910/9-83 106 A
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Region 10
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle WA 98101
Water Division
September 1983
/ ,
(Water Quality Management
Program For Puget Sound:
Part I
Management Activities, Data
Requirements and Data Base
¦J
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WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
FOR PUGET SOUND:
PART I, MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES,
DATA REQUIREMENTS, AND DATA BASE
Prepared for:
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region 10
Prepared by:
MMwhAMnmnm
Ltrnr 0W-1M
MAY 03 2090
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Jones & Stokes Associates, Inc.
1802 136th Place NE
Bellevue, WA 98005
and
2321 P Street
Sacramento, CA 95816
and
Tetra Tech, Inc.
1900 116th Avenue NE
Bellevue, WA 98004
August If 1983
US. EPA UBWRV REACH lOIMIEWU
RXDDQaSfiB71

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	ix
Introduction	ix
Management Activities	ix
Data Requirements	x
Available Pollutant Loading Data	xi
Available Circulation and Dispersion	Models xii
Transport and Fate Processes	xiv
Available Data on Biological Effects	xvi
Fish	xvi
Benthic Macroinvertebrates	xxi
Plankton	xxiii
Conclusions From Available Biological Effects xxiv
Studies
Monitoring Programs	xxv
Summary	xxv
Conclusion	xxvi
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION	1
Statement of Problem	1
Objective of Report	3
Description of Study Area	3
Beneficial Uses	6
Summary	7
CHAPTER 2 - WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PUGET SOUND	9
Agency Responsibilities and Programs	9
Federal Agencies	10
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency	10
U. S. Army Corps of Engineers	12
National Oceanic and Atmospheric	13
Administration
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service	13
U. S. Coast Guard	14
Food and Drug Administration	14
State Agencies	15
Department of Ecology	15
Department of Fisheries	16
Department of Game	18
Department of Social and Health	Services 18
Department of Natural Resources	18
Local Agencies	19
County Departments of Health	19
Local Planning Commissions	19
Municipal, Domestic, and Industrial Dischargers 19
Tribal Agencies	20
Summary	20
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CHAPTER 3 - OVERVIEW OF DATA BASE REQUIREMENTS	23
Definitions	23
Conceptual Framework	25
Data Required for Cumulative Impact Evaluation	26
Examples of Problem-Solving Approach	31
Summary	32
CHAPTER 4 - MASS LOADING OF POLLUTANTS TO PUGET SOUND	33
Introduction	33
Types of Pollutants and Water Quality Indicators	33
Sources of Pollutants to Puget Sound	34
NPDES-Permitted Sources	34
Rivers and Streams	3 4
Combined Sewer Overflows	3 6
Surface Runoff	36
Atmospheric Sources	40
Erosion	40
Dredging and Filling	40
Water Circulation (Advection)	40
Other Categories of Sources	41
Point Source vs. Nonpoint Source Pollution	41
Extent and Nature of Mass Loading Data	41
Sources of Mass Loading Data	41
Applicability of the Data Source	46
Summary of Available Mass Loading Values	49
Summary	50
CHAPTER 5 - CIRCULATION AND DISPERSION MODELS	65
Introduction	65
Model Evaluation Criteria	66
Discussion of Model Characteristics	66
Summary of Solution Techniques	68
Models Developed for Puget Sound	70
Model Review Format	70
Brief Model Overview	71
Nearfield Plume Models	76
Transport Models	76
Water Quality Models	93
Values of Existing Puget Sound Models as an	102
EPA Waste Management Tool
Models Developed for Other Areas	105
Brief Model Overview	105
One-Dimensional Network Models	106
Two-Dimensional Vertically Averaged Models	108
Two-Dimensional Laterally Averaged Models	109
Three-Dimensional and Layered Models	113
Value of Existing Models	116
Field Data Requirements and Availability	118
Field Data Requirements	118
Available Field Data for Puget Sound	121
Summary	127
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CHAPTER 6 - TRANSPORT AND FATE OF POLLUTANTS	131
Introduction	131
Processes Affecting Transport and Fate	131
Adsorption	132
Dissolution	132
Sedimentation	132
Resuspension	133
Speciation	133
Flocculation	133
Chemical Precipitation	133
Diffusion	134
Volatilization	134
Photolysis	134
Reduction/Oxidation	134
Hydrolysis/Hydration	134
Bioaccuitiulation	135
Biotransformation and Biodegradation	135
Available Data	135
Pesticides and Derivatives	136
DDT, DDD and DDE	136
Chlordane and Heptachlor	137
Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Isophorone, and	138
Hexachlorocyclohexanes
Other Priority Pollutant Pesticides	140
Polychlorinated Biphenyls	141
Properties and Fates	141
Sources and Distribution	143
Trends	144
Information Gaps	144
Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons	145
Properties and Fates	145
Sources and Distribution	146
Information Gaps	147
Halogenated Ethers	147
Properties and Fates	147
Sources and Distribution	148
Information Gaps	148
Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	148
Properties and Fates	149
Sources and Distribution	150
Information Gaps	151
Phthalate Esters	152
Properties and Fates	152
Sources and Distribution	152
Information Gaps	153
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	153
Properties and Fates	153
Sources and Distribution	154
Information Gaps	156
Nitrosamines and Miscellaneous Compounds	156
Properties and Fates	156
Sources and Distribution	157
Information Gaps	157
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Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans	157
Properties and Fates	157
Sources and Distribution	158
Information Gaps	158
Petroleum Hydrocarbons	158
Properties and Fates	158
Sources and Distribution	160
Information Gaps	160
Metals and Inorganics	160
Arsenic	161
Cadmium	163
Chromium	164
Copper	165
Lead	166
Mercury	167
Silver	169
Selenium	170
Zinc	171
Nickel, Thallium and Beryllium	172
Antimony	174
Cyanides and Asbestos	175
Particulate Matter	175
Properties and Fates	176
Sources and Distribution	178
Information Gaps	179
Sediment Chemistry Investigations	179
Ongoing Investigations	179
Completed Work	180
Environmental Context	182
Applicability of the EPA Priority Pollutant	182
List
Existing Fate Data	184
Sampling Methodology	18 5
Concentration in the Environment	186
Summary	186
CHAPTER 7 - IMPACTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOTA	189
Introduction	189
Fishes	190
Ecology	190
Lethal Toxicity Bioassays	196
Bioaccumulation	200
Pathology	212
Benthic Macroinvertebrates	223
Ecology	223
Toxicity Bioassays	229
Bioaccumulation	233
Pathology	236
Plankton	237
Ecology	237
Toxicity Bioassays	242
Bioaccumulation	247
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning	249
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Trophic Effects	251
Marine Birds, Marine Mammals, and Human Health	252
Summary	253
Fish	253
Benthic Macroinvertebrates	258
Plankton	259
Conclusions	260
CHAPTER 8 - MONITORING PROGRAMS	263
Introduction	263
Existing Monitoring Programs	263
Department of Ecology Programs	264
USGS River Monitoring Program	266
Metro Monitoring Studies	266
Other Monitoring Efforts	267
Applicability of Existing Data and Monitoring	268
Methodology to Evaluating and Predicting
Cumulative Impacts
CHAPTER 9 - SYNTHESIS OF FINDINGS	271
Pollutants in Puget Sound	271
Mass Loading Data	271
Transport, Fate and Distribution in the	272
Physical Habitat
Effects of Pollutants on Biota	273
Heavy Metals	274
PCBs	274
Other Organic Compounds	275
Summary	2 75
Conclusion	277
REFERENCES	2 79
LIST OF PREPARERS	303
APPENDIX A - PRIORITY POLLUTANTS IDENTIFIED BY EPA	A-l
APPENDIX B - NPDES PERMITTED DISCHARGERS TO PUGET SOUND B-l
APPENDIX C - CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVERS FLOWING INTO	C-l
PUGET SOUND
APPENDIX D - MASS LOADING VALUES CALCULATED FROM	D-l
AVAILABLE DATA
APPENDIX E - SUMMARY OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING TRANSPORT, E-l
FATE, AND APPROXIMATE SAMPLING COMPARTMENTS FOR
PRIORITY POLLUTANTS
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LIST OF TABLES
Table	Page
2-1	WDOE Water Quality-Related Programs/	17
Activities
2-2	Overview of Typical Agency Roles in Water	21
Quality Management of Puget Sound
3-1	Data Needed to Implement Water Quality	29
Management Actions Relevant to Cumulative
Environmental Impacts of Regulatory Decisions
4-1	Discharge and Water Quality Characteristics	37
of Major Tributaries to Puget Sound
4-2	Cities in the Study Area With Combined Storm	39
and Wastewater Sewers Draining Directly into
Marine Waters
4-3	Parameters Monitored at WDOE Marine Stations	44
4-4	Municipal Dischargers in the Study Area	45
Submitting Section 301(h) Waiver Applications
4-5	Characterization of Various Sources of Mass	47
Loading Data for Puget Sound
4-6	Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for	51
Sources Discharging into Central Puget Sound
4-7	Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for	52
Sources Discharging into Commencement Bay
4-8	Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for	53
Sources Discharging into Elliott Bay
4-9	Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for	54
Sources Discharging into Sinclair Inlet
4-10	Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for	55
Sources Discharging into Southern Puget Sound
4-11 Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for	56
Sources Discharging into Budd Inlet
4-12	Availability for Toxicant Loading Data for	57
Sources Discharging into Whidbey Basin
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13
14
15
16
17
18
1
2
3
1
2
3
58
59
60
61
62
63
72
107
122
224
230
261
Availability for Toxicant Loading Data for
Sources Discharging into Port Gardner
Availability for Toxicant Loading Data for
Sources Discharging into the Strait of Georgia
Availability for Toxicant Loading Data for
Sources Discharging into Port Angeles Harbor
Availability for Toxicant Loading Data for
Sources Discharging into the Waters near
Anacortes
Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for
Sources Discharging into Bellingham Bay
Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for
Sources Discharging into Hood Canal
A Comparison of Water Quality and Circulation
Models of Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters
Models Selected for Detailed Evaluation
Available Data Sources
Summary of Studies of Benthic Macroinverte-
brate Communities Near Sewage Discharges in
Puget Sound
A Summary of Sediment Bioassay Tests on
Puget Sound Organisms
Occurrence of Studies Examining Relationships
Between Pollutant Loading and Biological
Effects in Puget Sound
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure	Page
1-1	Relationship Between Beneficial Uses of	2
Resource, Management Agencies, Management
Tools, and Environmental Data
1-2	Map of the Study Area Showing Division of	4
Area into Regional Water Masses and Subareas
of Concern
3-1	Diagram of Linkages Between Data Needed for	27
Water Quality Management Decisions
4-1	NPDES Point Sources and Surface Water Quality 35
Monitoring Stations in the Study Area
5-1	Modeled Regions of Puget Sound, the Strait	73
of Juan de Fuca, and the Strait of Georgia
5-2.1 Modeled Subareas of Puget Sound	74
5-2.2 Modeled Subareas of Puget Sound	75
5-3	Area of Puget Sound Included in Model Under	87
Development by Metro
5-4	Schematic Diagram of the Compartmental	88
Configuration for the Box-Model Calculation
5-5	Regions of Puget Sound and the Bellingham	99
Bay Area Model by Water Resources Engineers
6-1	Relationship Between Environmental Factors	183
and the Fate of Pollutants
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Introduction
The perception of Puget Sound as a relatively pristine
water body has changed in the last few years, and the need for
increasingly coordinated and effective management effort is
becoming recognized. Jones & Stokes Associates was retained by
the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the
Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE) to evaluate the
existing data base and the water quality management tools
available to water quality planners and managers. This report
identifies and describes the roles of existing water quality
management agencies, and identifies data that are needed to
evaluate present environmental conditions and predict impacts
resulting from water quality regulatory programs and management
decisions. The report describes data obtained by previous and
ongoing work in view of the data that are needed.
Management Activities
The responsibility for water quality management of Puget
Sound is vested in a number of federal, state, and local agen-
cies (Chapter 2) . Although no one agency clearly orchestrates
the efforts of all toward a common goal, WDOE plays a major role
through administration of state water quality guidelines. It
would appear that the only unifying efforts among the agencies
are: 1) the common objective of preserving or maintaining a
healthy environment, and 2) permit review via the public notice
process.
WDOE and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) perform
major clearinghouse roles at the state and federal permit review
level. The permit review process is generally limited by the
tendency for each agency to focus attention on specific resource
management actions. For example, DSHS is interested in water
quality impacts on commercial shellfish beds. Commercial beds
do not occur throughout the Sound, and only those DSHS districts
with commercial beds may express interest in reviewing NPDES
permits or 301(h) waiver applications. In most cases, DSHS
review is limited to municipal and domestic dischargers, since
major concerns for shellfish have historically been fecal
coliform levels and PSP, and not other pollutants. Although not
fully understood, but nevertheless of potential major
consequence, is the recently affirmed right of tribal
governments to influence water quality decisions as they affect
salmon and steelhead fisheries.
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The environmental legislation having the most widespread
impact and greatest relevance to Puget Sound is the Clean Water
Act (CWA). The Act and its implementing regulations mandate
water quality, effluent limitation, and industrial performance
standards; provide grants for point and nonpoint source permit
and control programs, and for construction of publicly-owned
waste treatment works; and authorize a number of other water
quality management activities. EPA retains responsibility for
all CWA activities, but delegates implementation to many other
federal and state agencies including the COE (dredge and fill
permit program); the WDOE (construction grants, water quality
standards, nonpoint source planning, NPDES permits); and the
U.S. Coast Guard (marine sanitation devices).
Water quality investigation, research, and monitoring
efforts are fragmented and generally limited to specific re-
source management actions of importance to the sponsoring
agency. In these three efforts, more than in other management
activities, there is little coordination between various
agencies. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) has played a major role in water quality investigation
and research in Puget Sound through the Marine Ecosystem
Analysis (MESA) program. This program was funded by Congress as
a line-item appropriation, and has contributed much in the way
of research and investigative activity beyond the typically
narrow scope of specific resource management objectives.
Data Requirements
Water quality management is normally accomplished by a
statutory permit/enforcement program. Ideally, water quality
management decisions should be made with full knowledge of the
direct and cumulative impacts expected to result from each
decision. Knowledgeable decisions require data of several
kinds; location and type of pollutant sources; quantity of each
potential pollutant discharged; physical, chemical, and
biological processes affecting pollutant transport and
environmental fate; pollutant distribution and concentrations;
toxicity/dose-response data for key species likely to be
affected; and synergistic effects of pollutants (Chapter 3) .
This information will allow a reasonable determination of the
maximum loading a system can absorb before an unacceptable
biological impact occurs.
Because many ecosystem impacts are difficult to observe or
quantify, "unacceptable impact" is most efficiently defined as
impairment of a designated beneficial use, or alteration in the
ability of certain organisms to survive, grow, and reproduce.
These represent key starting points in impact assessment and
resource management.
The data base should have two key features: it should
contain data which can demonstrate relationships between pol-
lution and effects on beneficial use; and it should be based on
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a coordinated multi-disciplinary approach so that data are
compatible and consistent from study to study. The available
data are reviewed in subsequent chapters of this report
(Chapters 4-8).
Available Pollutant Loading Data
Mass loading data provide part of the basis for decision
making, but impacts of a discharge (or its removal) can only be
determined when the contribution of the discharge is viewed with
respect to the cumulative discharges and processes affecting the
receiving water mass. Pollution sources may be natural, anthro-
pogenic or, in the case of river input, a mixture of both. The
sources are controllable to varying degrees but, until recently,
focus has generally been placed on control of anthropogenic
point sources. It is important not only to quantify the rela-
tive loading of a source, but also to determine the relative
degree of control which can be exerted over it so that cleanup
efforts can be focused on sources for which it is most cost-
effective .
Major sources of pollutant loading include NPDES-permitted
discharges, combined sewer overflows, stormwater runoff, atmo-
spheric fallout, dredge-and-fill activities, rivers and streams,
advection, and erosion. Available sources of mass loading data
and the quality of the data are assessed for the major areas of
Puget Sound (Chapter 4). Data are available primarily for point
sources, because they are controlled by permits and require
discharge monitoring. Conventional and extended conventional
water quality parameters comprise the bulk of the available
data; with the exception of heavy metals, information on most
priority pollutants is often limited to a few analyses. Infor-
mation on other toxicants which are not considered of sufficient
national priority to be listed as EPA priority pollutants (e.g.,
CBDs) is almost nonexistent.
Loading for nonpoint sources is not documented, partly
because nonpoint discharges are not permitted sources, but
primarily because their diffuse nature does not easily lend
itself to source identification and/or monitoring. Estimates of
mass loading for a few pollutants have been made for such
nonpoint sources as erosion and atmospheric input, but the
estimated inputs vary widely by researcher, depending on the
assumptions used. The relative contribution of nonpoint pol-
lution sources to Puget Sound is expected to increase as permit
programs bring point source discharges increasingly into compli-
ance with water quality standards and objectives.
In general, mass loading data for Puget Sound are not
readily available (Chapter 4). Municipal dischargers have been
most extensively studied, but the data are often limited to
conventional water quality parameters.
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Available Circulation and Dispersion Models
The objectives of the modeling effort for Puget Sound are
to identify depositional areas for contaminated solids (fate of
solids) and to determine retention time of dissolved pollutants
and suspended solids (interbasin transfer, overall circulation
patterns, fate of solids). Although major concern is focussed
on urbanized embayments because of known or suspected pollution-
related impacts on beneficial uses, an overall Puget Sound model
is necessary to supply important general information on net
circulation, mass transport, and boundary conditions to drive
more detailed subarea models.
Fifteen model applications to various portions of Puget
Sound were reviewed in the second section of Chapter 5. The
purpose of that review was to determine if any existing models
of Puget Sound could be adapted by EPA and WDOE as part of their
long-range study on developing comprehensive waste management
strategies for the Sound.
Major limitations of models that have been or are currently
being applied to Puget Sound include:
o Dimensionality - Many of the models use 1-dimensional
formulations which represent over-simplified systems.
In making water quality management decisions for Puget
Sound, knowledge of vertical mixing and transport
processes is required. Important lateral concentration
gradients are lost in the "average" quantities produced
by these models.
o Spatial Resolution - Some of the formulations utilize
grids to break up the study area into workable units.
Variable values calculated by the model represent
average values over the entire grid element. Therefore,
use of large elements leads to decreased spatial
resolution. Many of the models lack grid flexibility.
Detailed information in certain areas (around waste
inputs and other areas of interest) and general
descriptions in others are required, thus, lack of grid
flexibility severely limits the applicability of some
models.
o Site-Specificity - Some of the models are site-specific.
The assumptions and basic equations used in the models
are only applicable to a certain area or water body
type.
o Verification and Calibration - Many of the models lack
adequate calibration and verification. Before these
models can be used to make water quality management
decisions, the formulation must be verified and the
coefficients must be calibrated for the area being
analyzed.
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It was concluded that none of the existing models was
adequate for this purpose because they are limited by either
dimensional or spatial treatment, empirical dependence, or lack
of generality. None of the models applied to Puget Sound
adequately describes overall circulation patterns, fate of
solids, and interbasin transfer on a Sound-wide basis.
It is evident that a model must be developed to provide
system-wide information for use in more detailed formulations
and to assess the sensitivity of model results to variations of
important driving variables and boundary conditions. One option
is to modify a model already developed for Puget Sound. Two of
the modeling studies were examined in more detail and compared
to the present state-of-the-art for estuary hydrodynamic and
water quality modeling. These included the model by Jamart and
Winter (1978) and the set of models by Water Resources Engineers
(1975) , which included a steady state fjord hydrodynamic model
by Winter (1973). The model developed by Jamart and Winter
(1978) employs a unique solution technique which utilizes
Fourier transformations. This technique is very efficient and
flexible and appears to accurately simulate complex tides and
circulation patterns in Puget Sound. The set of models
developed by WRE (197 5) utilizes a link-node system
representation which has been successfully applied in several
other areas. This set of models is complex, however, and would
require considerable calibration before application to Puget
Sound.
A second option is to adapt to Puget Sound a model that has
been developed for other areas and comparable conditions.
Ideally, the model would be a 3-dimensional representation of
the entire system; however, the costs of such a model would be
prohibitive, especially for long-term transient simulations.
Fortunately, a 2-dimensional, laterally-averaged approximation
of the Sound as a whole is justifiable because of the generally
narrow and deep nature of Puget Sound. This type of model could
be used to describe mass transport, net circulation patterns,
and boundary conditions for more detailed models of subareas.
The state-of-the-art model review summarized in the third
section of Chapter 5 identified the model by Najarian et al.
(1981) as the optimum existing technique for application to
Puget Sound as a whole. Modifications that would need to be
made for Puget Sound are not major. The model by Sheng and
Butler (1982) is recommended for adaption to the Central Basin.
It is a 3-dimensional leveled model that has a horizontal
coordinate transformation scheme that provides flexibility in
grid layout. Other key features of this model include an
implicit scheme for the external free-surface mode and a
vertical coordinate transformation scheme which provides the
same number of continuous layers throught the system. The model
should be capable of predicting circulation patterns, mixing
processes, solids transport and accumulation, and other water
quality variables on a local basis. Specific areas (e.g.,
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urbanized embayments) may be considered on a smaller scale basis
by adjusting the grid elements and time steps.
A substantial amount of data for use in circulation
modeling is available for many physical/chemical parameters in
Puget Sound, but it is not in an organized, comprehensive
format. Several agencies in the State of Washington have
collected field observations. Many of these studies were
oriented towards describing specific water quality problems and
therefore generated detailed measurements for limited areas.
There has been little past effort to combine the data sets to
form a comprehensive data base and index for general use. The
local agencies most frequently involved with data collection on
Puget Sound include: Metro; EPA; WDOE; the University of
Washington; and NOAA, including the National Weather Service.
Other agencies that collect data on an occasional, site-specific
basis are WDF, the U.S. Army COE, and various engineering and
oceanographic consulting firms.
Transport and Fate Processes
Transport, fate, and availability of pollutants to
organisms are related. Pollutants in the water column may be
transported far from their source and are generally most
available to pelagic organisms; those deposited in the sediment
may remain in one location for long periods and are generally
most directly available to benthic organisms. A number of
chemical, physical, and biological processes affect pollutant
fate and properties. Physical processes include adsorption,
dissolution, sedimentation, and resuspension. Chemical
processes include speciation, flocculation, chemical
precipitation, diffusion, volatilization, photolysis,
reduction/oxidation, and hydrolysis/hydration. Biological
processes include bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and
biodegradation. The chemical structure of each pollutant
determines the effects of these processes and the ultimate fate
of the pollutant.
A review of literature on properties, fates, sources, and
distribution in Puget Sound for the 126 EPA "priority
pollutants,"	petroleum hydrocarbons,	polychlorinated
dibenzofurans, and particulates reveals numerous data gaps for
most of these pollutants. Behavior of many compounds, and even
whole groups, is not well understood. Behavior of an entire
group often must be inferred from behavior of a single compound
or behavior of related compounds because compound-specific data
are not available. In addition, reactions are often
site-specific and much of the known fate information is based on
reactions in a freshwater environment. Interactions in the
marine environment in general, and in Puget Sound in particular,
are not well understood. Relationships between contaminated
sediment, benthic uptake, and organism/ecosystem impact are
unclear. Synergistic effects of pollutants on organisms or on
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the ecosystem are essentially unknown. Concentrations of
pollutants in biota (with the possible exception of metals and
PCBs) are not well known.
Certain compounds appear to be of greater concern than
others based on their acute and chronic toxicity, their tendency
for persistence and bioaccumulation, and the degree and extent
of local contamination. Many of the priority pollutants do not
appear to be of local concern, while other pollutants not
considered as EPA priority pollutants have greater local impact
based on their prevalence and properties. Compounds of the most
concern appear to be DDT/DDE, PCBs, chlorinated aliphatics
(including chlorinated butadienes), polychlorinated dibenzo-
furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (particularly naphtha-
lenes, fluoranthenes, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and
possibly pyrene and chrysene) and, to a lesser extent, heavy
metals. Others, such as aldrin/dieldrin, are of potential
concern, but additional data are needed to determine their
status.
Loading of some groups, such as PCBs and chlorinated pesti-
cides, is expected to decrease over time as manufacture and use
of many compounds ceases or is greatly reduced. Loading of
other pollutants, such as heavy metals, has already been greatly
reduced through imposition of NPDES effluent limitations.
Loading of groups such as polycyclic hydrocarbons is not likely
to decrease naturally, and may increase with increased
urbanization.
Water and sediment reflect localized input of contaminants
in many areas. In general, the urbanized areas show highest
concentrations, although many substances, particularly "noncon-
ventional" pollutants such as organics, are not well documented
and their "lack" of local presence is suspected to be due more
to lack of sampling then to lack of contamination.
Elliott Bay and the lower Duwamish River show some of the
highest levels of As, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn, DDT/DDE, PCB, MAHs and
PAHs. Commencement Bay and its waterways show some of the
highest levels of As, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ag, Zn, Sb, chlordane, PCBs,
CBDs, MAHs, and PAHs. Sinclair Inlet shows some of the highest
levels of As, Cu, Hg, Ag, Zn, PCBs, and PAHs. High levels of As
and Zn have been noted in Budd Inlet as well, and high levels of
Hg have been noted in Bellingham Bay. More extensive sampling
of sediments in areas such as Bellingham Bay, Everett Harbor,
and Hood Canal might show additional high concentrations of
these substances. Over 1,000 organic compounds have been
identified from urban embayment sediments, and many still have
not been identified. Of these, the polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) are probably of greatest overall concern
because of their diversity, levels of concentration, and
potential effects. Studies of these compounds in Puget Sound
sediments are limited, and areas of greatest concentration can
only be surmised at this point, but it is probably safe to
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assume that all urban embayments will show some areas of high,
localized concentrations, although the compounds may vary.
Available Data on Biological Effects
Fish
Investigations of the ecology of fish communities in Puget
Sound have failed to indicate any substantial adverse impacts of
municipal waste discharge on species composition, abundance, or
diversity. The available data suggest that in the vicinity of
Seattle's West Point sewage outfall, there may be some increased
abundances of demersal fishes, and there may be relatively minor
alterations in species composition of this community which might
be caused by the discharge of sewage effluent. Other differ-
ences noted at West Point may be attributed to natural habitat
differences rather than to sewage discharge. Studies of the
ecology of fish communities in the vicinity of other municipal
sewage effluent discharges on Puget Sound are inappropriate for
demonstrating effects on fish communities.
Extensive studies conducted in the vicinity of several pulp
and paper mills in the mid-1960s demonstrated that the mills
were often located adjacent to important nursery areas for both
anadromous and marine fish species. In addition, it was appar-
ent that the effluent from these mills was often highly toxic to
juvenile fishes, and that the ecological implications of these
industrial discharges were therefore potentially very important.
Since that time, there have been dramatic reductions in the
pollutant discharges from these mills, as they were forced to
either institute more advanced treatment measures or shift to
other processing methods. Follow-up studies have been conducted
in Port Gardner as part of the ECOBAM program, but the results
have not yet been released.
The Puget Sound region has two heavily-industrialized urban
estuaries: the Duwamish River-Elliott Bay system in Seattle,
and the Puyallup River-Commencement Bay system in Tacoma. Both
are known to have received large quantities of toxic chemicals
over the years, and several studies have attempted to examine
the effects that industrialization and chemical contamination of
these areas have had on the resident fish communities. Detailed
comparisons have not been made, however, between the fish
communities of the urban, industrialized estuaries and those of
undeveloped, nonindustrialized estuaries (e.g., the Nisqually
River Delta), so it is difficult to describe accurately how the
fish communities of the urban estuaries may have been altered by
industrial activities. Malins et al. (1982a) found that the
abundance of some fish species (as indicated by the catch per
unit effort) was negatively correlated with the distributions of
some toxicants in the sediments of these estuaries. While such
correlations are suggestive of cause-and-effeet relationships
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between the fish distributions and the concentrations of chemi-
cal contaminants, far more detailed studies will have to be
conducted before it is known what factors ultimately influence
the abundance of these and other fish species.
It is of interest to know what effect the disposal of
dredge spoils (especially chemically-contaminated dredge spoils
from the urban estuaries) might have on fish populations, but
the limited studies conducted to date do not permit definitive
conclusions. Studies of such relationships must be relatively
extensive in order to discriminate natural population fluc-
tuations from dredge spoil disposal effects, and such extensive
sampling has not been conducted at any disposal area in Puget
Sound.
Laboratory toxicity bioassays with fishes have been con-
ducted using sediments and sewage treatment plant effluents.
Effluent bioassays can be used as an indication of relative
toxicity under controlled conditions. Toxic constituent concen-
trations can also be measured throughout the exposure period.
Their major limitation is that they do not enable an assessment
of the interactive or cumulative effects of the numerous pollu-
tant sources that exist in many industrialized areas of Puget
Sound. Existing data indicate that lethal toxicity of municipal
effluent is a function of sewage treatment technology and
periodic releases of "slugs" of toxicants. Studies on toxic
effects of dredge spoil activities are limited by site-specific
conditions.
In situ bioassays with fishes have been used in the Puget
Sound area near pulp and paper mill effluents and near dredging
operations. The results of such studies can be confounded by
the lack of available water quality information at the exposure
site and high mortalities in control cages. Such studies are
valuable, however, in assessing relative changes in toxicity
(i.e., water quality), either in a spatial or temporal context.
For example, previous in situ studies have demonstrated that
acute toxicity can occur in salmonids exposed to pulp and paper
mill discharges. Continuing use of this technique could poten-
tially serve to examine the change in ambient toxicity associ-
ated with improvements in effluent treatment.
While there have been numerous investigations of the
concentrations of metals in the tissues of various fish species
from Puget Sound, there have been few, if any, definitive
results which conclusively demonstrate the accumulation of
metals in these tissues in excess of "normal" or "background"
concentrations. Although virtually all of the metals examined
exist in detectable concentrations in the tissues of the fishes,
the general conclusion is that it is not known whether the
reported concentrations are in excess of background concen-
trations for fishes in relatively "unpolluted" waters. Several
reasons can be cited for this lack of conclusive evidence of the
existence or absence of significant bioaccumulation of metals.
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First and foremost is the fact that none of the studies to date
has included sufficient numbers of replicate samples to allow
statistical analysis of the data. In the absence of sufficient
replicates, it is impossible to judge whether an apparent
difference in the tissue concentrations of a given metal in the
fish from two different areas is statistically significant or
whether observed differences simply reflect natural variation.
Studies completed to date have utilized a wide variety of fish
species, and virtually nothing is known about species-specific
susceptibility to the bioaccumulation of metals. The available
evidence suggestive of bioaccumulation is primarily for demersal
fish species, while pelagic fish species are apparently less
prone to bioaccumulate metals. Many of the past studies have
often suffered from the lack of fish samples collected from an
appropriate control area. While it is often difficult to select
a control area having characteristics similar to those in a
polluted area except for the presence of chemical contaminants,
past studies have often included no control area at all or an
area whose "unpolluted" status is either assumed or poorly
documented.
Available data on the concentrations of PCBs in fishes of
Puget Sound (and similarly for most other organic contaminants)
suffer from many of the same problems found with data on the
concentrations of metals in fishes (e.g., lack of adequate
replication, differences in fish species analyzed, lack of
appropriate controls). Nevertheless, these data are more
suggestive of significant bioaccumulation because the differ-
ences in the concentrations of these compounds between fish in
known polluted areas and those in background or control areas
are much larger than are the usual differences in metals concen-
trations between two such areas. Whereas metals concentrations
often only differ by two- or three-fold between fish in polluted
urban areas and those in presumed control areas, the
concentrations of PCBs in fish from two such areas often differ
by one or two (or even more) orders of magnitude. The available
evidence suggests that accumulation of PCBs is most pronounced
in demersal fishes (e.g., English sole, rock sole, sculpins)
inhabiting urban estuaries (e.g., Commencement Bay, Elliott Bay,
Duwamish River) known to have sediments contaminated with high
concentrations of these compounds.
There have been very few studies of the concentrations of
organic contaminants other than PCBs in the tissues of fishes
from Puget Sound. The limited data available suggest that
chlorinated butadienes are found in consistently high concen-
trations in fish from the Hylebos Waterway in Tacoma, but
nowhere else, while chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and hexa-
chlorobenzene are found in high concentrations in fish not only
from the Hylebos Waterway but also from the Duwamish River and
the Seattle Waterfront. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are
generally present only in low concentrations in the livers of
fishes from all areas of Puget Sound. This reflects the fact
that fish are apparently able to metabolize these compounds.
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They are, however, present in slightly higher concentrations in
fish from Elliott and Commencement Bays. Correlations between
the body burdens of virtually all of the organic chemical
contaminants and known sources of these compounds are best for
the demersal fishes, and not well developed for semi-pelagic or
pelagic species.
The mechanisms of bioaccumulation of organic contaminants
are not known at this time. It is not known, for instance,
whether the primary pathway into the bodies of the fishes is via
ingestion of contaminated prey organisms, uptake through the
gills and skin or contact with contaminated sediments. There
are a limited amount of data that suggest uptake of PCB does not
result from exposure to PCB in the water column. The
consequences to fishes, if any, that result from accumulation of
these substances are also largely unknown.
Numerous studies of pathological conditions among fishes of
Puget Sound have revealed several consistent relationships: the
conditions often occur in higher prevalence in areas known to be
contaminated by a diversity of chemicals, they appear to affect
demersal fish species (e.g., flounder and sole) more often than
pelagic fish species (e.g., salmon), and their etiology is
largely unknown. Fin erosion disease, while not con fined to
polluted, urban areas, is more prevalent in such areas, suggest-
ing that the condition is in some way caused by exposure to
chemical contaminants. While certain evidence from lab expo-
sures and field studies suggests that chemical contamination may
be involved in the initiation of this disease, it is entirely
possible that a combination of factors (e.g., chemical con-
tamination, mechanical injury, physical factors) act in concert
to bring about fin erosion. The distribution of skin tumor
prevalence basically follows that of fin erosion; it is more
common in areas with chemically-contaminated sediments than in
less polluted areas. However, the association of skin tumors
with contaminated environments is even more tenuous than the
incidence of fin erosion. While the consequences of fin erosion
for the individual fish are unknown, there are indications that
skin tumors may be eventually fatal to fishes. It has been
established, for instance, that the prevalence of tumor-bearing
fish decreases with increasing age of the fish, suggesting that
tumor-bearing fish disappear from the populations more rapidly
than do normal fish. As is the case with fin erosion, it is
entirely possible that multiple factors act either independently
or synergistically to cause skin tumors.
Hepatomas and other liver abnormalities clearly occur much
more frequently in demersal fishes from industrialized, urban
estuaries than in less polluted areas of Puget Sound. Circum-
stantial evidence once again points to chemical contaminants as
an important factor in the induction of these conditions.
For the other pathological abnormalities observed among
fishes of Puget Sound, there have been relatively few detailed
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studies. Since these conditions occur at relatively low fre-
quencies, much more extensive studies would be required to
demonstrate any relationship between the distribution of these
conditions and the distribution of known areas of chemical
contamination.
Whereas there is a good evidence of an association between
the occurrence of pathological conditions in demersal fishes and
the sites of intense industrial activity, the prevalence of fish
disease does not appear markedly higher in the vicinity of large
municipal sewage discharges, such as West Point, than in other
similar areas without municipal sewage discharges. One possible
hypothesis is that these pathological conditions are a function
of some factor present in industrial wastes, but absent, or in
considerably lower concentration, in municipal sewage effluents.
An alternative hypothesis is that municipal sewage discharges
are deliberately sited in areas of high flushing where fine
suspended particulates are unlikely to settle, and therefore,
initiation of toxic conditions is minimized.
It is a relatively straightforward proposition to sample
the fishes in polluted and unpolluted areas of Puget Sound, to
examine them for a variety of pathological conditions, and to
assign percent prevalences of each condition to the respective
areas. Given sufficiently large sample sizes, it is possible to
demonstrate that statistically-significant differences occur in
the prevalences of these conditions in the various areas, and
that some of the conditions are most prevalent in the most
contaminated areas.
Beyond simply documenting the existence of fish disease in
various areas of Puget Sound, there have been relatively few
attempts to investigate the causes of the observed pathological
conditions. There are similarities between certain of these
conditions occurring naturally in the fishes of Puget Sound and
those induced in laboratory animals by exposure to a variety of
chemical pollutants. There are interesting statistical corre-
lations between the distribution of fish with certain of these
conditions and the distribution of groups of chemical contami-
nants. This does not imply cause-and-effeet, however, since it
is still not known whether one chemical acting independently, or
several acting synergistically, or even an as yet unmeasured
chemical which happened to be correlated with the other chemi-
cals, was/were the causal factor(s). Measurements of the
concentrations of chemical contaminants in the tissues of fish
with specific pathological conditions, as well as in the tissues
of healthy fishes, have been performed on too few specimens to
provide statistically-significant correlations which might
indicate what chemicals cause these conditions.
Laboratory experiments designed to attempt to induce
certain pathological conditions in fish by exposing them to
chemically-contaminated sediments or by injecting them with
extracts of those sediments have failed to reproduce those
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conditions observed in natural fishes from contaminated areas.
The prospect of testing individually all or even a large frac-
tion of the total array of chemical contaminants known to occur
in such sediments is overwhelming, while testing the likelihood
of synergistic effects among all of the possible combinations of
those chemicals is virtually impossible.
Benthic Macroinvertebrates
Investigations of the ecology of benthic communities near
pollutant sources have documented responses associated with
changes in community structure and with changes in abundances of
selected species, hlthough only one study examined the effects
of dredged material disposal on benthos, the immediate effects
and subsequent recovery were well documented. Studies of
benthic communities in many industrialized embayments and
nonindustrial areas in Puget Sound have not resulted in defini-
tive conclusions on the possible modifications of benthic
communities in areaa of known sediment contamination*
Several studies of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages
near sewage discharges in Puget Sound have been conducted in
support of applications for waivers from secondary treatment
requirements- Biological effects at the largest single sewage
discharge in Puget Sound (West Point) were associated with
reduced total abundances and reduced abundances of some taxa in
areas near the discharge. Although the causative agent(s) for
the observed effects is unclear, recent evaluation of the in-
faunal data suggests that the local subtidal benthic communities
may be responding to contaminated particulates. Comprehensive
studies of intertidal floral and faunal assemblages near West
Point and other areas of central Puget Sound, receiving sewage
discharges indicated that the only apparent effect was associ-
ated with modification of algal communities near West Point.
No definitive effects of smaller municipal sewage dis-
charges have been documented at other sites in Puget Sound.
These results may be due in part to the limited nature (e.g.,
few samples] of most of the studies. However, raany of the
smaller municipal discharges are located in erosional environ-
ments where high currents prevent sewage solids from accumulat-
ing near the outfalls. Thus, potential effects on the benthos
are minimal at such sites.
Effects of pulp and paper mill discharges on subtidal
benthos have been documented at several Puget Sound sites. The
effects ranged from almost complete absence of macrofaunal
benthos in inner harbor areas near the discharges to moderate
changes in community structure at aites farther from the dis-
charges. The reviewed studies were conducted during periods
when pulp and paper mill discharges were considerably greater
than at present, or when the magnitude of those discharges was
just being reduced. Thus, the actual degree of recovery that
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may have occurred is unknown. Data from European waters
(Pearson and Rosenberg 1978) indicate that recovery is possible
in as little as 3 years, and present a potentially useful
indicator of environmental stress on the benthic community.
Several studies have been conducted to determine the toxi-
city of Puget Sound sediments to benthic organisms. Amphipods
have been the major test organisms used; however, tests have
also been conducted on oligochaetes, polychaetes, several
bivalve mollusc species, and decapod crustaceans. The results
have indicated that sediments in the industrialized areas of
Puget Sound are toxic to many of the species tested. Specific
results are dependent upon test species used and exposure
apparatus/procedure. In one case (Swartz et al. 1982) the
bioassay results were related to observed distributional charac-
teristics of infaunal species (i.e., absence of amphipods from
areas with toxic sediments). Perhaps the most interesting
outcome of these bioassay results is the observation that
sediment toxicity is very localized, suggesting that sediment
contamination is also very patchy. More than one investigator
has noted that sediment samples taken in the same general area
show noticeably different toxic effects. These data suggest
that sediment toxicity bioassays should incorporate a sampling
design that accounts for highly localized distribution of
contaminants.
The primary limitation of the sediment bioassays is the
general absence of two kinds of information:
o Biological characteristics of indigenous benthic commu-
nities at the site of sample collection.
o Chemical analyses of sediment contaminants.
The previously conducted bioassays have served primarily to
identify areas of potentially toxic sediments in the Puget Sound
region. The causative agent(s) or the actual effects on in-
digenous organisms are presently unknown.
Surveys of bioaccumulation of metals in benthic organisms
indicate that higher tissue levels of several metals are found
near Seattle. There is also evidence of elevated levels of some
metals in mussels in Commencement Bay. However, the studies of
bioaccumulation of metals in invertebrates are limited by the
same factors that were identified in studies on fishes. Of
special note are the rather inconclusive results obtained in
studies of arsenic accumulation in the vicinity of a major point
source of arsenic in Commencement Bay.
Shrimp, clams, and mussels have been	shown to accumulate
PCBs in areas of PCB contamination. The	degree of PCB bio-
accumulation is generally related to the	degree of sediment
contamination.
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Only one study was reviewed that examined pathological
conditions in invertebrate organisms. Although the results are
somewhat inconclusive due to small sample sizes, there was an
indication of increased prevalences of lesions in crabs and
shrimp from industrialized areas.
Plankton
Studies of phytoplankton ecology have been conducted near
sewage discharges, pulp and paper mill discharges and dredge
spoil disposal sites. The most comprehensive studies were
oriented toward effects of the West Point sewage discharge on
primary production. Overall, the only indication of effects on
phytoplankton at West Point are associated with the possibility
of stimulation of primary production during periods of nutrient
depletion.
Studies of meroplankton (e.g., ichthyoplankton) have been
extremely limited and cause-and-effeet pollution-related studies
of zooplankton have apparently not been conducted in Puget
Sound,
Because of the naturally high levels of spatial and tempo-
ral variability of plankton assemblages, studies sufficient to
define cause-and-effeet relationships must generally be rather
intensive. Large numbers of samples collected at relatively
short time intervals are generally necessary to define pollutant
effects. Because of study design limitations and because of the
low probability of pollutant or nutrient impacts in the main
basins of Puget Sound, cause-and-effeet relationships for
plankton have not been established.
Bioaccumulation studies of plankton have concentrated on
uptake of PCBs in zooplankton. Tissue levels of PCBs have been
shown to be dependent upon PCB concentrations in the water and
lipid content of the organisms. Studies of metal accumulation
in Puget Sound zooplankton are largely inconclusive.
Toxicity tests using plankton have concentrated on Pacific
oyster larvae. Limited studies have also been conducted on the
toxic effects of PCBs on phytoplankton and zooplankton. The
oyster larvae bioassay has been used extensively in testing a
variety of pollutants using mortality and abnormal development
as toxic responses. The bioassays have been used to test larval
responses to dredge spoils; pulp mill, smelter, and oil refinery
effluents? and dinoflagellate blooms. In general, oyster larvae
were more sensitive to toxicants than other Puget Sound biota.
Thus, the bioassay provides an important mechanism for estab-
lishing safe effluent levels for most Puget Sound organisms.
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Conclusions From Available Biological Effects Studies
For the Puget Sound region, the most intensively studied
biological effects include organism abundances, toxicity, and
bioaccunvulation. Fishes have received the greatest study
effort; however, considerable work has also been conducted on
assessment of toxicity using benthos and plankton. There is
little or no information concerning potential biological effects
on behavior and reproduction.
The reviewed studies have produced several kinds of infor-
mation that characterize biological effects, including identi-
fication of effects (or absence thereof) on indigenous biota;
identification of tissue contamination and abnormal pathological
conditions in organisms inhabiting industrialized areas; and
identification of probable relationships between contaminated
sediments and bioaccumulation, disease, and mortality of Puget
Sound organisms.
Although effects on biota (e.g., fin erosion, bioaccumu-
lation) have been implicated in field studies, information on
quantitative cause-and-effect relationships is lacking in many
areas. For example, apparent effects of the West Point sewage
discharge have been detected in local infaunal communities.
However, the available information is not adequate to character-
ize the cause(s) of the observed effects or to establish a
quantitative cause-and-effeet relationship. Information
required for such determinations would include measurements of
solids deposition rates or sediment contaminant concentrations
at the same sites used for infaunal benthos sampling. With
those kinds of data, changes in biological response variables
(e.g., abundance of species A) could be quantitatively related
to causative agents.
Studies of bioaccumulation have demonstrated that various
contaminants (e.g., PCBs, CBDs, and several metals) occur in
elevated concentrations in Puget Sound biota. However, informa-
tion on uptake routes, intertrophic transfer, and depuration
rates is generally lacking. Moreover, quantitative relation-
ships between sediment or water concentrations and organism
tissue levels also are not available.
As in the case of some heavy metals, it is known that PCBs
are toxic to many organisms at low concentrations. Data from
the literature indicate that PCBs are taken up from sediments
and from the water column, and that PCBs induce some of the
pathological conditions observed in urbanized embayments of
Puget Sound. These latter observations, although obtained in
laboratory conditions, are evidence that PCBs may be causing
some of the observed pathologies of fishes. This does not,
however, constitute evidence that PCBs are the only causal agent
for fish abnormalities in Puget Sound.
Overall, past studies in the Puget Sound region have served
to identify the nature and location of biological effects.
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Although some cause-and-effect relationships have been
established or are suggested by available data, additional
studies will be required for the determination of quantitative
relationships that are useful for predictive purposes.
Monitoring Programs
Existing long range monitoring programs are limited in
number and analytical coverage. As a result, it is difficult
to use data from these programs to evaluate environmental
conditions, establish trends, and predict impacts of water
quality management decisions. Private studies often tend to
provide more in-depth data, but only for localized areas and
over short durations, which makes trend determinations diffi-
cult. However, because of their greater detail, short-term
studies may ultimately provide data of greater value for speci-
fic uses such as problem identification than that provided by
routine water quality monitoring. The value of the various
monitoring programs and special studies could be enhanced if
the comparability of the data was strengthened through an
integrated quality assurance program. There is a strong need
for a well-defined set of goals for short and long-term
monitoring activities to guide current and future programs.
Summary
The available data do not clearly link specific pollutants
to specific adverse impacts on beneficial uses. Given the
scientific complexities involved, development of specific
cause-effect relationships may not be possible in many in-
stances. Nevertheless, the weight of circumstantial evidence
indicates a positive association between areas of high contami-
nant discharge and changes in or adverse impacts on beneficial
uses in these areas. The water quality manager is faced on the
one hand with a significant degree of scientific uncertainty
regarding cause and effect and on the other hand with identifi-
able problems and the need to initiate rememdial activities.
The challenge is to use most effectively the available informa-
tion while developing an improved data base for use in future
decisions.
Two approaches to the use of existing information can be of
use to water quality managers at the present. The first in-
volves comparisons of information from similar problem areas.
For example, in the absence of a documented cause-and-effeet
relationships between specific pollutants and pathological ab-
normalities observed in fish populations, it may be valid to
look for characteristics common to those localities. In re-
viewing contaminants in the environments of
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so-called diseased fish in areas such as Elliott Bay, Commence-
ment Bay, coastal Southern California, and Chesapeake Bay, the
most obvious similarity is the presence of a number of chlori-
nated hydrocarbons, especially PCBs, pesticides, and compounds
typically associated with wastewater chlorination, in the sedi-
ments. Only limited data on the occurrence of these contami-
nants in fish tissue is available and no consistent pattern
between contaminant levels and disesase incidence has been
established. It is possible that a more detailed comparative
analysis of conditions in these areas, coupled with theoretical
information on biological activity and toxicity, will provide
guidance to the water quality manager on appropriate regulatory
targets.
A second approach involves the identification of pollution
gradients within the Sound to identify problem areas and then
to develop correlations between pollution conditions and ob-
served effects on biota or beneficial uses in those areas. For
some of the urban bays within the Sound this type of data base
and correlation are available and additional work is underway
to strengthen the comparisons with baseline conditions. While
these types of correlation are not definitive cause-effect
relationships they can provide guidance to water quality
managers in making educated regulatory decisions within
localized areas.
Waste management decisions ultimately come down to
establishing priorities among sources or classes of sources and
implementing appropriate control programs. At the present
time, mass loading data for many of the contaminants of concern
are very limited in most geographic areas within the Sound.
Possible exceptions are Elliott Bay and Commencement Bay and
even these data on loading from certain types of sources are
minimal. Examples of the kind of problems encountered with the
existing data base include lack of significant data on combined
sewer overflows, limited analytical coverage in some areas, and
limited data on seasonal variations in loading. A significant
effort is needed to strengthen the mass loading data base in
priority problem areas. In the interim the existing data base,
and appropriate data from other areas, needs to be thoroughly
evaluated and where possible extrapolated to Puget Sound. This
information, coupled with the analyses of environmental data
described above, could aid in sharpening the focus of water
quality management decisions required in the near term.
Existing circulation modeling efforts are generally useful
to the water quality manager to predict dilution rates and
dilution zones of the outfall plume. Some models may help
estimate the flushing rate for a localized water body, but all
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of these models describe dilution of the wastewater and,
therefore, describe the likely transport of dissolved
pollutants and pollutants adsorbed to suspended particulates
that remain in the water column during the dilution period.
Conclusion
Water quality managers have the regulatory tools to respond
to and to prevent and abate pollution once there is sufficient
evidence to show reasonable cause that a discharge/activity has
an adverse effect on beneficial uses or resources. Although a
comprehensive water quality management structure is operating,
it is not fully integrated and coordinated in respect to the
acquisition and use of data and information.
With the expection of effluent analyses done as part of the
301(h) waiver applications for municipal discharges and as
NPDES permit compliance monitoring on behalf of a few selected
industrial discharges, there are very few data to describe
sources and mass loading of priority pollutants. Although the
EPA priority pollutant list is a reasonable starting point for
identifying pollutants requiring special consideration in Puget
Sound, many of the compounds have not been found in the Puget
Sound environment, and a few other compounds known to be toxic
but not on the list have been found.
Knowledge about the dispersion and fate of pollutants is
based primarily on theoretical considerations, simplifying
models, and limited empirical data identifying where certain
toxicants have accumulated in the environment. The build-up of
potentially toxic substances in bottom sedients is documented,
particularly in the Central Basin. The data indicate highly
localized distribution of contaminants in the sediments.
The toxic characteristics of priority pollutants are well
documented (otherwise they would not have been designated as an
EPA priority pollutant). Pathogenic conditions observed in
some demersal fish, especially English sole and starry
flounder, are inferentially associated with bottom sediments
containing abnormally high concentrations of toxicants.
Generally, there are few data that link indirect effects on
biota with specific pollutants, much less with sources of
pollutants.
Water quality monitoring in Puget Sound is done primarily
by WDOE, NPDES permittees, USGS, and DSHS. In some cases, the
objectives of monitoring are not given or poorly defined.
Although conventional pollutants are usually not included, and
consistency is lacking in the coordination of sampling and
analytical procedures to permit maximum uses of all data.
Despite the limitations in the existing data, thorough
evaluations of this information can provide significant
guidance to water quality managers.
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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Statement of Problem
A cursory review of many documents about the environment
of Puget Sound reveals that many authors refer to Puget Sound as
a treasured resource of great beauty and diverse beneficial
uses. If not explicitly stated, it has been implied that one
underlying factor influencing the wealth of beneficial uses is
minimal evidence of pollution. The belief that Puget Sound is a
relatively unpolluted water body has changed in the last few
years. Since 1978, investigators have called for serious
reconsideration of the presumed purity of Puget Sound. Inves-
tigations (e.g., Pierce et al. 1978; Malins et al. 1982a) reveal
that certain pollutants occur in relatively high concentrations
in the sediments and fauna of some urbanized embayments. It
also has been noted that some bottomfish collected from urban
embayments display histopathological or grossly visible patho-
logical abnormalities.
Recent events further challenge the presumption that Puget
Sound is a clean water body. The Washington Department of
Fisheries (WDF) recorded mass mortalities on herring spawning
areas at Quarter- master Harbor, Port Madison and Port Gambel
(Dahlgren pers. comm.). The Washington Department of Ecology
(WDOE) has noted increased incidences of decertification of
shellfish beds because of adverse water quality and paralytic
shellfish poisoning caused by red tide (Monn pers. comm.).
Recent studies of Commencement Bay (e.g., Riley et al. 1981;
Dexter et al. 1981) contributed to the listing of Commencement
Bay as a priority site in need of Superfund clean-up money. The
public has shown a greater concern over symptoms of environ-
mental degradation during the past decade.
The public and scientific community impose on Puget Sound
beneficial uses defined by their collective knowledge of the
Sound. Federal and state governmental agencies have missions to
manage certain resources and maintain beneficial uses for
present and future users. A generic diagram of the resource
management process is shown in Figure 1-1. To accomplish their
stated missions, management agencies have developed tools (e.g.
permit issuance, periodic permit review, monitoring, enforce-
ment, and public education) which require large amounts of data
and knowledge if they are to be effectively implemented. These
environmental data are typically supplied by past and ongoing
studies. Data gaps must be filled by new studies. Management
agencies often contribute data and influence the course of
studies by defining environmental data needs. Critical to the
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PUBLIC
ONGOING STUDIES
PROPOSED STUDIES
PAST STUDIES
MANAGEMENT
AGENCY
BENEFICIAL
USE
ENVIRONMENTAL
DATA
PERMITS
PERMIT REVIEW
ENFORCEMENT
PUBLIC EDUCATION
PLANNING
MANAGEMENT TOOLS
Figure 1-1. Relationship Between Beneficial Uses of Resource, Management Agencies,
Management Tools, and Environmental Data

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success of resource management is the use of feedback loops
between management agencies, resource users, and the technical
community.
Direct evidence and symptoms of environmental degradation
suggest that the public may be losing existing or potential
beneficial uses of the Sound. As a result of technical findings
and concerns for resource impacts, public and private discussion
of this issue has focused on the need for reevaluating the
direction of Puget Sound water quality management.
Objective of Report
Jones & Stokes Associates was retained by the U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in association with WDOE,
to evaluate the existing environmental data base and water
quality management tools used by water quality managers of Puget
Sound. The objectives of this work effort are to:
o Identify and describe the roles of various agencies
participating in water quality management,
o Describe the data needed to evaluate environmental
conditions and predict impacts on the
environment resulting from the composite of
regulatory programs and decisions implemented by
these agencies,
o Describe the existing data in view of the water quality
management needs of EPA and WDOE.
o Identify missing data that are needed to evaluate
environmental conditions and predict impacts on the
environment resulting from the composite of regulatory
programs and decisions implemented by these agencies.
This "state-of-the-art" report will provide the initial
framework for a second report which in turn will recommend new
studies and changes in ongoing or proposed studies that will
provide the environmental data required to meet management
objectives.
Description of Study Area
Puget Sound is an inland sea extending between the Olympic
Peninsula on the west and the Cascade Range on the east. It is
linked to the Pacific Ocean by the Strait of Juan de Fuca and
the Strait of Georgia (Figure 1-2). The San Juan Islands are
located southeast of Vancouver Island in the area where the
Straits of Juan de Fuca and Georgia meet. The border between
the United States and Canada travels through the Strait of Juan
de Fuca, Haro Strait and, for a short distance, through the
Strait of Georgia before turning eastward along the 49th paral-
lel.
3

