATCHAW PO\
INTERSTATE STREAMS WITH FEDERALLY
APPROVED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
Powcatuck River
Ashaway River
Bailey Pond
Hazard Pond

WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
ADOPTED BY
STATE OF RHODE ISLANO
DIVISION OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
PAWCATUCK RIVER BASIN CLASSIFICATION
FIGURE 4

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BASIN
BOUNDARY
MA SS
BURRILLVILLE
KftCM ro
6L O/CESTER


2	3
MILES
®@@(D) - WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
— CLASSIFICATION CHANGE
N
J
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
ADOPTED BY
STATE OF RHODE ISLAND
DIVISION OF WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION CONTROL
THAMES RIVER BASIN
CLASSIFICATION
INTERSTATE STREAMS WITH FEDERALLY
APPROVED WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
Blockmore Brook
Brown Brook
Cody Brook
Ktoch Brook
Killingly Pond
Moosup Rivar
Quoduck Brook
Robbins Brook
FIGURE 5

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APPENDIX I
RHODE ISLAND LAWS
ALfmORIZING THE ESTABLISHMENT AND ENFORCEMENT
OF WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
Exoerpts from General Laws of 1956 of
The State of Rhode Island
Title 46 - Chapter 12 Hater Pollution
As Amended

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GENERAL LAWS OF 1956
TITLE 46-CHAPTER 12
WATER POLLUTION
AS AMENDED BY
PL170, 1958; PLS9, 1963; PL261, 1966;
PL198, 1967, PLS3, 1970; PL289, 1970
PL103, 1971; PL236, 1971
Section
46-12-1,	Definition of terms.
46-12-2.	Administration-Board.
46-12-3.	Powers and duties of the director.
46-12-4	Prohibitions-Orders required.
46-12-5	Investigation and hearing.
46-12-6.	Subpoena of witnesses-Enforcement.
46-12-7.	Expert assistance in investigations and prosecutions.
46-12-8.	Order to adopt pollution prevention system.
46-12-9.	Time allowed for adoption of system.
46-12-10.	Approval of system selected.
46-12-11.	Service of orders.
46-12-12.	Modification of revocation of order.
46-12-13.	Operation of approved system as sufficient compliance
46-12-14.	Penalty for violation of orders.
46-12-15.	Inspection powers-Rules and regulations.
46-12-16.	Repealed by PL261, 1966.
46-12-17.	Prosecution of violations.
46-12-18.	Repealed by PL88, 1970.
46-12-19.	Equity proceedings for enforcement.
46-12-20.	Repealed by PL261, 1966.
46-12-21.	Effect of order pending appeal.
46-12-22.	Transcript as evidence on appeal.
46-12-23.	New evidence on appeal.
46-12-24.	Consultation with persons discharging sewage.
46-12-25.	Submission of plans of existing purification drains,
46-12-26.	Records of operation.
46-12-27.	Repealed by PL88, 1970.
46-12-28.	Penalty for violations as to reports and records.
46-12-29.	Rules-Proceedings.
46-12-30.	Rendering water unsuitable for drinking.
46-12-31.	Access of enforcement officers to premises.
46-12-32.	Town and city expenditures for pollution control.
46-12-33.	State Grants for pollution prevention facilities.
1-1

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46-12-1. Definition of terms.—As used in this chapter the
following terms shall, where the context permits,
be construed as follows:
The term "sewage" shall be held to mean and to include any
human or animal excremental liquid or substance, any decomposed
animal or vegetable matter, garbage, offal, filth, waste,
chemicals, acid, dye-stuff, starch, coloring matter, oil and
tar, radio-active substances, and any compound, solution,
mixture or product thereof, and every substance which may be
injurious to public health or comfort, or which would injuriously
affect the natural and healthy propogation, growth, or develop-
ment of any fish or shellfish in the waters of this state, or of
the nourishment of the same, or which would injuriously affect
the flavor, taste, or value as food of any such fish or shell-
fish? or which would defile said waters or injure or defile
any vessel, boat, wharf, pier, or any public or private
property upon, in or under said waters, or any shore thereof.
The term "waters" shall include all tidewaters within the
state and all inland waters of any river, stream, brook, pond
or lake.
The term "person" shall include an individual, firm or
co-partnership, and association, and a private or municipal
corporation.
The term "pollution" shall be held to mean the entrance or
discharge of sewage into any of the waters of the state in such
quantity, either by itself or in connection with other sewage so
discharged, as to alter the physical or chemical properties,
or biology, of said waters, including change in temperature,
taste, color, turbidity or odor, and to cause or be likely to
cause damage to the public, or to any person having a right to
use said waters for boating, fishing or other purposes, or
owning property in, under or bordering upon the same.
The term "polluting" shall be held to mean the causing of
pollution.
Wherever reference is made in this chapter to any order of
the director and such order shall have been modified by the
court, the order referred to shall be taken to be the order of
the director as so modified.
The term "director" shall be held to mean the director of
the department of health or any subordinate or subordinates to
whom he has delegated the powers and duties vested in him by
this chapter.
46-12-2. Administration—Board.
(a) It shall be the responsibility of the director
of health to administer this chapter. Within the department of
health the director may employ such personnel who shall come
within the classified service in accordance with the laws of
1-2