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BELLIN6HAM

SAN JUAN
VICTORIA
OF JUAN DE
PORT ANGELES
WHIDBET
ISLAND
Regional Water Masses and
Subareas of Pugel Sound
1.	Strait of Georgia
1a. Bellingham Bay
1b. Anacortes
2.	San Juan Islands
3.	Strait of Juan de Fuca
3a. Port Angeles
4.	Whidbey Basin
4a. Port Gardner
5.	Central Puget Sound
5a. Elliott Bay
5b. Sinclair Inlet
5c. Commencement Bay
6.	Hood Canal
7.	Southern Puget Sound
7a. Budd Inlet

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Puget Sound extends southward from the Strait of Juan de
Fuca for over 160 kilometers (100 miles). It is comprised of a
series of basins 180-240 meters (600-800 feet) deep, separated
by shallower sills 30-60 meters (100-200 feet) deep. This
fjord-like feature is further expressed in the generally steep
slopes from the shoreline to basin floors.
Ther Sound and the Straits, within the territorial seas of
the United States, enclose 6,500 square kilometers (2,500 square
miles) of protected or semi-protected water and about 3,700
kilometers (2,300 miles) of shoreline. The mildly cool climate,
abundant natural resources, and protected harbors served as
strong attractants for early colonization and development. The
urban areas around Puget Sound are centers of commerce and trade
between the northwestern part of the continental United States,
Alaska, and the Far East. Timber from the surrounding
watersheds and fisheries in Puget Sound are major natural
resources contributing to commercial activity along the
shorelines.
Because of its bathymetry and geographic configuration,
Puget Sound can be subdivided into several fairly distinct water
bodies (Figure 1-2). The main basin of Puget Sound (Central
Basin) extends from Admiralty Inlet to the north and Tacoma
Narrows to the south. Elliott Bay and Commencement Bay on the
east shore serve as natural harbors for the Cities of Seattle
and Tacoma, respectively. Most of the east shore is heavily
populated or industrialized. The west shore is more rural,
although a major naval shipyard on Sinclair Inlet provides a
major economic base for the City of Bremerton.
Southern Puget Sound extends south from the Narrows as
relatively shallow inlets. The lack of natural deepwater
harbors has discouraged the industrialization of this area.
Extensive mudflats are exposed at low tide, and the area sup-
ports a rich and diverse assemblage of marine invertebrates and
water-associated birds.
Hood Canal is a narrow, shallow finger of Puget Sound
extending southwesterly from the southern part of Admiralty
Inlet. Its shallow depths and confined outlet encourage warmer
water temperatures and, therefore, water-contact recreational
activity. Although supporting less extensive tidal areas than
southern Puget Sound, Hood Canal supports rich shellfish popu-
lations and mariculture activities in shallow water areas.
Development is primarily rural or residential, with the excep-
tion of a naval submarine base and associated support activities
at Bangor.
Whidbey Basin is functionally a part of Puget Sound because
Whldbey Island effectively isolates this watermass from Rosario
Strait and the Strait of Juan de Puca, leaving Possession Sound
as the major connection to oceanic influence. Whidbey Basin is
heavily influenced by freshwater flow from the Skagit,
5

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Stillaguamish, and Snohomish Rivers. The Skagit River is the
major source of freshwater flow into Puget Sound, and forms a
large delta and shallow-water alluvial fan at the north end of
the Whidbey Basin. Development in the Whidbey Basin is primari-
ly rural or residential, with the exception of deepwater areas
near Everett. The northern part of the Whidbey Basin is oc-
cupied by a rich and diverse assemblage of waterfowl, marine,
and estuarine species.
The area covered by this report includes all of Puget
Sound, including the Whidbey Basin, and major urbanized areas on
the American shoreline from the Strait of Juan de Fuca through
the San Juan Islands to Bellingham. The latter areas include
Port Angeles Harbor, the Anacortes area, and Bellingham Bay
(Figure 1-2).
Beneficial Uses
Beneficial uses relate both to	ne^s^/qSSty
cal processes. Beneficial.	ar® ^ on which to establish
management, because they Pr°^i .gted environmental standards.
water quality programs	, nd supporting standards serves
The pursuit of definalDiejalj, ai*did™PP°£bl| beneficial uses.
the future through mai	f beneficial uses should maintain
At the same time	suSpoSng the beneficial use.
the integrity of the e y	standards are established and
For example, when water gia«al.1 ^	production of a beneficial
maintained at levels enabling optima pro organisms (e.g., prey
use (such "	benefit because these Ls/ bJ
species, habitat sp	. appropriate to maintaining the
kept at levels of P* doeg nQt indicate, however, that the
salmon population.	nossibly diminished in some manner
ecosystem is not	uses_ The 9reatest
difficulties in resource management and regulatory activity
difficulties m ic . ficial USes are in conflict. A case
occur when two or	controversy between the expansion of sea
in point would be the =°?"5XhLvesting the coastal waters
otter populations and shelltisn narvesu y
of central California.
. i	«vo npnerallv one of two types: those that
Beneficial us	widely acknowledged as acceptable uses
are legally	, mariculture, recreation, species
ie^;\,naV^f those ttal ar'e legally permitted and tolerated
because 'of cost/benefit factors associated with alternative
activities. Examples of the latter type of beneficial use are
log storage and wastewater discharge.
Althouqh wastewater discharge in the Sound can economically
benefit society in general, it can, if not managed properly,
cause serious reductions in the achievement of other social and
cause	. {i	beneficial uses) derived from the
Sound. Wastewater discharge is not considered by the EPA or the
6

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WDOE to be	a protected beneficial use of the Sound, and its
continuance	depends on wastewater treatment and the removal of
pollutants	that are not acceptably assimilated into the
ecosystem.
Summary
The perception of Puget Sound as a relatively pristine
water body has changed in the last few years, and the need for
increasingly coordinated and effective management effort is
becoming recognized. Jones & Stokes Associates has been re-
tained by the EPA and the WDOE to evaluate the existing data
base and the water quality management tools available to water
quality planners and managers. This report identifies and
describes the roles of existing water quality management
agencies, and identifies data that are needed to allow eval-
uation of present environmental conditions and prediction of
impacts resulting from water quality regulatory programs and
management decisions. The report describes data obtained by
previous and ongoing work in view of the data that are needed to
evaluate current conditions of the environment and make manage-
ment decisions.
7

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8

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Chapter 2
WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PUGET SOUND
Agency Responsibilities and Programs
Water quality management in Puget Sound is the responsi-
bility of several federal, state, and local agencies, as estab-
lished by federal, state, and local laws. Although agency
responsibilities as established by law often reflect consider-
able overlap, agencies have operating mechanisms that tend to
narrowly focus on water quality issues pertinent to the central
mission of each agency. Water quality management is generally
accomplished through a permitting process, and is generally
orchestrated through provisions of the National Environmental
Policy Act (42 USC 4321 et seq.) and implementing regulations
(40 CFR Parts 1500-1508), and the State Environmental Policy Act
(RCW 43.21C) and implementing regulations (WAC 197-10). As a
result, the regulatory framework for making water quality
management decisions is comprised of a web of mandated or
delegated authority displaying surprisingly little duplication
of effort and an acceptable degree of coordination during
project permit issuance or review. However, there is rarely a
coordinated effort to approach water quality management on any
scale larger than a case-by-case (permit-by-permit) basis.
Technical studies that provide data to the permitting processes
typically occur on a case-by-case basis with minimal coordina-
tion between agencies, often resulting in duplication of effort
or incompatible sets of data.
In the interests of clarity, the terms "investigation",
"research", and "monitoring" are not used interchangeably.
Research as used here indicates a scientific study developing
new techniques or involving hypothesis testing by the use of
experimental manipulation of conditions and established con-
trols. This definition does not necessarily minimize the
scientific value of investigative studies, such as the systemat-
ic sampling of levels of pollutants in various substances.
Monitoring is considered here as a special type of study in
which efforts are made to detect changes or effects over a
period of time occurring after the onset of certain activities.
The following discussion briefly summarizes the applicable
roles of various federal, state, or local agencies that address
water quality issues pertinent to Puget Sound. The discussion
does not present in detail the many caveats or implementing
9

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regulations that would be included in a thorough analysis of
agency roles; rather, an effort is made to provide an overview
of how these agencies individually or collectively influence
water quality management decisions relative to Puget Sound.
Federal Agencies
Governmental structures normally have separate legislative,
executive, and judicial functions engaged in a constitutional
system of checks and balances. With the exception of compliance
with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), there often
is not a legal requirement that agencies or programs performing
these separate functions be consistent with one another. The
agencies listed below operate generally within a set of estab-
lished legal requirements and negotiated agreements of under-
standing that provide for coordinated effort. It is a system in
which the activities of each agency are constrained by the
mandated activities of the others and by NEPA-authorized regu-
lations that require all federal actions to be consistent with
the nation's environmental quality objectives.
U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
An objective of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act
(FWPCA) (33 USC 1251 et seq.) as amended in 1972, was to restore
and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of
the nation's waters. One national goal is to achieve water
quality that protects and supports populations of fish and
wildlife and provides recreational opportunities in and on the
water. The regulatory framework for implementing the goals and
policies spelled out in the FWPCA is the responsibility of the
EPA.
The FWPCA was renewed and amended as the Clean Water Act
(CWA) of 1977. Some sections of the CWA establish either
grants, water quality standards, or permit programs that are
intended to control or abate water pollution. Major sections of
the CWA pertinent to water quality management in Puget Sound
are:
Section 106 - Grants for state pollution control programs
Section 201 - Grants for construction of treatment works
Section 208 - Grants for areawide waste treatment manage-
ment
Section 301 - Effluent limitation standards
Section 303 - State water quality standards and implementa-
tion plans
10

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Section 306 - National standards of performance (by
industry)
Section 307 - Toxic and pretreatment effluent standards
(priority pollutant)
Section 311
Section 312
Oil and hazardous substance liability
Marine sanitation devices
Section 316 - Thermal discharges
Section 401 - State certification of federal projects or
permit activities
Section 402 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) permit
Section 403 - Ocean discharge criteria
Section 404 - Permits for dredged or fill material
Section 510 - State authority
Under these and other sections of the CWA, EPA is authorized to
encourage or carry out a variety of investigative, research,
monitoring, regulatory, and enforcement programs.
EPA retains responsibility for all CWA activities, but may
delegate certain activities to either the state or to other
federal agencies. Many CWA programs have been delegated by EPA
to the State of Washington; however, EPA continues to:
o Develop guidelines for Best Available Technology (BAT)
economically achievable for toxic pollutants, and Best
Conventional Technology (BCT) for conventional
pollutants.
o Develop categorical pretreatment standards.
o Evaluate Section 301(h) waiver applications and
implement the 301(h) waiver program.
o Administer NPDES permits for federal facilities and
facilities within Indian reservations.
In addition to monitoring the CWA, EPA is responsible for
implementing the goals and policies spelled out in several other
federal laws that interact to protect the environment. The
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) establishes
national policies and programs for solid waste management in
general, and for hazardous waste management in particular (42
11

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USC 3251 et seq.). Subtitle C of RCRA establishes a program for
comprehensive "cradle-to-grave" regulation of hazardous wastes.
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act (also known as the Superfund program), is a
funding source to clean up areas contaminated by hazardous
chemicals when private clean-up funds are unavailable or
inadequate (42 USC 9601 et seq. and 26 USC 4611 et seq.). The
disposal of certain hazardous wastes is also regulated by the
Toxic Substances Control Act (15 USC 2601 et seq.) and the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) (7
USC 136 et seq.). Other federal laws (e.g., Clean Air Act [42
USC 1857 et seq.], Coastal Zone Management Act [16 USC 1451 et
seq.]) also affect water quality management of Puget Sound
indirectly through land use planning and control of point and
nonpoint pollution sources.
U. S. Army Corps of Engineers
Under the terms of the CWA and a Memorandum of Understand-
ing (MOU) with EPA, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) is
assigned responsibility for the Section 404 (dredged or fill
material) permit system. This responsibility is an extension of
the COE permit responsibility under Section 10 of the Rivers and
Harbors Act of 1899 (33 USC 403). The COE permit program under
Section 404 covers the discharge of dredged or fill material in
a broader definition of waters of the United States, whereas,
the permit program under Section 10 covered dredging, excavat-
ing, filling or other modifying activities in waters specifical-
ly defined as navigable waters.
The COE publishes public notices of all pending permit
applications. These notices are sent to governmental agencies,
environmental groups, and other parties requesting to be includ-
ed on the mailing list. Through this public notice process, the
COE may receive input from several federal, state, and local
agencies and private interests regarding permit conditions and
approval or denial. Under the authority of Section 401 of the
CWA, the WDOE determines whether the permitted activity would
meet state water quality standards. The input to the COE is a
function of how often comments are provided to the COE, and the
thoroughness of the agencies' review process. EPA is authorized
to overrule a COE permit decision under the current language of
the CWA (Section 404(c) and 40 CFR 231).
In addition to permit and enforcement activities, the COE
participates in limited investigative, research, and monitoring
activities. Most of the investigation and research activity is
directly related to the COE dredging program and management of
the Section 404 permit program (e.g., wetland determination,
protection, mitigation, or enhancement techniques). Water
quality monitoring has traditionally addressed conventional
pollution parameters such as turbidity, dissolved oxygen levels,
etc. Priority pollutants and other pollutants are generally not
12

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addressed unless a case study specifically addresses these as
part of a sediment chemistry analysis.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Several separate entities within the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) address water quality concerns
in Puget Sound. A major research program, Marine Ecosystem
Analysis (MESA), was managed by the Office of Marine Pollution
Assessment (OMPA) and supported numerous, extensive water
quality-related studies in Puget Sound. OMPA has recently been
dissolved and its functions absorbed by the Ocean Assessment
Division, an entity within the National Oceanic Service (NOS).
The MESA program has contributed much in the way of scientific
expertise on marine pollution and as a funding source for
pollution investigations and research in Puget Sound. Another
NOS group, the Pacific Marine Center, is responsible for re-
search and updating charts and tidal information within Puget
Sound.
The Northwest Region of the National Marine Fisheries
Service (NMPS) has two roles in water quality management of
Puget Sound. The Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, through
its Environmental Conservation Division, conducts research and
investigations which include the affects of pollutants on
fisheries. NMFS is also the regulatory arm of NOAA, and com-
ments on permit applications by authority of the Fish and
Wildlife Coordination Act (16 USC 661 et seq.), the Marine
Mammal Protection Act (16 USC 1361 et seq.), and the Endangered
Species Act (16 USC 1531 et seq.).
NOAA's Office of Research and Development has also per-
formed several research projects within Puget Sound through the
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. These efforts are
apart from NMFS- and MESA-sponsored studies.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has an advisory
role in water quality management of Puget Sound by commenting on
permits under authority of the Fish and Wildlife Coordination
Act. The National Fisheries Research Center (NFRC) laboratories
carry out investigations and research on contaminant-related
issues in support of various USFWS activities? however, the
studies typically relate to freshwater systems and are often
issue-oriented rather than site-specific work. In terms of
direct relevance to Puget Sound, the NFRC laboratory in
Columbia, Missouri, has been involved in research analyzing
impacts of arsenic on anadromous fish. The local NFRC labo-
ratories and the USFWS also provide advice and information
relative to the design, conduct, and preparation of
13

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environmental impact assessments as these relate to water
quality impacts on fish and wildlife.
U. S. Coast Guard
The U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) 13th District participates in
water quality management of Puget Sound by issuing permits for
structures under Section 9 of the Rivers and Harbors Act,
reviewing COE Section 40 4 permits in navigable waters under
Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, and deploying an oil
spill response team as needed.
The major role of the USCG in pollution control is
monitoring for and emergency clean-up response to oil spills,
and enforcing wastewater disposal by vessels. The USCG relies
on WDOE to certify that a proposed project will not violate
state water quality criteria before issuing a permit under
Section 9 of the Rivers and Harbors Act. The USCG can comment
on the COE dredge and fill (Section 404) permit, but usually
does so only from the standpoint of marine safety and naviga-
tion. Pollution prevention also plays a minor role in USCG
review and approval of operating manuals (procedures) for marine
transfer (port) facilities. This review and approval is usually
post-construction, and is required before a facility can begin
operation. The USCG is also involved in enforcing regulations
on marine sanitation devices and the discharge of bilge water by
vessels.
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) indirectly contri-
butes to water quality management in Puget Sound as a result of
FDA's responsibility for regulating impurities or contaminants
in seafoods. The role of FDA differs between certain shellfish
(fresh or frozen oysters, clams, and mussels) and other seafood.
For certain shellfish, FDA acts on an advisory basis, providing
guidance or technical expertise to state, local, or industry
groups seeking to establish standards for shellfish growing or
harvesting waters. For these shellfish, the FDA program is
voluntary and depends on state or county monitoring and en-
forcement. FDA may conduct laboratory analyses or provide work
space for water quality monitoring as it pertains to shellfish
growing beds, and publishes a list of certified shellfish
shippers. For other seafoods, FDA established on a regulatory
basis permissible levels of residues on a product-by-product and
contaminant-by-contaminant basis. These residue levels are
enforced by FDA under authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and
Cosmetic Act (21 USC 342[a]). A few organic compounds or heavy
metals are covered by administrative guidelines, rather than by
enforceable regulations.
14

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Although PDA may be asked to comment on permit applications
for activities proposed near shellfish beds, there is no estab-
lished mechanism for soliciting this input. FDA has established
a research facility in the Seattle area to assess the quality of
seafood reaching the marketplace. The objective of this program
is to develop a methodology for detecting contaminants in
problem areas and determining whether detected amounts exceed
expected background levels in seafood. Budget and staffing
constraints have currently limited this investigative and
research effort.
State Agencies
Department of Ecology
Congress clearly stated in the FWPCA, and subsequently the
CWA of 1977, that the responsibility for managing the publicly-
owned sewage treatment works construction grant program and
implementing certain permit programs would be delegated to the
states following EPA approval of the state's program. In 1973,
EPA delegated much of the responsibility for the NPDES permit
program {Section 402) to the State of Washington. The NPDES
system is operated by WDOE and replaced the state's prior
discharge permit program. In 1979, WDOE assumed responsibility
for the Construction Grants Management Assistance Program. WDOE
also is responsible for establishing water quality standards
(Section 303) which effectively classify waters of the state
into one of several categories reflecting beneficial water uses.
The mission of WDOE includes water, air, and land resource
management and stewardship. This responsibility is authorized
by the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) and implementing
guidelines (WAC 197-10). Overriding priorities in fulfilling
WDOE1s mission are: 1) to protect public health, 2) to preserve
environmental quality, and 3) to ensure full and proper uti-
lization of natural resources for the benefit of all citizens.
The current approach to addressing these priorities in reference
to water quality is to focus on: permitting; compliance assur-
ance and enforcement; wastewater facilities plan review; and
water pollution control grants activities, especially as these
activities relate to the control of toxic pollutants. It is
clear that the stated mission of WDOE results in broad respon-
sibilities for aquatic resources in Puget Sound, responsibil-
ities which may overlap to some extent with other agencies. In
effect, WDOE plays a three-part role in water quality manage-
ment: 1) it implements federally-mandated programs that may be
carried out by the state and also influences federal activities
by determining whether federal activities meet state water
quality standards; 2) it addresses water quality issues as
mandated by state law, and 3) it acts as the state clearinghouse
for state and local agency input related to water quality
issues.
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WDOE is responsible for a number of programs that address
water quality concerns relevant to Puget Sound. Many of these
directly relate to Puget Sound or relate to point source dis-
charges; others may seek to control nonpoint sources of pol-
lution or indirectly affect Puget Sound. A partial list of
programs or activities is found in Table 2-1.
As part of the NPDES permit application, each discharger is
required to fill out a form which characterizes the discharge
for EPA. Point values are assigned by EPA according to various
attributes of the discharge as described by the form. If the
total number of points exceeds 80, the discharger is classified
by EPA as a major discharger, rather than a minor discharger.
The definition of major and minor has varied in the past. WDOE
does not use the point system for identifying major discharges,
rather WDOE and EPA annually determine which dischargers will be
subject to Class II major discharger or Class I minor discharger
inspections. Classification depends on budget and manpower
constraints, historical record, and type of discharge. Class I
dischargers are subject to visual inspection of operation and
maintenance (O&M) of the facilities by WDOE. During the Class
II inspection, WDOE inspects the facilities, reviews operations
and analytical procedures, tests effluent and receiving water,
and verifies compliance with permit conditions. If discrep-
ancies are noted, enforcement action is taken if sufficient data
are available. If more data are needed, a Class III inspection
(i.e., a reinspection) is initiated. If discrepancies are again
noted, WDOE initiates a Class IV inspection, which gathers data
for enforcement activity.
Department of Fisheries
The Department of Fisheries (WDF) is responsible for
managing various fishery resources in Puget Sound and, there-
fore, is concerned with water quality issues as they relate to
fishery resources. The fisheries managed by WDF include shell-
fish, most truly marine finfish, salmon, sturgeon, and food fish
("nongame") species in marine and freshwater. Although WDF may
conduct extensive water quality investigations and research
related to these fisheries, WDF relies heavily on WDOE and EPA
for 'implementing water quality decisions, and participates in
water quality decision making by engaging in permit review.
Jurisdiction is limited to marine areas below mean higher high
water (MHHW) and freshwater areas below ordinary highwater. WDF
can recommend approval, disapproval, or request modifications of
proposed project plans through the permit review process.
Although WDF has no jurisdictional authority over activi-
ties above MHHW, the agency may be involved in shoreline plan-
ning if WDOE seeks input from WDF, especially on matters related
to sedimentation, storm drain discharge, and the use of septic
tank systems.
16

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Table 2-1. WDOE Water Quality-Related Programs/Activities
Established
IUnder development
i
Under revision
Point source
(Direct)
Nonpoint source
(Indirect)
NPDES permit program X


X

Section 201 construction grant program X


X

Water quality standards/ certifications, variances (permit review) X


X
X
Puget Sound water quality management progranf* *
*
*
X
X
Oil and hazardous materials spill response capability X


X

Toxics monitoring program

X
X
X
Toxicant pretreatment program
X



Shellfish protection program
X

X
X
Coastal zone management program X


X
X
Air quality management program X



X
*There are a nuntoer of water quality management plans funded by CWA grants.
Their status varies



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Department of Game
The Department of Game (WDG) is responsible for managing
certain sportfish species, including steelhead trout. The role
of WDG in water quality decision making is very similar to that
of WDF; permit review is usually a joint undertaking by WDF and
WDG. In the case of Puget Sound resources, WDG is most clearly
involved in water quality decisions pertinent to steelhead
trout.
Department of Social and Health Services
The Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) plays a
role in water quality management to the extent that the agency
is responsible for protecting public health. The office of En-
vironmental Health Programs in DSHS is responsible for certify-
ing that water quality criteria are met in all commercial
shellfish growing areas. DSHS participates in some water
quality investigation and research work, but relies primarily on
commercial operators to do water quality monitoring for
commercial shellfish beds. The major emphasis is placed on
fecal coliforms as an indicator of probable occurrence of
health-endangering viruses, and on paralytic shellfish poisoning
(PSP) caused by red tides. The DSHS may also conduct shoreline
investigative surveys near growing areas to identify sources of
pollution potentially threatening certification of growing
areas, but relies on local (county) enforcement if local juris-
diction is appropriate (e.g., failed septic tanks, illegal land
use activity).
The DSHS may comment on NPDES permits and Section 301(h)
waivers, but rarely does so. No formal notification process
occurs between WDOE and DSHS. Notification is made through the
normal public notice, unless DSHS District Engineers request
that copies of NPDES permits be regularly forwarded. WDOE has
noted that DSHS involvement has been limited to domestic or
municipal discharges near shellfish beds (Springer pers. comm.);
most input to WDOE from DSHS has been given in response to
facilities plans near shellfish beds. DSHS apparently has not
been involved with industrial discharge permit review.
Department of Natural Resources
As manager of submerged lands and tidelands, the Department
of Natural Resources (DNR) negotiates and issues leases for
mariculture operations, prepares harvest agreements for commer-
cial shellfish beds, and manages open water dredge disposal
sites. Preparation of harvest agreements is carried out in
conjunction with WDF and DSHS; the latter certifies that the
area is safe relative to water quality criteria. Dredge
disposal sites are approved by a multi-agency review process and
18

-------
managed by DNR. Section 404 permits for dredge disposal must be
obtained from the COE (Hansen, pers. comm.). DNR generally does
not participate in water quality research, but is involved as it
pertains to its pilot research program on seaweed culture.
Major effort is now focused on the culture of Porphyra (nori).
Local Agencies
County Departments of Health
County health departments are responsible for certain local
water quality programs affecting Puget Sound. These departments
are heavily involved in PSP monitoring programs in shellfish
beds harvested by sport fishermen. They also may monitor
activities and enforce local ordinances which address public
health concerns (e.g., septic tank systems).
Local Planning Commissions
Local planning commissions are responsible for local land
use ordinances and, therefore, play an important role in permit-
ting or regulating point and nonpoint sources of pollution. The
extent and significance of their role varies widely between the
numerous jurisdictions surrounding the Puget Sound study area.
The Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) and SNOMET/King
County have been designated by WDOE as local agencies responsi-
ble for water quality planning and management within their
respective jurisdictions.
Municipal, Domestic, and Industrial Dischargers
In addition to compliance with treatment requirements,
dischargers are responsible for providing certain required data
as part of the NPDES permit application and to monitoring the
discharge (effluent and receiving water) according to conditions
attached to the issued permit. Under existing federal and state
regulations, dischargers seeking renewal of an NPDES permit or a
301(h) waiver also must provide data on the levels of priority
pollutants in the effluent.
Monitoring requirements vary according to the type,
and significance of the discharge, and are decided on an indi-
vidual basis. Some dischargers have numerous limitations
imposed on the discharge but are required to do little monitor-
ing; other dischargers may have few limitations imposed, but are
required to carry out extensive monitoring.
In addition to carrying out prescribed monitoring programs,
municipal dischargers may serve a local regulatory role by
restricting certain practices through municipal sewer use ordi-
19

-------
nances. These ordinances restrict or prohibit discharges of
certain materials into the wastewater stream which may interfere
with the collection and treatment system or endanger public
health. Enforcement is usually obtained through a system of
fines or penalties.
Tribal Agencies
Recent federal court cases have radically changed the role
of Indian tribes in state and federal management of fisheries in
Puget Sound. The recent Orrick decision (United States v.
Washington 1980) affirms Indian rights to protect salmon and
steelhead runs from adverse environmental impacts. Although
this ruling has been appealed, it has great potential to radi-
cally alter the role of tribal government in making water
quality management decisions for Puget Sound.
Summary
The responsibility for water quality management of Puget
Sound is vested in a number of federal, state, and local agen-
cies {Table 2-2}. Although no one agency clearly orchestrates
the efforts of all toward a common goal, WDOE plays a major role
through administration of state water quality guidelines. It
would appear that the only unifying efforts among the agencies
are: 1) the common objective of preserving or maintaining a
healthy environment, and 2) permit review via the public notice
process.
WDOE and the COE perform major clearinghouse roles at the
state and federal permit review level. The permit review
process is generally limited by the tendency for each agency to
focus attention on specific resource management actions. For
example, DSHS is interested in water quality impacts on commer-
cial shellfish beds. Commercial beds do not occur throughout
the Sound, and only those DSHS districts with commercial beds
may express interest in reviewing NPDES permits or 301(h) waiver
applications. No formal notification of permit review exists
between WDOE and DSHS unless the DSHS District Engineer requests
that automatic notification occur. In most cases, notification
is limited to municipal and domestic dischargers, since major
concerns for shellfish have historically been fecal coliform
levels and PSP, and not other pollutants. Although not fully
understood, but nevertheless of potential major consequence, is
the recently affirmed right of tribal governments to influence
water quality decisions as they affect salmon and steelhead
fisheries.
The environmental legislation having the most widespread
impact and greatest relevance to Puget Sound is the Clean Water
Act (CWA). The Act and its implementing regulations mandate
water quality, effluent limitation, and industrial performance
20

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Table 2-2. Overview of Typical Agency Roles in Water Quality Management of Pugct Sound
l£vel of
ttaverroent
Agency
Regulation
Pronulgation
Enforcement
Permit
Issuance
Permit
Review
Investigation
Research
Monitoriivj
F
EPA
M
M
D
M
M
M
D
F
F
OOE
NOAA
M
A
M
Limited to
narine rramrals
M
Itorve
M
A
Limited to Sec-
tion 10 & Sec-
tion 404
M
Limited to Sec-
tion. 10 5. Sec-
tion 404
M
Limited to Sec-
tion 10 & Sec-
tion 404
A
F
USFVS
A
None
None
A
Limited to ana-
dratous fish
Limited to ana-
drcmous fish
A
F
USCG
Limited to Sec-
tion 9
M
Limited to Sec-
tion 9
A
Limited to oil
spills and vessel
discharge
None
Limited to oil
spills
F
FDA
Limited to sea-
food
Limited to sea-
food
None
None
Limited to sea-
food
None
Limited to sea-
food
s
WDOE
M
M
M
M
M
None
M
s
HDF
None
Limited to fish-
eries
A
A
Limited to fish-
eries
Limited to fish-
eries
None
s
VJDG
None
Limited to fish-
eries
A
A
Limited to fish-
eries
Limited to fish-
eries
None
s
reus
Limited to com-
mercial shell-
fish operations
Limited to decer-
tification of
shellfish beds
Limited to cer-
tification of
shellfish beds
A
Limited to com-
mercial shell-
fish
Lijnited to com-
mercial shell-
fish
None
s
CMP.
Done
None
None
None
None
Limited to nori-
culture
None
L
Qounty health
departments
None
Limited to local
ordinances
None
A
Limited to pub-
lic health
None
Limited to pub-
lic health
L
Planning
ccranissions
Land use ordinan-
ces; designated
local 208 agencies
None
Limited to land
use ordinances
A
None
None
None
L
Dischargers
Limited to sewer
use ordinances*
Limited to sewer
use ordinances*
None
None
Limited to permit
applications
Optional
As required by
permit
L
Tribal
agencies
P
P
P
P
Limited to fish-
eries
Limited to fish-
eries
P
M - major role
A - advisory role
D - delegated role
P - potentially major
F - federal
S - state
L - local or tribal
*Except for Section 208 plaining by Hinicipality of Metropolitan Seattle.

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standards; provide grants for point and nonpoint source permit
and control programs, and for construction of publicly-owned
waste treatment works; and authorize a number of other water
quality management activities. EPA retains responsibility for
all CWA activities, but delegates implementation to many other
federal and state agencies including the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers (dredge and fill permit program); the Washington
Department of Ecology (construction grants, water quality
standards, nonpoint source planning, NPDES permits); and the
U.S. Coast Guard (marine sanitation devices).
Water quality investigation, research, and monitoring
efforts are fragmented and generally limited to specific re-
source management actions of importance to the sponsoring
agency. In these three efforts, more than in other management
activities, there is little coordination between various
agencies. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
has played a major role in water quality investigation and
research in Puget Sound through the Marine Ecosystem Analysis
(MESA) program. This program was funded by Congress as a
line-item appropriation, and has contributed much in the way of
research and investigative activity beyond the typically narrow
scope of specific resource management objectives.
22

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Chapter 3
OVERVIEW OF DATA BASE REQUIREMENTS
The objective of EPA and WDOE is to make water quality
management decisions based on a systematic evaluation of the
predicted environmental impacts of their regulatory activities.
These activities include: issuance or renewal of NPDES permits
for municipal and industrial discharges; Superfund program
decisions; evaluation of Section 301(h> waiver applications;
permit compliance and enforcement activities; control of
nonpoint sources of pollutants; permit review; and other en-
vironmental activities. Implicit in this objective is the
desire to make decisions with full knowledge of the cumulative
impacts of regulatory decisions with reference to the assimi-
lative capacity of Puget Sound for pollutants.
Definitions
Before pursuing a description of the data needed to achieve
this objective, it is imperative that certain terms be clearly
defined. Some key terms used in this report are defined below:
Pollutant. The definition used here is generally that
found in Section 502 of the CWA. Pollutants include a broad
range of materials, chemicals, and heat which alter the natural-
ly occurring physical, chemical, or biological characteristics
of the water body.
Toxicant. This term is frequently used but rarely defined
rigorously. A toxic substance is one that impairs, injures, or
kills an organism by interfering with a body or cellular func-
tion. This definition, however, becomes almost useless if one
considers that almost any substance can be toxic in excessive
amounts. In most toxicological literature, the term "toxicant"
is generally used to refer to chemical compounds that harm or
kill at relatively low concentrations when taken up or ingested
by an organism.
Contaminant. This term is used here to refer to pollutants
in potential Foodstuff or in the environment that endanger
public health at relatively low concentrations or otherwise
render the environment unfit for certain beneficial uses. These
are substances which have been found to induce infectious
illness or disease (e.g., bacteria, viruses), cancer (carcino-
gens) , chromosomal damage (mutagens), or congenital deformities
23

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(teratogens) in laboratory studies with test organisms or in
epidemiological studies on humans.
Direct Effect. Although the term is self-explanatory, it
is often overlooked that direct effects occur as pollutants act
on individual organisms or certain beneficial uses. A direct
effect on organisms usually results from a biostimulatory or
toxic action of the pollutant. Direct effects on beneficial
uses may include a wide array of impacts, particularly on
aesthetics (e.g., turbidity may directly affect the use of
water for aesthetic enjoyment) and water-contact recreation.
Habitat also may experience direct effects when habitat is
defined by standards or environmental requirements of particular
species as a beneficial use. However, habitat may also be the
pathway of indirect effects on individual organisms.
Indirect Effect. A pollutant may not affect a beneficial
use or species toxicologically, but may exert an adverse impact
on that species by eliminating an important fo
-------
unacceptable impact. It is important to note, however, that
this definition refers primarily to a system of socially defined
values, i.e., beneficial values. The role of science is often
limited to tracing the steps between release of pollutants and
their ultimate effects on beneficial uses of value to society,
and to assisting in making the best available judgement.
Conceptual Framework
One of the requirements for successful resource management
is to develop a cost-effective method to monitor and evaluate
the status of the resource, i.e., a method that yields the
greatest amount of useful information per unit cost. A second
requirement is to obtain data to demonstrate that a particular
anthropogenic activity is significantly advantageous or detri-
mental to a beneficial use of the resource. In the case of
living resources, both requirements usually have in common the
need to examine the ability of certain organisms to survive,
grow, and reproduce, i.e., display biological continuity.
Quantitative knowledge of natural phenomena is essential to
any credible analysis of pollution effects. In marine
ecosystems such as Puget Sound, impact assessment and monitoring
at the population or community level of organization (the
holistic approach) are challenging: because change through
natural variation is the normal state, and because it is
difficult in many cases to distinguish between natural and
anthropogenic change and variation. Subtle, natural changes in
oceanographic conditions, for example, may markedly alter
community composition in plankton, including the distribution,
survival, and settlement of larvae. Large quantities of money
and manpower have been spent fruitlessly while trying to
quantify changes in biological communities as a result of man's
activities because natural variation was not also described. If
anthropogenic change is to be identified over the background of
natural variation, data are needed to link the change to a
causal agent. The alternative reductionist approach that
attempts to document effects by examining biochemical changes in
cells or body fluids often fails for similar reasons, because of
difficulties in linking biochemical change to meaningful
alterations in survival, growth, or reproduction of the
organism. Although these and other complex approaches are
worthwhile endeavors in water quality management, their results
are often of more interest to scientists than to decision
makers. These kinds of data are essential, however, to the
improvement of theory and the construction and calibration of
holistic models of the ecosystem. The resolution of immediate
problems typically results in the investigation of tangible,
direct effects. The concept of direct effect, as defined by
changes in beneficial uses or the ability of organisms to
maintain biological continuity, plays a major role because these
effects are most amenable to scientific investigation. They also
provide opportunities to test theories and models.
25

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Analyses of direct effects on individual organisms or
beneficial uses, however, do not and will not serve as the sole
source of information or the cure-all approach to water quality
management. Analyses of direct effects do serve as the crucial
first step. To manage water quality of Puget Sound, data are
needed that sequentially: 1) disclose an effect on beneficial
uses or biological continuity of organisms; 2) permit resource
managers to trace the causal agent to its source; and 3) suggest
remedial actions. Data on direct effects are then used in
holistic models to improve the capacity of the decision making
relative to predicting indirect effects and cumulative impacts.
Data Required for Cumulative Impact Evaluation
The basic need for predicting cumulative impacts, assessing
environmental effects, and monitoring for changes attributed to
pollutants is a quantitative understanding of linkages between:
mass loading; the physical, chemical, and biological fate of a
specific pollutant; its direct effects on individual organisms
and habitats; and, ultimately, effects on beneficial uses. A
conceptual diagram of these linkages is found in Figure 3-1. In
this conceptual diagram, the scientific approach can be used to
describe and quantify:
o Sources of pollutants
o Natural or uncontrollable mass loading
o Controllable mass loading
o Transport processes (diffusion, circulation, advection)
o Physical-chemical fate (adsorption, speciation, redox
reactions, photolysis, etc.)
o Distribution in the physical environment
o Biological uptake (bioavailability, bioaccumulation,
biomagnification)
o Metabolic processes (biodetoxification, biodegradation)
o Distribution in the biota (bioaccumulation)
o Dose-response data (growth, behavior, death)
o Synergistic effects (between toxicants and as a function
of organism stress)
o Effects on individual organisms (mortality, sublethal
toxicity)
A key feature of the necessary data base as diagrammed in
Figure 3-1 is that both scientists and resource managers must
consider human interests as a key link in resource management.
If a linkage between a potential pollutant and adverse effects
on a beneficial use cannot be demonstrated, then resource
management becomes more arbitrary and less scientific. Resource
impact assessment should have as its end-point data that can be
used to judge whether the predicted impact on a resource is
acceptable or unacceptable.
26

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NATURAL OR
UNCONTROLLABLE
SOURCES
CONTROLLABLE
SOURCES
REGULATION
WATER
QUALITY
STANDARDS
RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
DECISION
ANALYSIS
EFFECTS ON
BENEFICIAL
USES
HUMAN USE
DISTRIBUTION IN THE
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
INDIRECT
EFFECTS
ON
BIOTA
CD CD
DISTRIBUTION IN
DOSE-RESPONSE DATA
THE 8I0TA
METABOLIC PROCESSES


SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS

DIRECT
EFFECTS ON
BIOTA
Figure 3-1. Diagram of Linkages Between Data Needed for Water Quality Management Decisions
NOTE: Boxes and bold arrows represent descriptive compartments and processes which can be
quantified. Ecosystem processes (broken arrow) and indirect effects (diamond) are
open to scientific analysis but rarely quantifiable. The circles and remaining
arrows represent compartments or processes that are defined or implemented within
the social framework (modified from White and Lockwood, in press).
27

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Provided suitable data are available, resource management
decisions can be based on some type of risk analysis. The
degree of sophistication in risk analysis is a function of the
efficacy of the scientific information used in its formulation
as well as the purpose for doing the risk analysis. Although
science plays an important role in risk analysis and decision
making, it can be constrained by the social setting. This is
particularly the case when two or more beneficial uses are
weighted differently in social importance. Decision making in
water quality management is often based on an understanding of
how pollutant loading affects human health, economy, food
supply, recreation, and aesthetic sensitivities. The preserva-
tion of the pristine system may be the most desirable beneficial
use from some viewpoints, but may be moot if the discharge of
pollutants is allowed or permitted as a result of a need to
reduce impacts on other beneficial uses (e.g., economy, food
supply, recreation).
In addition to the need to consider socioeconomic influ-
ences on technical problems, a second key feature in the estab-
lishment of an effective data base is the obvious need for
multi- and inter-disciplinary approaches in the research and
investigations that supply data. Certain common goals and
methods are needed to provide meaningful data necessary to link
the loading of a particular pollutant with effects on individual
organisms and/or beneficial uses. Figure 3-1 can be misleading
because, as a schematic, it oversimplifies the quantity of data
and breadth of expertise needed to document such linkages.
There is a need for an inter-disciplinary framework to coordi-
nate studies into a quantitative, holistic system. Without this
framework, data emerging from individual, uncoordinated efforts
are often inconsistent, incompatible, and difficult to use in
documenting linkages between mass loading and effects on orga-
nisms or beneficial uses. If a coordinating framework is not in
place, individual investigators are expected to continue to
confine their efforts to their fields of expertise; thus, the
resulting information will continue to be fragmented in time,
place, conditions, and methodology.
The predictive value of working models derived from the
general model outlined in Figure 3-1 is a function of the sizes
of sampling errors for various data sources and the extent to
which assumptions are made to reduce work loads or data require-
ments. In certain features, e.g., point source loading data,
the data can be very precise. In other areas, e.g., dose-
response data, the conclusions always must be couched in terms
of statistical probability. The reliability of the predictive
output of models can never be more precise than the sampling
error or degree of uncertainty at the weakest point in the
model. Table 3-1 summarizes the general types of data needed to
implement a holistic modelling effort.
28

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Table 3-1. Data Needed to Inplarent Water Quality Management Actions Relevant to
emulative Environmental Impacts of Regulatory Decisions
Corpartment or


Approach


Process
Data Needs
Investigation
Research
Monitoring
Remarks
Sources of pollutants
Inventory of all source categories
X


Basis for current and future analyses.
Uncontrollable mass
loading
Functional definition of uncontrollable;
may vary with specific modeling effort.



Value judgement.

Annual input rate, seasonal rates if
tarporal -
X

X
Ccrnprehensive characterization of loads,
if loading rates needed for current and
future analyses.
Controllable mass
leading
Input rates by month; assignment of
priority to pollutants known to be of
direct concern to beneficial uses.
X

X
Comprehensive characterization of load-
ing needed for current and future
analyses; priority determined by detec-
tion of effects on beneficial uses
(e.g., seafood or recreational areas)
and value judgement.
Transport processes
Data for design end operation of models
predicting diffusion, advection, circu-
lation, and sediment deposition rates.
X
X
X
Models must cover nearfield and far-
field tributary area (water mass) in
detail. Broadly scoped models of the
Sound can be less refined. Sensitivity
analysis and verification nust be
demonstrated before use in regulatory
decisions.
Physico-chemical fate
Estimate rates of adsorption/de sorption,
hydrolysis, speciation, precipitation/
dissolution, volatilization, photolysis,
redox reactions.
X
X

Results need to be couched in terms of
confidence level probabilities.
Distribution in the
physical environment
Linkages between loading and distribu-
tion oust be demonstrated.
X

X

Bioavailability
Identify physical/chemical processes
that make pollutants either available
or unavailable, and estimated rates.

X

Knowledge of processes can be qualita-
tive.
Biological uptake
Rates of bioaocunvilaticn and bicrtagnifi-
cation; basic knowledge of food chains
and experimental examination of uptake
mechaniaos.
X
X
X
Knowledge of food chains and uptake
mechanisms (ingestion, absorption) can
be qualitative. Rates of bioaccumu-
lation and bionagnification must be
quantitative.
Metabolic processes
Methods and rates of depuration, bio-
detoxification and biodegradation;
metabolic byproducts.
X
X
X
A factor in prediction of effects and
estimation of assimilative capacity.

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Table 3-1. (Continued)
Gcropartment or


Approach


Process
Data Needs
Investigation
Research
Monitoring
Remarks
Distribution in the
biota
Linkage between distribution in the
physical environment and distribution
in biota; distribution by geographic
area and by tissue type or body organ.
X

X
Priority on species known to be of
direct concern to beneficial uses,
especially to human consumption and
economics (fisheries).
Dose/response data
Use of appropriate species; documented
relationships between laboratory and
field studies; use of standardized
techniques; investigation of effects
cm mortality, growth, reproduction,
and migration.
X
X
X
Deenphasis on pollution-tolerant species
or inappropriate sentinel species. Data
mist be in terms of confidence level
probabilities. Laboratory conditions
mast be appropriate to field conditions.
Synergistic effects
Between toxicants; under range of
probable environmental conditions
(stress).

X

Development of multidimensional response
surfaces (using contained dose/response
curves). Data nust be in terms of con-
fidence level probabilities.
Effects on biota
Linkage between distribution in biota
and observed mortality or sublethal
toxicity.
X
X



-------
Examples of Problem-Solving Approach
A key feature of the comprehensive model approach described
above is that the focus of the scientific effort is toward
quantitatively documenting linkages between pollutant loading
and effects on individual organisms or beneficial uses. The
objective of this approach is to develop a scientific statement
about environmental effects that is expressed in appropriate
probability terms, where model elements are tied together by
logical design, and where results can be judged for use by
resource users and managers. The linkage can be pursued in one
of two ways: one approach is to identify a particular discharge
or pollutant and determine its effects; the other approach is to
identify an effect (change in beneficial uses or biological
continuity of organisms) and then attempt to determine the
cause. The latter approach is most likely to be more
cost effective.
The implication of this latter approach is that priority
problems enter the model initially as known effects on a benefi-
cial use, (e.g., reduction of a fishery), or on organisms. The
approach then to problem solving is to identify the causal
agents and trace them backward to their sources. In some cases,
the direct effect on individual organisms or on a beneficial use
is readily identified, and the causal agent can be traced with
clearly defined effort. For example, a fishery may be adversely
impacted because the FDA has determined that levels of a speci-
fic contaminant in seafood approach or exceed those considered
safe for human consumption. To remedy this situation, the
source must be found and abated. The priority effort is to
discover where and how the contaminant is taken up? the route
taken by the contaminant from source to the point of biological
uptake; and the time necessary for the seafood to become edible
again. In some cases, the direct effect is on beneficial uses
and not on the biota. For example, certain areas may be
unsuitable for water-contact recreation because of high concen-
tration of fecal coliforms, which suggests that human pathogens
may be in the water.
The multi-disciplinary approach is particularly fruitful if
beneficial uses are impacted through indirect effects; for
example, the loss of a fishery because of changes in quality or
quantity of prey or changes in competitive ability between
species. In such cases, long-term multi-disciplinary research
may be necessary. Initial effort may focus on determining
whether correlations between observed pollutant conditions and
effects may be identified. If the multi-disciplinary effort can
show that the correlation is biologically meaningful and not
spurious, it may be possible to initiate interim remedial action
on pollution sources based on the observed correlation.
31

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Summary
Water quality management is normally accomplished by a
statutory permit/enforcement program. Ideally, water quality
management decisions should be made with full knowledge of the
direct and cumulative impacts expected to result from each
decision. Knowledgeable decisions require data of several
kinds: location and type of pollutant sources; quantity of each
potential pollutant discharged; physical, chemical, and
biological processes affecting pollutant transport and
environmental fate; pollutant distribution and concentrations;
toxicity/dose—response data for key species likely to be
affected; and synergistic effects of pollutants. This
information will allow a reasonable determination of the maximum
loading a system can absorb before an unacceptable biological
impact occurs.
Because many ecosystem impacts are difficult to observe or
quantify, "unacceptable impact" is most efficiently defined as
impairment of a designated beneficial use, or alteration in the
ability of certain organisms to survive, grow, and reproduce.
These represent key starting points in impact assessment and
resource management.
The data base should have two key features: it should
contain data which can demonstrate relationships between pol-
lution and effects on beneficial use; and it should be based on
a coordinated multi-disciplinary approach so that data are
compatible and consistent from study to study.
32

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Chapter 4
MASS LOADING OF POLLUTANTS TO PUGET SOUND
Introduction
Resource managers require information on mass loading from
controllable and noncontrollable sources in order to: 1)
predict impacts of their decisions; 2) determine whether the
impact can be alleviated by control methods; and 3) implement
effective control measures. The purpose of this chapter is to
summarize the available information on pollutant loadings to
Puget Sound. This includes a discussion of the types and number
of sources, the nature and extent of currently available mass
loading data, and a summary of these data.
Types of Pollutants and Water Quality Indicators
Pollutants and water quality indicators are often grouped
into several categories. The following categories will be used
in this report:
o Conventional parameters - BOD, pH, oil and grease, total
suspended solids, and fecal coliform bacteria
o Extended conventional parameters - COD, nitrogen, phos-
phorus, temperature, total solids, total nonvolatile
solids, and total nonvolatile suspended solids
o Priority pollutants - a list of 126 toxic pollutants
developed by EPA (Appendix A)
o Heavy metals and inorganics - naturally-occurring metals
and inorganics, some of which are included on the
priority pollutant list
o Organic pollutants - primarily synthetic organic com-
pounds, sume of which are included on the priority
pollutant list. These are often combined into broad
categories and include:
. Pesticides and derivatives
PCBs and related compounds
Halogenated aliphatics
Ethers
Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Phthalate esters
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Nitrosamines and miscellaneous compounds
The priority pollutant list and maximum recommended concen-
trations in aquatic environments were developed as part of a
1976 (modified in 1979) consent decree (Natural Resources
33

-------
Defense Council et al. v. EPA). At one time 129 toxic compounds
were designated ai priority pollutants; three compounds were
later dropped from the list. The criteria used in the selection
of these compounds included: frequency of occurrence in water;
chemical stability and structure; amount of the chemical
produced; chance for release to the environment; and
availability of chemical standards for measurements (Sittig
1980) .
Sources of Pollutants to Puget Sound
Pollution can result from anthropogenic (human) activi-
ties or natural biological or geological processes. A point
source of pollution is defined by regulations as any discern-
ible, confined conveyance, but not including return flow from
irrigated fields. Regulatory control is usually exerted
through the NPDES permit system. A nonpoint source contributes
pollution to the environment in a more diffuse manner, e.g., via
groundwater, surface runoff from adjacent land areas, or return
flow from irrigated fields. Because of the diffuse nature
of the discharge, control is usually exerted through implemen-
tation of best management practices. EPA and WDOE further
categorize permitted point sources as major and minor dis-
chargers. This distinction is determined by EPA and WDOE during
their evaluation of several aspects of the effluent as described
in the permit application. The above terms will be used in the
following classification of pollution sources to Puget Sound.
NPDES-Permitted Sources
The CWA established the NPDES permit program. NPDES
permits with appropriate discharge limitations are issued to
point source dischargers. Approximately 240 NPDES permits have
been issued to municipal and industrial dischargers in the study
area (Figure 4-1). A complete listing of NPDES-permitted
discharges in the study area is found in Appendix B. Industrial
sources are often subdivided into three categories: noncontact
cooling water and storm drainage; process water and wastewater;
and combined cooling and wastewater. Review of the data from
monitored noncontact cooling water dischargers revealed frequent
contamination of noncontact cooling water; therefore, it ap-
peared inappropriate to distinguish between types of industrial
dischargers in Figure 4-1 or in the rest of this report
because doing so could lead to the misinterpretation that
certain industrial discharges (e.g., noncontact cooling water)
result in lower mass loading.
Rivers and Streams
Several large rivers and numerous small streams drain
neighboring lands and flow into the study area. Rivers and
34

-------
AK26
.tl.l'I.ZO
BELLHwHAM
3,J, 11,13
8ELUN6HAM
ORCAS
ISLAND
JUAN DE WCA
STRAIT OF
PORT ANGELES
LEGEND —
ndustbial discharge
O MUNICIPAL DiSCH&RGE
(V0OE MARINE MONITORING STATIONS
~ WOOE RIVER MONITORING
i? P S*3
ID o 1 Oi
TJ tj Tj
QJ uj M-l *0
O -HO)
U 0
CX O Qj C
U (0
W u
W fl D U
Q -P O
P* W CO
z
q\+j
C C z
SHELTO
A- Kl, Kt-IO,KIJ,K)S-/S
KZl-2¥,K2.7-ZB,K3l-JZ.
X3V-J7.KW-W
r5 3T0LYMPIA

-------
streams contribute pollutants resulting from anthropogenic and
natural sources. For the purposes of this report, these rivers
and streams are considered point sources, even though numerous
point and nonpoint sources may discharge into the river upstream
of the study area. The location of the river discharge as a
point source to Puget Sound corresponds to the water monitoring
station located nearest the mouth. Figure 4-1 identifies the
monitored rivers and appropriate locations of water monitoring
stations. Table 4-1 lists the water quality data obtained from
these monitoring stations since 1977. A listing of riverine
sources to Puget Sound and the study area is found in Appendix
C. Common names are included in Appendix C if available;
unnamed streams are numbered with the WDF stream number
(Williams et al. 1975).
Combined Sewer Overflows
Several municipal wastewater treatment plants with combined
stormwater and wastewater systems occasionally experience over-
flows. These combined sewer overflows (CSO) are often nonper-
mitted point sources of pollution that do not discharge except
when treatment plant capacity is exceeded. Periods of discharge
of untreated effluent normally correspond with storm events.
Table 4-2 lists the cities in the study area which have combined
storm and sewer systems, and therefore are likely to experience
CSOs.
Surface Runoff
Precipitation falling on and flowing over surrounding lands
conveys potential pollutants into Puget Sound. Urbanized areas
collect runoff via stormwater drainage systems and discharge
into local streams, the wastewater treatment system, or directly
into Puget Sound. Runoff into local streams is included in the
mass loading discharge to the Sound from streams and rivers.
Runoff entering the wastewater treatment system is covered by
the NPDES permit. Storm drains discharging directly into
Puget Sound are normally point sources not covered by the NPDES
permit system. The exact number of storm drainage discharges
has not been determined. Surface drainage, including agricul-
tural runoff, is a nonpoint pollution source discharge to Puget
Sound, and it is exceedingly difficult to quantify. Although
pollutant contributions of direct surface runoff are probably
negligible relative to that carried by storm drain systems,
there may be cases (e.g., areas containing hazardous materials
dumps, old manufacturing plants, and auto wrecking yards), that
have significant adverse effects.
36

-------
Table 4-1. Discharge and Water Quality Characteristics of Major Tributaries to Paget Sound*
u>
River
c
•3
in
'S
"8 8
¦a §
si
Qu U»
a>
&
f
u
ui a> o
VW > r-4
o < b*
&
IS
UJ 1)
D ^
£ ~u
Eh <0
S a
•H 0)
0)
§
+J
r3

0)
o>
8
a>
CP
§
u
a:
a
o o
14-1 —t
*H "v-»
-H	
a.
cn	q
3	fij
CO ^
O
2 0)
+ tr
Nook sack
Femdalea
1966-1980
3,909
2,832
3,493
2.0-17.5
9.1-13.2
6.4-8.4
se-eso13
16-280b
.08-1.32
Samish
Burlington
1943-1971
243
176
217
0.4-19.8
9.0-13.8
6.7-8.5
19-870b
2-100b
.64-2.68
Skagit
Mt. Vernon
1940-1980
16,670
12,080
14,901
3.6-19.1
9.7-12.7
6.3-8.4
2-230
6-661
.04-0.38
Q
Stillaguamish
	
	
3,243°
2,350
2,899
0-20.3
8.2-14.6
6.1-7.6
—
	
.09-1.39
Snohomish
d
Monroe
1963-1980
9,855
7,140
8,807
0.1-21.6
8.1-13.2
6.1-8.7
23-3,000e
2-130b
0-0.73
L. Wash. £
Ship Canal
	
	
1,343
973
1,200
	
	
	
	
	
	
Duwamish
Tukwillaq
1963-1980
1,551
1,124
1,386
6.3-19.8
9.2h
7.15h
40-1,000
8-150
1.17h
Puyallup
Puyallup
1914-1980
3,368
2,440
3,010
2.0-18.6
9.1-13.0
5.9-7.8
0-1,300
3-1,030
.01-0.61
Nisqualiy
McKenna1
1949-1980
1,825
1,322
1,631
3.9-15.3
9.1-12.8
6.8-7.9
7-200b
2-18b
.06-0.84
Deschutes
Rainier^
1950-1975
270
196
241
3.0-22.1
9.3-13.7
6.8-8.3
0-1,000K
	
.12-0.93
Skdkomish
Potlatch^
1977-1980
951
689
850
5.4-12.2
9.1-12.6
6.5-7.7
1-94
	
0-0.21
Elwha
McDonald.
Bridge1
1898-1901
1919-1980
1,506
1,091
1,346
1.2-15.3
9.6-13.4
6.6-8.3
<1-180
1-94
0-0.33
5|	o	i	i
•h ¦§. 8>	'3 j?	! &	'g &	a>	^ j?	a!	'3	ft
S8&	85	-§5	15	85	15 H5	-85	^5	£5
pfi p	U ty	roc*	«Str>	o en	qj el tji	-hct>	^ tr>	^ -5 Tti
River e Q«n	< *	U X	0 X	u X	m x g £	2 £	$ j?	j? n j?
k	-11 ^	-7 nn	kc'1					744^
Nook sack	.01-.26 	 	 			 			 							
Samish	0-.17 	 	 			 			 							
Skagit	0-.25	71	68	245	499	490	4.0 		0	109	811
3tillaguairishc	0-.60	—
Snohomish	0-.08 		21u	4l"	34"	31°	7.0"	1451
L. Wash. f		 	 	 		5	5			3					14
Ship Canal
Duwamish	-22 	 		6°	29°	5°			35°					135c
Puyallup	.01-1.5	16P	8P	58p	66p	91P	0.7P	12b	0P	0P	173E
Nisqualiy	.01-.24	4q	4m	18m	9™	9m	0.05q	26	iq	0q	45^
Deschutes	0~ • 	 		—		 			 						—
Skokatnish	0-.17 	 	 			 			 							
Klfcha	0-.09	4	4	7	33	44	0.1	2	0	4	92
*A11 metal loading values based on dissolved plus suspended loads, except for the Nisqualiy River, which are based on dissolved load only. All

-------
Table 4-1. Cont'd.
NOTES:Massloading of heavy metals is average kg/d. Unless
otherwise footnoted, flow and water quality measurements
were taken at the same spot, and water quality data are
for the period 10/76-9/81.
a = Water quality data taken at Brennan, approximately
4.0 km downstream of Ferndale.
b = 10/80-9/81 only.
c = Flow data summed for the following major tributaries:
North Fork Stillaguamish at Arlington, 1928-1980;
South Fork Stillaguamish at Granite Palls, 1928-1980;
Pilchuck Creek at Bryant, 1930, 1931, 1951, 1953-1975.
Water quality data taken at Silvana, downstream from
the above gages.
d = Flow data taken at Monroe, above the confluence of the
Pilchuck River; no flow averages exist for Pilchuck
River.
e = 10/76-9/77 and 10/80-9/81 only.
f = Curl (1982).
g = Water quality data taken at Allentown Bridge,
approximately 6.8 km downstream from Tukwilla. Water
quality data for 7/80-9/81 only.
h = Averages for 7/80-9/81.
i = Water quality data taken at Nisqually, approximately
29 km downstream from McKenna. Water quality data do
not include the 10/76-9/77 period.
j = Water quality data taken at Tumwater, approximately
37 km downstream from Rainier. Water quality data do
not include the 10/80-9/81 period.
k = 10/76-9/77 only.
1 = Water quality data do not include the 10/76-9/77 and
10/80-9/81 periods.
m = Water quality data do not include the 10/76-9/77
period.
n - 1971 and 1974 only.
o = 7/80-9/81 only.
p = 10/78-5/81 only.
q = 10/77-9/80 only.
38

-------
Table 4-2. Cities in the Study Area With Combined Storm and
Wastewater Sewers Draining Directly into Marine Waters
City
Marine Receiving Water for CSOs
Anacortes
Bellingham
Blaine
Bremerton
Everett
Marysville
Seattle Metropolitan Area
Olynpia
Port Angeles
Guemes Channel and Fidalgo Bay
Bellingham Bay
Drayton Harbor (Strait of Georgia)
Sinclair Inlet
Port Gardner (Whidbey Basin)
Possession Sound (Whidbey Basin)
Elliott Bay and Central Basin
Budd Inlet (Southern Puget Sound)
Port Angeles Harbor (Strait of
Georgia)
39

-------
Atmospheric Sources
Pollution loading to Puget Sound from the atmosphere occurs
by one of three processes: gaseous exchange, dry fall, and wet
fall. Gaseous exchange leads to the equilibration of a sub-
stance between air and water. The distribution between air and
water compartments is a function of the vapor pressure and the
water concentration of the substance; flux of a pollutant into
Puget Sound occurs when the vapor pressure is greater than the
equivalent dissolved concentration in the water. Dry fall is
the deposition of particulate matter primarily due to gravity.
The sources of the particulate matter can be natural or anthro-
pogenic. The term wet fall applies to the flux of pollutants in
both dissolved and particulate form in precipitation falling
directly into Puget Sound. Both dry and wet fall on adjacent
lands may be transported to Puget Sound in surface runoff.
Erosion
Wave and tidal action cause continuous erosion of the
coastal lands of Puget Sound. Rivers transport materials eroded
from the watershed and are included in the riverine pollutant
loading. Shoreline erosion along Puget Sound is a nonpoint
source of pollutants. The soils contain natural pollutants
(mostly particulates, metals, and nutrients), but also some
anthropogenic pollutants that contribute to the mass loading.
Dredging and Filling
Dredging or filling activities constitute pollutant sources
when dredge spoils or fill material from outside the study area
are deposited in Puget Sound. Dredging and disposal within
Puget Sound does not create additional loadings to the Sound as
a whole, but may remobilize pollutants or redistribute pollu-
tants between subareas of Puget Sound. Dredging and spoils
disposal are important factors in pollutant distribution,
availability, and fate. Furthermore, dredging and fill opera-
tions may alter habitat directly or through changing current
patterns, which may have a significant impact on the dis-
tribution and fate of pollutants.
Water Circulation (Advection)
Movement of materials from one water mass to another
because of water circulation is referred to as advection.
Waters flowing into Puget Sound from the Straits of Juan de Fuca
and Georgia transport pollutants which add to the pollutant
loading. Water and pollutant circulation within Puget Sound
does not add to the pollutant loading of Puget Sound as a whole,
but is of concern during the study of smaller water masses
within Puget Sound.
40

-------
Other Categories of Sources
Other pollution sources include but are not limited to
spills, groundwater movement into Puget Sound, navigational
activities, recreational activities, natural biological inputs
from resident fish and wildlife, and random illegal discharges.
Mass loading from these sources is unpredictable or exceedingly
difficult to quantify.
Point Source vs. Nonpoint Source Pollution
Nonpoint source pollution is gaining nationwide prominence
in water quality issues as point source pollution is brought
under control through the NPDES program. This trend is also
observed in Washington. Twenty-six of the Water Resource
Inventory Area (WRIA) segments in western Washington fail to
meet water quality goals because of point or nonpoint source
problems (WDOE 1983) . Of these, 73 percent are affected
predominately by nonpoint sources. Most segments affected by
point source problems are located in the Puget Sound vicinity.
These include inner Commencement Bay to Puyallup River Mile 1,
Commencement Bay, Port Gardner and inner Everett Harbor, and the
Duwamish Waterway and River, although a recent study by
Harper-Owes (1983) suggests that this latter segment experiences
greater pollutant loading from nonpoint sources. Segments
classified as failing to meet water quality goals due to
nonpoint sources include Elliott Bay. Budd Inlet is classified
as a segment in which water quality goals are not attainable due
to natural or irreversible causes.
Extent and Nature of Mass Loading Data
Sources of Mass Loading Data
Mass loading data have been collected by different people
and organizations for many different reasons; therefore, it is
not surprising to note that mass loading data described below
are incomplete or rarely consistent. Sampling methodology,
spatio-temporal distribution of sampling effort, presentation of
the results and data storage format are as diverse as the
agencies and purposes for obtaining these data.
WDOE NPDES Permit Application Files. WDOE maintains in the
Lacey headquarters office a complete File of the NPDES permits
issued in Washington. The Redmond and Tumwater regional WDOE
offices also have files on dischargers in their respective
regions. The files are kept alphabetically by county and city
and are open to the public. A permit file normally contains a
copy of the permit, the permit application, correspondence
related to the permit, and old permits. Information on the
permit which is applicable to mass loading includes location of
41

-------
the discharge, type of discharger, character of the discharge,
limits placed on the discharge, and monitoring requirements.
The permit application may contain limited information on the
chemical composition of the discharge, but in most cases is
outdated. This information is useful but requires significant
time to extract the data.
NPDES Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMR). DMRs are period-
ic reports required by the NPDES permits. These reports are
located at the appropriate regional WDOE office and are also
kept alphabetically by county and city. These files are open to
the public. The frequency of submittal of these reports is
stated in the permit requirement. Monthly, quarterly, and
annual reports are common. The reports contain information
required in the permit conditions. The DMR files are often
incomplete due to missing reports (not submitted or lost). In
some cases the permittee's monitoring requirements are not
fulfilled in the DMR.
WDOE Industrial Discharger Files. WDOE maintains files in
Lacey on a group of industrial dischargers including pulp mills,
oil refineries, and smelters. These files are open to the
public and are kept alphabetically. Included in these files are
NPDES renewal applications with effluent discharge data, DMRs,
and inspection results. The files tend to be up-to-date and
complete.
River Monitoring Reports. The WDOE regional office in
Tumwater has recorded on computer files the results of the river
monitoring program. A complete listing of the data base for
Washington has recently been printed and is available for review
at the Tumwater office. Computer access is also a possibility.
Several rivers are monitored on a regular basis for a variety of
parameters which can include:
o Hydrological data
o Conventional parameters
o Extended conventional parameters
o Heavy metals
o Other metals and salts
o Pesticides
The data are summarized annually and cumulatively and,
until recently, were published as part of the USGS Water Re-
sources Data Summaries for Washington (USGS 1978). Only major
rivers are included in the monitoring program and no information
is collected regularly on the numerous small streams. The
monitoring stations are sometimes located several miles upstream
from the river mouth.
NPDES Inspections, Clasa II. WDOE conducts permit compli-
ance inspections of NPDES-permitted dischargers. As discussed in
Chapter 2, four classes of compliance inspections exist. A
42

-------
Class II inspection analyzes effluent samples, and these results
are available at WDOE regional office at Tumwater. The annual
State/EPA Agreement lists the NPDES-permitted dischargers which
are to be inspected in the agreement year. The analysis per-
formed varies but can include parameters not included on the
permit. Receiving water quality data may also be gathered
concurrently and included in the inspection report.
EPA Permit Compliance Files. EPA has a computer file of
data gathered for evaluating permit compliance of the major
dischargers. A computer printout can be obtained from the
Seattle EPA office. DMRs are the original information source
for this file. The data include permit conditions and actual
reported measurements. Several dischargers are not included in
the file, even though they are indicated as major dischargers in
WDOE files.
Metro Treatment Plant Monitoring Records. Metro conducts
monitoring programs on the outfalls for its five wastewater
treatment plants. These monitoring results are often presented
in report documents which are distributed to several libraries.
The information presented varies as a function of the original
purpose of the monitoring program.
Metro River Monitoring Data. WDOE has delegated to Metro
the monitoring program for the rivers within Metro's service
area. The data are stored on computer files and are available
from Metro. Some documents have been prepared from the data and
are available at most agency and certain local libraries. The
data collected are very similar to the data collected by WDOE
outside of the Metro service area.
Metro CSO Monitoring Data. Metro has collected flow
measurements through computer monitoring of the CSOs in its
system. A report (Metro 1980) was produced which covers mainly
CSO input to Lake Washington, but it also includes one Puget
Sound CSO at Denny Way. Data collected on a regular basis are
mainly concerned with discharge rates.
Metro Urban Runoff Data. Metro, the City of Bellevue, the
USGS, and the University of Washington are currently involved in
a national urban runoff program. Program reports from Bellevue
and USGS are not available at this time. Metro's report (Galvin
and Moore, 1982) was reviewed as part of this study. Metro's
role in the program was to identify priority pollutants and
other toxicants in urban runoff and other nonpoint sources, and
evaluate best management practices (BMPs) for their control.
Analysis of runoff from two Bellevue sites was a major portion
of this project.
NOAA Ocean Water Quality Data. NOAA, through its MESA
progrliiFJ has collected a significant amount of information on
Puget Sound. Reports have been distributed to several local and
agency libraries. Most of these data address issues other than
43

-------
mass loading. The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and
Information Service (NESDIS) maintains computerized files of
marine water quality data collected by various researchers. The
data are contributed on a voluntary basis and comprise a global
network of water quality monitoring stations. Water quality
data gathered outside of the study area may be used in estimat-
ing the pollutant loading resulting from advection between the
Pacific Ocean, the Straits, and Puget Sound.
WDOE Marine Water Monitoring Program. WDOE conducts water
quality monitoring at surface and 10m depths at 44 stations
within the study area (Figure 4-1) on a monthly basis during the
spring, summer, and fall. Marine water is not monitored during
the winter months. The parameters monitored are listed in
Table 4-3. Some variation between stations exists; parameters
analyzed at only a few sites are indicated by parentheses, along
with the number of stations where monitoring of these parameters
occurs. The data are stored in computer files and are kept at
the WDOE regional office in Tumwater. Annual and cumulative
summaries are also included in the data base. The data can be
used for computing the pollutant loading resulting from water
flux from one local water mass to another.
Table 4-3. Parameters Monitored at WODE Marine Stations.
Parameters Monitored at All Stations Unless
Noted in Parentheses
temperature
dissolved oxygen
Secchi disk
fecal coliform
turbidity
salinity
specific conductivity
PH
nitrate
nitrite
ammonia
orthophosphate
total phosphate
sulfite waste liquor (8)
total organic carbon (4)
chlorophyll a (4)
arsenic	(1)
EPA 301(h) Waiver Applications. The CWA allows municipal
wastewater treatment plants that discharge into marine waters to
apply for a waiver from secondary treatment requirements.
Twenty-nine dischargers in the study area have tentatively
applied for the waiver (Table 4-4). The application from major
dischargers must include a section on conventional parameters
and priority pollutant composition of the discharge. The data
collected to comply with this requirement are not readily
accessible to the general public until after a tentative deci-
sion on the application has been made. The data were made
available for this project and have been utilized only to
determine mass loading for subareas within Puget Sound
(Appendix D). This program will yield mass loading data in the
future from those dischargers that are granted the waiver.
44

-------
Table 4-4. Municipal Dischargers in the Study Area Submitting
Section 301
-------
Applicability of the Data Source
Table 4-5 summarizes the general usefulness of the various
categories of data described in the preceding section. Although
the information presented in Table 4-5 will help to expedite a
search for needed mass loading data, it should be noted that
variability occurs within each category, e.g., some 301(h)
waiver applications provide detailed information on priority
pollutants in the effluent, whereas other applications currently
do not. This variation tends to be minimized in the type of
overview presented in Table 4-5. The entries in Table 4-5 are
as follows:
o Pollutant coverage - The groups of pollutants defined in
the introduction to this chapter are used to
characterize the parameters which were measured for the
data base, where:
conv = conventional water quality
ext conv = extended conventional water quality
parameters
pri poll = entire priority pollutant list
h metals = heavy metal pollutants
other = other pollutants measured with descriptive
footnote at bottom of Table 4-5.
o Monitoring frequency - The typical time scale is listed
here: monthly, seasonal, biannual, and annual. If no
period is appropriate for the data base, a descriptive
term is used where appropriate.
o Sample collection - The method of sample collection is
given as "grab", "composite", or "both". A grab sample
is collected at a single instant from the discharge
flow. A composite sample is collected by taking small
samples from the discharge flow over a period of time
and mixing these together to form the sample.
Occasionally both techniques are used.
o Duration of record - For programs that collect data
periodically, an indication is given as to how long the
program has existed. For nonperiodic programs, no
indication is given.
o Station location - The location of data collection is
given as a subarea if limited to a geographical region.
o Data format - The data may be in raw form in files, in
computer files, or in draft or published reports. This
descriptor characterizes how readily the quantitative
data may be accessed and incorporated into mass loading
calculations.
o Consideration of transport and fate processes - This
entry notes whether data were collected on the
subsequent transport or fate of the pollutants in the
effluent.
o Applicability - The usefulness of the data base for mass
loading information is noted.
46

-------
Table 4-5. Characterization of Various Sources of Mass Loading Data for Puget Sound
A w
« m
CQ U
o
ffl 4->
H
nj u
Q L>
0
0,
s
CO
S '
0	Q>
U»CS
1	?
a *3
Q B
cfl t
CU -H w
a c jj
sfig.
• CJ 0)
tr> a
5-6-5
fen M
O
Q -U
a
Ui
W)	c
W	O
nj	h
'—I	4-J
n
CO 0
w o
P Q
5? - S
cu O 0
h3 Oi U
o
d) jj
¦5 2
bJ o
Q *->
S '"3
JLS_
A
Pollutant
coverage
Monitoring
frequency
Duration of
record
Sample
collection
location of
stations
Data format
Consideration
of transport
and fate pro-
cesses
Applicability
Conv.
Once
Composite and
grab
At discharge
point
Raw in files
No
Locations, dis-
charger charac-
teristics, very
little pollutant
data
Conv.
Monthly
Since issuance
of permit
Composite and
grab
At discharge
point
Raw in files
No
Good for conv.
loadings, sore
individual OMRs
are more informa-
tive
Conv,
Ext. conv.
Monthly
Since issuance
of permit
Canposite
At discharge
point
Raw in files
No
Good for conv.
loadings and
ext. conv., sane
coverage of h.
ratals
Conv.
Ext. conv.
Pri. poll.
Other*
Once
Ccrrposite
At discharge
point
Filed on EPA
Form 3510-2C
Good for pollu-
tants covered
Conv.
(Pri. poll for
Commencement
Bay)
As designated
in state/EPA
agreement
Composite and
grab
At discharge
point, (soue
ambient near
discharge)
Inspection
reports
No (yes for
Carpencement
Bay)
Often contains
more information
than required
on NPDES permit
Conv.
(NPDES DMR
information)
Monthly
Since issuance
of permit
Ccrposite and
grab
At discharge
point
Computer files,
not all NPDES
dischargers in-
cluded
No
No new informa-
tion but does
computerize dis-
charges
Conv.
Ext. conv.
Monthly for
nonu'inter
season
Several years
Grab
Mid-channel
Puget Sound
Conputer files,
with annual
computerized
suirmaries
Useful for cal-
culating advec-
tion between
water masses
* As listed cn EPA Form 3510-2C

-------
Table 4-5. Cont'd.
$¦
 *4
<1 U
Q V
u
g-a
2 o
4i
1*3 -H
§i
I!
si
as
4J
§
H
£U
0>
s-5
~ VI
3
03 '>H
Q> C
zr
S__
a?
ud
oS
V2
£2

i ^
o
u
Q
+-> *
rj *
CO 4J
^ H
^ D to >—*
< r/3 /TJ
JiLBS
¦err
c
2 -S
— u
O U
rn H
I- %
< c.
JiJl
lollutant
coverage
Monitoring
frequency
Duration of
record
Sanq?le
collection
location of
stations
Gonv.
Ext. ocmv.
H. metals
Other
Monthly, seme
oily once
Several years
Grab
Near large river
noaths
Conv.
Ext. conv.
Monthly
Several years
Grab
Metro service
area
Conv.
Ext. conv.
Pri. poll.
(Flow only)
(Conv. h. metals
for Denny Way)
Composite
Metro treatment
plants
Metro service
area
Conv.
Ext. oonv.
Pri. poll.
Storm events
during study
period
Oct 75-Dec 76
Oct 80-Jan 82
CCTrposite
Seattle Metro-
politan area
Highly variable
Highly variable
Kighly variable
Puget Sound and
Straits
Conv.
Pri. poll.
Once***
Cdrposite
Municipal dis-
charge points
Data format
Consideration
of transport
and fate pro-
cesses
Applicability
Gcnputer files,
with annual com-
puterized sumnaries
No
Good for pollu-
tant loading
from large
rivers
Computer files
No
Good for pollu-
tant loading
from rivers in
Metro service
area
Good data for
West Point dis-
charge
Very little
data
Published and
draft reports
Yes
Good for Elliott
Bay, could be
applied to Puget
Sound
Data fran many
investigators
stored in com-
puter files
No
Useful for cal-
culating advec-
tion between
water nasses
Waiver appli-
cation
No
Pri. poll, data,
limited to only
a few municipal
dischargers
**Data contributed by various research projects and submitted to NESDIS for ccnputer filing.
***Wet and dry season for larger dischargers.

-------
Summary of Available Mass Loading Values
One of the objectives of this report, as described in
Chapter 1, is to describe what is known about mass loading of
pollutants to Puget Sound. This task is needed to initiate the
process of linking pollutant loading to adverse impacts on
beneficial uses. Based on the preceding review of the data
base, it is readily apparent that the data base is incomplete
and that certain loading sources are more poorly documented than
others.
Matrices that summarize the availability of information for
each type of loading source in various subareas of Puget Sound
were developed. These matrices summarize how much is currently
known about mass loading of certain pollutants from the desig-
nated sources. The ratings do not indicate whether the pollu-
tant is found discharging into the water body. The qualitative
ratings of mass loading data by source for various areas of
Puget Sound are presented in Tables 4-6 to 4-18. The ratings
are heavily dependent on the ratio between the number of
dischargers with mass loading data and the total number of
dischargers in the specific area, and the ratio between the
volume of discharge providing mass loading data and the total
volume of the discharge in the specific area. The quality of
mass loading data is not a major consideration in the rating.
Each table rates the mass loading data available for each
pollutant (or pollutant group) by source for a specific area.
The study area is segregated by region and subarea (Figure 1-2).
The subareas were selected as localized water bodies in which
separate mass loading values would be of use to water quality
managers. Although these subareas are located in certain
regions of Puget Sound, the ratings for the subareas are not
included in the ratings for the region. To present the
information in an efficient manner, without significant loss of
detail, the pollutants have been grouped where possible. Five
rating categories were developed: excellent, good, fair, poor,
and no rating. If no data exist, no rating is provided in the
tables. Hyphens are used to identify cases in which data are
not needed.
The table for Central Puget Sound (Table 4-6) has an
additional column for Metro's West Point treatment plant due to
the sheer volume discharged from this point source. A yes or no
is given if the pollutant has or has not been looked for in the
effluent. Several studies concerning mass loading to Central
Puget Sound are ongoing and may provide information to update
this table and the Elliott Bay table (Table 4-8) in the near
future.
Actual values of known mass loadings to Puget Sound are
found in Appendix D. Because of the quality of the data base
for these calculated values, it is imperative that the reader
note that these values are at best tentative. Several studies
49

-------
are underway which may allow recalculation of values for the
Central Basin in the near future.
Summary
Mass loading data provide part of the basis for decision
making, but impacts of a discharge (or its removal) can only be
determined when the contribution of the discharge is viewed with
respect to the cumulative discharges and processes affecting the
receiving water mass. Pollution sources may be natural, anthro-
pogenic or, in the case of river input, a mixture of both. The
sources are controllable to varying degrees but, until recently,
focus has generally been placed on control of anthropogenic
point sources. It is important not only to quantify the rela-
tive loading of a source, but also to determine the relative
degree of control which can be exerted over it so that cleanup
efforts can be focused on sources for which it is most cost-
effective .
Major sources of pollutant loading include NPDES-permitted
discharges, combined sewer overflows, stormwater runoff, atmo-
spheric fallout, dredge-and-fill activities, rivers and streams,
advection, and erosion. Available sources of mass loading data
and the quality of the data are assessed for the major areas of
Puget Sound. Data are available primarily for point sources,
because they are controlled by permits and require discharge
monitoring. Conventional and extended conventional water
quality parameters comprise the bulk of the available data; with
the exception of heavy metals, information on most of the
priority pollutants is often limited to a few analyses. Infor-
mation on other toxicants which are not considered of sufficient
national priority to be listed as EPA priority pollutants (e.g.,
CBDs) is almost nonexistent.
Loading for nonpoint sources is not documented, partly
because nonpoint discharges are not permitted sources, but
primarily because their diffuse nature does not easily lend
itself to source identification and/or monitoring. Estimates of
mass loading for a few pollutants have been made for such
nonpoint sources as erosion and atmospheric input, but the
estimated inputs vary widely by researcher, depending on the
assumptions used. The relative contribution of nonpoint pol-
lution sources to Puget Sound is expected to increase as permit
programs bring point source discharges increasingly into compli-
ance with water quality standards and objectives.
In general, mass loading data for Puget Sound are not
readily available. Municipal dischargers have been most exten-
sively studied, but the data are often limited to conventional
water quality parameters.
50

-------
Source/Pollutant
Table 4-6. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for
Sources Discharging into Central Puget Sound*
u	S
, H w	5	4J
s -a b	3 -S
•a iJ 8^ -a	8 A £
q eg njuHM ui	-h HP
•h jj ^ O Q) q	to SO+j
i j	a_ n_ j	1	j_ is in
PRIORITY POLLUTANTS
Antimony

Fair
Poor



Yes
Arsenic

Poor
Poor

Good

Yes
Asbestos

Fair
Poor



Yes
Beryl1ium

Fair
Poor



Yes
Cadmium

Fair
Fair



Yes
Chromium

Fair
Fair



Yes
Copper

Fair
Fair
Poor
Good
Good
Yes
Cyanide

Fair
Fair



Yes
Lead

Fair
Poor
Poor
Good
Good
Yes
Mercury

Fair
Poor



Yes
Nickel

Fair
Fair
Poor


Yes
Selenium

Poor
Poor



Yes
Silver

Poor
Poor



Yes
Thallium

Poor
Poor



Yes
Zinc

Fair
Fair
Poor
Good
Good
Yes
Pesticides,
PCBs & related
Fair
Poor



Yes
compounds







Halogenated
aliphatic hydro-
Fair
Poor



Yes
carbons







Halogenated
ethers
Fair
Poor



Yes
Monocyclic aromatics
Fair
Poor



Yes
Pthalate esters
Fair
Poor



Yes
Polycyclic aromatic hydro-
Fair
Poor



Yes
carbons







Nitrosamines
and misc.
Fair
Poor



Yes
compounds







EXTENDED CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS






Flow

Excel.
Good
Poor
_ —

Yes
BOD

Excel.
Fair



Yes
COD

Poor
Poor



No
Total solids

Poor
Poor



No
TNVS

Poor
Poor



No
TSS

Excel.
Fair



Yes
TNVSS

Poor
Poor



No
Total nitrogen
Poor
Poor



No
Total phosphorus
Poor
Poor



No
Oils and grease

Fair



No
PH

Excel.
Excel.



Yes
Fecal coliform
Excel.
Fair



Yes
* Several loading studies are in progress. Metro TPPS will provide additional data. Data
for local embayments (Elliott Bay, Commencement Bay, Sinclair Inlet) are not included.
51

-------
Table 4-7. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for	c
Sources Discharging into Commencement Bay	.3
o
•H
4J

-------
Table 4-8. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into Elliott Bay*
£
•9
•H
a
U)

-------
Table 4-9. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for	c
Sources Discharging into Sinclair Inlet	.8
4->
rd
•H
3
a.
* § §!
Source/Pollutant	1	l	§	lis
r
-------
Table 4-10. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into Southern Puget Sound *
o	c
h	-h	o
s	a
<1)	X	c «s
_ ^ o	a	o -h
o W * M	w	-H MP
- ~ " ¦ o Q>	Q	w 
-------
Table 4-11. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into Budd Inlet
Source/Pollutant
V)
I
c
PRIORITY POLLUTANTS
Antimony
Arsenic
Poor
Asbestos
Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Cyanide
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Thallium
Zinc
Pesticides, PCBs & related
compounds
Halogenated aliphatic hydro-
carbons
Halogenated ethers
Monocyclic aromatics
Phthalate esters
Polycyclic aromatic hydro-
carbons
Nitrosamines & Misc.
compounds
EXTENDED CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS
Flow	Excel.	Good
BOD	Good
COD	Good
Total solids
TNVS
TSS	Excel.
TNVSS
Total nitrogen
Total phosphorus
Good
Good
Good
Good
Oils & grease
PH
Good
Good
Good
Good
Fecal coliform
56

-------
Table 4-12. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into Whidbey Basin*
i
Source/Pollutant

-------
Table 4-13. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into Port Gardner
<—4 <0	-H
lb	8 w I S 3
o a	a ^ u
\ "S	B s s -t4
Source/Pollutant £ >5	
-------
Table 4-14. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into the Strait of Georgia*
a
.a
c
h "	il	o ^	a.	o
p	tn	u-|	^	m	-h	u
¦H
Source/Pollutant	J	S	ci	il	H	ll	^
PRIORITY POLLUTANTS
Antimony
Arsenic
Asbestos
Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Cyanide
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Thallium
Zinc
Pesticides, PCBs & related
compounds
Halogenated aliphatic hydro-
carbons
Halogenated ethers
Monocyclic aromatics
Pthalate esters
Polycyclic aromatic hydro-
carbons
Nitrosamines & misc.
compounds
EXTENDED CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS
Flow
BOD
COD
Total solids
TNVS
TSS
TNVSS
Total nitrogen
Total phosphorus
Oils & grease
PH
Fecal coliform
Excel.
Excel.
Excel.
Excel.
Excel.
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Excel.
Good
Good
Excel,
Good
Fair
Good
Excel.
Good
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
* Data for Port Angeles Harbor not included.
59

-------
Table 4-15. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into Port Angeles Harbor
o
9	S
"H	.3
C	nl
a!
i 3 i $
Source/Pollutant	^	^	^	3 M	£	<:	5	£ 'u
PRIORITY POLLUTANTS
Antimony
Arsenic
Asbestos
Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Cyanide
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Thallium
Zinc
Pesticides, PCBs & related
compounds
Halogenated aliphatic hydro-
carbons
Halogenated ethers
Monocyclic aromatics
Pthalate esters
Polycyclic aromatic hydro-
carbons
Nitrosamines & misc.
compounds
EXTENDED CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
Flow
BOD
COD
Total solids
TNVS
TSS
TNVSS
Total nitrogen
Total phosphorus
Oils & grease
pH
Fecal coliform
Excel.
Good
Good
Excel,
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
60

-------
Table 4-16. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into the Waters near Anacortes
&
•H
a

Source/Pollutant
u
i
a
w
1
I
2 §
u u
S'6
PRIORITY POLLUTANTS
Antimony
Fair
Good
-
Arsenic
Fair
Good
-
Asbestos
None

-
Beryllium
Fair
Good
-
Cadmium
Excel.
Good
-
Chromium
Excel.
Good
-
Copper
Excel.
Good
-
Cyanide
Excel.
Good
-
Lead
Excel.
Good
-
Mercury
Excel.
Good
-
Nickel
Excel.
Good
-
Selenium
Excel.
Good
-
Silver
Excel.
Good
-
Thallium
Excel.
Good
-
Zinc
Excel.
Good
-
Pesticides, PCBs & related
Good
Fair
-
compounds



Halogenated aliphatic hydro-
Excel.
Fair
-
carbons



Halogenated ethers
Excel.
Fair
-
Monocyclic aromatics
Excel.
Fair
-
Pthalate esters
Excel.
Fair
-
Polycyclic aromatic hydro-
Excel.
Fair
-
carbons



Nitrosarnines & misc.
Excel.
Fair
-
compounds



EXTENDED CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS



Flow
Excel.
Good
-
BOD
Excel.
Good
-
COD

Good
-
Total solids

Good
-
TNVS


-
TSS
Exoel.
Good
-
TNVSS


-
Total nitrogen


-
Total phosphorus


-
Oils & grease


—
pH
Fair
Good
-
Fecal coliform
Excel.
Good
-
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
61

-------
Table 4-17. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into Bellingham Bay
3	I
§	%
e 3	$ i
Source/Pollutant ^ fl! il a! § i§	3e b
PRIORITY POLLUTANTS
Antimony
Arsenic
Asbestos
Beryllium
Cadmium
Chromium-
Copper
Cyanide
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Silver
Thallium
Zinc
Pesticides, PCBs & related
compounds
Halogenated aliphatic hydro-
carbons
Halogenated ethers
Monocyclic aromatics
Pthalate esters
Polycyclic aromatic hydro-
carbons
Nitrosamines & misc.
compounds
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Poor
Poor
Poor
Poor
EXTENDED CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANTS
Flow
BOD
COD
Total solids
TNVS
TSS
TNVSS
Total nitrogen
Total phosphorus
Oils & grease
PH
Fecal coliform
Excel.
Excel.
Excel.
Excel.
Excel,
Good
Good
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Fair
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
Good
62

-------
Table 4-18. Availability of Toxicant Loading Data for Sources
Discharging into Hood Canal
&
u	c
1	h	-9
-Jh"	iJ	0
0)
O	W	Iti in
¦H	_3	*	4-1 0
Source/Pollutant	3	S	8	5 S	2
SI-
s


0

H
•H

d
U)

-------
64

-------
Chapter 5
CIRCULATION AND DISPERSION MODELS
Introduction
The purpose of this section is to identify, describe, and
evaluate existing and ongoing circulation and water quality
modeling studies of Puget Sound. An evaluation of other model-
ing studies outside of Puget Sound is also presented. The model
evaluations are directed toward assessing the appropriateness of
existing models to meet EPA's objectives of quantifying the
waste assimilative capacity of Puget Sound and developing
meaningful waste management strategies. Circulation and dis-
persion models play a major role in identifying and describing
the processes by which pollutants are distributed in Puget
Sound.
EPA requires model formulations and methodologies to
evaluate the fate of pollutants within the region. These
formulations must be capable of predicting pollutant concen-
trations which vary spatially and with time. The pollutant
classes of primary importance during a discussion of transport
and fate processes are:
1.	Conservative pollutants - Substances that do not break
down or change form; i.e., mass is conserved (example:
salinity). Changes in concentration occur by dilution,
mixing, transport, and boundary exchange.
2.	Nonconservative pollutants - Pollutants that are
consumed or produced as a result of physical, chemical,
or biological processes (example: ammonia).
Pollutants in this class include particles
that can settle or position themselves in the water
column. Particulates have the ability to absorb other
pollutants, acting as a sink for these substances in
the upper layers while accumulating them in the
sediments. Toxic organic pollutants act as
nonconservative substances and their concentrations
vary as functions of absorption, evaporation, and
decay.
To effectively predict pollutant distributions within Puget
Sound, the characteristics of the circulation must be known.
Hydrodynamic features such as velocity, flow direction, tidal
dispersion, density distributions, and boundary exchange are
important in determining pollutant concentrations.
65

-------
The remainder of this chapter is divided into five main
sections. The first section presents a discussion of the
various classes of models and factors considered to be of
importance during model reviews. The second section presents
reviews of models that have been developed for Puget Sound and
consists of two parts. The first part summarizes the model
review format, presents an overview of models applied or being
applied in the Puget Sound region, and includes a quick refer-
ence table of the models reviewed. The second part includes
detailed reviews of all existing models and ongoing model
development activities which may be potentially relevant to
EPA's objectives. The model reviews address the models' objec-
tives, status, and transferability, and provide detailed de-
scriptions of formulations and adequacy. The third section
presents reviews of models that have been developed for use
elsewhere but could be readily adapted for use in Puget Sound,
based on a preliminary model review. The fourth section summa-
rizes the evaluation of the applicability of existing models
and/or models under development in meeting EPA's objectives for
circulation and dispersion modeling of Puget Sound. The last
section describes the data needed to adapt, operate, and
calibrate a model for Puget Sound, and explains where many of
the data can be found.
Model Evaluation Criteria
Discussion of Model Characteristics
Models are used to represent real life situations in terms
that can be easily manipulated and repeated as often as neces-
sary. Most of the models discussed in this report use mathemat-
ical formulations to describe the system. Computer programs can
be written to provide solutions to these sets of equations.
Various techniques can be used to approximate solutions to the
representative equations if direct analytical solutions are
unavailable or awkward to process.
For this project, circulation models were reviewed to
determine applicability to Puget Sound. These models predict
the hydrodynamic features of the circulation, which are then
used as input to other formulations that predict the transport
and dispersion of water quality variables. Model
characteristics that must be considered in evaluation include
the following:
o Variables and processes modeled
o Validity of theoretical basis for formulations, i.e.,
assumptions and limitations
o Temporal resolution; i.e., dynamic or steady-state
o Spatial resolution? i.e., grid flexibility and
dimensionality; i.e., 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional treatment
o Previous implementation and verification
66

-------
o Availability and practical use
The features listed above are discussed briefly below.
Variables and Processes Modeled. In general, processes and
variables desired for model representation include hydrodynamic
forces (wind, currents, density field, boundary flow exchange,
dispersion rates) and water quality variables (salinity,
temperature, dissolved oxygen [DO], biochemical oxygen demand
[BOD], nutrients, suspended solids, coliform bacteria, and toxic
contaminants). Models which include these processes are
considered preferentially in the selection procedure.
Theoretical Assumptions and Limitations. The theoretical
basis of the model must be examined for soundness. Stated
assumptions, simplifications, and limitations inherent in the
model development must be evaluated for compatibility with the
test area and physical processes of interest. Forcing functions
incorporated into the model must be the dominant processes that
occur in the prototype. As an example, steady-state mass
balance or diffusion-type models lump the effects of tidal flow
and mixing into an empirical dispersion coefficient. However,
this approach becomes invalid where the detailed circulation is
complex in nature (large eddy formations) and controls the
ultimate fate of discharged pollutants.
Temporal Resolution. Numerical models treat the physical
processes occurring in time either as discrete time steps
(dynamic) or as a constant (steady-state). Furthermore, various
dynamic models can exhibit time steps ranging from a few seconds
to several hours or even days. The approximate time step is
generally a function of both the level of sophistication of the
numerical technique used, and the length of prototype time
desirable for simulation by the model.
Spatial Resolution. The treatment of spatial resolution of
calculated variables is a critical aspect in numerical modeling.
There is a definite trade-off between spatial resolution
required, time step necessitated, and the cost of running the
model. Two major factors to be considered include: 1) grid
flexibility, and 2) relationship of grid spacing to depth and
maximum stable time step. Grid flexibility can be enhanced by
using link node or triangular finite element-type models, where
areas of interest can be refined and noncritical areas can be
more crudely represented. This is also an advantage for models
which require larger node spacings in deeper water to avoid
unacceptably small time steps. More importantly, the level of
sophistication of the numerical integration scheme will
determine the allowable maximum stable time step which, in turn,
determines the end cost of running the computer program. Highly
sophisticated models usually utilize "implicit" integration
schemes, as opposed to "explicit" schemes. The implicit schemes
are usually more stable and allow the time step to be chosen
independently of the grid size and water depth.
67

-------
Dimensionality. Models can generally be classified as
1-dimensional in the longitudinal, 1-dimensional in the
vertical, 2-dimensional in the horizontal, 2-dimensional in the
vertical, or 3-dimensional (or layered). The appropriateness of
the dimensional treatment of each model depends on the dominant
physical processes and geometry of the specific area of
interest. The Puget Sound system is very complex and composed
of large (wide) deep basins and longitudinally-shaped (thin)
deep basins with distinct vertical stratification, as well as
irregularly-shaped shallow basins that are vertically well
mixed. Thus, most existing models are likely to be limited to
only certain portions of Puget Sound. In fact, it may be
necessary to "couple" a number of models in order to represent
the entire system, if that is desired.
Previous Implementation and Verification. Relatively few
numerical models have been rigorously tested on as complex a
system as Puget Sound. Successful model comparison to prototype
field conditions is highly desirable for any model to be used
for predictive purposes. The proper sequence of testing a model
involves initial careful adjustment (calibration) of empirical
coefficients such as bottom friction, boundary exchange,
vertical and horizontal eddy diffusivity, and reaction rates for
nonconservative pollutants. Once adjusted, the model is run or
"verified" for a specific prototype condition without
readjusting the coefficients.
Availability and Practical Use. Many models have been
computerized and are available Ey contacting the appropriate
agency. Required computer capacity for models presented in this
report varies considerably. Certain computer codes may require
modifications for use on available computer resources. Time to
implement the computerization of a model and required computer
capacity should be considered in the final selection.
Summary of Solution Techniques
There are several solution techniques used in circulation
and dispersion model formulations that affect the accuracy,
speed, and data required for solution. Methodologies described
in the models presented herein include:
Mass Balance. An equation describes a balance between all
inputs and all outputs:
In-Out = Change in System
Equations represent a very simplified system.
Partial Differential Equations. The system is represented
by a set of partial differential equations which describe the
change of one variable with respect to other variables and
68

-------
conditions as a function of time. These equations may be solved
directly or by numerical approximations.
Steady-State. These models do not predict the change in
variables with time; rather, these models generate predictions
for an infinite (or long-term) time period for a given set of
constant inputs.
Finite Difference. This method is used to approximate the
solution to a differential equation. The test area is divided
into subareas called a grid and the intersections of the grid
lines are called nodes. Certain known data (boundary condition
values) are used to estimate the initial values for all nodes
within the grid. This method normally employs an orthogonal
grid system and is most appropriate for regularly shaped water
bodies. The grid system is not flexible; however, it is
possible to couple a more detailed "nested" model within a
cruder large-scale model.
Link-node. The test area is represented by a series of
nodes (junctions) and links (channels). A set of 1-dimensional
motion equations is written for the links and a set of
continuity equations is written for the nodes to fully describe
the system. The resulting grid system is extremely flexible in
application; however, the hydrodynamic processes are constrained
to follow the paths of the linked channels, which is not a true
2-dimensional representation.
Finite Element. This method utilizes an alternative
formulation of the differential equations. A corresponding
variational principle is used to express the equations as the
minimization of an integral. The test region or region of
integration is divided into sections called finite elements.
The integral assumes a functional form over the entire element
and the constants that define the region are selected from the
minimization of the integral. Finite element models typically
employ triangular-shaped grids, which allows for high
flexibility in grid application.
Harmonic Decomposition. For periodic motion in an estuary,
the dependent variables in the motion equations may be Fourier
decomposed. Decomposition represents the system by the sum of a
series of sine or cosine waves with frequencies equal to multi-
ples of a fixed frequency.
Physical Model. The physical model is a scaled-down
replica of the waterbody. Dimensional analysis allows the
scaling of all variables to reproduce the relationship between
the variables as in the prototype. Processes occur in the
model as they occur in the prototype with the exception of
stated limitations. Physical models of extremely small scale,
i.e., the existing Puget Sound model, are more qualitative in
nature and can give questionable results for localized
phenomena.
69

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Numerical Approximation Methods. Several methods exist for
approximating solutions to equations that do not have convenient
analytical solutions. Two methods that are used frequently are
the Euler and Runge-Kutta approximations. The Euler approxima-
tion simply evaluates the differential equation at various time
steps starting from an initial known condition. The size of the
time step is very important in this method. The Runge-Kutta
method also evaluates the differential equation at various time
steps but incorporates several other terms in the expression
that estimate the parameter for the next time step. These other
terms use the value at half-time steps to "adjust" the full time
step variable estimation. The Runge-Kutta method approximates
curves much more accurately than the Euler method and larger
time steps can be used to obtain similar results.
Relationships between variables may also be approximated by
a power series. This method uses a sequence of polynomials in
the form of a power series to approximate the solution.
Interpolation between existing data is a method of expand-
ing the data base. Known values at certain points are combined
to generate a corresponding value at a location where data are
unavailable. This procedure usually consists of summing two or
more known values multiplied by weighting factors to obtain a
value for another nearby location. Models that use this method
are commonly called empirical models. Such models are not
normally desirable for predictive purposes because they cannot
readily project under varying prototype conditions in the
absence of appropriate data.
Models Developed for Puget Sound
Model Review Format
The discussion of each model covers the following points:
1.	Name of the model.
2.	Model objectives.
3.	Model description (qualitative).
4.	Model formulation - Important equations, assumptions,
and resolution capabilities are discussed.
5.	Model status - Current stage of model development is
considered. Factors such as implementation,
verification or calibration, data requirements, and
dependence on other models is covered.
6.	Model adequacy - The adequacy of the model formulation
is considered in relation to the model objectives.
Sensitivity with respect to output versus changes in
input is discussed.
7.	Transferability - Factors, such as data availability,
computational requirements, and program accessibility
are assessed in terms of the required time and effort
to implement the model.
70

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8. Applicability - The degree to which the model meets
EPA's objectives in terms of variables and processes
modeled, resolution capability, and general
applicability.
Brief Model Overview
Table 5-1 displays the comparison of all relevant models in
terms of the following model characteristics: variables mod-
eled, solution technique, region modeled, dimensions considered,
resolution capabilities, forcing functions, and field applica-
tion. Figures 5-1 and 5-2 show the areas of Puget Sound that
have been modeled on a regional or subarea basis, respectively.
The models presented in Table 5-1 were all developed to
achieve different objectives and therefore are not directly
comparable. In many cases, certain models can act as supplemen-
tary or complementary methodologies to other models.
To provide a basis for comparison, the capability of each
model to satisfy EPA's objectives was evaluated. The major
emphasis of the evaluation focused on the ability of the models
to accurately represent the hydrodynamic processes in Puget
Sound. Adequate hydrodynamic models are of primary concern
because the ultimate fate and interaction of pollutants dis-
charged from multiple widespread sources is primarily controlled
by the often complex temporal and spatial circulation existing
in the Sound.
Once an acceptable hydrodynamic model is available, the
transport characteristics can be input to models that predict
the dispersion, decay, and interaction of biological and chemi-
cal constituents. In this regard, important factors for consid-
eration include the capability of the models to accurately
describe biological and chemical systems, to predict changes in
conservative and nonconservative constituents, to incorporate
sedimentation processes such as settling and accumulation rates,
and to achieve resolution capacity to adequately detect varia-
tions on local (nearfield) and regional (farfield) levels.
Models evaluated in this section have been divided into
three main groups: nearfield plume models, transport models, and
water quality models. Transport models include those models
which attempt to predict circulation characteristics of Puget
Sound. Water quality models include models that describe
biological and chemical systems and treat the dispersion and
transformation of various constituents.
71

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Table 5-1. A Comparison of Water Quality arid Circulation
Models of Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters
Model Name
and Reference
Model
Type
Variables
Modeled
Area
Modeled
Layered
Grid
Size
forcing
Funclions
Ti«ne
Scale
Computerized
Field
Appl ication
-J
ro
Pollutant Transport
(Stewart I"
preparation)
Similarity Solution lor
Gravitational Circulation
(Winter 1973)
A Water Budget Study
(Frieberlshauser and
Duxbury 1972}
Hew Approach to CDil-
ution of Tidal Notions
(Jawrt And Winter 1978)
Dyneaks of PhytopUnkton
(Winter et al. 1975)
Empirical Model for
Tidal Currents
(Pease I960)
Oceanographic Model
(Barnes et al. 1957)
and
derating Characteristics
of Oceanographlc Model
{Rattray and Lincoln 1955}
Model of Steady State
Salinity
(Farmer and Rattray 1963}
effects of Point-Source
Discharges in Budd Inlet
(Kruger 1979)
Steady State 3-D1nen-
slonal Diffusion Model
(Yearsley 1973)
Ecologic Modeling
{Water Resources
Engineers 1975)
Several Models cort>1ned
Metro Mass Transport
Model
(In preparation)
Puget Sound Circulation
Model
(Cokelet In preparation)
Nutrient Distribution
Mode)
(tfiater and Pearson 1975)
ftarotropic Mixed Tides
(Crean 1978)
Tide! Currents In Strait
of Georgia/Juan de Fuca
(Cr*M In prtpiritlo*}
Meltrtf of 7fd« Ifl fast
. fjmsm 		
Plume nodeI,
semi-empirical
Power series
Mass balance
Harmonic decom-
position
finite element
Finite difference
Interpolation
model
Physical Model
Aereal extent
of pi Line
Velocity -
vertical and
longitudinal,
density distri-
bution
Elliott Bay
<0uwa«f$hj
Stratified
estuaries
2-diaensiQnal Surface layer
2-diaensional Surface layer
horfzontal
Mean flux Into and Puget Sound
out of estuary
Physical
Dissolved oxygen
ao4el
Miss balance
Partial differential
equations, finite
element
ftass balance analyt-
ical aodel
Harmonic decompo-
sition, finite
difference
Conservation of aass
equations
finite difference
Finite difference
Velocity, water
elevation
Chlorophyll •_
Tidal current
Tidal current,
dispersion,
flushing,
salinity
Salinity distri-
bution
Homogeneous
estuaries with
variable depth
Puget Sound
Central Basin
Puget Sound,
N/A
2-diaensional
horizontal
Two layer
N/A
N/A
N/A
Variable
Strait of Juan de horizontal
fuca, Strait of
Georgia
2-d1mens1on«1 Euphotlc zone 0-5 ¦ depth
horizontal (surface layer) increments
2-diaensional Surface layer 1 km square
Puget Sound
Puget Sound
3-dimens1ona1 No
3-dimensional to
Dissolved oxygen Budd Inlet
BOD. DO and sulfite Port Gardner
waste liquor con-
centration
Nutrients, phyto,
zooplankton, BOD,
DO, benthic, fish
Lateral and verti-
cal transport of
Material, accumu-
lation
Tidal heights and
currents
Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Central Basfn
Puget Sound
Central Basin
Nutrient distri-
butions. longitud-
inal velocity, tidal
height, density
Puget Sound
Central Basin
1-dimensional
longitudinal
J-dineftSlona!
1-dimensional,
2-dtmensional,
3-dlmensional
parts
1-dimensional
longftudihal
2-dimensional
horizontal
l-d1«enst(Kial
longitudinal
Velocity
Tidal height,
velocity
Strait of Juan de
Ft»ca and Str«1t of
Georgia
North Sea
Elements are
10 a thick
through water
water coluan
3 layer
2 layer
Z layer
2*d1«ent1oMl
horizontal
?-d1meniional
horizontal
N/A
N/A
Varfable but
Urge
Variable -
coarse 1 ka
fine 0.5 ka
N/A
2 km
Yes - 7 layers 4 ka
Wind, gradient,
discharge
Discharge, gradient Steady state
Inflow, outflow
Tide, wind
Monthly or
annual
N/A
Turbulent mixing 0.5 h tine
discharge, growth/ step
death
15 se9*ents
of variable
site
900 ax 20 a
Tide, wind
Tide, discharge,
gradient
Tide, discharge,
gradient
Tide, discharge,
wind, reaction
rates
Tidal dispersion,
sources, sinks
Tide, gradient,
discharge
Tfdal flows, dis-
charge, gradient
Discharge, turbu-
lent mixing, verti-
cal convection
Tide
finiU element,
Free turfici elf- Cast Passage
vatlea. velocity
?-diaen*fona) No
horizontal
Variable
Tide, wind
45 sec
N/A
Yes
Yes
CDC 6400
N/A
Tidal day -
equals 76 sec
Steady state
Time averaged
Over replace-
ment tiae,
steady state
Steady state
Steady state
or dynamic
Annual
wet/dry
N/A
N/A
N/A
Yes
IBM 370
Steady state Unknown
23 sec
Yes - in
future
Fes - fn
future
Hood Canal, Central
8asm of Puget Sound,
Knight Inlet
Puget Sound
Hood Canal
Puget Sound Central
Basin
Puget Sound
Puget Sound
In future -
Cyber 170/150
Budd Inlet
Port Gardner
Port Orchard, Oyes
Inlet, Sinclair ln)et,
Puget Sound, San Fran-
cisco Bay
Puget Sound Central
Basin
Puget Sound Central
Basin
Puget Sound Central
Basin
Stnit of Juan de
Fuca, Strait of Georgia
Planned test area
Pu9et Sound
Planned test area -
East Passage

-------


0RCA8 W ISLANO
SAN JUAN
ISIANO
VICTO*U
P9WT «wmn
-LEGEND-
main BASIN
SOUTHERN BASIN
B HOOD CANAL BASIN
WHIDBEY BASIN
[ Borft«« • » ol. (1957)
I Raffroy ft Lincoln (1993)
) Formtr ft Rottrov (1962)
[ Fritbtrtthawttr ft Ouibury (1972)
I Piom I960
tXtfllll
Cr«on (1978)
Cr«on (in
p4o<« (1900)
StM»n», Thompson ft Runyon inc.(1975)
Mtlro (inpr«p.)> tM Fifl. 5-3
* + WRE (1975) M« Pig. 5-0

-------
o a'
STRAIT OF JUAN 0£ FUCA
ivtsm
LEGEND
|[ | | || Yeorsley (1973)
f\\\] Kruger (1979)
V/A Winter (1973)
Jomart (in pr#p.)
Stewart (in prep.)
3 (N
74 \

-------
BCLLINGHAM
ISLAND
VICTORIA
STRAIT of JUAN 0
:uii"
P9»r
LEGEND—
\\^\ Jomort ond Winter (1978)
'///, Cokelel (in prep)
Winter el ol. (1975)
Metro (in prep.): tee Figure 5-3
* * WRE (1975V see Figure 5-5
MCMEHTOH -J..