-------
this state for tho purposes of this chapter, and may delegate
to a subordinate or subordinates any or all the powers and
duties vested in him here-under. The general assembly
shall annually appropriate such sums as it may deem necessary
for the expenses of administering this chapter.
(b)	Repealed by Public Law 103 of 1971.
(c)	The department of health is hereby designated as
the state water pollution control agency for this state for all
purposes of the federal water pollution control act, as
amended (33U.S.C.4G5), and is hereby authorized to take all
action necessary or appropriate to secure to this state the
benefits of that act.
46-12-3. Pov^rs er>3 duties of the director,—In addition to the
other powers granted him herein, the director shall have and may
exercise the following powers and duties:
(a)	to exercise general supervision of the administration
and enforcement of this chapter and all rules and regulations
and orders promulgated hereunder;
(b)	to develop comprehensive programs for the prevention,
control and abatement of new or existing pollution of the
waters of this state.
(c)	to advise, consult and cooperate with other agencies
of the state, the federal government, other states and inter-
state agencies and with affected groups, political sub-divisions
aid industries in the furtherance of the purposes of this act;
(d)	to accept and administer loans and grants from the
federal government and from other sources, public or private,
for the carrying out of any of its functions, which loans and
grants shall not be expended for other than the purposes which
provided?
(e)	to encourage, participate in, or conduct studies,
investigations, research and demonstration relating to water
pollution and its causes, prevention, control and abatement
thereof as he may deem advisable and necessary for the discharge
of his duties under this chapter;
(f)	to collect and disseminate information relating to
water pollution and the prevention, control and abatement thereof;
(g)	to adopt, modify or repeal and promulgate, after due
notice and hearing, standards of water quality and to classify
the waters of the state accordingly;
1-3

-------
(h) to administer Gtatc grants to municipalities and
political subdivisions for the construction of sewage treatment
works;
(i) to hold such hearings, to issue notices of hearings
and subpoenas requiring the attendance of such witnesses and the
production of such evidence, to administer such oaths and to
take such testimony, as he may deem necessary;
(j) to require the prior submission of plans, specifi-
cation, and other data relative to, and to inspect the
construction of, disposal systems or any part thereof in
connection with the issuance of orders, and provided by this
chapter;
(k) to issue, continue in effect, revoke, modify or
deny under such conditions as he may prescribe, to prevent,
control or abate pollution orders of approval for the discharge
of sewage into the waters of this state and for the installation,
modification or operation of disposal systems or any parts
thereof;
(1) to require proper maintenance and operation of
disposal systems;
(m) to consult the advisory board of water pollution on
the policies and plans for the control and abatement of
pollution;
(n) to make, issue, amend and revoke reasonable rules
and regulations for the prevention, control and abatement of
pollution and the enforcement of orders issued hereunder;
(o) to exercise all incidental powers necessary to
carry out the purposes of this chapter.
1-4

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APPENDIX II
i;,"TEHS!IATE WATERS TO WHICH WAT2R QUALITY SmiffiARDS APPLY
vmm
WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT
as amended by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of
1961—(Public Law 87-88), the Water Quality Act of 1965—(Public Law
89-234), the Gean Water Restoration Act of 1966— (Public Law 89-753},
and the Water Quality Improvement Ac£ of 1970— (Public Law 91-224).
Appendices:
Water quality standards, under Section 10 (c) (1) of the Act are to be
established for, and made applicable to, interstate waters or portions
thereof within the State.
1.	Tho ttirm "interstate waters," as defined in Section 13 (e) of the
Act, means all rivers, lakes, and other waters that flow across or torn
a part of Stata boundaries, including coastal waters.
2.	Within this definition, waters that flow across or forr. a part of
State boundaries are subject to tha provisions of Section 10 
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APPENDIX III
Glossary of Terms
CoHform Bacteria - For many years the best indicator of tlie
sanitary quality of water has been an estimate of the density of coliform
bacteria. More recently, tests have been developed for the determination
of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci, which give a better indication
of the concentration of bacteria in waters which may be harmful to human
health. Bacterial concentrations originate primarily from municipal waste
treatment plants, sanitary sewers, storm drains, vessels and agricultural
wastes.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) - The quantity of oxygen utilized
in the biochemical oxidation of organic matter in a specified time and at
a specified temperature. Waste discharges containing high levels of BOD
will deplete oxygen supplies in receiving waters.
Disinfection - The killing of the larger portion (but not necessarily
all) of the harmful and objectionable microorganisms in, or on, a medium by
means of chemicals, heat, ultraviolet light, etc- Chlorination is the
method commonly employed in sewage treatment processes.
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) - The oxygen dissolved as a gas in sewage,
water or other liquid usually expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/1),
parts per million (ppm) or percent saturation. Adequate dissolved oxygen
levels are necessary in waters to protect fish and other aquatic life and
to prevent offensive odors. Low dissolved oxygen concentrations are
generally due to excessive organic solids discharged as a result of
inadequately treated waste (having high BOD); excessive algal growths may
cause vastly fluctuating dissolved oxygen levels, and other factors such
as temperature and water movement have an impact on dissolved oxygen levels.
Interstate Waters - Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
Interstate waters are defined as:
1.	Rivers, lakes and other waters which flow across or form
a part of State or international boundaries.
2.	Waters of the Great Lakes.
3.	Coastal waters whose scope has been defined to include ocean
waters seaward to the territorial limits and waters along
the coastline (including Inland streams) that are influenced
by the rise and fall of the tide.
III-l