-------
Nearfield Plume Models
Nearfield plume models are briefly described here but not
evaluated further in this report. Plume models are designed to
describe the short-term behavior of buoyant or negatively
buoyant waste discharges. For buoyant plumes, nearfield models
describe the degree of dilution achieved and the size of the
plume as it rises to a level of neutral buoyancy or to the water
surface. Several different types of nearfield models are cur-
rently employed by EPA (several of which have been applied to
Puget Sound). These models are very useful in computing initial
dilution, height of rise, and the size of the plume (zone of
initial dilution) at the level of neutral buoyancy or at the
surface. As the name implies, nearfield models describe a waste
field in the immediate vicinity of the discharge and only up to
completion of initial dilution. A circulation and dispersion
model is required to describe how wastes subsequently will be
dispersed in Puget Sound.
Nearfield models, by themselves, are not appropriate as an
overall waste management tool for Puget Sound because they
cannot simulate the transport and fate of pollutants after
completion of initial dilution. Nevertheless, the concept of
initial dilution and the concentrations of pollutants after
initial dilution are important from a waste management perspec-
tive. The circulation and dispersion (or farfield) model should
be designed to be somewhat compatible with a nearfield model.
The grid element of the farfield model to which the waste source
enters should be approximately the same size as the zone of
initial dilution computed by a nearfield model. In this way,
the concentration of pollutants computed for the first element
of the farfield model will be roughly similar to pollutant
concentrations after initial dilution computed by a nearfield
model. This technique for selecting the grid size for the
farfield model node into which a waste discharges is not a
substitute for nearfield plume modeling. It does provide,
however, a means of realistically computing with the farfield
model the highest concentration of a pollutant to be expected in
the vicinity of a waste source.
Transport Models
University of Washington, Department of Oceanography.
o Barnes, C. A., J. H. Lincoln, and M. Rattray, Jr. 1957.
An oceanographic model of Puget Sound. In: Proc. of
the Eighth Pacific Science Congress 3:686-704.
o Rattray, M., and J. H. Lincoln. 1955. Operating
characteristics of an oceanographic model of Puget
Sound. Transactions, American Geophysical Union
36:251-261.
OBJECTIVE. A physical model of Puget Sound was constructed
with funds provided by the Office of Naval Research to investi-
gate the tidal currents in all of Puget Sound south of Admiralty
76

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Inlet, including the Whidbey Basin. Prior to construction, a
detailed theoretical study was undertaken to examine suitable
model scales.
DESCRIPTION. The model was constructed at the University
of Washington. The horizontal scale is 1:40,000 and the verti-
cal scale is 1:1,152; all other scales were derived from these
two by dimensional relationships.
FORMULATION. Tidal action is the principal driving force
on the dynamic oceanographic processes occurring in Puget Sound.
In the physical model, tides are generated by displacement of
water by a plunger in a headbox. A tide computer of the Kelvin
type controls the vertical movement of the plunger. The compu-
ter provides summation of six major tidal constituents to
produce a tide within ±1 foot of the predicted prototype tide.
Freshwater inflow is provided at the discharge sites of 11
principal rivers in Puget Sound. A separate tank simulates the
ocean as a saltwater source and the ocean salinity is automati-
cally adjusted to within 1 percent to compensate for dilution by
river discharge.
STATUS. The model gives good representation of prototype
circulation, current patterns, and velocities as determined by
visual observations. The density structure in each of the four
main sections of Puget Sound may be reasonably reproduced in the
model.
ADEQUACY. No physical model having such a great degree of
distortion can exactly reproduce the behavior of the prototype.
This is especially a problem when examining local water quality
and circulation processes in such important areas as Commence-
ment Bay and Elliott Bay. Surface tension limits water movement
in shallow and shoreline areas, rendering model predictions
unreliable in these portions of the Sound. Since viscosity
cannot be scaled in the model, this factor may impede flow
through small channels and reduce the small-scale turbulence at
these sections.
TRANSFERABILITY. The physical model is available at the
University of Washington and a duplicate model was constructed
for the Pacific Science Center, both located in Seattle. Data
required to accurately portray characteristics of Puget Sound
include the rate of flow of the 11 principal rivers, proper tide
selection, and the density structure of the four main sections.
Many of these data have been collected by various agencies and
are available for use.
APPLICABILITY. The physical model can be used for insight
into general basin-wide circulation and flow. Access to the
model is limited an dit is not capable of predicting
concentrations for many of the water quality variables that are
of interest to EPA.
77

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Farmer and Rattray (University of Washington, Department of
Oceanography
o Farmer, H.G., and M. Rattray, Jr. 1962. A model study
of steady-state salinity distribution in Puget Sound.
Dept. of Oceanography Technical Rept. No. 85, University
of Washington, Seattle, WA.
OBJECTIVE. The previously described physical model was
employed to determine and model the steady-state salinity dis-
tribution of Puget Sound. The salinity within Puget Sound was
observed to be strongly affected by the characteristics of the
Admiralty Inlet tidal flow.
DESCRIPTION. The relative response of the different
divisions of the Puget Sound system to changes in tide and
runoff can be determined by the salinity distribution observed
in the model. The model was operated at three conditions of
freshwater runoff (low monthly, annual, and high monthly) and
five values of tidal range. Salinity profiles were taken at
seven stations throughout Puget Sound: off Bush Point, Camano
Head, Hazel Point, Point Jefferson, Pully Point, Spring Beach,
and Gordon Point.
FORMULATION. From the results of previous experiments it
was discovered that the salinity distribution throughout the
model varied little with moderate changes in the salinity scale.
A salinity scale of 1:2 was selected for this study. Salinity
dependence at a specific station is a function of tidal height,
channel depth, river discharge, tidal flow, and Froude number.
The vertical salinity profile was determined at each station by
titration of small water samples taken at several depths. The
parameters that were varied in the model experiments are the
river discharge, the tidal height, and the tidal period.
STATUS. Previous studies have indicated that the density
structure in the model may successfully reproduce that of the
prototype. No actual field verification of the results was
performed in this study although circulation patterns agreed
well with other field studies.
ADEQUACY. The results of this study provide insight to the
overall density structure and general circulation patterns of
the main sections of Puget Sound. Use of the physical model
introduces error by neglecting the effects of wind and viscosity
on circulation and transport processes. This model provides
basic information on density structure that could be utilized by
other models or in future model development.
TRANSFERABILITY. The physical model is available at the
University of Washington, Department of Oceanography.
APPLICABILITY. Experiments with the physical model may
provide insight into general circulation modes, density distri-
78

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butions, and flow, but the model cannot provide predictions for
the biological and chemical constituents of interest to the EPA.
Friebertshauser and Duxbury (University of Washington
Department of Oceanography).
o Friebertshauser, JM. A., and A. C. Duxbury. 1972. A
water budget study of Puget Sound and its subregions.
Limnology and Oceanography 17(2):237-247.
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to determine
the mean fluxes of water into and out of the subregions of Puget
Sound and the change in freshwater content by month and by year
for the areas.
DESCRIPTION. A water budget study was conducted to quanti-
tatively describe the net circulation in Puget Sound. The
budget approach is simply a mass balance equation assuming that
the volume of water and total salt content in an estuary,
averaged over a given time period, are constant.
FORMULATION. The water budget analysis allows for calcu-
lations of fluxes of water and salt and flushing times. Three
budgets are considered: total water, fresh water, and sea
water. Assuming that mixing does not occur between inflow and
outflow, and that inflow water is completely mixed within the
basin, the flushing time is expressed as the volume of water in
the basin divided by the average rate of outflow.
STATUS. The water budget equations were applied to four
subregions of Puget Sound: Whidbey Basin, Hood Canal, Central
Basin, and Southern Basin (Figure 5-1) . Data required to run
the model include: the freshwater contribution composed of
river discharge and direct precipitation minus direct evapo-
ration; changes in water volume as indicated by tide level; and,
the average salinities of inflowing and outflowing water.
ADEQUACY. The water budget model can indicate patterns of
net circulation in descriptive terms. Methods for accurately
determining variables in the equations are lacking. Adequate
data are not available for several variables including evapo-
ration rates on a monthly basis and ungaged river flow. The
budget analysis assumes that the change in sea level at Seattle
is representative of the entire Sound and that the surface area
does not change with sea level. Also, inflowing water is
assumed to be completely mixed within the basin and the inflow-
ing and outflowing water does not mix. The approach of this
model is universal, i but accuracy of the calculated fluxes will
depend on the accuracy of the estimated variables and data
availability.
TRANSFERABILITY. Data availability appears to be the
important factor in obtaining reasonable results with this
model. Data sources for the Puget Sound area include: Water
79

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Resources Data for Washington, Climatological Data for Washing-
ton, and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Infor-
mation Service.
APPLICABILITY. The model is of use in determining net
flows through different regions of Puget Sound, considered on a
monthly or yearly basis. However, much more detailed informa-
tion is required by the EPA to adequately predict the effects of
discharges on a local, short-term basis. Circulation processes
within each basin need to be described. Formulations in this
model enable the calculation of overall residence time and net
flow but not detailed circulation patterns.
Winter (University of Washington Department of
Oceanography).
o Winter, D. F. 1973. A similarity solution for steady-
state gravitational circulation in fjords. Estuarine
and Coastal Marine Science 1:387-400.
OBJECTIVE. Analysis of steady-state gravitational circu-
lation in the near surface zone is the topic of this study.
This is the dominant circulation mode in fjords that receive
substantial freshwater input.
DESCRIPTION. Circulation in the upper layers of stratified
fjords is represented as a steady-state process by time averag-
ing the equations of motion over a tidal cycle.
FORMULATION. The governing equations are written in terms
of nondimensional variables. Approximate analytic representa-
tions are calculated for the velocity and density distribution
in areas where conditions allow for a similarity analysis. The
basic formulation consists of three partial differential equa-
tions in the form of Navier-Stokes equations. A similarity
solution is used to derive a single nonlinear differential
equation that is solved by a power series approximation. As-
sumptions made in the formulation include: neglect of Coriolis
effects; limitation to narrow, straight segments where the
velocity and pressure differences across the channel are negli-
gible; and application to fjords with freshwater runoff inputs
that produce a mean surface current directed seaward. A wind
factor is not incorporated into the model, and the influence of
the tide is indirect. The changes in runoff quantities and wind
stress are ignored and the solution assumes an infinite channel
depth such that bottom friction does not play an important role.
All equations are averaged over the tidal cycle to give the
long-term average circulation.
STATUS. The model has been applied to the Hood Canal and
the Central Basin (Figure 5-2) and to Knight Inlet in British
Columbia. Input to the model includes cumulative runoff,
variable channel width, and eddy diffusion coefficients. The
80

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vertical eddy diffusion coefficient was calibrated from field
measurements.
ADEQUACY. The predicted salinity distributions follow the
general pattern of the measured profiles. Variation of input
parameter values can increase the agreement between predicted
and measured values. The model gives the principal features of
the flow and salinity distribution on a steady-state basis for
long narrow fjord-like water bodies where gravitational circu-
lation is the primary circulation mode. Description and presen-
tation of application results are brief, and it is evident that
the model cannot generate detailed information about circulation
and density distributions as they change with time. The model
lacks general applicability to a variety of locations and
conditions due to the limitations and assumptions incorporated
into the basic equations.
TRANSFERABILITY. Similarity solutions reduce to a 1-dimen-
sional problem on a computer. These solutions could be easily
handled on machines with limited computing ability.
APPLICABILITY. To satisfy EPA's objectives, a dynamic
model formulation may be required. The formulation presented
here is steady-state and is also limited to application in
narrow, straight channels.
Pease (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory).
o Pease, C. H. 1980. An empirical model for tidal
currents in Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca and
southern Strait of Georgia. EPA-600/7-80-185, Pacific
Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA.
OBJECTIVE. This empirical model was developed to provide
tidal current input for oil spill trajectory modeling and
surface drifter analysis for the Puget Sound MESA project.
DESCRIPTION. The model employs National Ocean Survey (NOS)
tidal constituents and current measurements for 157 stations in
Puget Sound and interpolates between these measurements to
obtain estimations of current speeds and directions throughout
the Sound.
FORMULATION. A regional base grid of 1 km sections was
defined for the study area. The grid has 223 segments on a side
and is divided into 760 groups of sections having similar tidal
velocity and direction, and interpolation coefficients. For
each group, one to (three current meter stations were subjec-
tively assigned to represent currents in that group. Each
assigned current meter received a weighted coefficient which
reflected its relative importance to the group. Weighting
coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 1.0, depending on several
factors including location, cross-sectional area and streamline
dependence. Tidal current speed throughout the basin is assumed
81

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to be symmetric between ebb and flood, and the ebb and flood
tide flow directions are assumed to be separated by 180°.
STATUS. Preliminary verification of the empirical model
consisted of a detailed comparison of predicted current veloc-
ities with NOS Tidal Current Tables for 1978. This comparison
showed that the model agreed with the NOS predictions with
respect to phasing and the relative timing of the diurnal tide
components, but the model velocity predictions were typically 20
percent lower than the NOS current velocities and agreement
between the two varied throughout the study area. The model
covered all of Puget Sound and the Straits as shown in Figure
5-1 .
ADEQUACY. Several methods of interpolation are available;
however, due to the complexity of the Puget Sound area, the
method of applying a fixed relation to predetermined current
stations was used to develop the formulation. The empirical
model may be used to generate tidal current input with certain
limitations. There are significant velocity scaling differences
between the model and the NOS tide tables which are best handled
on a case by case basis. Also, the flood values are reduced and
the ebb values are enhanced in the NOS tide tables because the
tables add an assumed mean velocity to the ebb current.
The model could be improved by reassigning the interpo-
lation coefficients for the current stations based on a hydro-
dynamic model of tidal currents instead of by subjective deci-
sion, and by allowing ebb directions to be determined separately
from flood such that asymmetric flows could be generated.
TRANSFERABILITY. The empirical model was constructed and
computerized as a library containing functions and subroutines
which are accessed directly by the user's model. The model was
initially run on twin CDC 7600 computers. The FORTRAN source
code and data used are on microfiche included in the listed
reference. A user's guide and short description of all sub-
routines is also included. A card image tape that must be
modified to direct access form is available from NO A A in
Seattle.
APPLICABILITY. The model presents a method to expand a
data base. EPA could not directly use this model but may
utilize the formulation to estimate current velocity at points
where data are unavailable. The model does not describe circu-
lation processes. Average surface layer velocity only can be
empirically determined.
I
Jamart and Winter (University of Washington Department of
Oceanography)"	~~	~
o Jamart, B. M., and D. F. Winter. 1978. A new approach
to the computation of tidal motions in estuaries. Pp.
226-281. In: J.C.J. Nihoul, ed., Hydrodynamics of
82

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estuaries and fjords. Elsevier Scientific Publishing
Company, Amsterdam.
OBJECTIVE. This paper describes a procedure for computing
the periodic tidal motion in estuaries.
DESCRIPTION. The model consists of the equations for the
conservation of mass and horizontal momentum. These time-
dependent equations are vertically integrated to give 2-dimen-
sional representations in the horizontal direction.
FORMULATION. The tidal motion in an estuary is periodic
and therefore the dependent variables can be decomposed by a
Fourier transformation. The advective and frictional components
of the model are evaluated using an iterative procedure to avoid
handling of the nonlinear terms by Fourier decomposition. The
basic equations are rewritten as modal equations which are
rephrased in terms of a variational principle. The final
solution of the flow variables (free surface elevation and
depth-averaged velocity) is obtained using the finite element
method. The effects of convective acceleration, Coriolis
acceleration, wind stress, and bottom friction are not addressed
in the model. Assumptions inherent in the formulation include a
linearized bottom friction term, a free surface elevation that
varies linearly within subdivisions of the finite element grid,
and vertical averaging of tidal velocities.
STATUS. A portion of Hood Canal (Figure 5-2) was used as
the test region for the model. Model inputs are free surface
boundary conditions and tidal frequency. Circulation and eddy
patterns predicted by the model reproduce the physical hydraulic
model data with respect to scale and location. Quantitative
comparisons of these data were not conducted on these prelimi-
nary results due to simplifications in the equations for prelim-
inary analysis.
ADEQUACY. The model has not been quantitatively verified
but shows great potential as a tool for predicting tidal height
and velocity. The model formulation deals more accurately with
homogeneous estuaries where the estuarine circulation mode
(stratified flow) is weak. A version of the same model has
recently been applied to Knight Inlet in British Columbia, which
exhibits a sill and fjord-type flow. Results of this applica-
tion indicated that the model, although vertically averaged, can
adequately simulate tidal propagation and depth-averaged veloc-
ities. The finite element grid must be sufficiently fine in
regions of rapid change to satisfy the assumption that the free
surface elevation varies linearly within each grid area. The
mesh resolution should also be finer in questionable areas and
areas of primary interest. A major advantage of this model is
the treatment of time integration with respect to horizontal
location. Unlike typical time-stepping models, the time vari-
able is chosen independent of the other variables, resulting in
a highly efficient and cost-effective computation.
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TRANSFERABILITY. The model program for Hood Canal was run
on a CDC 7 600 computer with large core memory. The mass storage
utilizes 125,000 words.
APPLICABILITY. The methodology presented is, in all
practicality, limited to areas where stratified estuarine flows
are weak or nonexistent. However, the model holds promise for
two types of applications: a crude, depth-averaged model of the
entire Puget Sound to provide approximate tidal flows on a
regional basis; and refined applications in subregions of Puget
Sound where vertical mixing is dominant over estuarine circu-
lation .
Jamart (URS Engineers, Seattle, WA).
o Jamart, B. M. 1982. Report on the preliminary modeling
of tides in East Passage, unpublished report prepared
for Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle by URS
Engineers, Seattle, WA.
OBJECTIVE. This model applies the formulation developed by
Jamart and Winter (1978) to the East Passage of Puget Sound to
compute the periodic tidal motion around the proposed Seahurst
outfall area.
DESCRIPTION. Barotropic tidal motions are well described
by conservation of mass and horizontal momentum equations which
are vertically averaged and time dependent.
FORMULATION. The basic formulation is identical to that
previously described in Jamart and Winter (1978) . The selected
study area is the East Passage of Puget Sound shown in Figure
5-2.
STATUS. The model is currently being developed by Dr.
Bruno Jamart under contract to Metro. Preliminary calibration
for the East Passage involves boundary condition specification
and estimation of dispersion coefficient. Further data col-
lection via a tide measurement program has been undertaken to
better characterize tides in the East Passage.
Stewart (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA).
o Stewart, R. J. 1982. Pollutant transport
dynamics in estuaries. OMPA Annual Report 1982,
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (In
preparation).
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this 3-year study is to
develop theoretical and empirical techniques to better charac-
terize the accumulation, resuspension, advection, and diffusion
properties of the Duwamish River estuary.
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DESCRIPTION. Models are currently being reviewed for
possible application to this estuary. The model capabilities
must include: ability to predict the movement of the salt wedge
as a function of runoff and tide, and a method for estimating
resuspension and exchange of sediments. NOAA is considering
achieving these goals by collection, analysis, organization, and
extrapolation of field data for input to a new or existing
model.
FORMULATION. The process of major interest is the mass
flux of suspended materials from the low salinity upper layer to
the salt wedge. An explicit analytical model of the upper layer
would be based on the assumptions of a well mixed upper layer of
variable depth containing particles of varying size and density,
residing on a quiescent lower layer of higher density. Particle
density distributions are calculated from Coulter counter data
by utilizing an explicit model of particle settling beneath a
free surface in a homogeneous fluid. Another analytical model
will predict the concentration of particles at depth, assuming
constant diffusivity and spherical shape. A plume model is
utilized to describe the potential contribution of the plume to
pollutant transport in Elliott Bay.
STATUS. Several tests were conducted to examine the
validity of the assumptions and basic formulations. The parti-
cle settling model, which employs a Bayesian inference method,
was shown to be feasible, but the present numerical technique
requires large, direct-access, mass storage files. Fluxes anci
rates of the model's transport processes in Elliott Bay are much
larger and faster than in the Duwamish, therefore some length
scales may be overestimated. Preliminary studies of the buoyant
lens characteristics show a very large mass transport over short
time scales on the order of a few hours. Future focus will be
on the development of a quantitative model to locate deposition
sites, which will require additional field data and experimenta-
tion .
TRANSFERABILITY. Only preliminary formulations, assump-
tions, and studies have been prepared at the present time.
APPLICABILITY. Sediment processes are of major interest to
EPA. This model is in the development stage. Application of
the developed empirical model to other sites may be limited due
to the apparent dependency on field observations of the sediment
transport behavior in the Duwamish River.
Seattle Metro Transport Model.
o Seattle Metro 1983. Toxicant Pretreatment Planning
Study report, In prep. (Pavlou, pers. comm.).
OBJECTIVE. Metro is currently developing a model to
predict lateral and vertical transport of materials and pollu-
tants, forecast pollutant concentrations, and determine
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pollutant flushing rates and residence-times throughout the
Central Basin.
DESCRIPTION. A box-type analytical model of the volume
transport and eddy fluxes is being developed. The main basin of
Puget Sound was divided into 11 sections (Figure 5-3) with a
hydrographic station centered in each section.
FORMULATION. The model employs a layering technique; each
section consists of an upper layer and a lower layer. The
interface between these layers was selected as 50 m, which
corresponds to the depth of no net flow. The basic assumptions
of the model are conservation of mass and balance of salt flux.
The upstream salt flux is considered to be zero, that is, the
salt balance is achieved by advection. A schematic of the
computational configuration is shown in Figure 5-4. The verti-
cal volume transport (Q .) from upper to lower layer can be
calculated by applying ma^ss and salt balance equations to the
lower layer.
Settling rate is incorporated into the model as2^constant
value for each element. The rate is estimated from Pb decay
analysis of sediment cores taken from Puget Sound.
STATUS. The model is currently under development and there
is no documentation available at present. The model will be
calibrated at low and high flow conditions.
ADEQUACY. The existing spatial grid is too large for the
detailed predictions necessary in some parts of Puget Sound.
Finer grid resolution is necessary in the vicinity of waste
discharges. Certain areas of specific interest (e.g., Elliott
Bay) serve only as input to the model. Resuspension is not
specifically addressed, but is incorporated into the total
sedimentation rates determined by dating sediment cores. The
calculated settling rate from the lead distributions should
represent the sedimentation from natural sources, but may not
adequately represent the increased sedimentation due to
increased waste inputs in the future. Suspended particulate
loading and sedimentation rates are linked in the model and
allow projections based on increased or decreased mass loading.
The model formulation is basically 1-dimensional to the extent
that lateral gradients, which may be important in the Central
Basin, are neglected.
TRANSFERABILITY. Information on computer requirements,
programs, and data accessibility is not available at this time.
APPLICABILITY. Sedimentation processes in Puget Sound are
of primary concern to EPA but the model in its current state
would not be appropriate to obtain the necessary detailed infor-
mation required for water quality management decisions. Cali-
bration, verification, and finer resolution are needed for the
model to be useful.
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ORCAS
ISLAND
VICTORIA
J (J AN
STRAIT Of
PO»T
%USM
PORT AN0CLC5
imzu
itimas

-------
Surfac
vi
Where: = vertical mass transport
S = salinity
R - freshwater runoff
Figure 5-4. Schematic Diagram of the Carpartmental Configuration for
the Box-Model Calculation (Metro 198 3) .

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Cokelet (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA).
o Cokelet, E. 19 82. (pers. comm.) Long range
effects research program. Office of Marine Pollution
Assessment, 202 Program. Description of Circulation
Model (in preparation).
OBJECTIVE. The model will predict tidal circulatory
processes for use in determining the role of particulates in
estuarine and coastal pollutant transport.
DESCRIPTION. Several modes of circulation are present in
water bodies such as Puget Sound including estuarine, wind
driven, and tidal modes. This model attempts to predict the
circulation caused by tidal phenomena. The model deals with the
mean circulation (monthly or yearly basis) and predicts tidal
height and currents.
FORMULATION. The formulation consists of vertically inte-
grated, 2-dimensional equations of motion describing baroclinic
tidal processes in a homogeneous fluid. These equations are
Fourier decomposed in time and solved by a finite element formu-
lation. The finite element grid consists of triangular sections
of 1 km on a side for the coarse grid and approximately 0.5 km
lengths for the fine grid. The fine grid will be utilized for
problem areas, areas of specific interest, and areas with
complex circulation patterns. This formulation is similar to
that presented by Jamart and Winter (1978).
STATUS. The model is currently under development and is
scheduled to be operational by the end of 1983. Input data
include tidal heights or currents at the boundaries and
selection of the finite element grid. The future test area for
verification of the model will be the main basin of Puget Sound
(Figure 5-2) . A field cruise was conducted in March 1983 to
collect data for use in verification.
ADEQUACY. For accurate representation by the model, the
selected area must display little or no stratification and
require no resolution in the vertical direction. Only the mean
circulation is modeled, so variation of variables on a small
time scale is hot considered. This formulation would have
limited use for general applicability.
TRANSFERABILITY. The program source code will be written
in FORTRAN IV and will be machine independent. The computer
selected for final simulation of the model will be a Cyber
170/150 and computer requirements include approximately 200K
storage capacity. The coastal physics group at NOAA has a data
archive system which is available for use on all historical
measurements. If the developed program source code may be used
without significant modification, the model can be adapted and
computerized in a few months.
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APPLICABILITY. The model would have limited applicability
to broad-scale water quality management studies because of
limitations in handling stratified conditions, and in resolving
significant vertical variation of water quality variables.
However, this model, once developed and verified, may be useful
in areas of Puget Sound where vertical homogeneity is present,
e.g., Liberty Bay and Dyes Inlet.
Cokelet and Stewart (Pacific Marine Environmental Labora-
tory, NOAA)
o Cokelet, E. and R. Stewart. 1983. A simple model to
estimate the exchange of water in fjords with sills.
For: Long Range Effects Program, OMPA. In preparation
(Cokelet, pers. comm.).
OBJECTIVE. Research is underway on the development of a
model to describe the flow and exchange of water through Puget
Sound. Once the water pathways have been determined, this
knowledge may be used to predict the steady-state distribution
of soluble, conservative tracers.
DESCRIPTION. This model quantifies the efflux and reflux
characteristics of the Central and Southern Basins in Puget
Sound. The study area is divided into advective reaches and
mixing zones. Within the mixing zones, water may be vertically
exchanged or transported out of a basin. If a majority of the
flow is refluxed into an advective reach, pollutant
accumulation results.
FORMULATION.	The model formulation is based on the
modification of a box model. Modifications include the assump-
tion of negligible vertical entrainment between the upper and
lower layers in advective reaches and division of the study area
into two classes of reaches: advective reaches and mixing
zones. Mass balance equations are written for each reach using
salt flux and flow and are solved simultaneously.
The study area under consideration includes the Southern
and Central Basins of Puget Sound. The Whidbey and Hood Canal
basins are treated as inputs to the Central Basin. The Central
Basin contains three advective reaches and the Southern Basin is
made up of two. Preliminary selection of mixing zones includes
the area from Alki Point to West Point, Admiralty Inlet, Tacoma
Narrows, and a terminal mixing zone in the Southern Basin. The
size of the subdivisions range from 10-20 km long and contain an
upper and lower layer.
STATUS. The model is currently under development.
Preliminary calibration of the mass fluxes for the Central
Basin has been conducted, and results indicate that the
delineation between mixing zones and advective reaches should
be modified. Input data required by the model to simulate a
simple estuary include salinity, river inflow, and precipitation
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for each reach. Additional conservative tracers (other than
salinity) are needed to model multiple branch estuaries.
ADEQUACY. Results of the preliminary application to Puget
Sound show good agreement with previous work on calculation of
reflux coefficients for the Central Basin (Ebbesmeyer and Barnes
1980). The formulation is very sensitive to the salinity
values input into the model and more work is needed to revise
available data.
TRANSFERABILITY. The program is a very simple matrix
representation of sets of simultaneous equations that may be run
on any system with minimal time and effort. The FORTRAN code
will be readily available after model verification procedures
have been completed and model results have been published.
APPLICABILITY. This model is only capable of describing
the gross movement of water through the study area. This
information will allow estimates of reflux and efflux coeffi-
cients at primary mixing zones throughout the Central and
Southern Basins. Water quality variables, suspended solids
transport, and solids accumulation processes are not considered
and cannot be added without significant modification. The
predictive capability is limited to steady-state concentrations
of conservative, soluble substances over extensive areas. This
model could be used in conjunction with other models to aid in
understanding the complex processes occurring in mixing zones in
Puget Sound.
Crean (Institute of Ocean Sciences, British Columbia,
Canada).
o Crean, P. B. 1978. A numerical model of barotropic
mixed tides between Vancouver Island and the mainland
and its relation to studies of the estuarine
circulation. Pp. 283-313 in: Hydrodynamics of
estuaries and fjords. Elsevier Scientific Publishing
Company, Amsterdam.
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this model is to obtain a
quantitative description of the physical processes that deter-
mine the flow through the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Strait of
Georgia. The model is designed for use as input to ecological
models relating to the major fisheries of the area.
DESCRIPTION. The model predicts velocity and tidal height
for points on a finite difference grid for the Strait of Juan de
Fuca and the Strait of Georgia.
FORMULATION. The system is represented by a set of verti-
cally integrated equations for continuity and momentum applica-
ble to tidal motions in a flat, rotating sea. The equations are
solved by stepping through time using a finite difference
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approximation. The formulation includes the Coriolis effect and
utilizes a uniformly applied coefficient of friction. The
derivation of the equation assumes that velocity is independent
of depth.
STATUS. The model was verified using a test area encom-
passing the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the San Juan Islands and
part of the Strait of Georgia, extending northward of the area
shown in Figure 5-1. Agreement was obtained between computed
and observed tidal harmonic constants. One-dimensional models
have been utilized to represent areas of flow into the test
region for simplification of the boundary conditions. Input
data include boundary condition specifications such as tidal
height or velocity, and river inflows.
ADEQUACY. The model was able to predict tidal velocities
accurately in the Strait of Georgia and the outer portion of the
Strait of Juan de Fuca. Difficulties were encountered when
simulating the straits and passages in the San Juan Islands.
More detailed adjustments of the friction coefficient are
advised for this region. An obvious limitation of the formu-
lation is the apparent lack of vertical resolution of velocity.
TRANSFERABILITY. Necessary data for calibration procedures
and comparison to computed values are available from the Cana-
dian Hydrographic Service, which has gathered extensive water
elevation and current data. Availability of the numerical model
is not known.
APPLICABILITY. This model is a standard, explicit,
2-dimensional in the horizontal, finite difference circulation
model. There are numerous models of this type available for use
in Puget Sound if desired. This type of model is costly to
operate on a large scale, however, and is limited in application
to areas exhibiting vertically well mixed conditions.
Crean (Institute of Ocean Sciences, British Columbia,
Canada).
o Crean, P. 1982. (pers. comm.). Description
of 2-dimensional, layered model for prediction of
currents in Straits of Georgia-Juan de Fuca (in
preparation).
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this model is to accurately
quantify and predict the physical processes that affect the flow
through the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Strait of Georgia region.
Tidal currents are modeled for use in other ecological models.
This model was originally developed for the North Sea by the
University of Hamburg, Institute of Oceanography.
DESCRIPTION. The formulation models the tidal height and
velocity for points throughout a finite difference grid. The
model is 2-dimensional in the horizontal plane and layers the
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water column into seven sections, approximately 6, 9, 18, 27,
46, 76, and 125 meters deep.
FORMULATION. The system is represented by a set of equa-
tions for continuity and momentum for the seven layers. The
equations are solved by stepping through time using a finite
difference approximation and a time step of 45 seconds. The
effects of Coriolis acceleration and bottom friction are includ-
ed in the equations. The finite difference grid size was 4
kilometers.
STATUS. The formulation is under development and publica-
tion of results is expected in the fall of 1983. The Straits of
Georgia and Juan de Fuca area have been selected as the future
calibration site. Input data include boundary condition speci-
fications such as tidal height or velocity and river inflows.
ADEQUACY. Verification and calibration efforts have not
been completed so the accuracy of the model is unknown at this
time. Important factors in the model accuracy will be the
characterization of mixing and net flux between the layers and
layer interface boundary conditions.
APPLICABILITY. Since the model has not been applied to
Puget Sound and accuracy of the formulation is unknown, appli-
cability is also presently unknown.
Water Quality Models
Winter, Banse, and Anderson (University of Washington
Department of Oceanography)"^
o Winter, D. F., K. Banse, and G. C. Anderson. 1975. The
dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in Puget Sound, a fjord
in the northwestern United States. Marine Biology
29:139-179.
OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to quantita-
tively describe the relationship between climatic and hydro-
dynamic conditions and primary production in fjords.
DESCRIPTION. In this study phytoplankton standing stock
was represented by chlorophyll a concentration. The model
predicts the change in chlorophyll a concentration with time due
to the effects of transport by turEulent mixing and advection,
photosynthesis and respiration, grazing, and sinking. The
equations were averaged over the channel width and over the
tidal cycle.
FORMULATION. The model considered only the surface layer
to a depth of 30 m. A laterally averaged partial differential
equation for chlorophyll a representing the system and boundary
conditions was estimated using field observations. The change
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of chlorophyll a with respect to the longitudinal dimension was
found to be negligible and the original 3-dimensional problem
was transformed to two dimensions. To compensate for changes in
cumulative runoff rate and intensity of turbulent mixing, the
salinity distribution and nontidal flow field were calculated
daily from field data.
STATUS. The formulation was applied to the Central Basin
(Figure 5-2). Several numerical experiments were conducted on
the biological submodels to determine the accuracy of parame-
ters, many of which were selected from the literature. Results
of these experiments showed that the predictions were sensitive
to the values for grazing rates, maximum photosynthetic rate,
sinking rate, and the method of incorporating self-shading into
the model. Limitations of the present equations occur in
systems where there is sustained low nutrient availability and
where intense algal blooms lower the dissolved oxygen concen-
trations for extended periods. The sinking rate cannot be
easily measured in the field and the values for specific
photosynthetic rate and light saturation should be obtained
directly for the particular algal community. A single grazing
function is used that is independent of size or species of
herbivores. Several parameters are assumed constant with depth
including carbon to chlorophyll a ratio and sinking rates.
General data requirements include net specific production rate,
nutrient limitation factors, light intensity and respiration,
grazing, and sinking rates. Further research is advised to aid
in the description of respiration processes, light extinction
coefficients, and grazing effects.
ADEQUACY. The model predictions and subsequent numerical
experiments demonstrate a close interaction between primary
productivity and circulation, climatic conditions, and physical
and chemical properties of Puget Sound. Primary productivity in
the Central Basin is affected by several hydrodynamic factors
such as upwelling and turbulence. Results of the model show
that the predictions reproduce the general features of observed
primary productivity, but more research is needed to better
define certain parameters.
TRANSFERABILITY. No solution procedure is discussed in the
paper. The formulation requires fine calibration and extensive
field observations.
APPLICABILITY. Phytoplankton growth is an important
variable in water quality evaluation. The model uses simplified
formulations to simulate the circulation processes which are of
major concern to EPA. Much of the input to the model was
estimated from field observations which tend to be time, labor,
and cost intensive. The model is narrow in scope and would have
limited applicability to EPA's water quality management program.
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Stevens, Thompson, and Runyan, Inc. (Seattle, VIA) .
o Stevens, Thompson, and Runyan, Inc. 1975. Puget Sound
regional assessment study. Prepared for National
Commission on Water Quality. Vol. II, pp. 189-214.
OBJECTIVE. A model was devised to simulate natural nutri-
ent distributions and to predict changes caused by external
loadings.
DESCRIPTION. Water movement is characterized by a two-zone
description, a surface layer and a deeper zone. Each zone is
characterized by an average horizontal velocity, mass density,
and depth. Transport between the zones takes place by vertical
convection and turbulent mixing.
FORMULATION. The model consists of equations of conserva-
tion of volume, mass, and horizontal momentum for each zone,
which results in six coupled nonlinear differential equations.
The equations are averaged over the tidal cycle and are solved
by the Runge-Kutta method. The nutrient loading from external
sources was expressed as accumulation from several areas to be
released at specified locations. Nutrients were assumed to be
transported within the Sound by the same hydrodynamic processes
that determine the salinity distribution. Information such as
horizontal velocity and convective and turbulent exchange were
obtained from the physical model by unspecified methods. The
concentrations in the lower zone at Admiralty Inlet were assumed
to be unaffected by the Sound. Equations for the nutrients in
the two zones were derived using conservation principles and a
steady-state solution was obtained.
STATUS. Model calibration was performed for the main basin
of Puget Sound (Figure 5-1). The circulation model yields
hydrodynamic predictions that are utilized in the nutrient
distribution estimates. Data required to utilize the model
include cumulative freshwater runoff rate, vertical fluxes
between zones, horizontal salinity gradients, vertical density
gradients, net average horizontal current speeds, and external
nutrient loadings.
ADEQUACY. Model results are reasonably consistent with
oceanographic data, indicating that the gross features of Puget
Sound have been adequately represented. The model predicts the
steady-state nutrient distribution at several points throughout
the main basin of Puget Sound. Assumptions inherent in the
formulation include: accumulating runoff from several areas for
release at various points in the basin? ignoring nutrient uptake
by phytoplankton because it is a transitory, short-term effect?
and disregarding tidally induced horizontal dispersion. The
model formulation tends to underestimate the salinity increase
seaward of the Admiralty Inlet sill. Predicted vertical pro-
files of the horizontal current velocity bear only a slight
resemblance to observed tidally averaged currents, although few
data are available for comparison. Most data have been acquired
in areas where the current patterns are strongly influenced by
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local bathymetry. Since nutrients are considered as conserva-
tive substances, settling of nutrients associated with parti-
culate matter was not allowed.
TRANSFERABILITY. Computer requirements and program avail-
ability were not discussed.
APPLICABILITY. The model predicts steady-state nutrient
distributions only and the formulation is basically 1-dimension-
al. Puget Sound is too complex to be represented by a 1-dimen-
sional formulation. Greater spatial (vertical and lateral)
differentiation and temporal (dynamic) resolution is required to
meet EPA objectives.
Kruger (Washington State Department of Ecology).
o Kruger, D. M. 1979. Effects of point-source discharges
and other inputs on water quality in Budd Inlet. DOE
79-11. Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia,
WA.
OBJECTIVE. WDOE conducted a receiving water study from
1976-1978 to provide more detailed information on Budd Inlet
(Figure 5-2). The objective of the study was to determine the
cause and effect of existing water quality problems and obtain
data that could be used to evaluate pollution abatement projects
planned for the Olympia area.
DESCRIPTION. A steady-state, 1-dimensional model was used
to predict dissolved oxygen concentrations. The time factor
represented the replacement time for Budd Inlet.
FORMULATION. A 1-dimensional model was used to describe
the hydrodynamic and mass transfer processes in the horizontal
direction. First order reaction rates were used to describe
reactions that affect the dissolved oxygen concentration.
Dissolved oxygen sources included in the model were Puget Sound
waters, Capitol Lake inflow, and surface reaeration. Planktonic
oxygen production and respiration were not included. Dissolved
oxygen sinks included BOD loading from the Olympia sewage treat-
ment plant and phytoplankton decomposition. For analysis the
study area was divided into 15 segments of variable size.
STATUS. The model was applied to Budd Inlet and the
results were variable. The predicted DO levels were slightly
lower than the observed values. The difference between observed
and predicted values appeared to be caused by phytoplankton
oxygen production in excess of respiration, which was neglected
in the model. Input to the model consisted of morphological
data for the segments, salinity, temperature, diffusion coeffi-
cients, and oxygen demand. Other required information included
deoxygenation rate, flow, and wind speed.
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ADEQUACY. After initial calibration, the model appears to
predict the general shape of the longitudinal dissolved oxygen
profile accurately and predicts dissolved oxygen concentrations
on the conservative side. From simulation results, causes of
existing water quality problems were inferred. The model
assumes that the entire water column is mixed.
TRANSFERABILITY. A program listing of the model is avail-
able in the reference and examples of input are also included.
Data for this study were collected by WDOE.
APPLICABILITY. The model is applicable only to Budd Inlet,
a minor region of Puget Sound, which can be characterized by a
1-dimensional representation. Improved description of the
hydrodynamic processes would be required for use in other
regions of Puget Sound. EPA requires greater temporal resolu-
tion than available in this model. This model is not adequate
for general application in Puget Sound.
Yearsley (Environmental Protection Agency).
o Yearsley, J. R. 1973. A steady-state three dimensional
diffusion model for Port Gardner - a subsystem of Puget
Sound. EPA, Region 10, Seattle, WA.
OBJECTIVE. This model was developed to aid in the determi-
nation of the coefficients of eddy diffusivity for use in a
steady-state diffusion model for dissolved oxygen. Many studies
have been conducted to describe changes in eddy diffusivity
coefficients as the scale of motion varies.
DESCRIPTION. Sulfite waste liquor (SWL) discharged by two
pulp mills in Everett was used as a tracer during the study.
The SWL has a long half-life and was considered as a conserva-
tive substance. Therefore, the observed distributions of SWL
indicated the magnitude of the eddy diffusivity coefficients
present. The coefficients of eddy diffusivity estimated from
the SWL analysis were then used to verify a Fickian diffusion
model for dissolved oxygen.
FORMULATION. The basic formulation of the model is the
steady-state balance for a control volume for a conservative
substance where dispersion is the only process. By appropriate
transformations the 3-dimensional conservation equation can be
reduced to a 1-dimensional system. Similarly, the conservation
equations for BOD and DO can be simplified. Relaxation methods
are used to solve the simplified 1-dimensional equations. The
study area was divided into sections 900 ma by 10 m deep
throughout the water column.
STATUS. This model has been applied to Port Gardner in the
Whidbey Basin (Figure 5-2). Excellent data for the analysis
were provided by water quality surveys conducted by state and
federal regulatory agencies from 1962-1964. Data required for
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the model include discharge rate of SWL, DO and BOD concen-
trations, rate constants for BOD decay, dilution of the waste
plume, and boundary conditions at the control volume interfaces.
A buoyant plume model developed by Baumgartner et al. (1971) was
used to calculate dilutions and equilibrium levels. Eddy
diffusivities were calculated from field measurements.
ADEQUACY. Results of the model show that the predicted
concentrations of SWL and DO closely resemble the observed
values. Therefore, the assumption that the eddy diffusivities
for SWL are similar to those for DO is accurate. This model
would only be applicable to ar?as wie.re	dispersion was the
dominant process. The results show the pollutant concentrations
only for steady-state; time variations in concentration cannot
be calculated. The eddy diffusivities must be empirically
calibrated for each test location through field studies.
TRANSFERABILITY. Solutions to the conservation equations
for the Port Gardner case were obtained on an IBM 370 computer.
Convergence was attained after approximately 30 iterations and
computer execution time was about 22 seconds.
APPLICABILITY. The formulation is based on a steady-state
concept. To determine fluctuations of variables with time, a
dynamic representation is required. The model also depends
heavily on empirically determined information, so that it is
site-specific. The model empirically determines diffusion
coefficients for areas where tidal dispersion is the dominant
process. This formulation is not adequate for general applica-
tion to Puget Sound.
Water Resources Engineers, Inc. (Walnut Creek, California).
o Water Resources Engineers, Inc. 1975. Ecologic
modeling of Puget Sound and adjacent waters. WRE 11930,
OWRR C2044-X, EPA.
OBJECTIVE. This report summarizes a 2-year effort of
mathematical model development and testing to develop assessment
methodologies for water quality management decision making.
Emphasis of the model development centered around the charac-
terization of the hydrodynamics of Puget Sound and the pre-
diction of water quality variables.
DESCRIPTION. The model employs a link-node network to
represent the system. Combinations of submodels are used to
describe six subsystems: the Central Basin, the Whidbey Basin,
the Southern Basin, Hood Canal, Dyes and Sinclair Inlets; and an
area between Bellingham and Anacortes (North Sound as shown on
Figure 5-5). Model formulations consist of partial differential
mass balance equations.
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STRAIT OF JUAN
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FORMULATION. The submodels used include:
o Fjord Hydrodynamic Model - This is a steady-state,
vertically 2-dimensional mathematical model for use in
nonbranching, fjord-like estuaries with uniform flows.
The bathymetry of the prototype is approximated by a
rectangular channel. The driving forces for this
submodel include density differences between inflow and
ocean water and the tide at the mouth.
o Estuary Hydrodynamic Model - This is a horizontally
2-dimensional hydrodynamic model for use in shallow,
branching estuaries. The fluid dynamic equations are
1-dimensional	but are solved over a 2-dimensional
network to simulate 2-dimensional flow. This model
produces three types of hydrodynamic input to the water
quality models: a steady-state hydraulics tape for
long-term steady-state ecologic simulation; another
steady-state tape for use in the dynamic ecologic model
that utilizes steady-state circulation; and, a dynamic
hydraulics tape for dynamic ecologic simulations.
Inputs to the model include: geometry of the network,
tidal stage data, evaporation rate, wind velocity, and
system flows.
o Three-Dimensional Circulation Model - This model is also
used to generate input to the ecologic models. Steady-
state velocities over a tidal cycle, bathymetry, and
regional geometry serve as input to the simulation. The
model adjusts the flows to assure that continuity is
satisfied at every node.
o Estuary Ecologic Model - This formulation models 22
biological and chemical variables.
The model predicts changes throughout a 3-dimensional
link-node network. Steady-state, tidally averaged hydrodynamic
data along with nutrients, light, food availability, oxygen, and
various process rate kinetics serve as inputs to the model.
o Lake Ecologic Model - This model is a 1-dimensional
ecologic water quality model for use in lakes or reser-
voirs .
o Finite Element Ecologic Model - This model is a vertical
2-dimensional	steady-state formulation for stratified
waters. This model also includes the 22 biological and
chemical variables used in the Estuary model. The
hydrodynamic input should be obtained from a finite
element model to assure continuity.
Values of the 22 variables are computed for each section at
each time step by solving the set of differential mass balance
equations describing the ecological processes utilizing the
predictions from the hydrodynamic models as inputs.
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STATUS. The basic model has been applied to several
locations including Lake Washington (WA); Lake Koocanusa (MT) ;
Lake Whitney, Lake Garza-Little Elm, Lake Levingston, and Belton
Reservoir (TX); Courtright, Wishon, and Lakeport Lakes (CA) ;
Tocks Island (PA); San Francisco Bay; and Puget Sound. For
application to Puget Sound, the area was divided into five main
subregions: Puget Sound, Hood Canal, Southern Puget Sound,
Whidbey Island, and Dyes and Sinclair Inlet. A link-node
network was not established for the North Sound subsystem. Each
subregion was treated separately and a combination of the
described submodels was selected to simulate changes in each
subregion. The model "packages" were calibrated against field
observations of the prototype.
Data required to operate the model include initial concen-
tration of all variables, tributary discharge and quality,
meteorological data such as solar radiation, wind velocity, air
temperature, and process rate coefficients. Region geometry and
bathymetry are also required. The authors state that the model
packages need further development to improve general applicabil-
ity and the input data base for Puget Sound should be increased
to produce more accurate model calibrations.
ADEQUACY. This model has proven to be a valuable tool in
simulating water quality in past applications. In Puget Sound
the model simulated basic natural phenomena. However, several
problems with model calibration arose throughout the process.
In the Fjord Hydrodynamic Model continuity was not satisfied
when transferring computed flows to the ecologic model. The
formulation involves an exponential function whose integral
satisfies continuity only when the limits of integration are
carried to infinity. The currents that are predicted from the
hydrodynamic model are realistic from a hydrodynamic viewpoint
but require fine tuning for use in the ecologic models. Manual
adjustment of flow reversals is difficult for complex networks
and the development of a "current" processor is advised.
A sensitivity analysis was performed on the process rate
coefficients and waste inputs for Southern Puget Sound. DO and
algal concentrations were selected as measures of the model's
response.
TRANSFERABILITY. More data are needed for model cali-
bration. Sufficient calibration data were available for DO
total dissolved solids, and phosphate. These constituents have
been sampled regularly throughout the Sound.
The effort required to apply the simulation model to Puget
Sound would depend on the level of detail required. The basic
components of the model are readily accessible and would require
modification of some hydrodynamic modules.
APPLICABILITY. The combined use of submodels in this
formulation allows for application to various regions of Puget
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Sound. The link-node and finite element methodologies allow for
variable "grid" size for improved resolution where necessary.
Various biological and chemical parameters are modeled but
sedimentation is not considered. Further calibration and data
collection efforts are required, but the general formulation
shows potential for meeting EPA's objectives.
Value of Existing Puget Sound Models as an EPA Waste Management
A total of 15 different modeling investigations of various
portions of Puget Sound have been reviewed in detail in this
section. The purpose of the review is to determine if any
existing models of Puget Sound can be adapted for use by EPA as
part of their long-range study on developing comprehensive waste
management strategies for the Sound. Each of the 15 inves-
tigations have been reviewed in terms of their theoretical
formulation, status of development, adequacy of representation
of the dominant physical processes, transferability, and appli-
cability for meeting EPA's objectives. The following con-
clusions have been drawn:
o Two of the investigations (Barnes et al. 1957; Farmer
and Rattray 1962) involve the physical oceanographic
model of Puget Sound located at the University of
Washington. This model, due to its extreme distortion,
is not quantitatively valid for localized areas of
interest, such as Elliott and Commencement Bays.
o Five of the developed models (Friebertshauser and
Duxbury 1972; Pease 1980; Stevens, Thompson & Runyan,
Inc. 1975; Winter et al. 1975; and Yearsley 1973) are
strongly empirical in their formulation and would have
very limited value as general, predictive tools.
o One of the models (Winter 1973) is an analytical power
series solution of steady-state circulation in the
surface layer of channelized geometries. This model is
considered too restrictive for present needs and has
become outdated by more recent work by Winter and his
associates.
o One model (Kruger 1979) is limited to a 1-dimensional,
steady-state solution of flow and dissolved oxygen in a
portion of Budd Inlet. Again, this model is too simpli-
fied and restrictive for general application.
o Three models (Stewart 1982; Cokelet pers. comm.; and
Seattle Metro 1983) are presently under development.
The model by Stewart is semi-empirical and is being
applied to the Duwamish River and Elliott Bay area.
Although eventual use of this model in the Duwamish
River area is of potential value to EPA, application to
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other areas will be difficult due to its dependency on
site-specific field observations. The model being
developed by Metro utilizes a relatively crude,
analytical approach and does not appear to hold value
for EPA's program objectives. The model by Cokelet is a
vertically averaged numerical model for calculating
flows, currents, and tides in the horizontal
2-dimensional plane. It is under preliminary
development for the Central Basin, and appears to be
very similar to the model recently developed by Jamart
and Winter (1978) (see discussion below).
o One modeling investigation (Crean 1978) involves
application of a standard, explicit, 2-dimensional,
finite-difference, vertically averaged circulation model
to the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia
for simulation of general tide and current patterns.
There are numerous models of this type in existence and
application on a general basis to Puget Sound would be
severely limited due to the high cost of the explicit
time-stepping integration scheme, especially for areas
of great depth such as the Sound.
o One of the developed models (Jamart and Winter 1978)
employs a unique approach in solving the time and space-
dependent, 2-dimensional motion equations through a
harmonic analysis utilizing Fourier transformations.
The result is a very flexible technique which appears to
accurately simulate complex tides and circulation with
minimal cost, since the time variable is chosen
independent of the other variables. A major limitation
of this model, however, is in its assumption of vertical
averaging of flows and currents. Thus, it is limited in
its applicability to areas where stratified estuarine
flows are weak or nonexistent. The model holds promise,
however, for two types of applications of interest: a
relatively crude, depth-averaged simulation of the
entire Puget Sound to provide approximate tidal flows on
a regional basis; and, refined applications in
subregions of Puget Sound where vertical mixing is
dominant over estuarine circulation, e.g., Dyes Inlet or
Southern Puget Sound.
o A series of transport, water quality, and ecosystem
models has been developed for Puget Sound (Water
Resources Engineers 1975) for EPA. Two of the models
suffer from the requirement of field observations to
ensure that generated flows and currents are realistic
of the prototype for layered estuarine-type circulation.
These models cannot be considered predictive. However, for
well defined scenarios of transport dynamics (made possible
through seasonal field data, for instance), they can convenient-
ly provide compatible input to the developed water quality and
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ecosystem models through which various waste disposal schemes
could be examined. The value of adapting the Water Resources
Engineers (WRE) models for the EPA model development program is
discussed later in this report. Special consideration must be
given to the availability of and/or additional requirements for
field data which would be representative of average seasonal and
critical conditions for waste assimilation in the Sound.
A third transport model developed by WRE (a link-node
model), by nature of its pseudotreatment of horizontal motion
(as well as being depth-averaged), must be very carefully
calibrated and adjusted through comparison to field observations
before confidence in its predictive ability can be achieved.
Properly tested, however, this type of model could be a valuable
tool for two general types of applications: a relatively crude,
depth-averaged simulation of the entire Puget Sound to provide
approximate tidal flows on a regional basis; and, refined
applications in subregions of Puget Sound where vertical mixing
is dominant over estuarine circulation.
In summary, none of the models in their present form meets
management needs as outlined in Chapter 3. Major limitations
include:
o Dimensionality - Many of the models use 1-dimensional
formulations which represent over-simplified systems.
In making water quality management decisions for Puget
Sound, knowledge of vertical mixing and transport
processes is required. Important lateral concentration
gradients are lost in the "average" quantities produced
by these models.
o Spatial Resolution - Some of the formulations utilize
grids to break up the study area into workable units.
Variable values calculated by the model represent
average values over the entire grid element. Therefore,
use of large elements leads to decreased spatial
resolution. Many of the models lacked grid flexibility;
the grid size could not be altered easily. To evaluate
water quality management options, detailed information
in certain areas (around waste inputs and other areas of
interest) and general descriptions in others are
required. Thus, lack of grid flexibility severely
limits the applicability of some models.
o Site-Specific - Some of the models are site-specific.
The assumptions and basic equations used in the models
are only applicable to a certain area or water body
type. Although these models may have limited value in
application to small subsystems of Puget Sound, overall
water quality management decisions would require a
series of models for application to all subsystems of
Puget Sound.
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o Verification and Calibration - Many of the models lacked
adequate calibration and verification. Before these
models can be used to make water quality management
decisions, the formulation must be verified and the
coefficients must be calibrated for the area being
analyzed.
Two of the models reviewed, however, warrant further inves-
tigation. The model developed by Jamart and Winter (1978)
employs a unique solution technique which utilizes Fourier
transformations. This technique is very efficient and flexible
and appears to accurately simulate complex tides and circulation
patterns in Puget Sound. The set of models developed by WRE
(1975) utilizes a link-node system representation which has been
successfully applied in several other areas. This set of models
is complex, however, and would require considerable calibration
before application to Puget Sound.
Prior to recommending application, a review is needed of
other existing hydrodynamic models to determine whether one of
these may be applicable to Puget Sound and require lower devel-
opment costs. The following section is a brief presentation of
several mathematical models which are available and could be
applied to Puget Sound.
Models Developed For Other Areas
Brief Model Overview
This section presents the findings of a literature survey
of other existing mathematical models for hydrodynamic simu-
lations of estuaries, lakes, and oceans. Previous reviews of
the state-of-the-art have been made by various authors, e.g.,
Hinwood and Wallis (1975a), Jirka et al. (1975), JAYCOR (1979),
Najarian and Thatcher (1980), Pagenkopf and Fong (1980), and
Najarian (1981). Some of the findings of these investigations
have been incorporated into the present study. In addition,
personal contacts with several individuals have been made to
solicit opinions and more detailed information on the capabil-
ities and limitations of certain models.
To facilitate discussion of the major findings of the model
evaluations, models are grouped according to their dimensional
treatment, i.e., 1-dimensional in the horizontal, 2-dimensional
in the horizontal, 2-dimensional in the vertical, and 3-dimen-
sional. Major model evaluation criteria were as described
earlier in this chapter.
Since literally hundreds of mathematical models for hydro-
dynamic and water quality simulation exist, a coarse primary
screening was required to eliminate models having the least
relevance to the present study objectives. A major criterion
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used was that models be well-documented, available in the United
States or Canada, and if possible, be in the public domain.
Table 5-2 presents the models selected for more detailed eval-
uation.
One-Dimensional Network Models
One-dimensional network models, although admittedly crude
in terms of spatial representation, are of interest for possible
application to certain subsystems of Puget Sound, such as Dyes
and Sinclair Inlets, or Southern Puget Sound, during periods
when the water column is approximately laterally and vertically
mixed. The accuracy of 1-dimensional network models depends on
whether the underlying assumptions of fully vertical and lateral
mixing are met. Of further importance is the accurate computa-
tion of the dynamically varying flow field to avoid ambiguous
dispersion concepts (i.e., steady state or tidally averaged).
According to Najarian and Thatcher (1980), there are at
least 15 models which fit into the 1-dimensional network catego-
ry. Many of these are modifications of the link-node approach
developed by Chen and Orlob (1972) , which is widely used in
estuary simulation and has been previously applied to portions
of Puget Sound (Water Resources Engineers, Inc., 1975). Another
network formulation is the MIT Dynamic Network Model (MIT-DNM)
resulting from several research projects at MIT (Harleman et al.
1977) . Unlike the technique developed by Chen and Orlob,
MIT-DNM is not a link-node formulation, but rather a network
formulation wherein each element, or reach, of the network is of
variable area.
The major differences between the above two models are in
the incorporation of density-gradient effects and dispersion
effects on mass transport. The MIT model includes the density
gradient term in the longitudinal momentum equation, whereas the
link-node model does not. The density gradient term allows
representation of mass transport due to longitudinal salinity
gradients within the estuary, which has been shown by Najarian
and Thatcher (19 80) to typically account for 5-10 percent of the
mass transport. Typically in the link-node model, adjustments
in Manning's "n" (bottom friction) must be made to artificially
compensate for the lack of inclusion of the density gradient
term. Thus, model "tuning" of coefficients becomes more crit-
ical in the link-node model.
Dispersion effects in the link-node model are purely a
result of the numerical technique used and have no physical
basis. The numerical dispersion results from the first order,
explicit finite difference treatment of the advective transport
terms. Further adjustments of the Manning's bottom friction
coefficients must typically be made to compensate for the lack
of user-control on the dispersion phenomenon. In the MIT model,
a more sophisticated numerical method has been employed which is
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TABLE 5-2. MODELS SELECTED FOR DETAILED EVALUATION
Spatial Domain
Model
l-Oa
2-0°
3-D
Temporal Domain
Steady Tidally
State Averaged Oynamlc
Predictive Capability
Fully Diagnostic Convective-
Prognostic (Oensity) Diffusion
Practicality
Users
limericai users	netative
Tech0 Manual Statuse Cost'
Chen and Orlob, 1972 N
Harleman et al. 1977 N
Leendertse, 1970
Taylor and Pagen-
kopf, 1981
Wang and Connor, 1975
Jamart and Winter,
1978
Blumberg, 1977
Edlnger and Buchak,
1979
Najarlan et al.
1982
Norton et al. 1973
Street et al. 1977
Wang and Kravitz, 1980
Wang, 1979
Winter, 1973
Hurlburt and Thompson,
1980
Wang and Connor, 1975
Blumberg and Mellor,
1978
Leendertse and L1u,
1973, 1975
Sengupta etal.
1978
Sheng and Butler,
1982
Simons, 1972
Swanson, jn prep.
Bennett, 1977
King. 1982
Huang, 1977
Lick, 1976
Lee et al. 1982
Pearce and Cooper,
1981
V
V
V
LE
LE
LE
LE
LE
LE
LE
S
Isaj1 et «1.
1982
LA
LA
LE
LE
LE
LE
LE
R
LE
R
R
R
FU
FU
EFD
IFD
IFD
IFD
EFE
H
EFD
IFD
IFD
EFD
EFD
IFD
EFE
IFD
EFE
ESM
EFD
EFD
IDE
ESM
ISM
IFD
EFE
IFD
IFD
IFD
EFD
EFD
PU
PU
PU
PR I
PU
PRI
PR I
PU
PU
PU
PRI
PU
PRI
PRI
PRI
PU
PRI
PU
PU
PU
F
PRI
PRI
PU
PU
PU
PU
PU
PRI
L
L
M
M
H-H
L
M-H
M
M-H
M-H
M
M-H
L
M
M-H
H
H
H
M
M-H
M
M
H
M
M
M
M
M
a N-Network.
^ V*Vert1cal1y Integrated, LE«Latera11y Integrated Levels, S'Simllarlty Solution.
c LA3Layers, LE«Levels, FU»Cont1nuou$ Functions, R*R1g1d.
d EFDsExpl1c1t Finite Difference, IFD=«!mpl1c1t Finite Difference, EFE*Expl1c1t Finite Element, IFE»Impl1c1t Finite Element, ESM«Exp11c1t Split Mode,
ISM=Imp licit Split Mode, H»Harmonic Decomposition.
* PU-PubHc Domain, PRI»Pr1vate Domain, F«Non U.S.
f H-HIgh, H'Medium.
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substantially free from numerical dispersion compared to the
link-node model. The dispersion relationship incorporated into
the MIT model accounts for the real physical effects of
density-induced vertical stratification and turbulent shear
effects on internal dispersion. Dispersion coefficients are
assigned based on observed physical phenomena in the estuary, as
opposed to artificial adjustments of bottom function, as in the
link-node model.
Both the link-node model by Chen and Orlob and MIT-DNM are
designed to handle most of the important water quality parame-
ters, including phytoplankton biomass simulation. Either of
these models could be applied with minor or no modifications to
portions of the Puget Sound system which can be characterized
adequately by a 1-dimensional network representation. However,
according to the above discussion and findings presented in
other reviews (Najarian and Thatcher 1980; Pagenkopf and Fong
1980), it is concluded that the MIT-DNM model is a superior
model in all aspects in the category of 1-dimensional network
models.
Two-Dimensional Vertically Averaged Models
Vertically averaged, 2-dimensional models have proved to be
quite useful, especially in modeling the hydrodynamics and water
quality of relatively shallow estuaries and lakes. Possible
applications of such models for Puget Sound would include
Bellingham Bay (North Sound), Dyes and Sinclair Inlets, and
portions of Southern Puget Sound during periods when the water
column is reasonably well mixed. The 2-dimensional models would
be more appropriate than 1-dimensional network models if spatial
resolution in the lateral direction (cross channel) is required.
This might be the case when examining the local effects of a
sewage discharge or waste source located in a relatively shallow
and wide (2-dimensionally shaped) area. Additional applications
would be required in areas where tidal flats are extensive.
A review of these models' applications, limitations, and
general characteristics is given by TRACOR (19 71), Jirka et al.
(1975), Hinwood and Wallis (1975a, b) , and Pagenkopf and Fong
(1980) . The crucial assumption of these models is the vertical-
ly well-mixed layer from the bottom to the free surface.
Over 50 models exist which fit into the 2-dimensional,
vertically averaged class. Some of the more prominent models
that have been widely used and publicized include those by
Leendertse (1970), Wang and Connor (1975), and Taylor and
Pagenkopf (1981). As pointed out by Jirka et al. (1975), most
models of this type are quite similar in terms of physical
formulation and mathematical refinement. Differences usually
exist only with respect to the computational technique such as
finite element vs. finite difference methods. For purposes of
the present study, model selection has been based on:
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o The model's prior performance in similar situations,
o Generality of the model for practical, realistic
simulations.
o Sophistication of the numerical technique and resul-
tant costs.
o Model availability/transferability.
Two models that are believed to best represent the
state-of-the-art of generalized 2-dimensional, vertically-
averaged, hydrodynamic-dispersion models are the MIT finite
element model by Wang and Connor (1975) , and the finite differ-
ence model by Taylor and Pagenkopf (1981). The model developed
at MIT by Wang and Connor is one of the most widely used models
of its type in existence. This model has the advantage of being
flexible in grid size, but the disadvantage of high computing
cost due to the explicit-type Courant limited time stepping
technique. The model by Taylor and Pagenkopf has the advantage
of moderate computing cost and the disadvantage of a fixed grid
size. However, this limitation can be overcome somewhat by
using a nested grid. Both models include the important physical
processes of tides, wind stress, multiple discharges, Coriolis
force, convective accelerations, and both have compatible
convection-diffusion routines capable of simulating salinity,
temperature, suspended solids, and general water quality con-
stituents.
A major feature of the model by Taylor and Pagenkopf is the
capability to simulate the effects of alternate flooding and
drying of tidal flats, both in the hydrodynamic and water
quality calculations. This feature is rarely found in similar
models, and has been thoroughly and successfully tested in a
number of areas including Flushing Bay, (NY); Jubail Industrial
City Harbor, Saudi Arabia; Anclote Anchorage, and Biscayne Bay,
(FL) (Taylor and Pagenkopf 1981). Areas exhibiting substantial
tidal flats in Puget Sound include, but are not limited to,
extreme portions of Southern Puget Sound, Nisqually Reach,
Skagit Bay, Port Susan, and Bellingham Bay.
Based on the factors considered above, either the MIT
finite element model by Wang and Connor (1975), or the finite
difference flooding and drying model by Taylor and Pagenkopf
(1981) would be adaptable to use in Puget Sound. Choice of the
model would depend on the requirements of a specific applica-
tion.
Two-Dimensional Laterally Averaged Models
When viewing Puget Sound as one large, integrated system, a
reasonable characterization of flow is that of an interconnected
network of long, deep, and narrow passageways. In turn, these
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passageways primarily exhibit strong stratification due to
salinity and temperature differences which control vertical
mixing and the distribution and long term net transport of
contaminants. A 2-dimensional approach, oriented along the
vertical and longitudinal axes of the estuary, is justified
because of the narrow and deep nature of the system. The
advantages of such a model are many fold. First, such a model
could provide system-wide information on interbasin exchange of
flow and contaminants as well as overall net mass transport and
flushing. Second, such a model is desirable in providing the
proper boundary conditions for any subsequent sub-basin model
application (which may involve a more detailed 3-dimensional
approach). Third, for relatively moderate costs, a 2-dimension-
al laterally-averaged model would allow consideration of the
dominate vertical and longitudinal hydrodynamic and mixing
processes occurring in Puget Sound. The 2-dimensional laterally
averaged models, however, do require the assumption of uniform
lateral mixing in the cross channel direction.
There are a number of 2-dimensional, laterally-averaged
models in the literature, several of which were reviewed in this
study. Model limitations that were common were: lack of
branching capabilities, high computational costs, and extensive
modifications required for application to Puget Sound. Three
models are presented below which could be beneficially applied
to Puget Sound.
Edinger and Buchak (1978). A model for application to deep
reservoirs and lakes has been developed by Edinger and Buchak
(1978) for the COE. This model, called "LARM," can
realistically portray the effects of variable widths as well as
depths on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the system. More
significantly, LARM allows a larger time step to be used in the
computations. This capability greatly reduces the computation
time otherwise required in hydrodynamic model application to
Puget Sound. LARM has been verified on a number of large
reservoir systems, including Sutton Reservoir in West Virginia
(Edinger and Buchak 1979) and Center Hill Lake in Tennessee
(Gordon 1980) .
Although this model is considered one of the more advanced
in the literature, several modifications would be required
before application to Puget Sound. The required modifications
would include:
o Incorporation of the additional density modifiers
(salinity and suspended solids) that occur in
estuaries.
o Specification of proper sources, sinks, and settling
velocities for suspended solids.
o Incorporation of a branching or network capability
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such that multiple interconnecting reaches can be
simulated (i.e., the entire Puget Sound).
o Incorporation of desired water quality variables and
associated sources, sinks, and decay functions in the
conservation of mass equation.
o Incorporation of appropriate ocean boundary conditions
to drive the model.
The decision to select the LARM model and incorporate the above
features involves a trade-off between allowable development
costs and the availability of other, more appropriate, models.
Wang (1979) . Recently, Wang (1979) developed a finite
element model of 2-dimensional stratified estuarine flow. This
model employs a triangular grid scheme in the vertical, which
has the advantage of flexibility in allowing greater resolution
where needed, and cruder representation in areas exhibiting
noncritical flow behavior (i.e., deep layers). Wang (1979)
emphasizes the strength of his approach in analyzing net
circulation in estuaries with irregular bottom topography when
accurate boundary conditions are specified. The finite element
technique used is explicit, and thus requires a small time step.
Therefore, applications to deep estuaries could become
prohibitive due to significant computation time. Additional
modifications would also be necessary before application to
Puget Sound. These include development of a branching
capability for simulating multiple channels, and incorporation
of temperature, suspended solids, and other desired water
quality variables in the appropriate equations along with proper
sources, sinks, and decay rates.
Najarian et al. (1982) . A series of models for estuary
applications was begun by Blumberg (1977), with subsequent
modification and improvement by Wang and Kravitz (1980) and
Najarian et al. (1982) . The above investigators have
extensively studied the importance of properly assigning the
coefficients of momentum viscosity and mass diffusivity in a
2-dimensional, laterally-averaged model. These authors have
demonstrated the sensitivity of the model response to the above
parameters as affected by the stratification and net circulation
in an estuary.
Wang and Kravitz (1980) improved Blumberg's model by
adopting a semi-implicit scheme which allowed increases in the
time step by one to two orders of magnitude. This feature is
especially critical for model applications in deep water systems
such as Puget Sound. Further modifications were made by
Najarian et al. (1982) . They incorporated nonlinear convective
terms in the momentum equation, and adjusted ocean boundary
condition specifications to account for longitudinal velocity
and salinity gradient approximations at these boundaries. In
addition, the original single-channel model was extended to
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include multiple, interconnected branches. Within each channel,
the model physics are identical to the single-channel model, and
at the junctions the continuity and salt conservation equations
are modified to provide for the mass and salt exchange.
Blumberg (1977) applied his model to the Potomac Estuary to
investigate the net circulation and salt distribution in the
Potomac. Applications of the modified model were also made by
Wang and Kravitz (1980) to the Potomac Estuary, resulting in
successful simulation of the stratification and destratification
of the water column due to wind stress. The results from these
two applications indicate that the model appears very promising
as a means of addressing circulation and water quality in
stratified estuaries.
Najarian et al. (1981) applied the branching model to the
Chesapeake Bay and its major tributaries to investigate effects
of fresh water flows and ocean boundary conditions on estuary
salt distributions. The model successfully reproduced observed
trends in bay-wide salinity distributions.
Of all existing 2-dimensional laterally-averaged models,
the model by Najarian et al. (1981) probably offers the most
appropriate technique for application to Puget Sound. Advan-
tages of this model include:
o It is based on sound theory and research.
o It is capable of representing most of the major
physical processes in estuaries (however, temperature,
suspended solids, and water quality variables are not
included).
o It utilizes an efficient semi-implicit numerical
scheme.
o It has been verified on numerous occasions against
both analytical solutions and actual estuaries.
o It was developed under public funding (Maryland State
Power Plant Siting Board, National Science Foundation,
and NOAA) and is therefore readily available.
Necessary further modifications required for Puget Sound
would include:
o Incorporation of the additional density modifiers,
temperature, and suspended solids, along with the
proper sources, sinks, and decay or settling rates.
o Incorporation of desired water quality variables and
associated sources, sinks, and decay functions.
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The above modifications are not major, in that the bulk of the
model theory and coding would remain unchanged.
Three-Dimensional and Layered Models
For purposes of the Puget Sound model development program,
3-dimensional models are of primary interest in providing more
detailed representation of a particular basin within the system,
which may exhibit important lateral processes as well as verti-
cal and longitudinal behavior. A primary example would be the
Central Basin, which receives wastes from multiple discharges
along its shores, is relatively wide in certain areas, and
exhibits complex net transport such as around Vashon Island.
Another example is the Whidbey Basin, which has both shallow and
deep areas, exhibits large lateral and vertical density gradi-
ents, and receives major freshwater inputs and waste loadings.
Fully 3-dimensional and layered models have been the
subject of considerable attention and research over the last
decade. Although still a developing field, there are a number
of models which have been applied with moderate success to
estuarine, oceanic, and lacustrine systems. The difficulty in
this type of modeling is in the specification of the internal
turbulent momentum transfer and mass diffusivities, which
ideally are calibrated with field observations, thus making
availability of adequate prototype data an important consid-
eration. An additional factor of great importance is the
relative cost of running a given model, which is directly
dependent on the numerical scheme used.
For purposes of discussion and comparison, 3-dimensional
models can be separated into four main categories: layered,
leveled, rigid-lid, and continuous function. Each type of model
has certain advantages and disadvantages, primarily related to
treatment of the vertical processes of momentum and mass ex-
change, as well as numerical stability of the time integration.
Layered Models. The philosophy of layered models follows
closely the ideas involved in producing the vertically-averaged
2-dimensional	models discussed earlier. There are, however,
four additional processes that need to be incorporated into the
general description of the circulation and mass transport.
Layered models require at least one boundary (interface) where
vertical mass and momentum transfer occurs due to advective and
diffusive processes. Thus, at this interface there is vertical
advection which is determined by: the strict application of the
3-dimensional	continuity equation; momentum transfer through
interfacial shear stresses from one layer to the other; mass
transfer through advection; and mass transfer through diffusive
processes. Conceptually, layered models differ from vertically-
averaged models only by their mathematical representation of the
transfer processes occurring at layer interfaces.
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Multi-layer models have been developed by Hurlburt and
Thompson (1980) and Wang and Connor (1975) . Both of these
models have two layers, where the density of each layer must be
specified and remains constant throughout space and time. Thus,
these models do not treat density-induced transport due to
salinity and temperature effects. In layered models, as opposed
to leveled models, the depth of the interface is spatially and
temporally varying. Therefore, it is very difficult to impose a
3-dimensional continuity equation at this interface with the
intent of computing the vertical velocities. Although interfa-
cial mass transfer is discussed in the Wang and Connor (1975)
model and provisions are made to account for it, its presence in
this model is irrelevant, since temporal variations of density
in the two layers are ignored. This implies that there is no
salt transfer from the bottom layer to the top layer. In
summary, therefore, in the Wang and Connor (197 5) model, only
interfacial momentum transfer is incorporated; the remaining
processes that are active at this boundary are simply discussed
in the model development.
Leveled Models. A number of investigators have developed
multi-level models for estuarine, oceanic, and lacustrine
applications (Leendertse and Liu 1973, 1975; Simons 1972;
Blumberg and Mellor 1978; Sengupta et al. 1978; Lee et al. 1978;
Swanson in prep.; King 1982; and Sheng and Butler 1982). Of
these models, the 3-dimensional discrete element model developed
by Sheng and Butler (1982) shows the greatest potential for
adaptation to Puget Sound. This model is an extension of
earlier models developed by Sheng et al. (1978) and Sheng
(1980). Special computational features included in the model
have led to a very efficient and versatile 3-dimensional model
suitable for long term simulations. The model also includes
both temperature and salt in the density and mass conservation
computations. The model has been compared to analytical
solutions and physical experiments for tidal flows. It has been
applied to Lake Erie for wind stress simulation, and to the
Mississippi Sound for simulation of tidal and wind induced
currents. Further testing of the model is underway for specific
applications to sediment transport simulation.
Sheng and Butler (1982) point out that a wide variation
exists among the various forms of the vertical turbulence
stability functions determined empirically by various investiga-
tors, and suggest that the appropriate stability function is
dependent on the type of numerical scheme used and the nature of
the water body under study. Thus, site-specific testing of
empirical relationships for vertical eddy diffusivity will
probably be required for any model application to Puget Sound.
Further research is underway to develop a second-order closure
model of internal turbulence which is less dependent on empiri-
cal information (Sheng and Butler 1982) .
Necessary data for calibration of the empirical relation
ships and coefficients are required. Computation requirements
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have been minimized by the incorporation of an implicit
integration scheme and vertical and horizontal coordinate and
transformation schemes into the code.
It is believed that the above model by Sheng and Butler
(1982) offers the best overall 3-dimensional technique for
purposes of EPA's Puget Sound model development program. The
only further modifications required would be incorporation of
additional water quality parameters and appropriate sources,
sinks, and decay functions.
Rigid-Lid Models. Rigid-lid models have been developed by
several investigators, including Bennett (1977), Huang (1977),
Lick (1976) , Sheng et al. (1978) and Lee et al. (1982) . The
"rigid-lid" approach essentially involves elimination of surface
gravity wave effects (tides) from the governing motion
equations. These models are primarily intended for simulation
of large-scale, relatively low frequency forcing phenomena such
as wind stress and surface heat flux, which dominate large lake
circulation. The one advantage of this approach is that the
computational costs have been minimized by the ability to choose
a large time step. However, since more efficient numerical
schemes for 3-dimensional free-surface models are now available
(Sheng and Butler 1982) , there is no longer an advantage to
choosing a rigid-lid approach. Furthermore, it is extremely
doubtful that a rigid-lid model can adequately simulate a water
body such as Puget Sound where circulation and mass transport
are dominated by the short period (12 hours) free-surface tidal
wave forces.
Continuous Function Models. All 3-dimensional models
discussed previously divide the vertical water column into
discrete steps of finite thickness (layers or levels).
Alternatively, continuous function models allow for a continuous
description of the dependent variables in the vertical
direction. This is accomplished by allowing the dependent
variables to be expanded in terms of a series of time and
spatially varying coefficients and a set of mathematical
functions which are continuous over the vertical. This approach
has been the subject of numerous modeling studies, but only
recently have models been developed which offer general capabil-
ity for estuarine and coastal application. Two models of
primary note are those by Pearce and Cooper (1981) and Isaji et
al. (1982) . The model by Pearce and Cooper (1981) employs a
series of cosine funtions to define the vertical expansion
series while the model by Isaji et al. (1982) utilizes Legendre
polynomials.
The major advantage of continuous function models is in
their ability to simulate rapid vertical gradients in horizontal
velocities such as surface current shear induced by a wind
stress. Continuous function models, therefore, are of primary
interest in simulation of wide open, coastal, lake, or ocean
systems where wind effects are important and where the primary
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interest is in the trajectory of a surface pollutant, such as an
oil spill. At present, continuous function models have not been
developed which are also capable of prognostic simulation of the
interactive effects of density gradient induced flows
(temperature and salt) as well as the 3-dimensional mass trans-
port of contaminants.
Based on the above findings, the model by Sheng and Butler
(1982) is the most appropriate technique in the category of 3-
dimensional and layered models for application to Puget Sound.
Value of Existing Models
The objectives of the modeling effort for Puget Sound are
to identify depositional areas for contaminated solids (fate of
solids) and to determine retention time of dissolved pollutants
and suspended solids (interbasin transfer, overall circulation
patterns, fate of solids). Although major concern is focussed
on urbanized embayments because of known or suspected pollution-
related impacts on beneficial uses, an overall Puget Sound model
is necessary to supply important general information on net
circulation, mass transport, and boundary conditions to drive
more detailed subarea models.
Fifteen model applications to various portions of Puget
Sound were reviewed in the second section of this chapter. The
purpose of that review was to determine if any existing models
of Puget Sound could be adapted by EPA as part of their long-
range study on developing comprehensive waste management strat-
egies for the Sound. It was concluded that none of the existing
models were adequate for this purpose because they are limited
by either dimensional or spatial treatment, empirical depen-
dence, or lack of generality. None of the models applied to
Puget Sound adequately describes overall circulation patterns,
fate of solids, and interbasin transfer on a Sound-wide basis.
It is evident that a model must be developed to provide
system-wide information for use in more detailed formulations
and to assess the sensitivity of model results to variations of
important driving variables and boundary conditions. One option
is to modify a model already developed for Puget Sound. Two of
the modeling studies were examined in more detail and compared
to the present state-of-the-art for estuary hydrodynamic and
water quality modeling. These included the model by Jamart and
Winter (1978) and the set of models by Water Resources Engineers
(1975), which included a steady state fjord hydrodynamic model
by Winter (1973).
The model by Jamart and Winter (19 78) utilizes a unique
approach in solving the time- and space-dependent 2-dimensional
(depth averaged) motion equations through a harmonic decomposi-
tion employing Fourier coefficients. The result is a model with
a very flexible finite element grid and very efficient
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simulation costs, since the time step can be chosen
independently from all other variables. Upon closer
examination, however, it is found that this technique, in
comparison with other existing techniques, has several
limitations. One major limitation is in its assumption of
vertical averaging of flows and currents, thus limiting its
applicability to areas where stratification is weak (shallow,
well-mixed areas). A second major limitation is that it has
been designed for purely periodic tidal motion, and cannot
simulate more complicated time series events such as caused by
wind, storm surges, high river discharge, etc. It is vital
that, for future application to various water quality and waste
management studies, any selected model be sufficiently general
to handle a wide variety of prototype scenarios. Additional
assumptions made in this model are omission of Coriolis forces,
wind stress, and all non-linear terms of the motion equations,
such as the convective accelerations. In addition, the model
has never been coupled to the mass conservation equation, and
its ability to adequately conserve mass is in question.
The hydrodynamic models developed by WRE (1975) for Puget
Sound include: a vertically 2-dimensional steady-state fjord
circulation model for simplified geometries (Winter 1973); a 3-
dimensional field current processor which interpolates and
smooths data into a 3-dimensional continuous (steady-state)
form; and a vertically-averaged link-node estuary model which
uses multiple-branched 1-dimensional channels to provide pseudo-
simulation of 2-dimensional horizontal flows. Upon closer
examination, it is determined that the first two models are
severely limited in their general applicability due to their
dependence on prototype field data. For example, it was report-
ed by WRE (1975) that the fjord model by Winter (1973) did not
conserve mass, and calculated currents were required to be
arbitrarily adjusted until mass conservation was achieved.
Similarly, the field current processor involves considerable
smoothing and adjustment of the 3-dimensional steady-state
currents in order to achieve reasonable mass continuity in the
water quality modules. Neither of these approaches can be
considered predictive, in that the simulations that can be
achieved are only representative of the specific period during
which the field data (upon which the model is based) were
collected.
The depth-averaged estuary link-node model developed by WRE
(Chen and Orlob 1972), was discussed in detail under the review
of existing 1-dimensional models developed for Puget Sound. The
findings of this review indicate that the link-node model
involves a considerable approximation of the true physical
processes of dispersion and mixing within an estuary. The
bottom friction coefficients in each channel must be manually
adjusted to compensate for the lack of consideration of turbu-
lence-induced and density-inhibited longitudinal and vertical
dispersion effects.
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A second option is to adapt to Puget Sound a model that has
been developed for other areas and comparable conditions.
Ideally, the model would be a 3-dimensional representation of
the entire system; however, the costs of such a model would be
prohibitive, especially for long-term transient simulations.
Fortunately, a 2-dimensional, laterally-averaged approximation
of the Sound as a whole is justifiable because of the generally
narrow and deep nature of Puget Sound. This type of model could
be used to describe mass transport, net circulation patterns,
and boundary conditions for more detailed models of subareas.
The state-of-the-art model review summarized in the previ-
ous section identified the model by Najarian et al. (1981) as
the optimum existing technique for application to Puget Sound as
a whole. Modifications that would need to be made for Puget
Sound are not major. The model by Sheng and Butler (1982) is
recommended for adaption to the Central Basin. It is a 3-
dimensional leveled model that has a horizontal coordinate
transformation scheme that provides flexibility in grid layout.
Other key features of this model include an implicit scheme for
the external free-surface mode and a vertical coordinate
transformation scheme which provides the same number of continu-
ous layers throughout the system. The model should be capable
of predicting circulation patterns, mixing processes, solids
transport and accumulation, and other water quality variables on
a local basis. Specific areas (e.g., urbanized embayments) may
be considered on a smaller scale basis by adjusting the grid
elements and time steps.
Field Data Requirements and Availability
This section describes the kinds of data needed for devel-
opment and application of water quality models for Puget Sound.
In addition, the currently available sources for hydrodynamic
and water quality data are summarized.
Field Data Requirements
Prototype field data are required for proper calibration
and verification of models. The necessity of collecting addi-
tional field data as part of a modeling study of Puget Sound
will entirely depend on the adequacy and completeness of exist-
ing data sources. Ideally, two completely independent sets of
prototype data should be available: one for model calibrations,
and one for model verification. It may be sufficient to use
different seasons of the same year, but use of noncontiguous
periods is a more rigorous test of the model.
In general, the following types of data are required for
both model calibration and verification.
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Meteorological Data.
o Wind speed and direction on a 6- to 12-hour frequency at
several locations throughout the study area.
o At the same locations, parameters are needed for
calculation of surface heat flux, including incoming
solar radiation, air temperature, and relative humidity.
o Records of precipitation and evaporation on a daily
basis.
o Barometric pressure data on a 6- to 12-hour frequency.
Boundary Conditions Data.
o Tidal records are required at the entrances of
Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass from the Strait of
Juan de Fuca for the duration of the model simulation
period (days-weeks). It is essential that time
synchronization of the data be accurate due to the
short phase lags characteristic of the area. Similar
data are also required for Bellingham Bay, since it is
a separate system off the Strait of Georgia.
o Temperature and salinity distribution over depth and
time are required at the same locations to enable
accurate specification of heat and salt fluxes through
the ocean boundaries. Frequencies of data records
should be adequate to define behavior during a complete
tidal cycle, and long term behavior over several
days-weeks.
o Specifications of water quality conditions are probably
not critical at ocean boundaries, since these
boundaries are chosen far from the major contaminant
sources. Estimates of constituent concentrations of
these locations can probably be made from a limited data
set.
o Fresh water inflows from all major rivers and streams
are required on an approximately daily basis.
In Situ Hydrodynamic Data.
o Tidal records at several locations spread throughout
the Puget Sound system are required for comparison to
model results. Again, it is critical that time
synchronization of the data be accurate, since the study
area represents a very small portion of a very long
period (tidal) wave.
o Iri situ (Eulerian) current measurements are desirable
for comparison to model computed currents. Locations of
current meter arrays must be carefully selected due to
the high cost of deploying and maintaining deep water
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moorings. The most critical locations for current
measurements are in areas where flow phenomena are
likely to be most complex. These areas include
the vicinities of major sills where upwelling and
downwelling occur, and in the channels around Vashon
Island where complex net circulation is known to occur.
Duration of current measurements should be adequate to
define both short term tidal frequencies, as well as
residual currents caused by lower frequency phenomenon
(winds, density flows, atmospheric pressure, etc.).
o Vertical temperature and salinity profiles should be
available at various locations along the longitudinal
axis of the Sound's major sub-basins to define the
spatial and time varying distribution of the density
structure. This type of data is considered critical in
achieving meaningful model calibration and verification,
since the density structure is closely associated with
vertical mixing rates and long term net transport
throughout the system. Ideally, the temperature-
salinity profiles should be collected as synoptically as
possible. This type of information should be available
on a monthly-seasonal basis to indicate long term
changes in the density structure.
Water Quality.
o Depending on the study area, detailed information on
major waste loadings is required in terms of flow rates
and contaminant concentrations.
o The above information is also required for the major
rivers and streams in the area.
o In situ monitoring of water quality data is required,
with inclusion of DO, BOD, and suspended solids at a
minimum.
o For simulation of suspended solids or sediments, field
and laboratory tests should be made to determine grain
size distributions, specific gravity, and settling
characteristics of the material under investigation.
These tests must obviously be made on a site-specific
basis.
The field data requirements discussed above are primarily
focused on the calibration and verification of a 2-dimensional,
laterally-averaged model of the entire Puget Sound system.
Field data requirements for testing individual basin models
parallel those for the 2-dimensional laterally-averaged model.
However, for local, site-specific water quality studies,
sub-basin models may require specialized data requirements.
These programs are more appropriately designed after the specif-
ic objectives of the site-specific studies are defined.
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Available Field Data for Puget Sound
A substantial amount of data is available for many phys-
ical/chemical parameters in Puget Sound, but it is not in an
organized, comprehensive format. Several agencies in the State
of Washington have collected field observations. Many of these
studies were oriented towards describing specific water quality
problems and therefore generated detailed measurements for
limited areas. There has been little past effort to combine the
data sets to form a comprehensive data base and index for
general use. The local agencies most frequently involved with
data collection on Puget Sound include: Metro; EPA; WDOE; the
University of Washington; and NOAA, including the National
Weather Service. Other agencies that collect data on an occa-
sional, site-specific basis are WDF, the U.S. Army COE, and
various engineering and oceanographic consulting firms. Table
5-3 summarizes the major available data sources.
General Studies and Data Bases.	The University of
Washington continually conducts studies to measure water quality
parameters in Puget Sound. Most projects are limited to a
specific study area, but many different regions of Puget Sound
have been considered. Data have been collected throughout all
of the sub-basins of Puget Sound, the North Sound, and up into
the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the San Juan Island Passages.
The data are usually held by the project researchers and are not
entered into a central data base. Collias (1970) indexed all of
the University of Washington data through 1966. This index was
updated by Evans-Hamilton Inc. (Cox pers. comm.). These volumes
represent the most comprehensive data collection available.
Typical parameters recorded in the index include depth, date,
location, temperature, salinity, DO, and less frequently,
dissolved inorganic phosphate, sulfite waste liquor, nitrate or
nitrite-nitrogen, silicate, and alkalinity. Data sources are
listed for each entry in the index. The data were also plotted
and put into an atlas for quick reference (Collias et al. 1974).
Collias and Andreeva (1977) compiled a bibliography of
references on Puget Sound, including many quantitative studies.
The physical model at the University of Washington has
served as an aid in qualitatively describing the hydrodynamic
processes in Puget Sound and locating problem areas such as
regions of possible pollutant accumulation and stagnation areas.
The model, however, is not capable of generating accurate
numerical data for use in calibration and verification of a
mathematical mode. The physical model could best be used as a
guide in future research efforts.
NOAA sponsored a series of studies (MESA) and publications
on Puget Sound from 1976 to present. NOAA currently publishes
an updated bibliography and data catalog that describes the data
base (U.S. DOC 1980a). Measurements include currents, trace
metals, suspended sediment, salinity/temperature/depth (STD) or
conductivity/temperature/depth (CTD), phytoplankton, wind, and
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Table 5-3. Available Data Sources
Heq ion
Currents
Tides
STD
Transport
Nutrients
DO
Suspended
Sol ids
Meterological
Data
North Sound
Strait of Juan
de Fuca
U.S. DOC 1982 Collias 1970
U.S. DOC 19 80b
U.S. DOC 1980b U.S. DOC 1980b Collias 1970
U.S. DOC 1980a U.S. DOC 1982 U.S. DOC 1980a
WDOE
Collias 1970
WDOli
Collias 1970
WDOE
NCC
Collias 1970 Collias 1970 U.S. DOC 1980a NCC
U.S. DOC 1980a WDOE	U.S. DOC 1980a
WDOE
Strait of Georgia U.S. DOC 1980b U.S. DOC 1980b
U.S. DOC 1982
U.S. DO'.- 1980a
ro
to
San Juan Island
Passages
Admiralty Inlet
Whidbey Basin
Central Basin
U.S. DOC 1980b U.S. DOC 1982 Collias 1970
U.S. DOC 1980a U.S. DOC 1980b U.S. DOC 1980a
WDOE
Cox et al. 1981 U.S. DOC 1982 Collias 1970
U.S. DOC 1980a U.S. DOC 1980b U.S. DOC 1980a
WDOE
Cox et al. 1981 U.S. DOC 1982 Collias 1970
WDOE
Cox et al. 1981 U.S. DOC 1982
Collias 1970
U.S. DOC 1980a
WDOE
Collias 1970 Collias 1970 U.S. DOC 1980a NCC
WDOE	WDOE
Barnes and
Ebbesmeyer
1978
Barnes and
Ebbesmeyer
1978
Barnes and
Ebbesmeyer
1978
Ebbesmeyer and
Barnes 1980
Collias 1970 Collias 1970
WDOE	WDOE
Collias 1970 Collias 1970
WDOE	WDOE
Collias 1970
Collias and
Lincoln 1977
WDOE
Collias 1970
WDOE
NCC
NCC
NCC
Hood Canal
Southern Basin
Cox et al. 1981 U.S. DOC 1982 Collias 1970
WDOE
Cox et al. 1981 U.S. DOC 1982 Collias 1970
WDOE
^National Climatic Center (NCC)
Collias 1970	Collias 1970
WDOE	WDOE
Collias 1970	Collias 1970
WDOE	WDOE
NCC