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pH - The index of hydrogen ion activity, used as an indication of
acidity or alkalinity in water. The pH of most waters ranges from 6.5 to
8.5, and most uses of water, such as aquatic life propagation, prosper at
these levels. In most cases, a pH outside this range is due to discharge
of industrial wastes or decaying organic vegetation.
Pollution - The addition of sewage, industrial wastes or other
harmful or objectionable material to water at a concentration or in
sufficient quantity to result in measurable degradation of water quality.
Primary and Secondary Contact Recreation - Also called Whole-body
Contact Recreation. Primary Contact Recreation includes uses of water
such as swimming, water skiing and skin diving. Secondary Contact
Recreation, also called Partial-body Contact Recreation, includes such
recreational uses as boating and fishing.
Primary Treatment - May be defined as that process or group of
processes capable of removing a high percentage of floating and settleable
solids. This is the first major treatment in a sewage treatment works
and generally removes from 30 to 65 percent of the suspended solids and
30 to AO percent of the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand.
Secondary Treatment - May be defined as that process or group of
processes capable of removing virtually all floating and settleable
solids, generally from 85 to 95 percent of the 5-day biochemical oxygen
demand, and a similar level of removal of suspended solids in untreated
waste. The equivalent treatment may generally be defined as that process
or group of processes achieving maximum practicable removal of solids,
oils, grease, acids, alkalis, toxic materials, bacteria, taste and odor
causing materials, color and any other objectionable constituents
contained in untreated waste to produce an effluent equivalent to that
obtained from secondary treatment of sewage or the effluent from the most
efficient treatment facilities in current use for any specific category
of industrial waste.
Sewage - (1) The water supply of a community after it has been
used and discharged into a sewer; (2) Wastewater from the sanitary
conveniences of dwellings, business buildings, factories and other
institutions.
Sewage. Combined -A sewage which contains both sanitary sewage and
surface or storm water with or without industrial wastes.
Sewer, Combined - A sewer which carries both sanitary sewage and
storm drainage. At times of heavy rainfall, the capacity of combined
sewers may be exceeded and sewers will overflow. The overflow will
bypass the sewage treatment plant and the combined wastewaters will be
discharged directly into stream without treatment of any kind. This
is a problem in many older cities in the United States, and there are
various programs to deal with it.
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Solids, Settleable - Suspended solids which will subside in
quiescent water, sewage or other liquid in a reasonable period.
Solids, Suspended - Solids that either float on the surface of,
or are in suspension in, water, sewage or other liquids and which are
largely removable by laboratory filtering.
Temperature - Extreme temperatures primarily affect the aquatic
life use of waters. While temperature is affected by natural conditions,
man has a significant effect by the construction and operation of dams
and the discharge of cooling waters from industrial processes, particularly
power generation.
Toxic Materials - These may include hundreds of compounds present
in waters due to industrial wastes, runoff from farm lands where pesticides
have been applied and other causes which are harmful to human, plant,
animal and aquatic life.
Warm- and Cold-Water Fish - Warm-water fish include black bass,
sunfish, catfish, gar and others; cold-water fish include salmon and
trout, whitefish, miller's thumb and blackfish. The temperature factor
determining distribution is set by adaptation of the eggs to warm or
cold water.
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APPENDIX IV
ADDRESSES
Environmental Protection Agency
Reqicn I
Jchn F. Kennedy Federal Building
Boston, Massachusetts 02203
State of Fhode Island and Providence Plantations
Department of Health
Division of Water Supply and Pollution Ccaitiol
State Office Building
Providence, Rhode Island 02903
New England Interstate Water Pollution Control
Commission
607 Boy Is ten Street
Boston, Massachusetts 02116

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