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biological information. The data catalog contains all data
received by the Environmental Data and Information Service of
NOAA through April, 1980. A recent reorganization has
transformed this group into the National Environmental Satel-
lite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS). Data are avail-
able by formal written request to NESDIS.
NOAA maintains several data service centers on a national
basis, including the National Oceanographic Data Center,
National Climatic Center, and the National Geophysical and
Solar-Terrestrial Center. These data centers collect data
nationwide from several sources, including all NOAA projects and
the National Weather Service. These centers can retrieve data
and reformat the information (graphs and plots) to meet user
requirements. Data are available by formal written request.
Metro sponsored a series of reports entitled "Puget Sound
Interim Studies" (Duxbury 1976). The Central Basin was selected
as the study area for most of the field measurements. Topics
include: physical characteristics; water quality studies;
nutrient observations; phytoplankton productivity; dye and
drogue tracer studies; heavy metals concentrations; and biologi-
cal information on fish, zooplankton, and intertidal life.
EPA has been collecting water quality data from several
sources including Metro, WDOE, and the University of Washington.
The data are being compliled in a STORET computer base. Most of
the observations are site-specific, and the data are far from
comprehensive (only selected data have been entered into the
system). For example: data from Metro are primarily coliform
measurements; EPA data are site-specific and a majority of the
observations are taken at locations of pulp mill activity; and
field observations made by WDOE are for smaller waterways in the
Puget Sound area. Variables included in the computer base are
trace metals, hydrocarbons, turbidity, conductivity, DO, pH, and
salinity.
Synoptic Data Bases. Few synoptic or comprehensive data
bases exist at the present time. There have been attempts to
collect and index all data for general use. The NODC data base,
University of Washington Index, MESA catalog, and the current
meter index by Cox et al. (1981) are the only comprehensive data
bases available. A substantial amount of data has been
collected by various agencies in informal or unpublished form
which, when organized, could offer a relatively continuous data
base or significant addition to existing comprehensive sources.
CURRENTS. Cox et al. (1981) compiled an index to current
observations in Puget Sound from 1908 to 1980. Variables
indexed include locations, date, depths, and method of measure-
ment. The index includes approximately 50 years of current
observations of one day or longer taken at approximately 300
sites throughout the Sound (Whidbey Basin, Admiralty Inlet,
Central Basin, Southern Basin, and Hood Canal). Most current
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measurements in the index were taken at several depths to give
the vertical current variation.
The National Ocean Survey (NOS) (U.S. DOC 1980b) conducted
a circulatory survey of the Puget Sound approaches (Strait of
Juan de Fuca, Haro and Rosario Straits, and the Strait of
Georgia) from the fall of 1973 to the fall of 1976. The survey
consisted of seven phases and considered parameters such as
currents, tides, and salinity. Meteorological data such as wind
speed and direction, sea-level pressure, and air temperature
were also recorded. Historical current and tide data for the
area taken prior to this study are included in this report.
The MESA data catalog lists several current meter stations
located in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the San Juan Island
passages, Admiralty Inlet, and specific locations within the
Central Basin (West Point and the Tacoma Narrows).
One area lacking current meter data is the North Sound
(Bellingham Bay). The NOS survey located two current meter
stations at the entrance to the bay (U.S. DOC 1980b). Data on
currents in the bay may be available on a project-specific
basis, but studies have not been identified at the present time.
TIDES. The NOS generates yearly tide tables that tabulate
tidal current, and high and low water predictions (U.S. DOC
1982a and 1982b). Reference stations within the study include
Admiralty Inlet, Deception Pass, Rosario Strait, San Juan
Channel, and the Narrows in Washington, and Rack Rocks, British
Columbia, Canada, for tidal currents. Reference stations for
high and low water predictions include Port Townsend and Seattle
in Washington, and Victoria, British Columbia. Corrections are
given for several other locations within Puget Sound and the
approaches based on the reference station values.
The NOS Puget Sound Approaches survey (U.S. DOC 1980b)
located several tide stations within the study area (San Juan
Island passages, Strait of Juan De Fuca, and Strait of Georgia).
All stations were occupied for at least 29 days while principal
stations were operated for periods of 1 year or more. Histor-
ical tide data were reviewed in this publication and shown to be
quite extensive.
SALINITY/TEMPERATURE/DEPTH. The index to oceanographic
data (Collias 1970), the index update (Evans-Hamilton Inc., Cox
pers. comm.), and the NOS Puget Sound Approaches survey (U.S.
DOC 1980b) all have compiled STD measurements. The atlas of
physical and chemical properties of Puget Sound (Collias et al.
1974) has plotted and contoured temperature, salinity, and
density throughout the four major sub-basins in Puget Sound and
into the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
The index tabulates measurements at depth for all areas
within the study region. The NOS survey concentrates on the
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Strait of Juan de Fuca, San Juan Island passages (Haro and
Rosario Strait) and the Strait of Georgia. These two data bases
will offer a good set of independent data compilations for the
Puget Sound approaches.
The MESA data catalog lists STD and CTD measurements for
several locations, including the Central Basin, Admiralty Inlet,
Tacoma Narrows, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the San Juan Island
passages. These data are available from NODC by written re-
quest.
METEOROLOGICAL DATA. The meteorological parameters of
interest include wind .speed, direction, and barometric pressure.
The National Weather Service has set up several stations around
Puget Sound to measure meteorological variables, such as temper-
ature, precipitation, wind, atmospheric pressure, and cloud
cover. Most of the data are recorded at airport stations, which
take measurements on an hourly basis. The National Weather
Service has not collected data from on-water sites in Puget
Sound. Station locations on the east side of Puget Sound offer
a continuous record from Olympia to Bellingham. There are no
stations operated in the Bremerton or Hood Canal areas, and only
a few stations in the Puget Sound approaches (Port Angeles and
Bellingham in Washington, and Victoria and Patricia Bay in
British Columbia, Canada).
Data from the National Weather Service are available at
several locations including the Seattle Public Library, National
Climatic Center (NCC) and the state climatologist at Western
Washington University.
The MESA data catalog shows several stations in the Strait
of Juan de Fuca where wind data have been collected. These data
could compliment the National Weather Service data base for this
area.
PHYSIOGRAPHIC DATA. McLellam (1954) conducted an area and
volume study of Puget Sound. Puget Sound was divided into 57
regions and the volume of water within 10-fathom increments and
the area for each region was calculated. Area was determined by
planimetering with a compensating polar planimeter. Volume
calculations were made by plotting graphs with square nautical
miles versus depth as coordinates for each region.
WATER QUALITY VARIABLES. The water quality variables of
potential importance in modeling studies are DO, nutrients,
suspended solids (accumulation and settling rates), and BOD. Of
the variables listed, DO has been recorded much more frequently.
Collias et al. (1974) and Collias (1970) compiled DO and
nutrient concentrations observations for all regions of the
study area. DO was measured for almost every entry in the
index. Nutrient concentrations (dissolved inorganic phosphate
and nitrate or nitrite-nitrogen) were measured at few stations
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and do not represent a comprehensive data base. No measurements
of BOD were indexed.
The MESA data catalog lists nutrient concentrations mea-
surements for a few stations in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The
nutrients being measured were not described in the catalog.
These observations could supplement the indexed nutrient data,
but the data base is still far from comprehensive. Trace metals
concentrations and suspended sediment were also compiled in the
MESA catalog for stations located in the Strait of Georgia, the
San Juan Island passages, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Several reports in Metro's Puget Sound Interim Studies
discussed water quality studies in the Central Basin. Topics
covered in these reports included: water quality studies in the
vicinity of Metro sewage outfalls (measurements such as tempera-
ture, salinity, density, DO, light transmittance, and pH);
nutrient observations (inorganic phosphate; dissolved silicate,
nitrate, and ammonia; temperature; salinity; and DO); and heavy
metals concentrations in the water column, biota, and sediments.
WDOE conducts water quality monitoring at 44 stations
throughout Puget Sound (Figure 4-1) on a monthly basis during
spring, summer, and fall. The data are stored in computer files
and are kept at the WDOE office at Tumwater. The parameters
monitored are listed in Table 4-3.
FRESHWATER DISCHARGE. Many rivers and streams flow into
Puget Sound, but 80 percent of the freshwater influx is repre-
sented by 11 of the largest rivers. USGS publishes a water-
data report for every water year (USGS 1978). This report
contains records of stage, discharge, and water quality of
streams (including specific conductance, pH, DO, water tempera-
ture and sediment discharge) on a daily basis for all gauged and
sampled water bodies. Water discharge is given as daily mean
values, and minimum and maximum discharges.
INTERBASIN TRANSPORT. Few studies have been conducted to
measure the water transport rates between or though sub-basins
of Puget Sound. Barnes and Ebbesmeyer (1978) estimated mean
transport rates for Admiralty Inlet, Whidbey Basin, Deception
Pass, Central Basin, and Colvos Passage. Values presented were
the average of the transport rates in the upper and lower layers
and were based on analysis of current records and water prop-
erties. Transport rates have not been calculated for the other
sub-basins in Puget Sound.
SILL ZONE PROCESSES. Data are required in the vicinity of
sill zones to adequately test model predictions of sill zone
processes. Ebbesmeyer and Barnes (1980) conducted a series of
field observations and tests using the physical model to quali-
tatively describe processes at the landward and seaward sill
zones of the Central Basin. This study serves as the starting
point for future research.
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Water reflux to the Central Basin at the entrance sill
(Admiralty Inlet) was estimated by Barnes and Ebbesmeyer (1978).
Reflux of water back into Puget Sound greatly affects pollutant
concentrations and residence times and is an important sill zone
process. No reflux estimates have been calculated for other
areas in Puget Sound.
Summary
The objectives of the modeling effort for Puget Sound are
to identify depositional areas for contaminated solids (fate of
solids) and to determine retention time of dissolved pollutants
and suspended solids (interbasin transfer, overall circulation
patterns, fate of solids). Although major concern is focussed
on urbanized embayments because of known or suspected pollution-
related impacts on beneficial uses, an overall Puget Sound model
is necessary to supply important general information on net
circulation, mass transport, and boundary conditions to drive
more detailed subarea models.
Fifteen model applications to various portions of Puget
Sound were reviewed in the second section of this chapter. The
purpose of that review was to determine if any existing models
of Puget Sound could be adapted by EPA and WDOE as part of their
long-range study on developing comprehensive waste management
strategies for the Sound.
Major limitations of models that have been or are
currently being applied to Puget Sound include:
o Dimensionality - Many of the models use 1-dimensional
formulations which represent over-simplified systems.
In making water quality management decisions for Puget
Sound, knowledge of vertical mixing and transport
processes is required. Important lateral concentration
gradients are lost in the "average" quantities produced
by these models.
o Spatial Resolution - Some of the formulations utilize
grids to break up the study area into workable units.
Variable values calculated by the model represent
average values over the entire grid element. Therefore,
use of large elements leads to decreased spatial
resolution. Many of the models lack grid flexibility.
Detailed information in certain areas (around waste
inputs and other areas of interest) and general
descriptions in others are required, thus, lack of grid
flexibility severely limits the applicability of some
models.
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o Site-Specificity - Some of the models are site-specific.
The assumptions and basic equations used in the models
are only applicable to a certain area or water body
type.
o Verification and Calibration - Many of the models lacked
adequate calibration and verification. Before these
models can be used to make water quality management
decisions, the formulation must be verified and the
coefficients must be calibrated for the area being
analyzed.
It was concluded that none of the existing models were
adequate for this purpose because they are limited by either
dimensional or spatial treatment, empirical dependence, or lack
of generality. None of the models applied to Puget Sound
adequately describes overall circulation patterns, fate of
solids, and interbasin transfer on a Sound-wide basis.
It is evident that a model must be developed to provide
system-wide information for use in more detailed formulations
and to assess the sensitivity of model results to variations of
important driving variables and boundary conditions. One option
is to modify a model already developed for Puget Sound. Two of
the modeling studies were examined in more detail and compared
to the present state-of-the-art for estuary hydrodynamic and
water quality modeling. These included the model by Jamart and
Winter (1978) and the set of models by Water Resources Engineers
(1975), which included a steady state fjord hydrodynamic model
by Winter (1973). The model developed by Jamart and Winter
(1978) employs a unique solution technique which utilizes
Fourier transformations. This technique is very efficient and
flexible and appears to accurately simulate complex tides and
circulation patterns in Puget Sound. The set of models
developed by WRE (1975) utilizes a link-node system
representation which has been successfully applied in several
other areas. This set of models is complex, however, and would
require considerable calibration before application to Puget
Sound.
A second option is to adapt to Puget Sound a model that has
been developed for other areas and comparable conditions.
Ideally, the model would be a 3-dimensional representation of
the entire system; however, the costs of such a model would be
prohibitive, especially for long-term transient simulations.
Fortunately, a 2-dimensional, laterally-averaged approximation
of the Sound as a whole is justifiable because of the generally
narrow and deep nature of Puget Sound. This type of model could
be used to describe mass transport, net circulation patterns,
and boundary conditions for more detailed models of subareas.
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The state-of-the-art model review summarized in the third
section of this chapter identified the model by Najarian et al.
(1981) as the optimum existing technique for application to
Puget Sound as a whole. Modifications that would need to be
made for Puget Sound are not major. The model by Sheng and
Butler (1982) is recommended for adaption to the Central Basin.
It is a 3-dimensional leveled model that has a horizontal
coordinate transformation scheme that provides flexibility in
grid layout. Other key features of this model include an
implicit scheme for the external free-surface mode and a
vertical coordinate transformation scheme which provides the
same number of continuous layers throughout the system. The
model should be capable of predicting circulation patterns,
mixing processes, solids transport and accumulation, and other
water quality variables on a local basis. Specific areas (e.g.,
urbanized embayments) may be considered on a smaller scale basis
by adjusting the grid elements and time steps.
A substantial amount of data for use in circulation
modeling is available for many physical/chemical parameters in
Puget Sound, but it is not in an organized, comprehensive
format. Several agencies in the State of Washington have
collected field observations. Many of these studies were
oriented towards describing specific water quality problems and
therefore generated detailed measurements for limited areas.
There has been little past effort to combine the data sets to
form a comprehensive data base and index for general use. The
local agencies most frequently involved with data collection on
Puget Sound include: Metro; EPA; WDOE; the University of
Washington; and NOAA, including the National Weather Service.
Other agencies that collect data on an occasional, site-specific
basis are WDF, the U.S. Army COE, and various engineering and
oceanographic consulting firms.
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Chapter 6
TRANSPORT AND FATE OF POLLUTANTS
Introduction
Information on water circulation in various regions or
subareas of Puget Sound is required to understand where and how
pollutants are distributed in Puget Sound. An effort is made in
Chapter 5 to evaluate the ability of existing modeling efforts
to describe circulation in Puget Sound. It is inappropriate,
however, to assume that circulation patterns alone adequately
describe processes linking the discharge of pollutants to their
ultimate distribution in the physical environment. As pollu-
tants are moved with the water mass, other processes influence
the distribution and physico-chemical fate of pollutants within
the water mass.
Chemical compounds enter Puget Sound from both point and
nonpoint sources, including: rivers, atmospheric fallout,
surface runoff, sewage treatment plants, industrial dischargers,
and stormwater discharges. Sources of mass loading to Puget
Sound were discussed in Chapter 4.
Except for localized areas, Puget Sound water quality
usually meets the state's water quality standards. However,
many contaminants are not included in the standards, and are not
routinely monitored either in effluent or the ambient waters.
Konasewich et al. (1982) list 183 organic compounds and 37
inorganic contaminants identified in Puget Sound water, sedi-
ments and biota. Malins et al. (1982a) identify several hundred
compounds found in only three sediment stations (two in Com-
mencement Bay and one in Elliott Bay). Metro's sampling program
has shown the presence of approximately 1,800 compounds, most of
which are still unidentified (Galvin pers. comm.). Many of
these compounds are likely to be naturally occurring, or sub-
stances not known to cause adverse affects, but some may be
hazardous. In addition to the large number of contaminants, a
number of physical, chemical and biological processes may
determine the ultimate fate of each compound.
Processes Affecting Transport and Fate
What happens to a pollutant as it enters Puget Sound
depends on whether the pollutant is in a dissolved or parti-
culate state. Some of the processes which influence the dis-
tribution and fate of a pollutant include the physical processes
of adsorption, dissolution, sedimentation, and resuspension; the
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chemical processes of speciation, flocculation, chemical pre-
cipitation, diffusion, volatilization, photolysis, reduc-
tion/oxidation, and hydrolysis/hydration; and the biological
processes of bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and biode-
gradation. Some of these processes are particularly important
at the site of discharge because of the complex chemical re-
actions that occur as pollutants in freshwater (precipitation,
riverine discharge, or wastewater discharge) encounter the
chemical properties of marine water.
Adsorption
Heavy metals readily adsorb to particulate matter and,
thereby, are removed from the dissolved state. Jackim and Lake
(1978) have noted that adsorption also may be an important
transport process for organics which have low solubility in
water. Adsorption to particulate matter significantly changes
the effects of currents and gravity on the distribution of
pollutants.
Dissolution
Dissolution describes the movement of a compound into the
dissolved state. It has been well established that the majority
of pollutants in an aquatic environment can be found in the
sediment rather than in the water column or biota (Cross and
Sunda 1978) . Most of the pollutants in the sediments are
adsorbed or in a precipitate state. Very little is known about
the rate of dissolution. Pollutants adsorbed to sediments or to
suspended particulates perhaps are unlikely to undergo disso-
lution unless the concentration of dissolved material drops
significantly from that during the adsorption period. Disso-
lution from precipitated deposits could be a significant process
if the concentration of dissolved matter varies significantly
over time.
Sedimentation
Sedimentation is the settling out of particulate matter due
to the force of gravity. Sedimentation is a significant factor
in the transport of pollutants because of the tendency for most
pollutants to be adsorbed to particulate matter. The settling
rate of a particle is a function of its specific gravity, size,
shape, and water current force vectors. The distance that a
particle will be transported from the point of introduction
depends on its settling rate, water depth, and water velocity.
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Resuspension
Even though the sediment comprises the largest compartment
for storage of most pollutants, the length of the storage period
depends on the rate of resuspension of the particulate matter
comprising the sediments. Resuspension occurs by a variety of
anthropogenic or natural processes. Major sources of resuspen-
sion include dredging, current scouring, and bioturbation
(burrowing activities of benthic organisms).
Speciation
Speciation is a particularly important process relative to
heavy metal ions that can occur in more than one valence state,
e.g., copper, chromium, iron, manganese, mercury, tin, and
antimony. Speciation is highly influenced by the chemistry of
the receiving water. Reviews (e.g., Singer 1973; Rubin 1974;
Wiley 1976, 1978; Baker 1980) of fate, bioavailability, and
toxic effects of dissolved heavy metals have emphasized great
variation in activity resulting from the tendency of the differ-
ent dissolved species of heavy metal ions to form chemical
associations with a variety of inorganic and organic compounds.
Most ligands have the capacity to bind a variety of metals and
ions. Competition for binding may be influenced by the species
of heavy metal and their respective ion activities and stability
constants.
Flocculation
Flocculation is the process of particulate matter coming
together in a loosely organized aggregate mass (floe). It is a
very important phenomenon when freshwater is discharged into
saline water. Avnimelech et al. (1982) have shown that marine
algae and suspended particulate matter in freshwater discharges
readily combine to form flocculent matter. The fate of these
aggregations is significantly different from that of the parti-
cles comprising the aggregate. The floe presents a larger
surface area and different density and is therefore affected
differently by currents and gravity. Flocculation alters the
particles' availability to filter-feeding organisms in the water
column. Curl (1982) noted that organic floe formation in the
Duwamish River estuary provided a mechanism for removal of
potentially toxic trace metals from the water column, thereby
reducing toxicity to pelagic organisms but increasing the
potential for bioaccumulation by benthic suspension and detritus
feeders.
Chemical Precipitation
Chemical precipitation is probably important only on a
localized scale and for certain pollutants because it requires
that the loading of a pollutant in the dissolved state exceed
the specific saturation level of that pollutant. Dissolved
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iron, for example, may be rapidly removed from the water column
by flocculation and precipitation (Holliday and Liss 1976), but
the importance of precipitation is a function of flushing rate.
Diffusion
Diffusion is the passive spreading of a pollutant due to a
decreasing concentration gradient. Diffusion may be important
in areas with minimal water movement and in interstitial water
in the sediments. Diffusion is a function of concentration
gradients and is probably orders of magnitude less important
than active transport caused by currents. The diffusion rate
influences the rate of dissolution.
Volatilization
Volatilization is the flux of materials from the water
surface to the atmosphere. Volatilization is a function of the
vapor pressure of the pollutant and the relative concentrations
in the water and atmosphere. It is also influenced by turbu-
lence and temperature in the air and the water. Volatilization
may result in removal of pollutants from the Puget Sound Basin,
or may result in transport to a different location in the Sound.
This redistribution depends on atmospheric circulation patterns
and precipitation (fog, rain, or snow).
Photolysis
Photochemical reactions may occur through several mecha-
nisms, depending on compound structure. They may also be either
direct (the compound absorbs light directly) or indirect (other
substances absorb light and react with the compound). Photo-
lysis is most important in upper water layers which receive the
most light. Photochemical processes may also form oxidants
which react with pollutant compounds.
Reduction/Oxidation
Reduction has been infrequently reported as an important
process, and can be either a biological or nonbiological pro-
cess. It is most frequently reported in reactions where chlo-
rine atoms in organochlorine compounds are replaced by hydrogen
(Callahan et al. 1979). Oxidation is a chemical reaction in
which oxygen atoms are added to the compound, or electrons are
lost, thereby changing the state of the compound.
Hydrolysis/Hydration
Hydrolysis and hydration may also affect chemical states.
Hydrolysis may be affected by pH, and generally results in
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acquisition of a hydroxyl group and loss of another portion of
the compound. Hydration, in contrast, results in addition of a
water molecule to the compound through a reversible reaction.
This generally results in a compound having properties different
from the parent compound, which may affect transport pathways.
Oxidation/reduction and hydrolysis may all affect a com-
pound, resulting in speciation, i.e., variation in chemical
states of a compound. Chemical state is a very important factor
in fate and transport processes because various states differ
widely in stability, ability to adsorb to particulates, or
potential to bioaccumulate. Some states are also more toxic
than others. For this reason, determination of a compound's
presence is often not sufficient unless its state is also known.
Bioaccumulation
Bioaccumulation is the uptake and retention of foreign
substances (xenobiotics) by organisms. Bioaccumulation of toxic
compounds can have adverse ecological effects. This process is
especially important for lipophilic chemicals. Chemical concen-
trations tend to be nonuniformly distributed between organs of
an individual organism and also vary between species. Compounds
with higher chlorine content tend to be bioaccumulated more
strongly. Bioaccumulation may occur through either skin/gill
uptake, directly from the water, or through dietary intake.
Biotransformation and Biodegradation
Biotransformation/biodegradation reactions occur primarily
in the sediments as a result of microbial enzyme reactions. The
rate of transformation is dependent on concentration of both
pollutant and microbial population, and transformation has been
noted to occur more rapidly in areas where chronic pollution
exists.
Available Data
As most compounds react with the environment in several
ways, it is not practical or cost effective to research all
potential interactions and effects. However, in many cases
chemicals of similar structure behave similarly, and behavior
can be predicted for a class as a whole; from this information,
potentially hazardous pollutant groups can be identified.
Pollutants considered here include: the 126 found on the
EPA priority pollutant list, polychlorinated dibenzofurans,
petroleum hydrocarbons, and particulates. Particulates are
often naturally occurring, but are considered as pollutants in
this study because: 1) particulates in high concentration may
have deleterious effects on the beneficial uses of an area; and
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2) pollutants often adsorb to particulates, therefore, parti-
culates play a significant role in transport and fate of these
substances. Properties, fates, sources and information gaps are
discussed for each of these groups below.
In interpreting the following information, a note of
caution is warranted. Most monitoring efforts have addressed
conventional pollutant parameters. Others have looked at the
EPA priority pollutants to a minor degree. The priority pollu-
tants were chosen on a nationwide basis because of their fre-
quency of occurrence, chemical stability, amounts produced, and
availability of standards and measurement (Silva 1981). There
are a number of industry-specific pollutants which do not have
enough national recognition or prominence to be included on the
EPA priority pollutant listing, but which, nevertheless, may
profoundly impact localized areas of Puget Sound because of high
regional concentration. Few measurements have been regularly
made for "nonconventional parameters" in effluent of many
discharges, but absence of data should not be interpreted as
absence of a problem, and concentrations in sediment, biota and
water must be determined before possibility as a hazard can be
dismissed.
Pesticides and Derivatives
Pesticides are generally considered of environmental
concern because many are very toxic, persistent, and tend to
bioaccumulate. These include: DDT and its metabolites, DDD and
DDE; aldrin; endrin and endrin aldehyde; chlordane; heptachlor
and heptachlor epoxide; acrolein; three hexachlorocyclohexane
isomers; three endosulfan compounds and isomers; isophorone;
TCDD; and toxaphene.
Sittig (1980) discusses health impacts for each compound.
Callahan et al. (1979) and Konasewich et al. (1982) discuss
properties and fates for all EPA priority pollutant pesticides.
Chapman et al. (1979) describe design of monitoring studies for
these compounds and review Metro effluent concentrations
(Chapman et al. 1982a). Malins et al. (1982a) discuss pesticide
levels in sediments and biota for various areas of Puget Sound.
DDT, DDD and DDE
Properties and Fates. All of these pollutants are persis-
tent, bioaccumulative, essentially nonvolatile, and toxic.
Adsorption is a major fate process for DDT and its metabolites,
and all have a strong tendency to adsorb to sediment; this
tendency is increased with increasing salinity. Bioaccumulation
is also considered an important fate for all three compounds.
Uptake of DDT by fish occurs primarily via the gills, and there
is little or no evidence of food chain magnification (Konasewich
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et al. 1982). Depuration rates are slow. DDT is metabolized to
DDD and DDE by marine organisms, and DDE is the predominant form
in biota. However, Puget Sound biota have greater relative
amounts of DDT than have been found in other aquatic environ-
ments, possibly indicating that metabolism in Puget Sound is
much slower (Konasewich et al. 1982).
Biodegradation/biotransformation is important for ultimate
loss of DDT, and a slow but important process for DDD and
possibly DDE as well (Callahan et al. 1979). Photolysis,
hydrolysis and volatilization are less important. In strongly
basic conditions DDT may convert to DDE (Konasewich et al.
1982). Oxidation is probably not important.
Sources and Distribution. Except for rare occasions, use
of DDT has been banned In the United States since 1972, but
concentrations in Puget Sound and biota remain high. Konasewich
et al. (1982) review toxicity data, summarize DDT, DDD and DDE
levels observed in Puget Sound sediments and biota, and discuss
possible effects in Puget Sound. They note that highest concen-
trations occur in Elliott and Commencement Bays, indicating
localized input, although it is not determined whether it is
ongoing or residual contamination. All three compounds have
been shown to exist in Metro West Point effluent, and are
considered category 1 pollutants (the most important for
sampling) by Chapman et al. (1979).
DDT, DDD and DDE are considered to be category 1 compounds
(contaminants of concern) by Konasewich et al. (1982), based on
their toxicity, distribution and possible ecological effects.
Over the long term, lack of use should result in a decline
in concentrations, but there is little observable decline at
present.
Information Gaps.
o A higher than normal DDT/DDE ratio exists in Puget
Sound. The reason is unclear. Pesticide metabolism in
Puget Sound sediments has been little studied.
o If metabolism studies indicate contamination is present-
ly occurring, sources are not well identified.
o Accurate information on trends, persistence, and effects
of these compounds in Puget Sound is lacking.
Chlordane and Heptachlor
Properties and Fates. Chlordane is extremely toxic; its
use has been banned since 1978. It is classified as a Restrict-
ed Use Pesticide by EPA, and can be purchased and applied only
by a certified pesticide applicator under certain limited
conditions (Frandsen pers. comm.). Usage has thus been reduced.
Several fates may be important, including volatilization,
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adsorption to sediments and bioaccumulation. No information is
available on oxidation; hydrolysis is not considered important.
Photolysis may be of some importance. Bioaccumulation is an
important aquatic fate and concentration factors can be quite
high. Little information is available on biotransformation.
Although it is known to be slow, it may be an important process
for ultimate degradation (Callahan et al. 1979).
Heptachlor is also extremely toxic and classified as a
Restricted Use Pesticide (Idaho Cooperative Extension Service
1981) . Usage has therefore been reduced. The major aquatic
fate process is rapid hydrolysis which results in a half-life of
1-3 days. Some photolysis and volatilization may occur.
Adsorption is probably an important process, but no data are
available. Heptachlor has a strong tendency to bioaccumulate,
and can also be transformed into heptachlor epoxide (also toxic)
or reduced to chlordine. Transformations occur slowly in
relation to hydrolysis (Callahan et al. 1979).
Sources and Distribution. Chlordane levels noted in Puget
Sound biota and sediments are generally low; chlordane does not
appear widely dispersed. Highest levels were observed in the
sediments of Commencement Bay, although fish liver samples from
Elliott Bay occasionally showed relatively high levels
(Konasewich et al. 1982) .
Heptachlor has been occasionally observed in sediment and
fish liver samples from Elliott and Commencement Bays, but it is
uncertain whether it is a hazard (Konasewich et al. 1982).
Callahan et al. (1979) indicate heptachlor has been measured in
West Point treatment plant effluent, and recommend water sedi-
ments and biota be tested for its presence. Other sources are
probably primarily nonpoint in origin, including rivers and
stormwater runoff.
Konasewich et al. (1982) classify chlordane and heptachlor
as category 2 contaminants (those for which an ecological hazard
evaluation could not be provided).
Information Gaps,
o Information on locations and concentrations appears to
be limited.
o Many information gaps exist concerning fates and chemi-
cal reactions.
Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Isophorone, and Hexachlorocyclohexanes
Properties and Fates. Important aldrin fate processes
include biotransformation, volatilization, bioaccumulation and
indirect photolysis. Biotransformation to dieldrin is probably
the dominant process, and it occurs rapidly enough that
bioaccumulation of aldrin through the food chain probably is not
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significant. Volatilization half-lives in aquatic systems are
only a few days. Adsorption to sediments may have some impor-
tance, and will eventually remove it from aquatic systems if
biological processes do not (Callahan et al. 1979). Use of
aldrin was banned in the United States in 1974 (Frandsen pers.
comm.). Levels should therefore be decreasing.
Dieldrin, unlike aldrin, is persistent and considered by
some to be one of the more nonbiodegradable chlorinated pesti-
cides. Important fate processes include adsorption to sediment,
bioaccumulation and volatilization. Adsorption and subsequent
settling is likely to be important. Bioaccumulation is con-
sidered moderate to significant. Some data indicate biotrans-
formation may occur. Dieldrin was also banned in 1974 (Frandsen
pers. comm.).
Endrin fates in aquatic systems are not well known.
Photolysis and biotransformation occur, but rates are not known.
Bioaccumulation appears to be a significant process, and can
occur through both food and water. Hydrolysis is not considered
significant. No information is available on adsorption of
either endrin or endrin aldehyde to sediments or biota (Callahan
et al. 1979). Endrin was banned in 1979 (Frandsen pers. comm.).
Information on isophorone is limited. It is moderately
soluble and likely to remain in the water column until transfor-
mations occur. Adsorption, volatilization, and bioaccumulation
are not considered to be important processes.
Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers include lindane. In general,
these compounds do not accumulate; and photolysis, oxidation,
and hydrolysis are not important. Adsorption is an important
process for transport to the sediments, and biotransformation/
biodegradation is considered the most important fate process.
Transformations are favored in aerobic, biologically rich
environments. Use of lindane is currently under review
(Frandsen pers. comm.).
Sources and Distribution. Pesticide sources are likely to
be primarily nonpoint, either through riverine input, runoff, or
atmospheric input.
Aldrin, dieldrin, isophorone and the hexachlorocyclohexane
isomers (including lindane) have also been detected in Metro
West Point effluent (Chapman et al. 1979). Konasewich et al.
(1982) note that aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and lindane have all
been detected in Puget Sound, and classify aldrin, dieldrin, and
endrin as category 5 compounds (those which are toxic but for
which there is minimal information on distribution or levels).
They classify lindane as a category 2 contaminant (one for which
an ecological hazard evaluation could not be provided).
Analyses for aldrin in sediment and biota are reported
(Brown, in Konasewich et al. 1982), but aldrin is metabolized to
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dieldrin, which tends to be more persistent, and there is little
information available on dieldrin levels.
Information Gaps.
o There is a general lack of information on pesticide
distribution or levels in Puget Sound sediments and
biota. Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and hexachloro-
cyclohexane appear to be of more immediate concern than
some, because they have been noted in sediments and
biota and/or treatment plant effluent. Callahan et al.
(1979) recommend water, sediment, and biota near the
outfall sites be tested for these compounds.
Other Priority Pollutant Pesticides
Properties and Fates. A number of pesticides considered as
priority pollutants by EPA have not been observed in the limited
number of samples tested. These include acrolein, the
endosulfans, toxaphene, TCDD, and heptachlor epoxide. Prop-
erties and fates for these compounds are therefore covered only
briefly.
Acrolein appears to be lost to aqueous environments quick-
ly, with a half-life generally less than a day. The primary
fate process appears to be hydration to a compound that is
readily biotransforxned. Photolysis, oxidation, and volatili-
zation may possibly be important, but bioaccumulation and
adsorption do not appear to be important processes (Callahan
et al. 1979).
Data concerning TCDD are very incomplete, although adsorp-
tion and bioaccumulation appear to be important processes.
Biotransformation may be important over long time periods, and
photolysis will be important if reactive substrates are avail-
able (Callahan et al. 1979). TCDD is formed as a by-product
during synthesis of polychlorinated phenols and their products,
and is among the most toxic compounds known.
Data concerning endosulfan compounds are also incomplete.
Hydrolysis is probably important, and adsorption, at least for
the isomers, appears important. Bioaccumulation does not appear
significant for the isomers, but no data are available for the
sulfate. Biotransformations may be potentially important
(Callahan et al. 1979).
Toxaphene is very stable in aerobic systems, but undergoes
loss of its chloride content in anaerobic environments. Adsorp-
tion to particulates, sedimentation, and bioaccumulation appear
to be important processes (Callahan et al. 1979). Existing
stocks can be used until 1986, but because it was banned in
1982, usage should decrease (Frandsen pers. comm.).
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Heptachlor epoxide is resistant to chemical and biological
transformations, and a half-life of several years is probable.
Biotransformation is slow, but possibly an important fate
process. Moderate adsorption and bioaccumulation also occur.
Little information on photolysis or volatilization is available.
Oxidation and hydrolysis are not important processes (Callahan
et al. 1979).
Sources and Distribution. Chapman et al. (1979) did not
list these as being present in Metro West Point effluent, and
they have not been listed by Konasewich et al. (1982) as having
been observed in Puget Sound water, sediments, or biota.
«
Information Gaps.
o It is not clear whether these compounds are actually
absent or merely undiscovered due to lack of sampling.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are no longer
manufactured in the United States, they are considered to be one
of the most widely distributed pollutants and the most predomi-
nant contaminant of Puget Sound sediments (Konasewich et al.
1982). The primary producer, Monsanto Company, marketed a
number of PCB mixtures under the Aroclor trademark, distinguish-
ing the compounds by number (the first two digits indicating the
parent compound as a biphenyl, the second two indicating the
percent chlorine by weight). Of 209 possible PCB compounds,
approximately 100 compounds and isomers have been detected in
commercial compounds, and 7 of the aroclors are on the EPA
priority pollutant list.
Information on health effects is given by Sittig (1980).
Callahan et al. (1979) and Konasewich et al. (1982) provide fate
data; Konasewich et al. (1982), Malins et al. (1982a), and
Dexter et al. (1981) discuss PCB compounds in Puget Sound.
Properties and Fates
Properties and fate data for PCBs have been fairly well
researched, and are summarized below. A detailed discussion of
properties, structure, and fate processes, along with an exten-
sive reference list, is given by Callahan et al. (1979) and
Konasewich et al. (1982). Recommendations for monitoring these
compounds are given by Chapman et al. (1982a), although these
data conflict with Chapman et al. (1979), and to some extent
with Callahan et al. (1979) as well.
Individual PCB compounds vary widely in their properties
according to the number and position of the chlorine atoms.
However, they all have a low water solubility, high dielectric
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constant and low vapor pressure, and are generally thermally
stable and inert.
Environmental distribution of PCBs is somewhat selective
because lighter compounds are more likely to volatilize.
Compounds in the atmosphere are similar to Aroclors 12 42 or
1016; those in sediments approach the composition of Aroclor
1254, and those in biota tend to be heavier and more chlorinat-
ed, similar to Aroclor 1260.
The aquatic fate of an Aroclor varies widely depending on
the compound. Photolysis may result in destruction of the
heavier PCBs. Volatilization is an important transport mecha-
nism, but it is depressed by the presence of organic solids.
Biotransformation and biodegradation (the only proven natural
destruction mechanisms for PCBs) are important only for com-
pounds having less than four chlorine atoms. For these com-
pounds, it appears to be the dominant fate process, and results
in significant destruction and transformation.
Adsorption to particulate matter is generally rapid
(Callahan et al. 1979). Because of their low solubility, in
natural systems the majority of PCB compounds are adsorbed to
sediments. The tendency for adsorption increases with degree of
chlorination, water salinity and organic content, and with
decreased particle size of the absorbant.
Bioaccumulation is generally rapid, and biomagnification
occurs as well (Mearns pers. comm.). Bioaccumulation is heavily
dependent on lipid levels in organisms. Uptake in lower trophic
level aquatic organisms appears to be primarily by direct uptake
from the water, whereas, dietary intake appears more important
in PCB uptake by higher trophic organisms such as seals
(Konasewich et al. 1982).
Adsorption and subsequent sedimentation is probably the
most dominant fate process for PCBs within Puget Sound (Konase-
wich et al. 1982). Many sediments exceed the maximum levels of
500 ppb recommended by Pavlou et al. (1978 in Dexter et al.
1981) , and levels of up to 400 ppm in the sediments and up to
500 ppm in fish liver have been measured. Known PCB levels and
mean total concentrations in Puget Sound sediments and biota
have been summarized by Konasewich et al. (1982) , but no concen-
trations were detected in water or suspended matter above the
detection limits of 0.5-1.0 parts per trillion (ppt) and 2-4
ppb, respectively.
Dexter et al. (1981) also summarize known PCB levels in
sediments for Puget Sound areas. Highest concentrations were
observed in the Duwamish River and Elliott Bay sediments (Gold-
berg 1979). Areas known to have especially high concentrations
include Commencement Bay/Hylebos Waterway (the highest concen-
tration of Aroclor 1242), the Duwamish River/Elliott Bay, and
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Sinclair Inlet (Pavlou et al. 1976; Dexter et al. 1981; Riley
et al. 1981).
There is also evidence that some microbial degradation
occurs in aerobic sediments, but no evidence of it in anaerobic
sediments. Anaerobic environments may therefore serve as long
term sinks for PCBs (Elder 1976 in Konasewich et al. 1982) .
Sediments in Elliott and Commencement Bays have higher levels of
di- and trichlorobiphenyls (the lower chlorinated compounds)
than Budd or Case Inlets, indicating that areas of higher
anaerobic conditions exist in the bays. It therefore does not
appear that biodegradation plays a significant role in removal
of PCBs from the Sound (Konasewich et al. 1972) .
Sources and Distribution
Potential PCB sources include leaks from transformers,
hydraulic systems, heat exchangers, capacitors, and compressors
(Sittig 1980; Konasewich et al. 1982). Polychlorinated bi-
phenyls have also been measured in landfill leachate and sewage
treatment plant influent and effluent, although secondary
treatment has been noted to remove 80-99 percent of Aroclor
1242, and 66 percent of Aroclor 1254 (Feiler 1980). Sample
numbers in this study were quite small, however, so removal
efficiency is not well documented.
Pavlou and Dexter (1977 in Goldberg 1979) describe a PCB
budget for the Sound and mean PCB concentrations for various
areas of Puget Sound. Water sediments, suspended matter and
biota are given by Pavlou and Horn (1979 in Goldberg 1979) . PCB
concentrations in water and suspended matter in various regions,
and sewage and storm drain concentrations are summarized by
Dexter et al. (1981) . Specific PCB sources in the Puget Sound
area are not well documented. Indirect riverine inputs, rather
than marine outfalls, have been estimated to account for the
predominant loading, although it is uncertain whether river
loadings are due to industrial discharges or to residual chronic
input such as spills.
The Duwamish River is recognized to be a large source of
PCBs, and high concentrations in water, sediments, and suspended
matter may reflect mobilization from original sites. Because of
slow degradation and strong adsorption to sediments, assimi-
lative capacity for these compounds may soon be reached in
localized areas (Goldberg 1979).
Input by treatment plants has not been well documented.
Chapman et al. (1979) indicate PCBs have not been found in
Seattle treatment plant effluents or sediments, but the effluent
analysis for the Alki treatment plant submitted as part of the
301(h) application indicates PCBs have been observed in minute
amounts. Reported effluent levels presented as part of the
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301(h) waiver applications for Alki, Carkeek and Redmond plants
are identical; it is therefore unclear whether measurements were
actually made at Alki. In any case, input from the treatment
plants is likely to be small and sporadic.
Disposal of PCB-contaminated dredge spoil is probably a
mechanism by which new areas of the Sound are contaminated, and
by which additional sediment/water interaction occurs. However,
impacts to the water column at the dredging site may be affected
by the type of dredge. Observations on use of a pneumatic
dredge, which minimizes resuspension of sediment, indicate that
no significant quantity of PCBs was dispersed to the water
column during dredge operations at a contaminated site (Pavlou
et al. 1976). However, other types of dredges would allow
greater water column/ sediment interaction to occur, and open
water dumping of contaminated dredge spoil would also allow
increased water sediment contact.
A 400 g/day PCB loading has been estimated for Puget Sound
with the Snohomish, Skagit, and Stillaguamish Rivers (220 g) and
Duwamish River (97 g) assumed to provide the bulk of the input
(Pavlou et al. 1978 in Dexter et al. 1981).
Trends
Pavlou and Dexter (1979) concluded that a large majority of
PCB residues are retained in Puget Sound. Based upon sediment
cores, accumulation has been occurring in areas such as Hylebos
Waterway for over 20 years, and appears to be continuing.
General trends in Elliott Bay sediment cores reflect the histor-
ical increase in PCB usage dating from about 1930, but do not as
yet show recent decreases, although PCB production was terminat-
ed several years ago. However, water column PCB levels have
decreased significantly (Dexter et al. 1981). Konasewich et al.
(1982) also indicate a rapid decrease in water column levels may
be occurring. If this is true, and if PCB movement within the
sediments is limited, eventual burial and isolation from the
system are likely, although PCB residuals would probably remain
in the sediments for some time because of their stability
(Dexter et al. 1981).
Information Gaps
There are a number of unknowns concerning PCBs, with many
already pointed out by various authors. Major gaps include the
following:
o PCB reactions in seawater and PCB release from sediments
are unclear. The extent, role, mechanism, and other
aspects are not well defined, and there is uncertainty
as to whether sedimentation constitutes a temporary
storage or a loss to the system. Clarification of these
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issues would also allow an evaluation as to the sound-
ness of contaminated dredge sediment disposal in central
Commencement Bay.
o PCB metabolites are often more toxic than the parent
molecule, but their ecological significance has not been
well researched,
o Sources of PCB input to Puget Sound have not been
thoroughly identified or quantified, and chemical and
physical transport pathways are unclear,
o The biochemical pathways by which PCBs are incorporated
into higher trophic levels are not well determined.
Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Twenty-four (formerly 26) halogenated aliphatic compounds
are listed as EPA priority pollutants. Callahan et al. (1979)
provide detailed descriptions of properties and fates, and give
an extensive reference list for each compound. Chapman et al.
(19 82a) discuss strategies for monitoring these compounds, and
discuss their presence in Metro effluent (Chapman et al. 1979).
Konasewich et al. (1982) discuss properties, fates, and effects
in Puget Sound for the chlorinated butadienes and chlorinated
ethylenes, which appear to be the greatest hazards. Information
on health effects is given by Sittig (1980).
Properties and Fates
Of the 24 listed compounds, 19 are thought likely to be
rapidly lost from the water column by volatilization. Informa-
tion concerning these compounds is lacking in many respects, but
adsorption to particulates is generally considered unimportant,
and biodegradation slow and insignificant. For a few compounds
such as chloroethane, bromomethane, and the dichloropropanes,
hydrolysis may be an important fate process along with volati-
lization. A few compounds such as tri- and tetrachlorethene,
tetra- and hexachloroethane, and dichloropropane and dichloro-
propene also have a high enough log octanol/water partition
coefficient to indicate that bioaccumulation may occur, although
in many cases data are lacking.
The five remaining aliphatic compounds are somewhat differ-
ent. The fate of three (bromodichloromethane, dibromochloro-
methane, and tribromomethane) is unknown. The last two are
hexachlorobutadiene and hexachlorocyclopentadiene. Both appear
to pose a greater aquatic hazard than the other halogenated
aliphatics because they tend to bioaccumulate and adsorb to
sediments more easily.
Hexachlorobutadiene is very persistent. Adsorption is an
important transport process, and bioaccumulation and volatili-
zation may also occur. No evidence has been found for biomagni-
fication, and no information has been found on biodegradation.
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Hexachlorocyclopentadiene has several significant fate and
transport processes, depending upon the aquatic system. Near-
surface photolysis appears to be the prominant transport process
in lakes, while volatilization and hydrolysis appear to be more
important transport processes in turbid rivers. Adsorption to
particulates is also a lesser fate process. However, data are
insufficient to determine a single predominant fate process
(Callahan et al. 1979). Bioaccumulation by both plants and
animals has been shown, and may be significant for some systems.
Biotransformation/biodegradation does not appear to be an
important process.
Sources and Distribution
Many of the halogenated aliphatics do not appear to be a
problem because they volatilize so rapidly. Only two groups of
compounds within the halogenated aliphatics are considered to be
contaminants of concern by Konasewich et al. (1982): chlorinat-
ed butadienes and chlorinated ethylenes (ethenes).
Chlorinated butadienes (CBDs) are formed as by-products in
a variety of industries including the manufacture of hexachloro-
benzene, tri- and tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloromethane, and
pesticides (Sittig 1980). Sources of chlorinated ethylenes
include textile mills, iron and steel manufacturing, paint and
ink formulators, carwashes, and dry cleaners (Metro 1980; Sittig
1980) . Some halogenated aliphatics (chloroform, dichlorobromo-
methane, dibromochloromethane, and tribromomethane) can also be
formed from organic compounds when exposed to chlorination in
municipal drinking water or wastewater facilities. Chloroethane
and ethers can also be converted to more highly chlorinated
compounds (Callahan et al. 1979) .
Several types of CBDs have been found in water, sediments
and/or biota in most major areas of Puget Sound. .Konasewich
et al. (1982) summarize levels in sediments for major areas and
in biota of Hylebos Waterway. Riley et al. (1981) also discuss
CBDs in waterways adjacent to Commencement Bay, and suggest that
levels in water indicate continuing impact. Malins et al.
(1982) list levels in Puget Sound in relation to biological
abnormalities.
Highest levels of chlorinated ethylenes were noted in
Hylebos Waterway. As these compounds are quite volatile, the
concentrations observed imply considerable discharge (Konasewich
et al. 1982).
Eleven of the 26 halogenated aliphatics have been observed
in West Point effluent. However, as effluent is sampled prior
to chlorination, it is possible that additional compounds may be
produced during chlorination and be present in the finished
effluent.
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Information Gaps
o There appears to be ongoing input, but sources of CBDs
and chlorinated ethylenes are not identified,
o Concentrations in water and sediment are not well
documented. Uptake mechanisms and ability of biota to
concentrate these chlorinated ethylene compounds in
Puget Sound are also uncertain. Information on chlo-
rinated butadienes is similarly lacking,
o Understanding of the above would allow evaluation of the
impact caused by disposal of contaminated dredge spoil
to other areas of Puget Sound,
o Effect of chlorination on production of these compounds
in Metro effluent has not been determined.
Halogenated Ethers
Six (previously seven) ethers are listed as priority
pollutants by EPA. Callahan et al. (1979) summarize known
information concerning their physical properties and probable
fates, and give an extensive reference list for these compounds.
Recommendations concerning monitoring of these compounds are
given in Chapman et al. (1982a), and their presence or absence
in Metro effluent is discussed by Chapman et al. (1979).
Information on health effects is given by Sittig (1980) .
Properties and Fates
The aquatic fate of the ethers is quite variable. Two
compounds, (4-chlorophenyl phenyl ether and 4-bromophenyl phenyl
ether), behave somewhat differently from the others. Little
information is available for either compound, but photolysis
near the water surface may be a potential fate process for both.
Significance of volatilization cannot yet be assessed, but
hydrolysis and oxidation are not considered significant process-
es. Adsorption is believed to be a likely process for both
because of high affinity for lipophilic organic materials
relative to water, and there is evidence of adsorption by
organic materials. Adsorption by clays is probable. Bioaccumu-
lation has been demonstrated for chlorophenyl and is likely for
bromophenyl. Both are rapidly degraded by activated sewage
sludge, but data indicate potential persistence in natural
surface waters (Callahan et al. 1979).
The remaining four ethers [bis(2-chloroethyl) ether,
bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether, 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether, and
bis(2-chloroethoxy) methane], appear to remain primarily in the
water column. Direct photolysis is probably unimportant.
Bioaccumulation is probably unimportant because of their low
partition coefficients (Chapman et al. 1982a), although data are
limited. Biotransformation in natural systems is probably not
important, although detailed information is lacking. Rapid
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hydrolysis is the most important fate for bis(chloromethyl)
ether and may be the only degradative process that operates for
bis (2-chloromethoxy) methane. This process is slow but may be
important for the others as well. Volatilization is likely an
important path from water to atmosphere for 2-chlorethyl vinyl
ether as well. Adsorption does not appear an important trans-
port process for any of them, although some may adsorb slightly
to clays or humic materials (Callahan et al. 1979).
Sources and Distribution
Halogenated ethers are used as solvents for fats, waxes and
greases, and may be found in paint removers, cleaning products,
or as contaminants in other solvents. Some are used in the
textile industry as cleaning and wetting agents as well (Sittig
1980; Metro 1980).
Little information on these compounds in Puget Sound is
available. Konasewich et al. (1982) indicate bis(2-chloroiso-
propyl) ether, 4-bromophenyl phenyl, and bis(2-chloroisopropyl)
ether have been observed in Puget Sound sediments in the Metro
area in low concentrations. They classify them as category 4
compounds (toxic contaminants in localized areas for which
source identification is necessary) . They have not been noted
in Metro effluent although three of them [bis(2-chloroisopropyl)
ether, bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, and bis(2-chloroethoxy)
methane] were observed in West Point sediments. It is possible
they are formed as part of the chlorination process (Chapman
et al. 1979) .
Information Gaps
o Levels of these materials in the water column in the
vicinity of the contaminated sediments are apparently
not documented, and sources are unknown.
Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
There are 23 monocyclic aromatic compounds on the EPA
priority pollutant list. These include benzenes, toluenes,
phenols, and cresols. Callahan et al. (1979) provide detailed
information on properties and aquatic fates, and an extensive
reference list for each compound. Chapman et al. (1979, 1982a)
discuss strategies for monitoring these compounds and discuss
their presence in Metro effluent. Konasewich et al. (1982)
review fate data for the chlorinated benzenes, evaluate their
presence in Puget Sound, and recommend research needs. Syner-
gistic effects between metals and various hydrocarbons are
discussed in Gruger et al. (1981), and information on health
effects is given by Sittig (1980) .
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Properties and Fates
Benzenes and Toluenes. Nine benzene and three toluene
compounds are included In the EPA listing. All can accumulate
in sediments, and all of the chlorinated benzenes can
bioaccumulate as well. The presence of chlorine has been shown
to make compounds more resistant to degradation. Chlorinated
benzenes (chlorobenzene, di-, tri-, and hexachlorobenzene) are
all very persistent, with high affinity for lipids, and low
solubility in water. Volatilization, bioaccumulation, and
adsorption are all competing fates, (except for hexachloro-
benzene, which volatilizes slowly) . The rate at which each
occurs dictates which process will predominate. The chlorinated
benzenes biodegrade slowly, if at all. Bioaccumulation of
hexachlorobenzene is primarily from aqueous uptake, not diet,
and depuration is more rapid than for some other persistent
compounds such as DDT. Biomagnification probably does not
occur.
The nonchlorinated benzenes (benzene, ethylbenzene, and
nitrobenzene) react somewhat differently. Adsorption is con-
sidered probably significant for all of them. They have little
potential for bioaccumulation, and have some minor ability to
degrade. The predominant fate process for benzene and ethyl-
benzene is volatilization, although benzene's solubility indi-
cates some will persist in the water column. Photolysis and
biodegradation are the most important fate processes for nitro-
benzene, but both processes may lead to production of benzidine
and diphenylhydrazine, priority pollutants themselves (Callahan
et al. 1979).
The toluene compounds (toluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene and
2,6-dinitrotoluene) all have little potential for bioaccumu-
lation. The primary aquatic fate for toluene is volatilization,
although adsorption to suspended sediment has some undefined
role. The relative importance of biodegradation for toluene is
also undetermined.
The major fates for 2,4-dinitrotoluene are photodestruc-
tion, oxidation, and biodegradation, although it is unclear
which is predominant. Biodegradation is likely to be slow.
Sediment adsorption for these two compounds is a major transport
process, and may also provide reaction sites for destruction.
Persistence of these compounds is uncertain.
Phenols and Cresols. Nine phenol and two cresol compounds
are included on the EPA list. Fates of phenol include photo-
oxidation, metal-catalyzed oxidation, and biodegradation by
microorganisms, the dominant pathway depending on environmental
conditions. Some volatilization occurs, but adsorption and
bioaccumulation are not important processes.
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Because they are chlorinated, the chlorophenols are more
resistant to biodegradation than phenol, but photolysis and
microbial degradation are probably the major fate processes.
They do not significantly bioaccumulate, with the important
exception of pentachlorophenol. One of its degradation prod-
ucts, pentachloroanisole, has an even greater tendency for
bioaccumulation than the parent compound itself. Volatilization
is not important for this group. Adsorption is important
primarily for pentachlorophenol, which is adsorbed to organic
materials in sediments.
Nitrophenols (2- and 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol)
tend to be persistent in aquatic environments, and to inhibit
microbial growth by disrupting metabolic processes through
uncoupling oxidative phosphorylations. In general they do not
volatilize or bioaccumulate, but they do adsorb strongly to
clays. Slow photolysis may be the main degradation process.
Data for 2,4-dimethylphenol is conflicting, but adsorption to
clay seems unlikely and bioaccumulation and volatilization
appear probably unimportant. Some adsorption by lipophilic
materials may occur. Photooxidation and metal-catalyzed oxida-
tion may be important in aerated surface waters.
The cresols' most probable fate is photolysis. Both
p-chloro-m-cresol and 4,6-dinitro-p-cresol should show a tenden-
cy to bioaccumulate, but toxicity would probably prevent it.
Biodegradation is uncertain. The latter cresol should show a
strong adsorption to clays (Callahan et al. 1979).
Sources and Distribution
Benzene is produced primarily from coal tar distillation
and is used extensively throughout the chemical industry. The
chlorinated benzenes are used in chemical synthesis, herbicides,
dye manufacturing, wood preservatives and other industries.
Toluenes may be converted to benzene, used in chemical produc-
tion as solvents or in manufacture of explosives, dyes, and
urethene polymers.
Phenols and cresols have many industrial and medical uses
including manufacture of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides,
preservatives, and antiseptics (Sittig 1980) . The chlorophenols
may also be inadvertently produced by chlorine reactions during
wastewater disinfection or drinking water treatment.
Chlorination of municipal effluent may also result in
formation of monocyclic aromatic compounds including the prior-
ity pollutants chlorobenzene and 1,3-dichlorobenzene. These may
form during Metro wastewater treatment, but as sampling previ-
ously was done prior to chlorination, their formation has not
been determined (Callahan et al. 1979). The Metro Toxicant
Pretreatment Planning Study (TPPS) report may provide more
appropriate data on the effects of chlorination on effluent.
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Malins et al. (1982a) discuss abnormalities in biota and
concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment and biota
for the major areas of Puget Sound. Highest concentrations were
observed in Elliott and Commencement Bays, with more than
500 aromatic compounds observed in the Hylebos Waterway sedi-
ments.
Dexter et al. (1981) discuss distribution, concentration
and sources of aromatic hydrocarbons, but cover primarily the
polycyclic hydrocarbons.
Chapman et al. (1979) identify six monocyclic aromatics
(primarily the chlorinated compounds) in West Point effluent and
one in West Point sediments. They classify the dichloro-
benzenes, pentachlorophenol and 2,4-dimethylphenol as being most
important (class 1 pollutants), and recommend determining
concentrations in both sediment and biota in outfall areas.
Pentachlorophenol is one of the four compounds Chapman et al.
(1979) consider as being of special significance because of its
high toxicity, wide use, demonstrated presence in effluent, and
ability to accumulate in sediments and biota.
Konasewich et al. (1982) review data on the levels of
hexachlorobenzene found in Puget Sound, discuss significance to
Puget Sound, and compare levels with those reported in the
literature. They note all priority pollutant benzenes and
toluenes were observed in sediments or biota, but not phenols
and cresols. They consider benzene, trichlorobenzene, ethyl-
and nitrobenzene and toluene as class 6 contaminants (of no
immediate concern based on existing knowledge); the dichloro-
benzenes and chlorobenzene as class 4 and 5 contaminants (toxic,
but for which additional information on distribution, form,
concentration, and source identification is required); the
dinitrotoluenes as class 2 contaminants (those for which an
ecological hazard evaluation could not be provided); and hexa-
chlorobenzene as a class 1 contaminant (critical and of con-
cern) . Konasewich et al. (1982) consider chlorinated benzenes
to be contaminants of concern, based on their toxicity and level
of distribution in Puget Sound biota and sediments.
Information Gaps
o Sources of high concentrations, especially of chlorinat-
ed benzenes, are not identified,
o It is unclear to what extent high concentration in
sediments contributes to or affects uptake by biota,
o The role of sediment in concentrating organic contami-
nants in the Sound is not well understood,
o Measurements of these priority pollutants in effluents
appear to have been made only infrequently, and may not
be totally representative.
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o The effect of chlorination on municipal treatment plant
effluent, and the possible formation of new chlorinated
compounds, has not been determined. Some data may be
made available by the Metro TPPS report if appropriate
sampling techniques were used.
Phthalate Esters
There are six phthalate esters listed as priority pollu-
tants by EPA. Callahan et al. (1979) describe their physical
properties and probable fates, and provide an extensive refer-
ence list. Chapman et al. (1982a) recommend strategies concern-
ing monitoring of these compounds. Presence of esters in Metro
effluent is also discussed by Chapman et al. (1979). Fates,
sources, significance to Puget Sound, and research needs are
discussed by Konasewich et al. (1982). Information on health
effects is given by Sittig (1980).
Properties and Fates
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is the most studied of the
phthalate esters; others are much less known, and their prop-
erties are somewhat inferred from those of the group as a whole.
In natural waters, volatilization, oxidation, hydrolysis, and
photolysis are not expected to be significant fate processes.
Aquatic transport mechanisms are thought to be primarily adsorp-
tion onto suspended matter and biota, and formation of complexes
with natural organic substances. Bioaccumulation, biotransfor-
mation, and biodegradation are all considered important fate
processes but the degree to which these dominate is not clear.
The compounds are lipophilic and are likely to be adsorbed by
both uni- and multicellular animals and plants. There is
evidence of biodegradation and metabolism at varying rates by
microorganisms and higher animals, depending on environmental
conditions. Esters are not likely to biomagnify (Callahan
et al. 1979) ,
Model simulations indicate concentrations of short-chain
alkyl group esters (dimethyl, diethyl, and dibutyl phthalates)
in the ecosystem can be expected to approach a steady state if
ecosystem input is constant; chemical and biochemical transfor-
mations compete favorably. Longer chain esters tend to have
slow transformation processes, and transport processes by
adsorption will predominate. However, phthalate esters appear
more readily degradable than other persistent compounds such as
PCBs and DDT (Callahan et al. 1979).
Sources and Distribution
Phthalate esters are primarily used as plasticizers in
production of polyvinyl chloride, but are also used as defoaming
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agents in paper production, in lubricating oils, cosmetic
products and other industries (Sittig 1980).
Few studies involving esters have been made. Five differ-
ent esters have been observed within Elliott Bay sediments
during studies by Metro in 1979 (Konasewich et al. 1982), with
diethylhexyl phthalate being most predominant. Four of the
esters have been shown to exist in Metro effluent and the other
two have been found in nearby sediments. Chapman et al. (1979)
recommend monitoring of these compounds in both sediment and
biota. Phthalate esters are classified as being category 1
(contaminants of concern) by Konasewich et al. (1982) , based on
their wide distribution and the possibility of chronic effects
at low levels.
Information Gaps
o Levels of phthalate esters in biota and sediments of
Puget Sound have not been determined for most areas.
Tacoma is a likely area to expect their occurrence.
Metro's TPPS report may provide some data for the
Central Basin.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are listed
as EPA priority pollutants. Callahan et al. (1979) provide
detailed information on properties and aquatic fates and give an
extensive reference list for each compound. Chapman et al.
(1979, 1982a) discuss monitoring strategies for these compounds
and their presence in Metro effluent. Malins et al. (1982a)
and, to a lesser degree, Dexter et al. (1981) summarize
knowledge of these compounds in the Puget Sound water, sediments
and suspended particulates. Riley et al. (1981) give detailed
information on Blair and Hylebos Waterways of Commencement Bay.
Konasewich et al. (1982) review fates, sources and significance
to Puget Sound for selected PAHs, including information on PAHs
not listed by EPA as a priority pollutant, but believed to be of
significance (chlorinated and bromo-naphthalenes, and other
halogenated PAHs). These have received less attention than
those listed, and little data on their distribution, or concen-
trations are available at present.
Properties and Fates
Two- and Three-ring Compounds. Very little is known
concerning the two-ring compounds (acenaphthene, acenaphthylene,
fluorene and naphthylene) or the three-ring compounds (anthra-
cene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene). Data suggest they will
adsorb strongly to particulates (especially organics) and biota.
Volatilization is unlikely to be as important a transport
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process as adsorption for any but napthalene, where it may be
more important, and anthracene, where these processes may
compete. Bioaccumulation for compounds of four rings or less is
short term and often not significant because they are easily
metabolized. Biodegradation is considered the ultimate fate
process (Callahan et al. 1979) .
Four-ring Compounds. With the exception of benzo[a]anthra-
cene, properties and fates are not well researched for the
four-ring aromatic compounds (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo [b]fluor-
anthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, and pyrene). It is
likely that these compounds will accumulate in sediments and
biota because they tend to adsorb to suspended particulates,
especially those high in organic matter. This is probably the
dominant transport process. A small amount may dissolve and be
degraded to some extent by photolysis and oxidation. In gener-
al, volatilization does not appear important, and hydrolysis is
unlikely. Ultimate fate of this group appears to be biodegra-
dation and biotransformation. Many diverse species including
microorganisms, benthic organisms and vertebrates can metabolize
these; biodegradation may be the ultimate fate process (Callahan
et al. 1979).
Five- and Six-ring Compounds. Few data specific to five-
and six-ring compounds (benzo fghi)perylene, benzo[a]pyrene,
dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene) are avail-
able except for benzo[a]pyrene. The compounds are relatively
insoluble in water, but will adsorb onto particulates and biota,
and this appears to be the most important transport process.
Although compounds with four or more rings are more slowly
metabolized than those with fewer rings, bioaccumulation is
fairly short term. Compounds having four or more rings are also
degraded more slowly by microorganisms, benthic organisms, and
vertebrates, but it is probably the ultimate fate process.
Biodegradation may be much more rapid (and therefore more
important) in those aquatic areas which are chronically contam-
inated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Callahan et al
1979).
Sources and Distribution
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be formed through
hydrocarbon combustion, or released during oil spills. The
major sources include heat and power generation and refuse-
burning facilities. PAHs are also used in formulation of dyes,
solvents, lubricants, and motor oils. Smaller ringed compounds
have fewer uses than the larger-ringed ones (Sittig 1980) .
Chlorinated napthylenes also may be produced by chlorinated
wastewater treatment plant effluents (Konasewich et al. 1982).
Low levels of PAHs in sediments and the biota have been
identified in all areas of Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de
Fuca (Dexter et al. 1981). Concentrations in biota tended to be
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highest in Hylebos Waterway, Commencement Bay and the Duwamish
River, while Elliott Bay, West Point, Duwamish River, Hylebos
Waterway, and Sinclair Inlet had highest sediment concen-
trations. Malins et al. (1982a) summarize concentration of
aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and biota and discuss abnor-
malities of organisms living within contaminated areas.
Nearly all priority polycyclic aromatics have been observed
in Metro effluent except for acenaphthene. These compounds are
classified by Chapman et al. (1979) as class 1 compounds (those
of most concern). In addition, they consider benzo[a]pyrene to
be one of four compounds of special significance because of its
high levels, demonstrated presence in effluent, ability to
accumulate in sediments and biota, and potential links to
hepatomas in bottomfish.
Konasewich et al. (1982) indicated all of the priority
pollutant PAHs have been observed in Puget Sound sediment,
biota, suspended particulates, or a combination of these. They
classify napthalene, anthracene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthra-
cene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzola]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]-
anthracene as being category 1 compounds (contaminants of
concern). The remaining PAHs are considered to be category 2
compounds (contaminants of possible concern but difficult to
evaluate). They also consider chlorinated and bromonaphthalenes
and other halogenated PAHs to be contaminants of concern.
Fluoranthenes appear to be the most prominent PAHs in terms
of concentration, although levels in biota are normally low.
Naphthalenes are found in high concentrations in Elliott and
Commencement Bays, and input appears ongoing. Their metabolites
are extremely toxic but not well known. Compared to the litera-
ture for other areas, benzoanthracenes appear to be at quite
high concentrations in Puget Sound.
A number of PAHs not on the priority pollutant list are
potentially of concern. Low levels of chlorinated and bromo-
naphthylenes have been shown to cause sublethal effects in
organisms, and their similarity to PCBs and naphthylene (prior-
ity pollutants) indicates they may be of potential hazard.
Their metabolites are also of possible concern (Konasewich
et al. 1982). Other halogenated PAHs may pose similar problems.
Many of these compounds have been observed in Puget Sound and
concentrations are documented by Malins et al. (1982a), Konase-
wich et al. (1982), and Riley et al. (1981). Curl (1982) has
constructed a preliminary budget for PAH mass loading in the
Central Basin, indicating riverine and municipal discharge each
contribute approximately 200 kg/yr, while atmospheric input is
estimated at 300 kg/yr.
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Information Gaps
o Levels of concentration in edible biota are not well
known for many PAHs.
o Information concerning chlorinated and bromonaphthy-
lenes, their metabolites, and other halogenated PAHs not
on the EPA listing is poorly documented, and their
concentrations, toxicity, degradation rates and sources
are not well known,
o Sources for most PAHs are not identified.
Nitrosamines and Miscellaneous Compounds
There are three nitrosamine and four miscellaneous com-
pounds on the EPA priority pollutant list. Information concern-
ing properties and probable fates is given in Callahan et al.
(1982a). Sittig (1980) discusses health aspects of these com-
pounds. Chapman et al. (1979) discuss their presence in Metro
effluent, but apparently little other local information is
available. Benzidine and diphenylhydrazine may be produced in
the environment by photolysis or biodegradation of nitrobenzene,
a monocyclic aromatic listed as a priority pollutant.
Properties and Fates
Property and fate information below is taken from Callahan
et al. (1979). Slow photolysis is probably the major fate
process for dimethyl nitrosamine and di-n-propyl nitrosamine.
Bioaccumulation, volatilization and adsorption are insignifi-
cant, and little oxidation hydrolysis or biodegradation occurs.
Diphenyl nitrosamine may bioaccumulate, and both adsorption
and photolysis may be important, although information on the
fate processes is limited.
Benzidine is rapidly adsorbed by clay. Although adsorption
is considered the major fate, some photolysis probably occurs.
It can be rapidly oxidized by other cations but is not easily
degraded and is not bioaccumulated.
The main fate of dichlorobenzidine is probably adsorption
to particulates, although photolytic dechlorination occurs in
shallow water. It has also been shown to bioaccumulate in fish
at subtoxic levels. No biodegradation occurs.
Diphenylhydrazine has the potential for bioaccumulation,
but there is no evidence that this has occurred. The main
transport and fate mechanism is probably adsorption to sedi-
ments. Some photolysis to aniline occurs; it is slow, but may
be important in the final destruction of the compound.
Volatilization is probably the major transport process for
acrilonitrile. Adsorption and bioaccumulation are not likely to
occur, and hydrolysis is not considered significant.
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Sources and Distribution
Nitrosamines are naturally widespread, and anthropogenic
sources are negligible. Synthetic production is small, but they
are used in rubber processing and pesticide manufacture (Sittig
1980) .
Diphenylhydrazine is used primarily in dye manufacturing of
benzidine. Dichlorobenzines have been detected in finished
drinking water, and acrilonitrile is used primarily in produc-
tion of polymers (Sittig 1980).
Few local data are available on these compounds, and none
appears to have been observed in local sediments, waters or
biota. None has been observed in Metro effluent (Chapman et al.
1979) .
Information Gaps
o Transport,	fate, and bioaccumulation/biotransformation
potential	of many of these compounds are not well
understood or documented.
Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed as by-
products in the manufacture or disposal of PCBs or polychlori-
nated phenols. Structurally they resemble chlorinated dibenzo-
dioxins and TCDDs, which are among the most toxic chemicals
known. There are 135 possible isomers, and changes in position
of one chlorine atom may significantly alter toxicity. Deter-
mination of the actual structure of Puget Sound compounds is
therefore important. Little research has been done locally on
these compounds.
Information below is primarily summarized from Konasewich
et al. (1982) , who provide a review of toxicity and fate data,
sources, and research needs. Much of the information is based
on known behavior of similar compounds.
Properties and Fates
Sedimentation is likely to be one of the most significant
fate processes for PCDFs, as their lipophilic nature indicates
potentially high adsorption to organic-containing sediments.
Based upon their similarity to other compounds, they are pro-
bably not biologically degraded in the environment, and hydroly-
sis, photolysis, and volatilization would likely be minimal.
Potential for biological uptake is high, although there are
indications that higher organisms can rapidly depurate PCDFs.
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Sources and Distribution
PCDFs exist as impurities in PCBs and chlorinated phenols.
They also are found in coal tar coatings of public water sys-
tems, in flue gasses and fly ash from incineration and heating
facilities, and as by-products of coal conversion or burning of
PCBs or pentachlorophenol (PCP). PCP is manufactured in Tacoma,
and is widely used in the lumber industry in pulpmills,
sawmills, and lumber terminals.
Hexa-, penta-, and tetrachlorodibenzofurans have been
detected in central Puget Sound sediments by Malins (in Konase-
wich et al. 1982), although levels were not quantified and
possible effects can only be speculated on. A later analysis of
Tacoma sediments by Malins et al. (1982a) also indicated pres-
ence of low level dichlorodibenzofurans.
Konasewich et al. (1982) consider PCDFs to be category 1
compounds (contaminants of greatest concern) because high levels
of PCBs in Puget Sound sediments and extensive usage of PCP
suggests they may be widespread, and they are highly toxic to
birds and mammals. Toxicity to aquatic organisms is not well
known.
Information Gaps
o There are many potential PCDF sources, but information
is lacking concerning distribution, degree of contamina-
tion, and the isomers involved,
o Should widespread contamination be found, sources,
toxicity to biota (especially benthic organisms),
bioaccumulation and uptake information would be desir-
able .
Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Aromatic hydrocarbons have been dealt with previously in
this chapter. Crude oil and fuel oils are considered in this
section as distinct petroleum products because of concern over
potential oil spills, especially within northern Puget Sound.
Increases in tanker transport will increase the spill risks.
Properties and Fates
Fractionation of oil occurs upon contact with water;
portions of the oil dissolve while others adsorb to particulate
matter or evaporate. The more water-soluble aromatic hydro-
carbon fraction is responsible for acute toxicity, but fractions
adsorbed in particulates and accumulated in sediments may
possibly interrupt biological functions such as chemotaxis
(Blumer et al. 1973). The water-soluble fractions are also
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considered good tracers for pollution studies because of their
mobility and relatively slow biodegradation (Zurcher and Thuer
1978) . Degradation studies by Westlake et al. (1978) estimate
approximately one-third of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (by weight) is
lost due to mineralization by microorganisms, approximately
one-third was lost due to physical/chemical weathering, and
approximately one-third remains as residue. Zurcher and Thuer
(1978) studied the weathering processes of fuel oil and found
that important primary initial processes include fast disso-
lution, adsorption, and agglomeration, followed by sedimentation
and biochemical alteration. Turbulence and suspended solids
levels also affect the process.
Dissolution of the one- and two-ring hydrocarbons occurs
independently of the oil type (fuel oil, gasoline, or crude oil)
and reaches a saturation level that depends largely on aromatic
hydrocarbon content (Zurcher and Thuer 1978).
Interactions between oil and particulates include adsorp-
tion of higher boiling hydrocarbons (molecular weight >250) to
particulates, and agglomeration. The former depends upon
character of the particulate surface, and the latter upon
formation of dispersed oil droplets. Agglomeration has a
substantial role in sedimentation of oil as well (Zurcher and
Thuer 1978).
Studies by Westlake and Cook (1980) and Westlake
et al. (1978) on oil degradation processes in Puget Sound water
and sediment showed microbial degradation ability to be greatest
in areas adjacent to refineries and in areas of high commercial
activity. They also suggest bacteria, not yeasts or fungi, are
the most active group in degrading oil in the environment.
Nitrogen and phosphorus levels are also primary factors in
controlling microbial activity, and enrichment with nutrients
produced greater degradation. Degradation was also found to be
greater in summer than winter in both beach sediment and the
water column.
Various oil fractions were removed differently from the
environment; removal of compounds in the saturate fraction was
slow, followed by an extended period of high removal rate, while
aromatics were continually removed at a low rate, followed by a
short period of rapid loss. Vanderhorst et al. (1980a, 1980b)
monitored oil retention and recovery rates for various sub-
strates in the Strait of Juan de Puca following an experimental
spill. The data indicated that total hydrocarbon concentration
decreased by 85 percent and 97 percent, respectively, for fine
and coarse sediment within 15 months, which suggested that total
hydrocarbons would reach background levels in approximately 18.5
months. Because spills represent an unavoidable and potentially
acute situation, these recovery studies may be of interest
primarily in contingency planning.
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Methodology for detection and measurement of hydrocarbons
in Puget Sound sediments and molluscs is given by MacLeod et al.
(1977) . They also present recommendations for use in the
development of a hydrocarbon baseline investigation program for
northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Their
results ranked oil retention from highest to lowest for commer-
cial clam beds, sand, and concrete brick (representing rock
habitat), respectively. Substrate higher in the intertidal zone
also retained oil longer. Sand and sandy mud substrate lost
saturate compounds at the same rate as total oil. Aromatic
compounds were lost much more quickly in sand substrate, while
in the clam bed habitat (sandy mud) they did not change from
initial concentrations in 3 months.
A 2-year baseline study by Brown et al. (1981) on hydro-
carbon concentrations in sediment and mussels indicated sedi-
ments took up hydrocarbons more slowly, and retained them for
over a month. Nearby mussels absorbed them more readily, but
also returned to normal levels more quickly.
Sources and Distribution
Sources of petroleum hydrocarbons include chronic nonpoint
sources such as recreational boating, industrial discharges,
stormwater runoff, and river input, as well as acute and poten-
tially larger inputs such as unintentional spills. Calculations
of actual Puget Sound loadings for grease and oil are discussed
in Chapter 4 and in Appendix D. Pollution caused by petroleum
hydrocarbons can be minimized, but the amount and distribution
can never be totally predicted from year to year because of
unexpected spills of unpredictable quantity.
Information Gaps
o Existing levels of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment
and biota are not well documented,
o The effect of hydrocarbons absorbed to sediments on
benthic and demersal species is not well quantified.
Metals and Inorganics
Heavy metals are generally considered to be pollutants of
environmental concern because of their toxicity and tendency to
accumulate in sediments and biota. The biological effects of
metals in the marine environment are influenced by their oxida-
tion states and the types of organic and inorganic compounds
they are associated with. The pH, concentration of other
chemicals, and ability of the metal to be reduced or oxidized
also affect its toxicity.
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Fifteen metals and inorganics have been incorporated into
the EPA priority pollutant listing. Twelve of the 15 adsorb to
sediments and bioaccumulate (although bioaccumulation tends to
be more important for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead,
mercury, and zinc, than for nickel, beryllium, selenium, silver
and thallium). The other three substances (cyanide, asbestos,
and antimony) react somewhat differently.
Because metals have been extensively sampled relative to
other compounds, each will be discussed separately. Callahan
et al. (1979) and Konasewich et al. (1982) provide detailed data
on structure, fates and processes. Dexter et al. (1981) summa-
rize information on Puget Sound, and Chapman et al. (1979)
provide information on Metro effluent characteristics. Property
and fate information for metals summarized below is primarily
from Callahan et al. (1979) and Konasewich et al. (1982).
Sittig (1980) provides information on health effects, and Gruger
et al. (1981) discuss synergistic effects between metals and
various hydrocarbons.
Arsenic
Properties and Fates. Arsenic exists in four oxidation
states^ each having different properties. It is quite mobile,
and cycles through water, sediment and biota. Photolysis is not
considered an important fate process. Volatilization is con-
sidered unimportant by Callahan et al. (1979) except in extreme
reducing environments, where anaerobic bacteria can reduce
arsenic compounds to dimethyl and trimethyl arsene, which are
extremely toxic and volatile. Konasewich :et al. (1982) believe
volatilization may be of significance to the fate of arsenic in
Puget Sound. In most cases sediments andfc ocean water are the
primary sinks for arsenic, but metabolism to organic arsenicals
by bacteria and benthic organisms recycles much of it.
Bioaccumulation occurs, but is most significant at lower
trophic levels. Fish may accumulate arsenic through both water
and food, but uptake from the water column appears to be more
important (Konasewich et al. 1982). Reported concentrations in
organisms are generally low, because high toxicity prevents
great accumulation.
Adsorption-desorption to and from particulates does not
appear significant in estuarine or marine environments (Konase-
wich et al. 1982). Crecelius (pers. comm.) estimated an arsenic
budget for Puget Sound; the estimated budget indicates that
discharge to the Strait of Juan de Fuca is the major sink, with
the remainder primarily deposited in the sediments.
Arsenic is considered to be either a carcinogen or cocar-
cinogen, with a latent period of 20-30 years. It is considered
by Dexter et al. (1981) to be one of the metals having greatest
potential for toxicity to organisms, and Konasewich et al.
(1982) have identified it as a contaminant of concern for Puget
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Sound. Crecelius (pers. comm.) does not consider arsenic to be
of concern because there is no evidence that it is elevated in
the tissues of biota, contribution by man is relatively small,
and seawater already has a relatively high concentration.
Sources and Distribution. Sources are both natural and
anthropogenic. Arsenic is present in soils, but is also formed
as a by-product of ore smelting, and is used in herbicides,
preservatives, drugs, ceramics and glass, and a number of other
industries (Sittig 1980; Metro 1980).
The northern rivers which enter Puget Sound (Skagit,
Snohomish, Stillaguamish and Duwamish) have arsenic concen-
trations approximately six times those of the more southern
rivers, which primarily reflects the mineralogic differences of
the drainage basins (Dexter et al. 1981) . Shoreline erosion and
advection (transport of water through Admiralty Inlet) are
sources, as are municipal treatment plant effluent and atmo-
spheric input. Estimated input for municipal and industrial
discharges, riverine sources, erosion, and advection are given
by Dexter et al. (1981) and by Crecelius (pers. comm.). In both
cases natural sources are estimated to be greatly predominant.
Although relative contribution from anthropogenic sources seems
minor, some regional areas are heavily impacted, and arsenic is
considered to be one of the metals having greatest potential for
producing toxic response in organisms and their consumers
(Dexter et al. 1981).
Arsenic measurements for all major areas of Puget Sound
sediments are summarized by Dexter et al. (1981) . It has been
found in high concentrations in sediments of all four urban
embayments (Elliott and Commencement Bays, and Budd and Sinclair
Inlets). In Tacoma, liquid and slag discharges from the ASARCO
smelter, storm drains, and sewer overflows have produced very
high concentrations of arsenic (and antimony) along the western
bay, but atmospheric emissions are also a likely source. North-
westerly flow along the southwest shore of Commencement Bay
minimizes impact there, but sediments in Quartermaster Harbor
and to the south of Pox Island have significantly higher arsenic
levels than other areas. Deep sediments in East Passage also
have elevated levels (Dexter et al. 1981). Measurements in the
water column indicate arsenic associated with particulates is
minor in comparison to the concentration of dissolved material
(Konasewich et al. 1982).
Information Gaps.
o Speciation of arsenic and the significance of
volatilization as a fate process in Puget Sound are not
well understood.
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Cadmium
Properties and Fates. Cadmium is relatively mobile because
it dissolves readily in water. As such, it may pose a hazard to
all forms of aquatic biota. Adsorption to suspended matter
reduces concentrations in the water column. In polluted or
organic-rich areas, cadmium adsorption to organic matter is
considered the most important fate process. In unpolluted
areas, adsorption to clay, hydrous iron and manganese is the
most important (Callahan et al. 1979). There is also a tendency
for it to be associated with fine grained sediment and high
organic carbon levels (Malins 1980 in Konasewich et al. 1982) .
Bioaccumulation is considered an important fate process.
Cadmium is strongly bioaccumulated at all trophic levels, and
uptake increases with increased temperature and decreased
salinity. It can be accumulated to much higher levels than
water concentrations, although usually to a level lower than
that of the sediments. It is not known to be methylated.
The form of cadmium within the sediments is dependent on
redox conditions. In oxidizing conditions, carbonate formation
is the controlling process and soluble chlorides are the major
complexes. In reducing conditions, the formation of generally
insoluble sulphides regulates the amount of dissolved cadmium
available.
When river particulates enter an estuary, cadmium is
probably released to the water. The release of cadmium from
Puget Sound sediments appears to occur readily, and may be of
importance to health of the biota (Konasewich et al. 1982).
Photolysis and volatilization are not considered important
fates.
Sources and Distribution. Cadmium is used industrially in
plating, and Tn manufacture of paint, varnish, batteries,
plastics, fungicides, fertilizers, rubber tires, and motor oil
(Sittig 1980; Konasewich et al. 1982). It can also be released
to the atmosphere in smelting of zinc, copper, and lead ores.
Crecelius (pers. comm.) has estimated an annual input of approx-
imately 44 tons to the Sound, the majority contributed through
advection, with riverine, sewage and atmospheric input con-
sidered of less importance.
Crecelius (pers. comm.) does not consider cadmium to be a
metal of concern, because there is no evidence of elevation in
tissues of biota, and contribution by man is minor compared to
that of advection. On the other hand, Konasewich et al. (1982)
consider it as a contaminant of concern because sediment levels
are highly elevated compared to regulatory criteria for classi-
fying sediments. Cadmium is one of the four compounds on the
priority pollutant listing singled out by Chapman et al. (1979)
as being of special significance because of its high toxicity,
demonstrated presence in effluent, and ability to accumulate in
sediments and biota.
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Concentrations of cadmium for various areas of Puget Sound
sediment are given in Malins et al. (1981). Effects of levels
found in Puget Sound are discussed in Konasewich et al. (1982).
Dexter et al. (1981) do not discuss it in detail, because data
were considered limited and of unknown quality, and regional
impacts were considered to be minor.
Information Gaps.
o Sources of cadmium are not well identified.
o There appear to be some differences of opinion as to
quality of existing data on cadmium.
Chromium
Properties and Fates. Chromium exists in two oxidation
states: hexavalent and trivalent. Chemical processes affecting
these states are important in fate determination. Hexavalent
chromium is quite soluble, and reacts with reducing materials to
form trivalent chromium, which is primarily hydrolized and
precipitates as chromium hydroxide. This precipitation is felt
to be the dominant fate process, and the trivalent form is the
most stable under normal water conditions. Both forms adsorb
only weakly to inorganic solids. Photolysis and volatilization
are not considered important fate processes (Chapman et al.
1979).
As an essential nutrient, chromium is bioaccumulated by
both flora and fauna to greater concentrations than in the water
column, although it is generally less than those in sediments.
There is no evidence that methylation occurs, although its
occurrence in reducing environments has been speculated
(Callahan et al. 1979).
There appears to be little concern about chromium at the
moment. Konasewich et al. (1982) do not consider it a metal of
concern because levels within Puget Sound sediments fall within
normal expected levels. Dexter et al. (1981) and Crecelius
(pers. comm.) do not consider it of concern.
Sources and Distribution. Potential sources include auto-
motive repair shops, electroplating industries, carwashes and
landfill leachate. Chromium has also been observed in small
concentrations in sewage treatment plant effluent.
Information Gaps.
o Chromium levels in the water column are not well known,
but levels in sediments appear normal.
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Copper
Properties and Fate. Copper is one of the most toxic
metals to marine organisms, but its toxicity is dependent on
chemical speciation. Fate is determined by several processes
including complex formation, adsorption to sediments, and
bioaccumulation. The tendency for copper to form complexes is
very important in precipitation. In unpolluted water, adsorp-
tion of copper to clay and iron and manganese oxides is the
dominant process? in polluted areas, adsorption to organic
materials is dominant. Relatively small changes in pH, redox
potential, salinity or other factors may result in its transfer
from one environmental compartment to another. Biological
impact is therefore complex and variable (Konasewich et al.
1982) .
Copper is strongly bioaccumulated by both plants and
animals, but bioaccumulation occurs to a much greater extent in
benthic invertebrates than in fishes. Absorption from the water
is important for some species, but for the majority, diet is the
main mechanism for accumulation. Copper is apparently not
biomagnified (Callahan et al. 1979). Depuration can occur, but
it is affected by many factors (Konasewich et al. 1982).
Photolysis and volatilization are not considered important fate
processes.
In Puget Sound, upwelling may be an important process for
freeing copper from the sediments. Important areas of possible
pollutant upwelling include West Point and Alki Point. Dis-
solved oxygen levels and salt wedge penetration in the lower
Duwamish River could also affect copper mobilization, particu-
larly at the "toe" of the wedge where salinity is increased
(Konasewich et al. 1982).
Sources and Distribution. Copper sources are natural as
well as anthropogenic. Natural sources include riverine and
atmospheric input, shoreline erosion and advection. Input from
anthropogenic sources includes sewage treatment plants, ore
smelting, coal burning, clothes laundering, leather processing
plants, and pipe leaching (Sittig 1980; Metro 1980). Dexter
et al. (19 81) estimate inputs from natural sources to be approx-
imately 66 7 tons per year, compared to anthropogenic inputs of
66 tons per year. Other budgets are listed by Konasewich et al.
(1982) .
Dexter et al. (1981) have summarized known copper concen-
trations in sediments, in the water column, and on suspended
par- ticulates for all major areas of Puget Sound. They also
estimate inputs for various natural and anthropogenic sources.
Local anthropogenic input was noted in western Sinclair Inlet,
but the lower reaches of the Duwamish River and Commencement Bay
showed the highest recorded levels. Elevated concentrations
were also observed in the Central Basin near the West Point
outfall.
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Copper is considered a contaminant of concern by Konasewich
et al. (1982) because it exceeds the EPA "heavily polluted"
levels in many areas of the sediments, and salt water inverte-
brates are particularly sensitive to copper and copper specia-
tion. Crecelius (pers. comm.) also considers it to be a metal
of potential concern, because of elevated concentrations in
water and sediments, although biota do not appear to be directly
harmed.
Information Gaps.
o Copper levels in sediments have been measured, but
levels in water are not well described.
Lead
Properties and Fate. Chemical speciation affects transport
and fate of lead, and may also affect toxicity and bioavail-
ability. At pH values of 7.5-8.5 (ambient Puget Sound levels),
lead exists predominately as free lead. Free metal ion concen-
trations are highest at a 1:1 seawater to freshwater ratio, and
the most toxic effects would occur at this range, probably
within an estuarine environment.
Adsorption is an important process in Puget Sound (Konase-
wich et al. 1982). Lead tends to form complexes, and adsorption
to inorganic solids, organic materials and hydrous iron and
manganese oxides controls lead's mobility. Adsorption and
sediment enrichment are important fates in natural waters, but
in polluted areas precipitation may be an important process in
controlling mobility. Adsorption is highly pH-dependent; lead
is more mobile in acidic water.
Volatilization is probably not an important fate process
except for alkylated lead compounds. Photolysis is important in
determining the form in which lead enters the water, but its
importance within the water is unknown.
Marine plants and invertebrates bioaccumulate lead to a
greater extent than fish, but it is not biomagnified, and
bioconcentration decreases with increased trophic level.
Benthic microorganisms can methylate lead, resulting in the more
toxic and volatile compound tetramethyl lead. This may be a
mechanism for lead removal from the sediments (Callahan et al.
1979) .
Sources and Distribution. Lead sources are both natural
and anthropogenic. Anthropogenic sources include combustion of
leaded gasoline, ore smelting, sewage treatment plant effluent,
urban runoff, paint and battery manufacturing plants and similar
sources (Sittig 1980) .
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Konasewich et al. (1982) estimate loadings from anthropo-
genic sources. Dexter et al. (1981) estimate loadings from both
anthropogenic sources and natural sources such as advection,
riverine input and shoreline erosion. Crecelius (pers. comm.)
estimates a mass balance, and indicates atmospheric input is
significant. The main removal mechanism from the water column
appears to be sedimentation. Although anthropogenic input is
small relative to natural sources, obvious contamination exists
in localized areas.
Lead is one of the metals receiving greater attention in
Puget Sound. It has been observed in high concentrations in
nearly all urban area sediments. Dexter et al. (1981) summarize
known lead levels in sediments (and water and suspended matter
where available) for all major areas of Puget Sound. Malins et
al. (1982a) summarize concentration data and discuss contami-
nants in relation to biological abnormalities. Health effects
are discussed by Sittig (1980).
Especially high lead levels were observed in Hylebos and
City Waterways sediments, but highest concentrations were noted
in the lower Duwamish River sediments. Metal concentrations in
the water column have received much less attention.
Konasewich et al. (1982) consider lead to be a contaminant
of concern because of the heavy concentrations observed in the
sediments. Crecelius (pers. comm.) considers it to be a metal
of some concern that should be examined in more detail because
lead levels are elevated in sediments, the water column, and
biota.
Information Gaps.
o Alkyl lead compounds are probably quite toxic, and there
is uncertainty about the process of lead alkylation in
Puget Sound.
Properties and Fates. Mercury has been well researched in
comparison to many other metals. The great majority is rapidly
removed from the water column by strong adsorption to parti-
culates, and sediments are the primary sink (Callahan et al.
1979). However, rapid decreases in Puget Sound sediments have
been documented, indicating either methylation or dissolution is
occurring, and that the sediments in Puget Sound may not be a
permanent sink (Konasewich et al. 1982).
Transformation processes in the sediments include precipi-
tation as HgS in a reducing environment, and methylation by
bacteria. Methylation potential is increased in areas of highly
organic sediments favoring bacterial growth. These processes
may release ionic or metallic mercury back into the water
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column. Resuspension of sediments by organisms or turbulence
can also release compounds to the water.
Mercury adsorbed to sediments in river water may dissolve
when it reaches an estuary, and dissolved levels tend to be
higher in estuaries than in either inflowing rivers or the ocean
receiving waters.
Photolysis is of importance in the atmosphere, and may
affect aquatic fates as well. Volatilization is probably an
important process for the movement in and out of the aquatic
environment, particularly for methylmercury.
Mercury is strongly bioaccumulated by absorption from water
and through the food chain. Most bioaccumulation is connected
to methylated forms of mercury, which have a half-life of 1-3
years in most aquatic organisms. Uptake and release of mercury
also are affected by season and life state of the organisms.
Mercury is one of the few contaminants that is also biomagni-
f ied.
Marine invertebrates have some ability to detoxify low
level chronic pollution by means of metal binding proteins.
There is also some interaction between selenium and mercury,
which appears to protect marine organisms from mercury exposure
to some extent, although the mechanism is not well understood.
Sources and Distribution. Both natural and anthropogenic
sources contribute to mercury loadings. Natural sources include
volcanic activity and leaching of natural deposits. Anthro-
pogenic sources include industrial processes such as manufacture
of electrical equipment, chlorine, caustic soda, paint, pulp and
paper, drugs, smelting and other sources (Sittig 1980). Possi-
ble sources in Puget Sound include chlor-alkali plants and
sewage treatment plants, smelter stack dust, and industrial
discharges to the Duwamish River (Konasewich et al. 1982).
Dexter et al. (1981) and Malins et al. (1982a) summarize
mercury levels in sediments for all major areas of the Sound.
Mercury has been observed in high concentrations in nearly all
Puget Sound urban areas. Highest concentrations were found in
the lower Duwamish River estuary sediments, but high levels have
also been found in Sinclair Inlet, Hylebos and City Waterways,
and Elliott Bay sediments. Crecelius et al. (1975) indicate
that mercury in sediments of Bellingham Bay had a half-life of
about 1.3 years; elevated mercury levels have also been noted in
the water column and organisms (Crecelius pers. comm.).
Konasewich et al. (1982) consider mercury to be a contami-
nant of concern in Puget Sound because of its toxicity and
potential effects on consumers of aquatic life. Because it has
been observed at elevated concentrations in water, sediment and
organisms, Crecelius (pers. comm.) considers mercury to be a
metal of concern, which should be researched in more detail.
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Mercury is also one of the four compounds on the priority
pollutant listing singled out by Chapman et al. (1979) as being
of special significance because of its high toxicity, demon-
strated presence in effluent, ability to accumulate in sediments
and biota, and because it is one of the few pollutants known to
be biomagnified.
Information Gaps.
o Mercury use and discharge have been reduced in the last
few years, and the environmental threat may be reduced.
However, dispersal and levels of mercury within Puget
Sound biota are not well documented. Determination of
levels in edible species is of most importance.
Silver
Properties and Fates. Speciation of silver is important in
determining its availability to organisms. A number of factors
influence speciation including pH, oxidation/reduction state,
ionic strength, and concentration of silver and other cations.
Silver is strongly adsorbed by manganese dioxide and also by
ferric hydroxide and clays, but exposure to seawater enhances
release of silver from sediments, due to displacement of silver
by other cations. Adsorption studies by Kharkar et al. (1968;
in Konasewich et al. 1982) indicate that stream-supplied parti-
culates, rather than acting as binding sites for silver, may
actually contribute dissolved silver to the oceans. Adsorption
and precipitation with halides is probably the dominant control
on silver mobility. Photolysis and volatilization are probably
not significant fate processes.
Bioaccumulation occurs to a lesser degree than with the
metals previously discussed. It is greater in aquatic fauna
than flora, but most silver remains in the sediments.
Bioaccumulation appears to be mainly from the water. Depuration
is slow, and biotransformation to methylated forms of silver in
the sediments is unlikely.
Sources and Distribution. Silver sources are both natural
and anthropogenic. The latter include effluent from electro-
plating, paint, photofinishing, and similar industries, (Sittig
1980) as well as sewer outfalls. Callahan et al. (1979) provide
fate information and toxicity. Fate processes and the signifi-
cance of silver to Puget Sound are discussed in Konasewich et
al. (1982). Malins et al. (1982a) provide information on silver
concentrations in various Puget Sound sediments, and discuss
bioabnormalities observed in areas of contaminated sediments.
Sittig (1980) provides information on health effects of silver.
Chapman et al. (1979) discuss silver content of Metro effluent.
Silver levels in Puget Sound sediments appear highest in
southwest Sinclair Inlet and City and Sitcum Waterways of
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Commencement Bay. Concentrations in biota appear highest in
Sinclair and Case Inlets (Konasewich et al. 1982).
Silver is considered one of the most toxic of the heavy
metals and was chosen as a contaminant of concern by Konasewich
et al. (1982) on the basis of the fact that high concentrations
have been found in Puget Sound sediments. Dexter et al. (1981)
consider data on silver to be limited and of unknown quality,
but do not discuss it to any extent in their summary of Puget
Sound contaminants because it appears to be producing only minor
regional impacts (usually less than twice the criteria level).
They do, however, indicate it has been observed in excess in
four urban embayments (Elliott and Commencement Bays and Budd
and Sinclair Inlets). Crecelius (pers. comm.) considers silver
to be a metal of some concern that should be considered further
because of its elevation in water, sediments, and biota.
Information Gaps.
o Silver levels seem to be somewhat in question, and
measurements are limited, especially for water and
biota.
o Adsorption mechanisms in estuarine and marine waters are
not fully understood.
o Sources of silver may not be well identified.
Selenium
Properties and Fates. Selenium is very soluble, and most
is probably transported in dissolved form as selenite or
selenate. Selenium is sensitive to environmental changes, and
speciation is important for toxicity and bioaccumulation. As
selenite is more toxic than selenate, and may be more persistent
in deeper water in Puget Sound, deep water and benthic organisms
may be more affected by selenium than pelagic ones (Konasewich
et al. 1982) .
Under reducing conditions selenium can form metal sele-
nides, most of which have very low water solubility. In oxidiz-
ing conditions, adsorption or precipitation is probably the
major control on its mobility. Metal oxides adsorb selenium
strongly; clays and organic materials do so to a lesser degree.
The pH is also important, and selenium is probably quite mobile
in clays, especially in alkaline situations. Only in areas of
high hydrous iron oxide concentrations would selenium be adsor-
bed into the bed sediments. Puget Sound data indicate that
sediments having high selenium concentrations tend to have low
sand/mud ratios, small particle size, and high organic carbon
content (Malins et al. 1980 in Konasewich et al. 1981). Photoly-
sis is not an important fate process (Konasewich et al. 1982;
Callahan et al. 1979).
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Bioaccumulation occurs in both flora and fauna, but it is
likely that fauna accumulate primarily via the food chain rather
than by uptake from the water. Accumulation is generally low.
In some instances bioaccumulation is strongly correlated to
concentration of other heavy metals in the organism. Selenium
has been shown to inhibit mercury accumulation in some cases.
Biomethylation within the sediments by microorganisms can
produce volatile compounds, allowing remobilization of selenium.
In a reducing environment, selenium can be converted to a
volatile form (I^Se) , and Konasewich et al. (1982) indicate the
potential for such conditions in Elliott and Commencement Bays,
particularly near outfall locations.
Sources and Distribution. Selenium sources are both
natural and anthropogenic. Natural sources include soils and
volcanic activity. Anthropogenic sources include: smelting and
refining of copper, lead, and zinc; manufacture of glass ceram-
ics, iron and steel alloys, pigments and semiconductors; and
fossil fuel combustion (Sittig 1980; Konasewich et al. 1982).
Selenium was selected as a contaminant of concern by
Konasewich et al. (19 82) because it is found in Puget Sound
sediment at levels much higher than those in deep sediments or
the earth's crust. Little local data on selenium are readily
available. Selenium was not discussed by Dexter et al. (1981)
in their summary of knowledge of Puget Sound contaminants,
because they felt no reliable data were currently available. It
was not observed in Metro effluent (Chapman et al. 1979),
although it is an important constituent of some shampoos and
hair products.
Information Gaps.
o Reliable data concerning concentrations in water and
sediments, and levels and areas of contamination, do not
seem to be available for selenium.
Zinc
Properties and Fates. Zinc is readily transported and one
of the most mobile of heavy metals. It adsorbs to clay, hydrous
iron and manganese oxides, and organic materials, but adsorption
is influenced by concentrations of materials. Adsorption
increases with pH, and increased Eh releases zinc to the water
column. In a reducing situation, or in areas of high zinc
concentration, precipitation of zinc sulfide is important in
reducing zinc mobility.
The release of zinc from sediments is dependent on a
combination of ion exchange and complex formation; stability of
the complex determines solubility. Generally, organic material
in polluted waters affects the form in which zinc is present,
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and complexes will predominate. In unpolluted areas, zinc
normally will be a divalent cation, and easily adsorbed.
Volatilization and photolysis do not appear to be important fate
processes (Callahan et al. 1979).
Zinc is strongly bioaccumulated by marine biota, and fish
may accumulate it from both food and water, but bioaccumulation
appears to be a minor sink compared to the sediments. No bio-
methylation has been observed (Callahan et al. 1979) .
Sources and Distribution. Zinc is produced in alloy
production and plating processes (Sittig 1980) . The greatest
anthropogenic source appears to be atmospheric (Dexter et al.
1981), and dust from the Harbor Island smelter is a major source
of pollution in the Duwamish estuary area. CSO and storm
drains, such as the Diagonal Way overflow, Hanford Street
overflow, and Denny Way overflow, have also been identified as
contributors to zinc contamination in the Duwamish estuary area.
Dexter et al, (1981) summarize concentrations of zinc in water
and suspended particulate matter for various areas of Puget
Sound and estimate inputs for individual rivers, municipal and
industrial effluent, storm drains, and CSOs. They provide an
estimation of annual loading for both natural (riverine input,
erosion and advection) and anthropogenic sources. Zinc loading
is estimated by Dexter et al. (1981) to be much greater than
that of arsenic, copper or mercury, with the bulk of the input
projected to come from natural sources.
Highest levels were observed in the Duwamish River estuary,
but high levels have also been observed in Hylebos and City
Waterways of Commencement Bay, in Budd and Sinclair Inlets, and
in Elliott Bay.
Zinc, although elevated in the sediments, has not been
identified as a contaminant of concern by Konasewich et al.
(1982). Because zinc does not appear elevated to any apprecia-
ble extent in the water or biota, Crecelius (pers. comm.)
considered it to be of little concern.
Information Gaps.
o Relative to other pollutants, zinc does not appear to be
as great a problem, and no recommendations for addition-
al studies on zinc in the Puget Sound area have been
noted in the literature.
Nickel, Thallium and Beryllium
Properties and Fates. Nickel is the most mobile of the
heavy metals, and adsorption and precipitation do not appear as
important as with other heavy metals. Adsorption to organic
materials and hydrous iron and manganese oxides is the dominant
factor in its mobility, and partitioning into dissolved and
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particulate fractions is related to iron, manganese and suspend-
ed material concentrations. Photolysis and volatilization are
not important fate processes. Nickel is bioaccumulated, but
concentrations indicate that neither this nor biotransformation
is a dominant process.
Thallium behavior is not well documented, but it appears
that adsorption to clay and hydrous metal oxides and bioaccumu-
lation are the primary processes for removal from the water
column in aerobic waters. In anaerobic areas, precipitation as
a sulfide may be important. Photolysis and volatilization are
unimportant fate processes. Thallium is quickly bioaccumulated
by both flora and fauna, .but there is no evidence that biotrans-
formation is important.
Beryllium has very low solubility in water, and tends to be
in particulate form, either adsorbed to clays or to other
mineral surfaces, rather than in dissolved form. Under normal
pH conditions it is hydrolized to form insoluble compounds; this
is the controlling mechanism for beryllium in the aquatic
environment. Photolysis and volatilization are not considered
important fates. Beryllium is bioaccumulated in low amounts,
but there is no evidence of biomagnification through the food
chain. Nothing on biotransformation processes has been report-
ed.
Sources and Distribution. Nickel is used in alloys and
electroplating. Beryllium Is used in production of alloys,
copper and brass, and thallium is used in alloys and electronics
production (Sittig 1980) . Nickel is used in electroplating
facilities. Thallium compounds are found in insecticides,
depilatories and rat poisons. Treatment plant outfalls and
riverine input are likely sources of input (Metro 1980).
Because neither nickel nor beryllium concentrations were
elevated above expected background levels, and (presumably)
because nothing of significant concern was known about thallium,
none of these is considered to be contaminants of concern by
Konasewich et al. (1982). Dexter et al. (1981) do not discuss
thallium in their summary of Puget Sound contaminants because of
the lack of reliable data, do not discuss nickel because concen-
trations were not found to exceed the criteria, and do not
discuss beryllium because data were considered to be limited and
impacts minor. Crecelius (pers. comm.) does not consider these
three heavy metals to be of concern because no high concen-
trations were observed in water sediment or biota. It would
appear that, relative to other metals, these three are of minor
significance.
Information Gaps.
o No critical issues are identified for these substances
at present.
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Antimony
Properties and Fates. Antimony reacts somewhat differently
in the environment than the materials described above. Antimony
has a high solubility and is primarily transported in solution.
Adsorption to clay and other minerals is normally the most
important process for removing it from solution, although
precipitation with manganese and aluminum oxides and bioaccumu-
lation may also contribute to removal. It is probably only
temporarily resident in sediments. Reducing environments, such
as found in bed sediments, may result in formation of the
compound stibine, and remobilize the antimony previously removed
from solution. It is speculated that heavy metals in solution
reduce antimony's mobility. Antimony is only slightly bioaccumu-
lated. Some metabolic transformations by bacteria (of unknown
distribution and importance) have been reported, and biomethy-
lation is also thought to be possible, but undemonstrated.
Photolysis is of little importance as a fate process.
Sources and Distribution. Antimony sources are both
natural and anthropogenic. Potential anthropogenic sources
include paper manufacturing, munitions, and metal alloy fabrica-
tion (Metro 1980; Sittig 1980) . Smelting may also produce
antimony. The northern rivers (Snohomish, Skagit, Stillaguamish
and Duwamish) provide concentrations approximately six times
greater than that of the southern rivers (Puyallup, Nisqually,
Dosewallips, and Duckabush). This seems to be primarily a
reflection of mineral differences within the drainage basins,
rather than anthropogenic sources.
Dexter et al. (1981) provide data on antimony levels in
many areas of Puget Sound sediments, and note that high lo-
calized concentrations occur in Commencement Bay and "probably"
in the Hylebos and City Waterways as well. These concentrations
are attributed to liquid and slag discharges of the ASARCO
smelter.
Konasewich et al. (1982) classify antimony as a Class 2
compound (of possible concern, but difficult to assess as a
hazard and existing in very low concentrations) . Antimony has
not been noted in West Point or Renton treatment plant effluents
(Chapman et al. 1979), and is not considered to be of concern by
Crecelius (pers. comm.) because it is apparently not elevated in
organisms.
Information Gaps.
o There is little information on antimony concentrations
in the water column.
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Cyanides and Asbestos
Properties and Fates. Cyanides are a diverse group having
varied environmental fates. They are adsorbed by organics and
biological solids and to a lesser extent by clays, but they have
a high solubility in water, and adsorption is not considered an
important process in aquatic environments. Most free cyanide
exists as HCN, a quite volatile compound at a pH of less than
10. Biodegradation and volatilization appear to be the most
important fate processes. The simple metal cyanides are insolu-
ble and probably accumulate in the sediments, whereas complex
metallocyanides are transported in solution in the water.
Photolysis can break down some metallocyanides, and at low
concentrations, cyanides are biodegraded by almost all orga-
nisms. Cyanide is not bioaccumulated because it is either
quickly metabolized or the organism dies due to toxicity
(Callahan et al. 1979).
Asbestos is a generic term for a number of hydrated fibrous
silicates. It is mineralogically stable, almost indestructible,
and not likely to degrade significantly. Photolysis does not
occur, and volatilization is an unimportant fate process.
Asbestos appears to remain in suspension in water for long
intervals until changes in flow or coagulation allow settling.
It is considered nondegradable by aquatic organisms, and does
not bioaccumulate (Callahan et al. 1979).
Sources and Distribution. Asbestos sources include roofing
products and leaching from pipes or ores. Cyanides result from:
photofinishing; electroplating; steel, plastics and chemical
manufacturing; commercial testing laboratories; and similar
industries (Metro 1980; Sittig 1980) . Neither cyanides nor
asbestos have been considered by Crecelius (pers. comm.) or
Konasewich et al. (1982) as of potential concern. Neither
compound was noted to occur in Metro effluent by Chapman et al.
(1979), although effluent analyses in the 301(h) applications
indicate that cyanide has been observed in the effluent in both
wet and dry weather.
Information Gaps.
o As neither substance seems to be a present problem, no
important gaps appear to exist at this time.
Particulate Matter
Particulates play an important role in the aquatic environ-
ment for a number of reasons. Although not toxic themselves,
they have effects of their own on both the water column and
sediments. Particulates suspended in the water column decrease
water clarity, affect light penetration, and may clog respira-
tory and feeding organs, which in turn affect the biotic commu-
nity in a number of ways. If and when particulates settle out
of the water column, they may cause outright burial of sessile
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organisms if the particulate load is heavy enough. Heavy
sedimentation may change sediment grain size, thereby affecting
the community structure and causing formation of a new, soft
bottom association.
Particulates may adsorb toxic materials and are often the
main vehicle by which toxic materials enter the aquatic environ-
ment. As particulates become part of the sediments, they act as
a major sink for many contaminants. Understanding reaction
within the sediment is often the key to understanding contami-
nant fate processes. In addition, sediments are often sampled
to assess contaminant levels.
Properties and Fates
The relationship and exchange of materials between the
dissolved and particulate state in the water column is impor-
tant, because the state of a contaminant affects its method of
transport and distribution, as well as its availability to the
biota. Suspended particles in water thus play a major role in
regulating chemical form, distribution, and deposition of trace
metals and other materials, especially in coastal areas (Massoth
et al. 1982).
One of the most important aspects of particulates is their
tendency to adsorb contaminants such as pesticides, PCBs, heavy
metals, and organic compounds. Two exchange processes have been
identified as being of import in Puget Sound and both are
related to particulates: the adsorption/release interactions
between water and suspended material in estuaries, and the
mobilization of contaminants from the sediments (Dexter et al.
1981) .
Fine-grained sediments, such as clays, tend to accumulate
increased concentrations of metals. There is an especially
strong correlation between grain size and concentration for some
metals, such as arsenic, antimony, and copper, and less for
others, such as mercury and iron (Dexter et al. 1981). Because
clay particles are negatively charged, many substances bond to
them, and as they are finer in size, they tend to remain sus-
pended for longer intervals and thus become more widely trans-
ported.
The settling rate of particles is affected by speed of
current, water turbulence, flocculation rate, salinity, particle
size, and other factors. When particulates enter salt water,
they tend to be attracted together and form floe, which tends to
settle out more rapidly. This decreases concentration of
adsorbed contaminants in the water column and increases concen-
tration in the sediments. These particles, as a major food
source for some marine organisms, are an important vehicle for
passing contaminants into the food chain in various species.
Deposition of particulates results in greater exposure of
benthic organisms to toxicants.
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Pollutants entering the water in turbulent areas tend to be
rapidly diluted, and do not impart high local concentrations in
the water column or sediments (Dexter et al. 1981) . For this
reason, Crecelius (pers. comm.) indicates that outfall location
in most areas of the Central Basin main channel is probably not
important, because the pollutants become mixed and eventually
deposit in fine sediments of the Central Basin between Tacoma
and Seattle, regardless of outfall location. Settling of fine
sediments occurs in quiet areas, such as Quartermaster Harbor,
and may result in highly localized concentrations of contami-
nants which had their origin elsewhere. Curl (1982) has hypoth-
esized that the sill across Admiralty Inlet greatly influences
the deposition of particulates in the Central Basin. Bottom
water in the Sound is renewed when spring tides exceed 3.5m, or
during neap flood tides when vertical mixing allows undiluted
water from outside Admiralty Inlet to enter over the sill and
produce density currents. These, together with bottom tidal
currents, transport suspended particulates southward. Sediment
tends to be retained in the Sound, perhaps in the deeper water
off Poverty Bay (Curl 1982). This hypothesis is currently being
examined by Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA).
Chemical, physical, and biological reactions within the
sediments are also important, and many researchers have noted
that a reducing environment may result in mobilization of some
metals from sediments to interstitial or overlying water. If
the reducing layer is located below an oxidizing layer, mobi-
lization to interstitial water within the sediments will result
in precipitation in the upper sediment layers, causing a contam-
inant buildup which may appear similar to the concentrations
found in areas where contamination has increased over time
(Dexter et al. 1981). Studies of the sediment/seawater inter-
face and interstitial pore water (Curl 1982) indicate Puget
Sound sediments are typically reducing. Reducing sediments have
been shown to support enrichments of manganese in the bottom
waters. Several trace metals are scavenged by newly formed
hydrous manganese oxides in deeper water of Elliott Bay. This
reduces the potential for bioaccumulation of these elements,
because metals bound to manganese or iron oxides appear less
available to organisms than elements bound to organic materials
(organic flocculants). However, this process may be counteract-
ed in some areas by other fate processes, e.g., Curl (1982) also
reported that organic floe formation was a significant fate
mechanism for suspended matter in the Duwamish River estuary.
Sampling of sediments can produce deceptive results, not
only through competing or undetected fate processes, but also
because different core samplers may compress sediments and
distort time-depth correlations. Crecelius (pers. comm.)
indicated box cores tended to cause less compression of sedi-
ments. Data interpretation can also be skewed if sediment size
is not taken into account; Dexter et al. (1981) point out that
variations in concentration of at least a factor or two may
result solely from grain-size differences. A low concentration
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of contaminant in large-grained sediment may occur in an area of
significant local input, while the same degree of input in a
fine-grained area might result in a much higher concentration.
Presence of organic matter is also a factor in influencing
particle chemistry.
Sediment concentrations are often used to evaluate contami-
nation levels, but if grain size, sediment depth, and other
factors have not been taken into account, comparisons of concen-
trations between areas or between studies may be meaningless.
For example, the Metro TPPS program analyzed sediments at 168
stations for total carbon, 16 heavy metals, pesticides, and
several organic compounds. The majority of the stations were
along the east shoreline of the Central Basin between Edmonds
and Alki Point. If data from all stations are compared, there
is no correlation between sediment grain size and surface
sediment chemistry. For stations off Edmonds, copper, lead,
mercury, and silver concentrations in the surface layer cor-
related well with grain size. Similarly, copper concentration
in deep (preindustrial) sediments correlated well with grain
size (Romberg, pers. comm.). Clearly there are a number of
factors to be considered in evaluating contaminant levels and in
comparing data taken at various places and times by researchers
with varying methodologies. In addition, interactions of metals
and other contaminants within Puget Sound sediments are not well
researched, although these processes appear to be critical.
Sources and Distribution
Riverine inputs and shoreline erosion are considered to be
the major sources of sediment input; biological production and
advection are not considered significant processes (Dexter
et al. 1981). Wang (1975 in Dexter et al. 1981) estimates 75
percent of sediments originate from shoreline erosion.
Sediment discharge rates for major Puget Sound rivers,
shoreline erosion rates and input estimates by area, estimated
sediment budget, and a summary of sediment transport studies are
given in Dexter et al. (1981). Sedimentation rate estimates
range from 0.8 mm/year (Hood Canal area) to 20 mm/year (East
Passage), with the Sound averaging 5.6 mm/year.
Recent sedimentation studies have been made for some areas
of Puget Sound. Data collected by the Metro TPPS program
indicate that sedimentation rates on the average appear uniform
at deep core stations south of West Point, and a little higher
than at deep core stations located north of West Point (Romberg
pers. comm.). Baker and Walker (1982) discuss interrelation-
ships between salinity, current, and suspended particulates for
surface and bottom waters in Commencement Bay. Massoth et al.
(1982) describe flocculation, sedimentation, and trace element
fates in the Duwamish River estuary. Curl (1982) discusses
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flocculation processes in the Duwamish estuary, and trace
element scavenging in Elliott Bay. Baker (1982) describes
particulate matter reactions in Elliott Bay; characterizes
sediment content, size, minerology, and flux; and contrasts wet
and dry weather input.
Adsorption to sediments is a primary transport mechanism
for many materials, and often higher concentrations of contami-
nants are associated with the suspended sediment than with the
water. However, Dexter et al. (1981) note that because suspend-
ed sediment concentrations in most parts of Puget Sound are
quite low, even for compounds with a strong tendency to adsorb,
the greater portion may remain in dissolved form. Once away
from areas of high suspended sediment, the primary transport
mechanism is advection.
Information Gaps
o Conditions and reactions affecting contaminants within
Puget Sound sediments are not well understood. These
determine the contaminant's ultimate bioavailability,
o Sedimentation rates and pollutant concentrations within
sediment layers are not well documented. The number of
sediment samples is also limited, and data are not
always comparable from one location to another,
o Contaminants associated with suspended matter in the
water column are even less well studied than sediment
concentrations.
Sediment Chemistry Investigations
A number of investigations have been conducted in the study
area on the levels of contamination in sediments. These range
from highly localized investigations of proposed dredging or
spoil disposal sites to regional investigations such as the
ongoing Metro TPPS and Seahurst baseline information programs.
Much of the information from previous studies has recently been
reviewed by Konasewich et al. (1982), Malins et al. (1982a),
Dexter et al. (1981) , and Riley et al. (1981) . Sediment types
in the study area have been mapped by WDF in draft form
(Dahlgren pers. comm.) and by Roberts (1979).
Ongoing Investigations
Metro TPPS Program. Although the Metro TPPS program has
been completed, the TPPS report had not been produced at the
time of preparation of this report. The following summary
results from discussions with Romberg (pers. comm.).
The sediment analysis focused on the Denny Way CSO and the
West Point outfall, therefore, 113 of 168 stations were located
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ort the east side of the Central Basin between Edmonds and Alki
Point. The remaining 55 stations were located in the main
channel from Tacoma Narrows to Admiralty Inlet, and in Colvos
Passage, Lake Union, Lake Union Ship Canal, and the Duwamish
Waterways.
The top 2 cm of sediment at each station were sampled and
analyzed for grain size, total carbon, 16 heavy metals, pesti-
cides, and other EPA priority pollutants. Deep cores were taken
at 21 stations to obtain information on background (preindus-
trial) concentrations and sediment deposition rates.
The TPPS report will plot enrichment factors for arsenic,
copper, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc. The data also can be
used to plot concentration isopleths for the 16 heavy metals,
DDT, PCB, phthalate esters, combustion PNAs, and other aroma-
tics.
Metro Seahurst Baseline Study. The 3-year Metro Seahurst
baseline study includes 2 years of data collection. The first
year was completed in March 1983, and an annual report should be
available by August 1983. The sediment investigation studies
include the sampling of 105 stations located between Blake
Island and Commencement Bay. The majority of the stations are
placed in East Passage, with a few in Colvos Passage. Stations
were selected from areas expected to contain high concentrations
of contaminants, and additional sampling will be undertaken as
the more heavily contaminated areas are located. Samples are
being obtained with a 0.1 ma Van Veen grab, but gravity, box,
and Kasten cores (50-190 cm) are also being collected. Analyses
of the Van Veen samples include 14 metals and a complete scan
for organics, so that at a future date, additional organic
contaminants are identified when spectra for these become
available. Some unanalyzed samples are also being frozen for
future reference if needed. Grain size analyses are being made.
Determination of chemical speciation is not possible for many
contaminants.
Completed Work
Two major reports summarize recent studies on distribution
and concentration of pollutants in sediments. Dexter et al.
(1981) average the concentrations of selected metals (Zn, As,
Pb, Hg and Cu) , PCBs, CBDs, and arenes (multi-ringed aromatic
hydrocarbons) in sediments for various areas within the major
Puget Sound embayments. Except for metals, individual compounds
are not distinguished, but the report provides a semi-quanti-
tative comparison of levels of these pollutants in sediments of
various Puget Sound areas.
Konasewich et al. (1982) review sediment contamination
studies from the perspective of the contaminant rather than the
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location. Contaminants in sediments were ranked according to
hazard, and those of greatest concern (based on toxicity,
properties, and concentrations) are described in terms of fate
processes, toxicity, properties, and sources. These include
PCBs, the PAHs, metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, Se and Ag), DDT, and
several other groups of chlorinated compounds.
Malins et al. (1982a) obtained sediment samples (with
0.1 ma Van Veen grab) in 14 sample locations which included both
urban and nonurban areas. Locations included: Elliott,
Commencement, Discovery, and Liberty Bays; Budd, Case and
Sinclair Inlets; Everett; Bellingham; Shelton; Port Madison;
Port Angeles; and Ebey Slough. Sample site selection was based
on known or suspected depositional areas, and the majority of
the sites were selected to reflect "worst case" situations.
Temperature, salinity, and DO were also measured at or near the
sample areas.
Results showed that many compounds vary extensively within,
as well as between, embayments; the wide ranges suggest highly
localized depositional patterns. Several hundreds of compounds
were found, and many remain unidentified/unconfirmed because
reference mass spectra have not been published. Highest concen-
trations of aromatic hydrocarbons were found in Elliott and
Commencement Bays (up to 30 times the mean for reference areas
of Port Madison and Case Inlet) . PCBs in Elliott and
Commencement Bays and Sinclair Inlet were 300 times those of the
reference areas. CBDs and HCBs were ubiquitous, although only
Commencement Bay samples greatly exceeded those of the reference
areas. Chlorinated pesticide levels were low, but did exceed
the reference areas by 20 times in Elliott and Commencement
Bays. Metal concentrations varied with the embayment; mercury,
lead, arsenic, silver, and cadmium were generally distributed
throughout the Sound. Mercury was highest in Bellingham Bay;
lead highest in Elliott Bay, Commencement Bay and Sinclair
Inlet; arsenic in Elliott Bay and Commencement Bay; silver and
cadmium were generally similar in both urban and reference
areas. Cluster and principal components analyses of the
sediment chemistry data yielded eight cluster groups of sampling
stations and four principal component axes.
Riley et al. (1980) sampled a total of nine stations in
Elliott Bay (three), Commencement Bay (three), Sinclair Inlet
(one), Budd Inlet (one), and a reference area, Port Madison
(one). To determine pollutant concentrations in suspended
matter and water, samples were analyzed to determine quantity
and type of contamination. Suspended matter from both Elliott
Bay and Commencement Bay contained metal contaminants. Hylebos
and Blair Waterway samples additionally showed aromatic hydro-
carbons. There is not necessarily a direct correlation between
contaminant levels in the water column and the sediment. A
subsequent study was conducted that provided sediment chemistry
data at approximately the same station locations in Hylebos and
Blair Waterways.
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Riley et al. (1981) collected 30-50 cm sediment cores at
10 sites in the Hylebos and Blair Waterways. Suspended matter
and water samples were also analyzed to aid in evaluation of the
chemistry of the pollutant compounds. Cores in some areas
represented up to 50 years of sedimentation; historical and
current input and distribution were analyzed. Highest concen-
trations of organics were recorded for the most recent sedi-
ments. Major classes in both sediments and suspended matter
included aromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and CBDs; water concen-
trations indicated current sources of CBDs and PCBs in the
waterways.
Environmental Context
Several dynamic chemical and physical factors in the
environment influence the chemical-physical state (compartmental
distribution and chemical species) of a chemical compound; e.g.,
pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, redox conditions, suspended solids
concentrations, salinity, temperature, and numerous other
factors. These environmental conditions also affect biological
processes such as feeding, metabolism, and respiration, which in
turn affect biological uptake. Other factors influencing
biological uptake include: the organism's life history stage,
sex, reproductive state, and size. The ability of an organism
to take up a chemical compound and the chemical species of the
compound helps determine the distribution of the compound in the
environment, which in turn plays a feedback role affecting both
uptake rate (bioavailability) and speciation of the compound.
The physical, chemical, and biological environments are there-
fore interrelated, and must be viewed as a whole if data are to
be understood in a correct context. These interrelationships
can be illustrated in a simple way by the diagram in Figure 6-1.
Assessment of contaminant concentrations, fates, and effects
therefore is difficult.
Applicability of the EPA Priority Pollutant List
Considering that over 3 million compounds are listed in the
chemical abstracts, the number of compounds known to be hazar-
dous is quite small. Several characteristics of a compound
collectively determine whether the compound constitutes a
hazard. These characteristics are some combination of:
inherent toxicity of the compound, persistence, ability to
bioaccumulate, scale of production, and chance for release to
the environment.
Logic along these lines led to the establishment of the EPA
priority pollutant list, which is a start toward prioritizing
potential concerns. Establishing a list, however, tends to
divide things into the categories of "on the list" (therefore by
assumption, significant) or "not on the list" (therefore nonsig-
nificant) . This thinking may be erroneous, because a number of
contaminants not of sufficient national impact to warrant
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ORGANISM
UPTAKE
ABILITY
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
I DO, pH, Eh, etc.)
POLLUTANT FORM
(ION, ELEMENT,
DISSOLVED,
ABSORBED)
ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARTMENT
(WATER, SUSPENDED SOLIDS,
SEDIMENTS, BIOTA)
Figure 6-1. Relationship Between Environmental Factors and the
Fate of Pollutants
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inclusion on such a list may nevertheless be locally signifi-
cant. Conversely, some listed chemicals may not be relevant
locally. Such a list should therefore be used primarily as a
starting point for development of a locally relevant list.
Konasewich et al. (1982) have made a start in this direction by
ranking locally observed contaminants and suggesting compounds
requiring additional study (Appendix E).
A closer look at local industries is needed to determine
whether they may produce toxicants having potentially signifi-
cant local impacts. These compounds may have been overlooked
because they are not "conventional pollutants" or are not on the
priority pollutant listing, and therefore have not been moni-
tored. This information can then be included with applicable
compounds already identified, to produce a locally relevant
list.
Existing Fate Data
Based on structural similarities in compounds, it is
possible to assess probable fate and predict behavior for a
compound even though actual research has not been conducted.
This has been the case out of necessity for many of the priority
pollutants. Where studies have actually been made, they have
rarely been performed in Puget Sound, and the conditions may not
be relevant to the local situation. In many cases, data were
determined for freshwater systems, not for marine or estuarine
waters.
Understanding local fate processes is critical, as behavior
in different environments may be quite different, and there are
indications that some local conditions may be unusual. One
obvious example is the unexpectedly high ratio of DDT to DDE in
biota. A second example is the loss of mercury from Bellingham
sediments, which indicates the sediments are not a final sink as
they have been in some other areas.
Rivers discharging into Puget Sound create an estuarine
situation at the river mouth where seawater and freshwater
interface. Similar mixing may occur in localized areas around
wastewater outfalls. The shift to saline water changes water
chemistry sufficiently such that a shift in environmental
compartment may occur in these areas. Materials such as silver
and zinc may be released from suspended sediment into the water
column, while polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and some other
organic compounds may form floe that settles out or precipi-
tates, rapidly removing contaminants from the water. Fate of
pollutants in estuarine areas is especially important because
these are often nursery areas for young organisms. Similarly,
it has been suggested that upwelling areas may free copper and
perhaps other materials from particulates. Reactions in upwell-
ing areas also require study.
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A number of contaminants produce metabolites which are as
toxic or of even greater toxicity than the parent compound, and
there is little information concerning the concentration of
these compounds. If these relationships are not understood when
sampling, the picture obtained may be a false one. Aldrin, for
example, is quickly transformed to dieldrin. Sampling of aldrin
without dieldrin may indicate an absence of aldrin input, which
may not be the case.
Synergistic effects of pollutants are largely unknown for
Puget Sound (or elsewhere). These are difficult to assess
because there are a large number of potential interactions, and
because they may produce sublethal effects which are often less
obvious.
Sampling Methodology
Some compounds, such as metals, have been much more exten-
sively sampled than others, and the volume of literature makes
them appear of greater importance. A number of contaminants
would appear to be little understood, i.e., there is little
literature concerning their presence or levels in water, sus-
pended sediment, biota, bottom sediments or effluent. It is not
clear whether this is due to their actual absence or to a lack
of sampling. In many cases, the latter reason is probably more
correct.
Sediment grain-size, organic matter content, depth, and
redox conditions within the sediment all affect contaminant
concentrations. In addition, the type of sediment sampler used
will affect the degree of time/depth distortion in sediment
cores. Variations in concentration of a factor or two have been
noted to result solely from grain-size differences, as the
smaller clay particles tend to adsorb contaminants more easily
(Dexter et al. 1981). If variation in sediment size, depth and
other factors are not taken into account during data gathering
and analysis, comparison of data from various locations (not to
mention data from researchers using different methods at differ-
ing depths and seasons) can be meaningless, at least for sedi-
ments. A real need exists for standardization of these opera-
tions so that a baseline data base can be developed and trend
determination accurately assessed.
Chlorination of wastewater effluent (and drinking water)
affects contaminant levels and fates. It may result in the
formation of additional chlorinated compounds, increase levels
of other compounds, and even result in production of other
priority pollutants. Addition of chlorine to a compound in-
creases its toxicity, lipophilic character, and tendency for
bioaccumulation. Formation of these compounds is dependent on
length of exposure, amount of free chlorine, and other treatment
techniques. Determining effects of chlorination on effluent
must occur, therefore, in a sampling regime that faithfully
reproduces the conditions effluent is likely to experience.
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Concentration in the Environment
A large number of knowledge gaps still remain regarding
distribution of pollutants in the environment. With the excep-
tion of PCBs, concentrations of organic compounds are poorly
documented for all environmental compartments. However, a few
general things have been inferred for metals. Although higher
concentrations are found in urban areas, in general,
concentrations appear at or near natural levels in most areas,
and there is an overall predominance of natural over
anthropogenic input. Input exceeds assimilation and dilution
capacity only in poorly flushed areas in proximity to loading
sources (Dexter et al. 1981) . No toxic responses in organisms
have been identified for metals (Dexter et al. 1981; Crecelius
pers. comm.), although in some areas concentrations may exceed
criteria for human consumption.
Pollutant loadings of metals, PCBs, pesticides and perhaps
a few other compounds as well, have decreased drastically over
the last few years. Some compounds, such as PCBs and DDT, are
no longer manufactured. Others, such as a number of the pesti-
cides, are greatly restricted in use, or are removed from
effluent in greater concentrations due to NPDES requirements.
Although trends are not obvious at this point, decreasing levels
of these compounds should be found over time.
Summary
Transport, fate, and availability of pollutants to orga-
nisms are related. Pollutants in the water column may be
transported far from their source and are generally most avail-
able to pelagic organisms; those deposited in the sediments may
remain in one location for long periods and are generally most
directly available to benthic organisms. A number of chemical,
physical, and biological processes affect pollutant fate and
properties. Physical processes include adsorption, dissolution,
sedimentation, and resuspension. Chemical processes include
speciation, flocculation, chemical precipitation, diffusion,
volatilization, photolysis, reduction/oxidation, and hydrolysis/
hydration. Biological processes include bioaccumulation,
biotransformation, and biodegradation. The chemical structure
of each pollutant determines the effects of these processes and
the ultimate fate of the pollutant.
A review of literature on properties, fates, sources, and
distribution in Puget Sound for the 126 EPA "priority pollu-
tants," petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzofurans,
and particulates reveals numerous data gaps for most of these
pollutants. Behavior of many compounds, and even whole groups,
is not well understood. Behavior of an entire group often must
be inferred from behavior of a single compound or behavior of
related compounds because compound-specific data are not avail-
able. In addition, reactions are often site-specific and much
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of the known fate information is based on reactions in a fresh-
water environment. Interactions in the marine environment in
general, and in Puget Sound in particular, are not well under-
stood. Relationships between contaminated sediment, benthic
uptake, and organism/ecosystem impact are unclear. Synergistic
effects of pollutants on organisms or on the ecosystem are
essentially unknown. Concentrations of pollutants in biota
(with the possible exception of metals and PCBs) are not well
known.
Certain compounds appear to be of greater concern than
others based on their acute and chronic toxicity, their tendency
for persistence and bioaccumulation, and the degree and extent
of local contamination. Many of the priority pollutants do not
appear to be of local concern, while other pollutants not
considered as EPA priority pollutants have greater local impact
based on their prevalence and properties. Compounds of the most
concern appear to be DDT/DDE, PCBs, chlorinated aliphatics
(including chlorinated butadienes), polychlorinated dibenzo-
furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (particularly naphtha-
lenes, fluoranthenes, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and
possibly pyrene and chrysene) and, to a lesser extent, heavy
metals. Others, such as aldrin/dieldrin, are of potential
concern, but additional data are needed to determine their
status.
Loading of some groups, such as PCBs and chlorinated pesti-
cides, is expected to decrease over time as manufacture and use
of many compounds ceases or is greatly reduced. Loading of
other pollutants, such as heavy metals, has already been greatly
reduced through imposition of NPDES effluent limitations.
Loading of groups such as polycyclic hydrocarbons is not likely
to decrease naturally, and may increase with increased
urbanization.
Water and sediment reflect localized input of contaminants
in many areas. In general, the urbanized areas show highest
concentrations, although many substances, particularly "noncon-
ventional" pollutants such as organics, are not well documented
and their "lack" of local presence is suspected to be due more
to lack of sampling then to lack of contamination.
Elliott Bay and the lower Duwamish River show some of the
highest levels of As, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn, DDT/DDE, PCB, MAHs and
PAHs. Commencement Bay and its waterways show some of the
highest levels of As, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ag, Zn, Sb, chlordane, PCBs,
CBDs, MAHs, and PAHs. Sinclair Inlet shows some of the highest
levels of As, Cu, Hg, Ag, Zn, PCBs, and PAHs. High levels of As
and Zn have been noted in Budd Inlet as well, and high levels of
Hg have been noted in Bellingham Bay. More extensive sampling
of sediments in areas such as Bellingham Bay, Everett Harbor,
and Hood Canal might show additional high concentrations of
these substances. Over 1,000 organic compounds have been
identified from urban embayment sediments, and many still have
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not been identified. Of these, the polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) are probably of greatest overall concern
because of their diversity, levels of concentration, and
potential effects. Studies of these compounds in Puget Sound
sediments are limited, and areas of greatest concentration can
only be surmised at this point, but it is probably safe to
assume that all urban embayments will show some areas of high,
localized concentrations, although the compounds may vary.
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Chapter 7
IMPACTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOTA
Introduction
Identification of linkages between pollutants and effects
on organisms, habitats, or beneficial uses is an important part
of the predictive process in making water quality management
decisions. The first predictive step is to estimate how changes
in sediment and water quality parameters resulting from various
water quality management options (e.g., increased treatment,
waste diversion, or alternative discharge sites) will affect the
biota or beneficial uses. This step is generally accomplished
by either knowing or predicting the fate of pollutants, pollu-
tant concentrations, and their environmental effects at spec-
ified areas. If cause-and-effeet relationships are known
(change in water quality and its effect on an organism), the
circulation and water quality modeling results can then be used
to assess the relative biological effects of the water quality
management options. The objective of this section is to identi-
fy and review available information on the biological impacts of
nutrients and toxicants in Puget Sound, and to assess the value
of this information in defining cause-and-effeet relationships
that can be used in making water quality management decisions.
This review is organized according to three biotic groups:
fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and plankton. Studies of
nutrient or pollutant impacts relating to each biotic group are
reviewed based on kinds of effects. The following biological
effects are addressed in this review:
o Bioaccumulation
o Disease
o Mortality
o Behavioral alterations
o Reproductive success
o Changes in abundance (may result from mortality, behav-
ioral alterations, or reproductive success)
o Trophic effects (e.g., food chain transfer of pollu-
tants, change in production of higher trophic levels).
In general, these effects are broadly organized into studies of
ecology, toxicity bioassays, bioaccumulation, and pathology.
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Fishes
Ecology
The most extensive studies of fish ecology as a function of
pollutant inputs have been conducted to examine possible adverse
effects of the discharge of municipal sewage effluent, and the
most comprehensive of these have been conducted for Metro. More
limited studies of this type have been sponsored by a number of
smaller municipalities on Puget Sound. Several studies have
attempted to examine possible adverse effects of the industrial
discharges of pulp and paper on fish ecology mills at various
locations around Puget Sound. In addition, other studies have
attempted to establish relationships between the ecology of
resident fish communities and the disposal of chemical contami-
nants in the vicinity of diverse industrial complexes (e.g.,
Commencement Bay and the lower Duwamish River). Still other
studies have been aimed at detecting possible impacts of the
disposal of contaminated dredge spoils on the local fish commu-
nities. Due to the diverse nature of the pollutants from these
various sources and the diverse nature of potential impacts
caused by these pollutants, the studies of fish ecology associ-
ated with each pollutant source are discussed separately and in
detail.
Effects on Fish Ecology in the Vicinity of Municipal Sewage
Discharges. The most comprehensive investigations ol the
ecology of fish communities in the vicinity of municipal sewage
outfalls in Puget Sound have been a series of studies (Moulton
et al. 1974; Miller et al. 1975; English 1976a; Miller et al.
1977; English and Thorne 1977) conducted for Metro primarily in
the vicinity of the large (design average flow of 5.5 m1/sec
[125 MGD]) West Point discharge. These studies have included
sampling of: demersal fishes with otter trawls; pelagic fishes
with midwater trawls and echosounders; ichthyoplankton with
high-speed plankton nets; and nearshore fishes with beach
seines.
Although there were basic similarities in the demersal fish
communities at West Point, Alki Point, and Point Pully (con-
trol) , differences were also noted. In particular, demersal
fish abundance was higher at West Point at depths of 70 and 95 m
(230 and 312 feet) than at either of the other two locations,
possibly due to higher numbers of ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei)
at West Point. It is conceivable that ratfish are attracted to
the area by the sewage discharge. Other differences noted among
the three sites (e.g., the replacement of slender sole
[Lyopsetta exilis] by rex sole [Glyptocephalus zachirus] at West
Point) may be the result of alterations in the benthic inverte-
brate community which change the array of available prey items
for these demersal fishes.
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The catches of pelagic fish species were subject to consid-
erable seasonal variability and a high degree of patchiness,
making it difficult to identify spatial trends in the distri-
bution of these fishes which might be affected by the discharge
of sewage effluent near West Point. Far more extensive sampling
would be required to determine whether pelagic fish dis-
tributions were influenced by the West Point discharge.
The limited nature of the ichthyoplankton data (English
1976a; English and Thorne 1977) severely restricts conclusions
regarding possible impacts of the West Point discharge on this
community. The patterns of seasonal abundance of fish eggs in a
broad area surrounding the West Point outfall do not appear
qualitatively different from those in the Central Basin of Puget
Sound as a whole, but further conclusions regarding possible
effects of this discharge on ichthyoplankton are unjustified
with the data presently available.
Miller et al. (1977) found that there were differences
among West Point, Alki Point, and Point Pully nearshore fish
communities in species composition, species richness, abundance,
diversity, and in the frequency of occurrence of several fish
species. In general, Alki Point and Point Pully were reported
to be more similar to one another in terms of these characteris-
tics than to West Point, suggesting possible effects of the
sewage discharge at West Point. It is possible, however, that
these differences could be attributed to differences in habitat
type, since the north shore of West Point sampled by Miller
et al. (1977) did not have extensive eelgrass beds, as did Alki
Point and Point Pully. Moulton et al. (1974) sampled nearshore
fish communities on the south shore of West Point where eelgrass
beds do occur, and noted higher values of species diversity and
species richness. Hence, it is not clear that the West Point
sewage discharge has adversely affected nearshore fish popula-
tions.
More limited studies of the ecology of fish communities in
the vicinity of sewage outfalls have been conducted in support
of 301(h) applications for several smaller Puget Sound munic-
ipalities .
Limited quantitative data on the distribution of pelagic
fishes near the site of the existing Tacoma North End sewage
outfall are available (City of Tacoma 1979a), and similar data
are also available for the site of the proposed Tacoma Central
sewage outfall off the mouth of the Puyallup River (City of
Tacoma 1979b). The former data are so limited that virtually
nothing can be deduced about possible impacts on fishes of the
relatively small (design flow of 0.44 m1/sec [10.0 MGD]) Tacoma
North End sewage discharge, while the latter data, collected
only at the site of a proposed outfall extension and not in the
vicinity of the existing effluent discharge, do not bear on an
evaluation of effluent-related impacts on fish. Attempts to
collect pelagic fishes near the Tacoma Western Slopes sewage
outfall using gill nets were thwarted by entanglement of the
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nets in the strong currents of the Tacoma Narrows (City of
Tacoma 19 79c).
Demersal and pelagic fishes were sampled in the vicinities
of the Anacortes Main and Skyline sewage outfalls using floating
and sinking beach seines, an otter trawl, a purse seine, hook
and line, and a spear gun. The data reported are only qualita-
tive, however, limiting examination of effluent-related impacts
(City of Anacortes 1979a,b). Diverse fish assemblages were
present in the vicinity of each treatment plant outfall, sug-
gesting that the effluent discharges have not adversely affected
the species composition of the pelagic and demersal fish commu-
nities; but in the absence of quantitative data, it is not
possible to ascertain whether the effluent has adversely affect-
ed fish abundance.
The 301(h) applications from the town of Steilacoom and
from Tacoma's Westside Water District included qualitative
observations of fishes by divers in the vicinity of each sewage
outfall (Westside Water District 1979; Town of Steilacoom 1979) .
The very limited qualitative nature of these observations does
not permit examination of possible adverse effects of these
discharges on the ecology of the resident fish populations.
Effects on Fish Ecology in the Vicinity of Pulp and Paper
Mill Discharges. Several field sampling programs have been
conducted to ascertain possible effects of the discharge of pulp
and paper mill effluents on resident fish populations. The most
extensive of these programs (Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration [FWPCA] and Washington State Pollution Control
Commission [WSPCC] 1967) included detailed studies in the
vicinity of pulp and paper mills at Bellingham Bay, Anacortes,
Everett, and Port Angeles. Other sampling programs (En-
glish 1976b; Moore 1976) examined changes in the resident fish
populations of Port Gardner as pollution abatement procedures
were implemented at pulp and paper mills in Everett.
The sampling programs in Bellingham Bay, Port Gardner
(Everett), and Port Angeles (FWPCA and WSPCC 1967) included
studies designed to document the occurrence and migration of
juvenile salmon in areas potentially influenced by the discharge
of pulp and paper mill effluent. Each of these areas was found
to be an important nursery area for juvenile salmon. Knowledge
of the distribution of these fishes in each area was then com-
bined with results of toxicity bioassays (to be described below)
to assess the potential impact of these discharges on this
important resource. In each area, juvenile salmon were found to
frequent areas known to be influenced by the pulp and paper mill
wastes.
Studies were also conducted in Bellingham Bay and Port
Gardner (Everett) to document the distribution and abundance of
English sole (Parophrys vetulus) eggs in areas potentially
influenced by the discharge of pulp and paper mill wastes (FWPCA
and WSPCC 1967). In each area, it was found that large numbers
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of English sole eggs were spawned in areas polluted by pulp and
paper mill wastes, and that they develop in the surface layers
where the concentrations of sulfite waste liquor (SWL) were
highest. Knowledge of the distribution of these fish eggs in
each area was then combined with the results of toxicity bio-
assays (to be described below) to assess the potential impact of
these discharges on the spawning success of the English sole
populations.
The fish sampling programs in Bellingham Bay, Port Gardner
(Everett), and Port Angeles did not include the collection of
demersal fish species which may also be expected to be influ-
enced by the discharge of pulp and paper mill wastes. Studies
of juvenile salmon and English sole eggs were not conducted in
Guemes Channel near Anacortes, presumably because of the strong
currents and significant mixing which occur there.
The studies of Moore (1976) and English (1976b) were de-
signed to document possible beneficial changes in resident fish
populations of Port Gardner which might be caused by reductions
in pulp mill waste discharges to Everett Harbor. Emphasis was
placed on sampling of juvenile salmon and English sole. Al-
though the results were limited to the period 1973-1976, there
were indications that there may have been improving trends in
such things as larger numbers of Chinook (Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha) and' coho (0. kisutch) salmon in the East Waterway
and along the beaches of Port Gardner, and larger catches of
English sole in 1975-1976 relative to 1974-1975. Additional
sampling would be necessary to ascertain whether such changes
were actually due to pollution abatement procedures implemented
at the Everett pulp and paper mills, or whether these changes
were simply a result of natural year-to-year variability.
Although studies have not been conducted on the effects of
pulp mill effluent on salmon migrations in Puget Sound, corre-
lation between effluent levels and changes in salmon migration
patterns have been noted elsewhere (Pearson 1980) . Pearson
(1980) also noted the occurrence of synergistic reactions
between organics in pulp mill effluent and heavy metals from
adjacent dischargers. Organics often bonded with heavy metals,
thereby providing a ready route for uptake of heavy metals by
the biota.
Effects on Fish Ecology in	Vicinity of Diverse Indus-
trial Complexes^ Miller et al. (1975, 1977) sampled fish popu-
lations at a number of locations in the Duwamish River, a
heavily industrialized urban estuary, in 1974-1976, and compared
their results with those of a study conducted in this area in
1966-1967 (Salo 1969). Miller et al. (1977) reported that this
time interval corresponded with a period of increasingly heavy
industrial utilization, although possible changes in the indus-
trial discharges to the river were not discussed. Twenty-nine
species of fishes were collected in the Duwamish River, and the
only change between 1966-1967 and 1974-1976 in the pattern of
dominance by the five most abundant species was the appearance
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of longfin smelt (Spirinchus dilatus), which had not been caught
in the former collections. Miller et al. (1977) hypothesized
that this difference may have been due to spatial and/or season-
al differences in the sampling programs. Pooled annual
Shannon-Wiener diversity indices also varied little between
1966-1967 (H'=1.8 5) , 1974 (H'=1.92), and 1975-1976 (H'=2.02),
leading Miller et al. (1977) to conclude that these data suggest
that the environmental quality of the Duwamish River as measured
by ichthyofauna had not changed appreciably over the period
represented by these sampling programs.
Malins et al. (1980, 1982a) collected demersal and midwater
fishes in otter trawls at various sampling sites in Puget Sound,
which included both heavily industrialized areas (Commencement
Bay and adjacent waterways; Elliott Bay and the Duwamish River),
as well as relatively undeveloped and therefore less polluted
areas (e.g., Case Inlet, Port Madison). The objectives of these
studies were to characterize the abundance (measured as catch
per unit effort [CPUE]), distribution, community characteristics
(species diversity, richness, and composition), and biological
characteristics (length, weight, and age) of target fish spe-
cies. English sole (Parophrys vetulus), rock sole (Lepidopsetta
bilineata), and Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus)
were chosen as the target species based on their broad dis-
tributions, high abundances, and seasonal availability.
Based on total abundances and species composition, rich-
ness, and diversity, Malins et al. (1982a) separated the
sampling locations into three categories which they considered
to represent separate ecological habitats for the demersal and
midwater fishes sampled: 1) the estuarine embayments (Elliott
and Commencement Bays, and Port Susan), 2) the open bays (Port
Madison and Discovery Bay), and 3) the shallow water inlets
without major river inputs (Budd, Case, and Sinclair Inlets).
Both total abundance and species richness were highest in the
estuarine embayments, lowest in the shallow inlets, and interme-
diate in the open bays. Species diversity was also highest in
the estuarine embayments and lower in the inlets.
Malins et al. (1982a) attempted to examine interrelation-
ships between the fish catch rates (CPUE) for the three target
species and sediment chemical composition by using Spearman's
rank correlation method. They reported that CPUE for some of
the target species was found to be negatively correlated with
the relative concentrations of certain groups of chemical
contaminants (i.e., the fish were more abundant where the
concentrations of those chemicals were low, and vice versa).
While such correlations are suggestive of cause-and-effeet
relationships between the fish distributions and the concen-
trations of chemical contaminants, they are of little value in
determining the actual cause of variations in fish abundance.
The fish distributions may be ultimately due to some factor
unrelated to chemical contaminants but correlated with them;
they may be only indirectly related to the concentrations of
chemical contaminants (e.g., by the influence of the chemical
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contaminants on the distributions of preferred prey items); or
the fish distributions may be influenced by complex combinations
of chemical contaminants inadequately represented by the group-
ings of Malins et al. (1982a). Hence, far more information is
necessary before it will be possible to determine the relation-
ships (if any) between fish distributions and the discharge of
chemical contaminants into these heavily-industrialized
estuarine embayments.
Dames and Moore (1981) conducted a field sampling program
in Commencement Bay and the adjacent waterways to describe the
timing, patterns, and distribution of juvenile salmonids passing
through this heavily-industrialized nearshore environment. In
addition, Dames and Moore (1981) sampled marine fish in these
areas to characterize the seasonality, distribution, and abun-
dance of these populations. The results of both sampling
efforts are primarily descriptive in nature and serve to define
baseline conditions in these areas. The data were not analyzed
in such a way that it is possible to examine potential relation-
ships between the distributions of these fishes and presence of
chemical contaminants derived from any of the diverse industries
occurring in this area. Dames and Moore (1981) also summarized
available information on the occurrence of adult salmonids in
the Commencement Bay study area, but no field studies of these
fishes were conducted.
Chew and Becker recently sampled demersal fish and benthic
invertebrate communities at 12 locations in Puget Sound (Becker
pers. comm.). Their objectives were to characterize and compare
demersal fish communities in areas influenced by organic enrich-
ment, and to provide explanations for any observed differences
in community characteristics. They hypothesized that organic
enrichment influences demersal fish communities indirectly
through effects on benthic invertebrate communities, the primary
food source of the fishes. They attempted to evaluate this
indirect influence of organic enrichment on fish communities by:
1) testing for differences in community characteristics and
species abundances between enriched and unenriched (control)
sites, 2) comparing the effects of large-scale, multi-source
enrichment with the effects of highly localized, point source
enrichment, and 3) determining the extent to which observed
station patterns could be generalized across different embay-
ments. Although not specifically designed to examine the direct
effects of pollution, this study did include sampling of fishes
and benthic invertebrates in industrialized portions of Com-
mencement Bay, near the Denny Way combined sewer overflow in
Elliott Bay, and near the harbor in Bremerton on Sinclair Inlet.
Important differences were found in the distribution and abun-
dance of demersal fishes that appear to be correlated with depth
of habitat, degree of organic enrichment, time of day, and
season (Becker pers. comm.). Analyses of the fish stomach
contents and of the benthic invertebrate communities have not
been completed at this time, although the results, when avail-
able, should provide further clues regarding the factors
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important in structuring demersal fish communities of Puget
Sound. While not directly related to pollutant effects, this
study may provide important evidence of effects which could
occur in demersal fish communities if pollutants were to alter
the benthic invertebrate communities.
Effects on Fish Ecology in the Vicinity of Dredge Spoil
Disposal Sites. During 1976, contaminated dredge spoils were
removed from the Duwamish River and disposed of in Elliott Bay.
Hughes et al. (1978) sampled demersal fishes at the disposal
site and at two reference sites in Elliott Bay before, during,
and at several intervals after disposal of these dredge spoils.
Although they concluded that there was no lasting effect of the
dredged material disposal on fish species composition and
abundance, Hughes et al. (1978) cautioned that the data were
difficult to interpret. Statistically significant differences
in both composition and abundance of several species at the
three sampling sites might have been caused by natural popu-
lation fluctuations due to seasonal migrations for spawning,
feeding, etc. In addition, interpretation of the data was
further complicated by the fact that the three test sites were
not comparable with respect to bottom sediments, proximity to a
source of fresh water, and indigenous species present. Finally,
the time of disposal coincided with the flood stage of the
Duwamish River, when large volumes of sediment were being
carried naturally into Elliott Bay. Hence, results of this
study may not necessarily have direct implications on the
possible effects of the disposal of dredge materials in other
areas of Puget Sound.
Lethal Toxicity Bioassays
Fishes have been used in a variety of bioassays to attempt
to assess the toxicity of various contaminants to organisms in
the receiving water environments of Puget Sound. Studies have
included in situ bioassays with fish confined to cages and held
for varying lengths of time in the receiving water environment,
simulated in situ bioassays with the fish exposed in aquaria to
flowing seawater pumped from the receiving water environment
and laboratory bioassays with fish exposed either to
contaminated sediments or to various dilutions of municipal
sewage effluents. These bioassays have been used to assess the
toxicity of wastes from pulp and paper mill discharges, as well
as the effluents from municipal sewage treatment plants. They
have also been used to examine possible toxic effects on fish of
contaminated sediments from industrial estuaries, and the
toxicity of suspended dredge spoils.
Both acute and chronic laboratory bioassays have been
conducted by Stober et al. (1977) using various dilutions of
West Point sewage treatment plant effluent to assess its toxi-
city to three fish species: English sole (Parophrys vetulus),
shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata) , and Pacific staghorn
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sculpin (Leptocottus armatus). The first two species were found
to be the most sensitive, and therefore the bioassays concen-
trated on these species. Various experimental manipulations
were employed to examine the effect of filtration, dechlo-
rination, and dechlorination plus removal of ammonia on the
toxicity of the effluent. All three procedures were demonstrat-
ed to result in reduced toxicity of the effluent to these two
fish species. The results were used to calculate safety factors
(the quotient of the concentration of the effluent after initial
dilution divided by the LC5Q concentration for that effluent
[the LC5n concentration is that concentration lethal to 50
percent oT the test animals]).
Slug discharges of potentially toxic substances such as
trace metals may drastically alter the toxicity of the effluent,
however, and thereby decrease the margin of safety if these
safety factors are applied to the effluent discharge. Ab-
normally high mortality was observed in two 96-hour bioassays,
for instance, which resulted in LC5Q values of less than 10 per-
cent effluent (on a volume/volume Basis). While the exact toxic
component remains unknown, circumstantial evidence points to
trace metals since concurrent chemical analyses indicated that
these high mortalities coincided with unusually high effluent
concentrations of mercury in one case, and of cadmium and copper
in the other case.
Chronic bioassays were also used by Stober et al. (1977) to
assess the possible bioaccumulation of trace metals in these
fish species. The results of these analyses are described below
under bioaccumulation.
FWPCA and WSPCC (1967) utilized both in situ bioassays and
simulated in situ bioassays to assess the toxicity of the waters
of Bellingham Bay, Port Gardner (Everett), and Port Angeles to
juvenile salmon. Each of these areas received the wastes from
pulp and paper mills. For the in situ bioassays, fry were held
in live boxes at each of a number of stations in the receiving
water bodies. The duration of the exposures was either 4 or
24 hours, during which time the condition of the fish was
checked periodically. The numbers of fish which had died at
each location were used as an indicator of the toxicity of the
receiving water at that location. For the simulated in situ
bioassays, water was pumped from the receiving water bo3y into
flow-through test chambers. Salmon fry were placed in these
test chambers and observers were able to monitor the behavior of
these fish and to take frequent samples for water quality
analyses. In this manner, waters eliciting an adverse response
in the fish were tested in order to ascertain the causes of the
adverse responses observed.
In Bellingham Bay, the waters of the inner harbor in the
vicinity of a sulfite pulp and board mill were found to cause
frequent, high-percentage kills of the test fish. Along the
shore north of this area, no kills were observed, while in the
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area south of the mill, kills occurred but these were usually
low-percentage kills with more of the fish surviving than dying.
The frequent, high-percentage kills were found to be associated
with high concentrations of SWL, low concentrations of DO,
reduced pH, and variable concentrations of ammonia, i.e.,
conditions indicative of water quality degradation by mill
wastes. The area having no kills had very low SWL concen-
trations, DO near saturation, normal pH, and low concentrations
of ammonia. As might be expected the area having low-percentage
kills evidenced concentrations of SWL, DO, and pH at levels
intermediate of the two extremes. It is interesting to note
that observations of the distressed and dying fish revealed that
all of the dead salmon fry sank (which implies that natural fish
kills in this area might go unnoticed by shipboard or shore-
based observers), and that before dying, the fish exhibited
disoriented, erratic swimming behavior with no avoidance re-
sponse (suggesting that fish exposed to these wastes may fall
victim to predators before actually succumbing to the toxic
effects of the wastes).
In Port Gardner (Everett Harbor), frequent, high-percentage
kills were reported from the vicinities of two sulfite pulp and
paper mills; infrequent, low-percentage kills were reported from
other areas inside the harbor; and zero mortality was observed
in all but one of the tests outside the harbor. The mortalities
in this area were usually associated with periods when low tides
allowed the surface waters to be affected by hydrogen sulfide
(H-S) released from sludge on the bottom, although on a few
occasions, the mortalities were apparently caused by high
residual chlorine concentrations resulting from the discharge
from one of the two mills.
In Port Angeles Harbor, frequent, high-percentage kills
were also observed in the vicinities of three pulp, paper, and
board mills. Here the principal cause of the observed mortal-
ities also appeared to be high concentrations of total sulfides,
although certain kills were also associated with low DO concen-
trations, high SWL concentrations, and low pH values. Hence,
the discharges from these mills were also implicated in causing
the observed mortalities.
FWPCA and WSPCC (1967) also utilized English sole eggs in
laboratory bioassays designed to assess the toxicity of SWL.
For these bioassays, eggs and sperm were stripped from ripe
English sole collected in unpolluted areas of Puget Sound. The
eggs were fertilized and then exposed to varying concentrations
of a composite sample of SWL from a paper mill in Anacortes, as
well as to control samples of unpolluted seawater. The seven
test solutions used contained SWL in a logarithmic series of
concentrations: 5.6, 13.5, 32, 75, 180, 420, and 1 ,000 ppm.
These samples were incubated until 24 hours after larvae had
appeared in the control samples. The eggs and larvae were then
anesthetized, fixed in formalin, and examined under a dissecting
microscope. Counts were then made of the numbers of dead eggs
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with no apparent embryonic development, developing eggs with no
indication of hatching, transitional larvae (those still having
ventral flexure or parts of the shell adhering), normal larvae,
and abnormal larvae.
Sulfite waste liquor was found to be severely damaging to
developing English sole eggs, even when dilute. There were
apparent increases (relative to the controls) in the numbers of
dead and unhatched eggs at SWL concentrations of 13.5 ppm, and
increases in the numbers of abnormal larvae even at the lowest
concentration tested (5.6 ppm). Higher concentrations resulted
in increased severity of the effects and significant retar-
dations in development, suggesting that little survival would
occur. The bioassays demonstrated that SWL is an effective
agent in disrupting the normal metabolic processes of developing
English sole eggs. The greatest change in response occurred
between 5.6 and 13.5 ppm, suggesting a critical threshold of
about 10 ppm. Measurements of SWL concentrations in the vicini-
ty of the pulp and paper mills at Bellingham, Anacortes,
Everett, and Port Angeles were often found to be in excess of 10
ppm, and hence it is likely that these wastes were adversely
affecting English sole eggs spawned in these areas.
Moore (1976) also used salmon fry in live box bioassays to
assess the toxicity of the waters in Everett Harbor during a
period when improvements were being made in the quality of the
effluents discharged from the mills there. While he noted a
slight decrease in the mortalities which may have been associ-
ated with the reduction in waste load, significant mortalities
still occurred in areas near the mills. The cause of these
mortalities was apparently H2S from the sludge deposits on the
bottom, however, which would not necessarily reflect the quality
or quantity of the mills' waste load at the time of the bio-
assays. The results of further live box bioassays conducted for
several years after initiation of pollution abatement measures
have not yet been released.
McCain et al. (1982) conducted two laboratory bioassays in
which English sole were maintained for 2-3 months in aquaria
containing either test sediments from an area known to be
contaminated with a variety of industrial chemicals (Duwamish
Waterway) or reference sediments from a presumed unpolluted site
(Snohomish River in bioassay 1 or Port Madison in bioassay 2) .
While the purpose of these experiments was to compare pathologi-
cal characteristics of fish exposed to these treatments, rele-
vant data on the lethal toxicity of these sediments to the fish
were also provided. In the first bioassay, the mortality in the
test group (Duwamish Waterway sediment: 16 percent; 16 of 100
fish) was lower than the mortality in the reference group
(Snohomish River sediment: 27 percent; 27 of 100 fish). In the
second bioassay, the mortality in the test group (Duwamish
Waterway sediment: 54 percent? 19 of 35 fish) was higher than
the mortality in the reference group (Port Madison sediment: 38
percent; 12 of 32 fish). However, neither difference was
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statistically significant. While these results would appear to
imply that the Duwamish Waterway sediments are not unusually
toxic to English sole, consideration must be given to the cause
of the high mortalities in the reference samples. McCain et al.
(1982) contend that the reference sediments may have been poorly
selected since the Port Madison sediment was shown to have a
higher concentration of chlorinated butadienes than did the
Duwamish Waterway sediment, and there were indications that the
Snohomish River sediment contained high concentrations of
pesticides and PCBs. They suggest that future sediment exposure
experiments may require that reference sediments be obtained
from outside Puget Sound.
Malins et al. (1982b) tested effects of low (15-150 ppb)
waterborne hydrocarbons on smelt, flatfish, and salmon. Less
than 10 percent of the smelt eggs hatched, and of those that
did, only 10 percent survived. Flatfish embryos exposed to
80 ppb developed normally; those exposed to 130 ppb died or were
grossly abnormal. At concentrations of 150-500 ppb, exposure
during embryo and alevin development increased mortality
400 percent; exposure to either embryos or alevins alone in-
creased mortality by 100-150 percent. Exposure of adult salmon
to 1-2 ppm aromatic hydrocarbons caused a delay in returning
salmon migration; 2-3 ppm inhibited upstream migration. Expo-
sure to 40 ppm freshwater-accommodated crude oil did not alter
their homing capability or rate of return. Other experiments
produced less effect; juvenile flatfish did not consisently
avoid oil-sediment mixtures containing 8,000-10,000 ppm total
hydrocarbons, and maturing trout fed 1,000 ppm for 7 months did
not show significant changes in hatching success.
Westley et al. (1975) utilized similar live box bioassays
with salmon fry to test the water quality which resulted from
dredging activities in Budd Inlet. Experiments were conducted
to assess the effects of both suction dredging and clamshell
dredging, as well as the effects of two methods of disposal
(barge and pipeline). Interpretation of the results was some-
what difficult because relatively high mortalities occurred in
the control boxes as well as in the experimental boxes. It is
possible that a massive red tide and warmer water temperatures
were responsible for these mortalities. The study concluded
that the water quality resulting from the dredging was not
highly toxic because a number of fish survived in each test, and
that it was not possible to determine which dredging method had
the lesser potential for adverse effects on these fish. Howev-
er, the results of this study are not directly applicable to
dredging activities in other areas where the composition of the
sediments is markedly different.
Bioaccumulation
A number of investigators have analyzed the concentrations
of trace metals, PCBs, pesticides, and other organic chemical
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contaminants in fishes from various locations throughout Puget
Sound. In at least a few of these studies, attempts have been
made to examine correlations between the tissue concentrations
of these contaminants and the distribution of known point
sources of these substances.
Trace Metals. Analyses of the tissue concentrations of a
number of trace metals have been conducted on fishes from a
number of locations in Puget Sound. While all of the metals are
naturally-occurring elements, there is concern that metals
introduced to the Sound by the activities of man may have
increased the background concentrations of these metals in
either the water or in the sediments. This may cause an in-
crease in tissue concentrations of these metals in the biota of
the Sound. Hence, a number of these studies have examined the
concentration of metals in fishes near known sources of metallic
wastes. Naturally, one would expect that if bioaccumulation of
these metals is occurring, effects would be more pronounced in
demersal fishes, which tend to be more permanent residents in a
given area, than in pelagic fishes, which are only transient
residents. Consequently, emphasis has been placed in most of
these studies on measuring the tissue metal concentrations in
demersal fish species.
Before reviewing the existing information, it should be
noted that a major obstacle occurs in interpreting the meaning
of these data. The significance of abnormally high concen-
trations of certain heavy metals in certain fish is not readily
apparent since it is not known whether these elevated concen-
trations have any adverse effect on the fish. In addition, the
consequences of these elevated tissue metal concentrations on
persons possibly eating these fish are also largely unknown. An
FDA action level has been identified only for mercury, and there
are no restrictions on the ingestion of fishes containing high
concentrations of any of the other metals.
Crecelius (1974) measured the concentrations of arsenic and
antimony in the muscle tissues of several species of sole
collected in Carr Inlet, near Fox Island, in Quartermaster
Harbor (Vashon Island), and over the slag pile of the ASARCO
smelter in Tacoma. Quartermaster Harbor is known to receive
atmospheric fallout of smelter stack dust which is rich in both
arsenic and antimony. The smelter slag is also known to contain
high concentrations of these metals. In addition, Crecelius
(1974) measured the concentrations of arsenic and antimony in
ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) collected over the smelter slag
pile and near Fox Island, fhe highest concentration of arsenic
found among all of these fish tissues was 41 ppm dry weight in
the muscle of the ratfish from Fox Island. Concentrations of
arsenic in the ratfish and sole from the vicinity of the slag
pile were also moderately high (29-31 ppm dry weight), but the
total range of arsenic concentrations measured in all of the
fish was small (8.5-41 ppm dry weight). The lowest concen-
trations were found in sole from Quartermaster Harbor, where the
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sediments are known to have higher than normal concentrations of
arsenic. Antimony was only present in very low concentrations;
it was found near or below the limit of detection in the fish
from all locations except the vicinity of the slag pile, where
it was found in the ratfish and sole at concentrations of 0.8
and 0.9 ppm dry weight, respectively. Crecelius (1974) conclud-
ed that there was no consistent pattern of accumulation of these
two metals in the fish examined.
Cummins et al. (1976) analyzed the concentrations of
12 metals in the muscle tissue of several sculpins and sole
collected in Liberty Bay, as well as the concentrations of those
same metals in a sculpin from Hood Canal, and in a sole from
Clam Bay, both of which were intended to serve as controls.
Despite the fact that Liberty Bay had received for many years
the untreated metallic electroplating wastes from the Keyport
Navy Torpedo Station, there were no obvious elevations in the
tissue metal concentrations among these fishes. The only major
difference among the fishes analyzed by Cummins et al. (1976)
was the finding of a relatively high concentration of arsenic
(14 ppm wet weight) in the sole from Clam Bay, the intended
control. Concentrations of arsenic in the muscle tissue of the
other fishes ranged between 0.10-0.70 ppm wet weight.
Cummins et al. (19 76) reported, however, that the high concen-
tration of arsenic in the Clam Bay sole corresponded with the
range of arsenic concentrations (5.4-13.8 ppm) found in muscle
tissues of unspecified flatfishes from Colvos Passage and
Commencement Bay by Huntamer and Schell (1974). Cummins et al.
(1976) speculated that the higher concentrations of arsenic in
these fishes may have been related to their relative proximity
to the ASARCO smelter in Tacoma, or to other local sources of
arsenic, although they cautioned that further studies were
necessary. It should be noted, however, that these concen-
trations are low relative to those found by Crecelius (1974) and
discussed above.
Sherwood and McCain (1976) measured the concentrations
of 10 cations and trace metals in muscle and kidney tissues of
starry flounders (Platichthys stellatus) collected in the
Duwamish and Nisqually River estuaries. There were no notable
differences in metal concentrations between the fish from the
two areas, although the former is a heavily-industrialized urban
estuary, and the latter is relatively free of industrial contam-
inants. It should be noted, however, that their sample sizes
were quite small (only nine fish are examined) and further
studies would be required to verify the conclusion that metals
were apparently not accumulated to abnormal levels by the starry
flounder of the Duwamish River estuary.
One of the more extensive studies of trace metals in the
tissues of fishes from Puget Sound was conducted for Metro.
This study, the results of which are reported by both Olsen and
Schell (1977) and Schell et al. (1977), included the analysis of
12 trace metals in the muscle tissues of English sole and Dover
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sole collected near Metro's West Point sewage outfall and in a
reference area in Hood Canal. In addition, tissue samples were
collected from the viscera, muscle, skin, bone, and liver of 14
species of fishes from various locations throughout the Sound.
These tissues were analyzed for copper, cadmium, and lead
content. The same tissues were also sampled from English sole
collected from West Point, Hood Canal, Carkeek Park (the site of
a smaller sewage discharge), and the Duwamish River, and an-
alyzed for copper, cadmium, lead, and selenium content.
In the absence of replicate samples and/or any statistical
analysis of their data, interpretation of the results of Olsen
and Schell (1977) and Schell et al. (1977) is subject to a
degree of uncertainty. Since the data for the 14 species of
fishes are not separated by area of collection, there can be no
analysis of spatial variations in the concentrations of trace
metals in their tissues, which might be correlated with known
sources of metal contamination, such as the West Point discharge
or the Duwamish River. Among the Dover sole and English sole,
for which the data were separated by area of collection, there
were apparent differences in tissue metal concentrations which
might be interpreted as possible effects of increased inputs of
these metals. Lead concentrations in the muscle tissue of these
species near the West Point outfall were approximately 3 ppm dry
weight, while those from Hood Canal were below the limit of
detection. In English sole, the concentrations of cadmium in
the bone samples and of copper in the liver were higher in fish
collected near the outfall than in those from Hood Canal. While
such differences in concentrations are suggestive of possible
outfall-related effects, much more extensive sampling would be
required to establish the statistical significance of these
differences.
Malins et al. (1980) reported the concentrations of 16 met-
als in the livers of English sole and rock sole from various
locations in central and southern Puget Sound, including two
heavily industrialized areas; Elliott Bay-Duwamish River and
Commencement Bay Waterways. There were no apparent differences
in the concentrations of these metals which might be associated
with proximity to known sources of the metals. Once again,
however, the samples were unreplicated, so the significance of
the lack of apparent differences is unknown.
Further analyses of metal concentrations in fish tissues
were conducted by Malins et al. (1962a) . English sole were
collected from the Seattle waterfront, the Duwamish River, the
Hylebos Waterway of Commencement Bay, and in Port Susan. King
salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Pacific cod (Gadus
macrocephalus) were collected from Commencement Bay, Point
Jefferson (near Port Madison), and Elliott Bay. The skeletal
muscle of these fishes was analyzed for the concentrations of
eight metals. Malins et al. (1982a) concluded that only arsenic
was present in moderate to high concentrations in the muscle of
cod (ca. 2.7 ppm wet weight) and salmon (ca. 6.0 ppm wet
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weight). There was no apparent relationship between the concen-
trations of arsenic and the proximity of the fish to known
sources of pollutants. Even the cod from Point Jefferson had a
relatively high concentration of arsenic in its muscle tissue.
Although not discussed by Malins et al. (1982a), unpublished
tabular data made available for this review revealed that both
chromium and zinc were also present in moderate to high concen-
trations (1.1-4.7 ppm wet weight) in the muscle tissues of the
salmon and cod, but again there was no geographic pattern corre-
lated with known pollutant sources. Concentrations of mercury
in these fishes were far below the available FDA action level.
Considering the small numbers of fishes analyzed (8 English
sole, 11 salmon, 7 cod), no conclusive interpretations can be
derived from these data. Malins et al. (1982a) noted that in
light of the known toxic and carcinogenic properties of arsenic,
further studies should be conducted of the concentrations of
this metal in the edible tissues of Puget Sound organisms.
Copper rockfish (Sebastes caurinus) and pile perch
(Rhacochilus vacca) were collected during a WDOE Class II
inspection of the ASARCO copper smelter in Tacoma in 1978 (WDOE
1979). The skeletal muscle, gills, liver, and gut contents of
these fish were analyzed for the concentrations of eight metals
to ascertain whether assimilation of these metals discharged by
ASARCO was occurring among animals inhabiting the slag fill and
piling habitat adjacent to the smelter. Zinc was present in the
highest concentrations (9-80 ppm wet weight), but arsenic was
present in only low concentrations (0.4-1.8 ppm wet weight).
The latter fact is surprising considering the high concentration
of arsenic known to be present in the slag. It was not possible
to demonstrate whether significant bioaccumulation of any of
these metals was occurring since samples of these fish species
were not collected from a reference or control area.
During a second WDOE Class II inspection of the ASARCO
smelter (WDOE 1981), blue sea perch (Taeniotoca lateralis) and
copper rockfish were collected in the vicinity of one of
ASARCO1s outfalls, as well as near Hartstene Island in Southern
Puget Sound. The latter area was to serve as a control. The
skeletal muscle, gills, liver, and gut contents of these fish
were analyzed for the concentrations of nine metals. Copper,
lead, and zinc were found to have the highest concentrations in
the fish from the vicinity of the ASARCO outfall when compared
with concentrations in the fish from near Hartstene Island.
While these findings are suggestive of possible effects related
to the discharge of metallic wastes by ASARCO, it should be
emphasized that the number of fish examined was small (a total
of 6 blue sea perch and 6 copper rockfish) , and therefore the
statistical significance of the observed differences is unknown.
Teeny and Hall (1977) collected English sole at several
sites in Elliott Bay before and at several intervals after the
disposal of contaminated dredge spoils from the Duwamish River.
These fish (minus their stomach contents) were analyzed for
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their content of mercury and chromium in order to examine the
possibility of accumulation of these metals from the dredge
spoils. The results indicated that the concentrations of
mercury and chromium in these fish were low (less than 0.1 ppm
wet weight for mercury and 0.91 ppm wet weight for chromium) and
showed no apparent effect of the disposal operation. Caution is
advised in concluding from this study that such bioaccumulation
did not occur, however, since there can be no guarantee that the
fish caught near the disposal area at the end of the sampling
period had resided in that area long enough for bioaccumulation
to occur.
McCain et al. (1982) analyzed the concentrations of
cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc in English sole
collected from the Duwamish Waterway, the Lake Washington Ship
Canal, and McAllister Creek (a reference area in Southern Puget
Sound). They found no correspondence between the tissue concen-
trations of these metals and the concentrations of these metals
in the sediments where the fish were caught. They suggested
that this lack of correspondence might be due to varying degrees
of bioavailability of these metals, since the concentrations of
the sediment-associated metals extracted with a weak acid may
not necessarily reflect the concentrations of metals which are
bioavailable to the fish.
Gahler et al. (1982) analyzed metal concentrations in
edible muscle tissue of several fish species from popular sport
fishing areas in Commencement Bay and Discovery Bay (a reference
area). Bottomfishes (e.g., English sole, starry flounder) from
the Pt. Defiance Dock had considerably higher total metal
concentrations (* = 27.6 mg/wet kg) than bottomfishes from
Hylebos Waterway, City Waterway, Old Town Dock, and Discovery
Bay (* = 9.4-12.3 mg/wet kg). Much of the elevated total metal
levels in Pt. Defiance Dock bottomfishes resulted from higher
concentrations of arsenic in English and rock sole when compared
to the other samples. Total metal concentrations in "mixed
fishes", (e.g., sculpins, greenlings, and rockfishes) and
off-bottom fishes (e.g., hake, cod, and pollock) were relatively
consistent among the five sampling areas. Tissue mercury
concentrations were well below FDA Action Levels in all species
sampled.
Chronic bioassays were conducted by Stober et al. (1977) to
examine the toxicity of West Point sewage effluent to English
sole and shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata). After 8-weeks'
exposure to various dilutions of the effluent, the fishes were
analyzed for their zinc and copper content. No consistent
change was found in whole body zinc and copper concentrations
with exposure to increasing concentrations of effluent, suggest-
ing that there was no appreciable accumulation of these metals
from this source by the fishes.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs are anthropogenic
pollutants of considerable importance due to their slow rates of
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chemical and biological degradation, their capacity for bio-
accumulation, and their toxicity. While PCBs are no longer used
in this country, the ubiquitous distribution in the environment
and their persistence, especially in contaminated sediments,
ensure that they will continue to be a contaminant of some
concern for the foreseeable future. Consequently, there have
been a number of studies of the concentrations of PCBs in fishes
of Puget Sound and adjacent waters.
Sherwood and McCain (1976) measured the concentrations of
total PCBs in muscle, liver, and brain tissues of starry
flounders collected in the Duwamish and Nisqually River
estuaries. While the number of fish examined was small (a total
of only nine fish from the two areas) , it is notable that the
concentrations of total PCBs were higher in all three tissues
among fish collected in the Duwamish River when compared with
the corresponding tissues in fish from the Nisqually River. The
difference was especially pronounced in the liver concen-
trations; in the livers of fish with moderate to severe fin
erosion from the Duwamish River, the total PCB concentration was
18.8 ppm wet weight, while in the livers of fish with no appar-
ent fin erosion, the total PCB concentration was only 0.53 ppm
wet weight in fish from the Nisqually River and 11.9 ppm wet
weight in fish from the Duwamish River. These results suggest
that fish inhabiting areas known to be contaminated with PCBs
(i.e., the Duwamish River estuary) are more likely to have a
higher body burden of PCBs than fish living in relatively
uncontaminated, nonindustrial areas, but the relationship
between body burden in the liver and occurrence of fin erosion
is not clear.
Mowrer et al. (1977) collected two species of sculpins at
18 locations throughout south and central Puget Sound and
analyzed the concentrations of PCBs in their tissues (type
unspecified). The sampling locations included urban estuaries
(Duwamish River, Commencement Bay, and Sinclair Inlet), as well
as a number of more pristine, less polluted sites. The highest
concentrations of total PCBs were found in the sculpins collect-
ed in the three urban estuaries. In these areas, the concen-
trations ranged between 160-840 ppm wet weight, whereas the
concentrations in sculpins from less developed portions of
Southern Puget Sound ranged between 21-66 ppm wet weight.
Sediment samples collected at the same time as the sculpins
revealed a similar distribution of PCBs; the highest sediment
PCB concentrations were found at the same locations having fish
with the highest PCB concentrations. This suggests that
demersal fishes exposed to PCB-contaminated sediments may
accumulate higher levels of PCBs in their tissues than do fishes
exposed to uncontaminated sediments.
Stout and Lewis (1977) collected English sole at several
sites in Elliott Bay before and at several intervals after the
disposal of contaminated dredge spoils from the Duwamish River.
These fish (minus their stomach contents) were analyzed for
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their PCB content in order to examine the possibility of accumu-
lation of PCBs from the dredge spoils. Before the disposal
operation, the English sole collected in this area had a rela-
tively high PCB content (average concentration for three fish =
2.28 ppm wet weight). Inexplicably, the average concentration
of PCBs decreased after disposal of the contaminated sediments
(average concentrations for three fish were 0.65 and 0.87 ppm
wet weight for fish collected 2 weeks and 1 month, respectively,
after the disposal operation). English sole were then unavail-
able at these sampling locations until 9 months after the
disposal operation, when a single specimen was determined to
have a PCB concentration of 5.90 ppm wet weight. Stout and
Lewis (1977) suggest that it appears that English sole migrated
out of the area during the middle of this experiment, and
therefore the sole collected 9 months after disposal may not
have been a permanent resident of the area during this period.
While the results do not clearly demonstrate whether any accumu-
lation of PCBs from the sediments may have occurred in these
English sole, they do point out the potential complications
arising from attempts to follow changes in chemical concen-
trations in a single population of organisms sampled at various
intervals over an extended period of time. Among mobile orga-
nisms, such as English sole, there can be no guarantee that an
individual has been a permanent resident of the area under study
for any extended period of time.
Chronic bioassays were conducted by Stober et al. (1977) to
examine the toxicity of West Point sewage effluent to English
sole. After 8-weeks' exposure to various dilutions of the
effluent, the fishes were analyzed for their PCB content. In
all dilutions, as well as in the seawater control, the fish lost
PCB relative to the concentration in a similar fish analyzed at
the start of the experiments. Stober et al. (1977) noted that
the PCB in the fish tissue was the 1260 form, while that in the
effluent was primarily the 1254 form. This suggests that these
fish did not bioaccumulate PCB from the effluent, perhaps
because it was not in a chemical state readily assimilated by
the fish. The apparent depuration of PCB in the test fish
could, according to Stober et al. (1977) , be attributed to the
replacement of a natural, PCB-contaminated food source by a
relatively uncontaminated food source during the course of the
bioassays.
McCain et al. (1982) analyzed the PCB concentrations in the
livers of English sole collected in the Duwamish Waterway, the
Lake Washington Ship Canal, and McAllister Creek, a reference
estuary in Southern Puget Sound. They found that the concentra-
tions of PCBs in the livers of these fish reflected the concen-
trations of PCBs in the sediments where the fish were collected.
In the Duwamish Waterway, for instance, where the sediments are
known to be contaminated with PCBs, the concentrations of PCBs
in the fish livers ranged between 17-171 ppm dry weight. The
concentration of PCBs in a composite sample of English sole
livers from McAllister Creek (where the sediment concentrations
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of PCBs were low) was only 0.5 ppm dry weight. These results
suggest that English sole may accumulate PCBs from contaminated
sediments when the fish are residents in areas having such
sediments.
Malins et al. (1980) reported the concentrations of total
PCBs in the livers of English sole and rock sole from various
locations in the Central Basin of Puget Sound and Southern Puget
Sound, including two heavily industrialized areas: Elliott
Bay-Duwamish River and Commencement Bay Waterways. The highest
total PCB concentrations in the livers of these fishes were
found in specimens collected in the Duwamish Waterway, in the
Hylebos Waterway, at Brown's Point (on the north shore of
Commencement Bay), in Elliott Bay, and in Sinclair Inlet. Fish
from control areas, such as Case Inlet and Port Madison, had
considerably lower concentrations of total PCBs in their livers.
Malins et al. (1980) also demonstrated that the concentration of
total PCBs was higher in the livers of English sole collected
from Commencement Bay than in the muscle tissues of those same
fish. Malins et al. (1980) provided limited information on the
concentrations of individual classes of PCBs (e.g., dichloro-
biphenyls, trichlorobiphenyls, nonachlorobiphenyls) in the
livers of English sole, rock sole, Pacific staghorn sculpin
(Lejptocottus armatus) , and quillback rockfish (Sebastes
maliger), although the geographic coverage was not as comprehen-
sive (i.e., specimens of the latter two species were only
examined from Elliott Bay and Commencement Bay). In the absence
of analyses of specimens of the latter two species from control
areas, nothing can be said regarding the relative concentrations
of these substances in their livers.
Further analyses of PCB concentrations in fish tissues were
conducted by Malins et al. (1982a). English sole were collected
from the Duwamish River, the Hylebos Waterway off Commencement
Bay, and in Port Susan. Chinook salmon and Pacific cod were
collected from Commencement Bay, Point Jefferson (near Port
Madison) , and Elliott Bay. Both the skeletal muscle and the
livers of these fishes were analyzed for the concentrations of
total PCBs. The concentrations of total PCBs were highest in
the livers of English sole from the Duwamish River and Commence-
ment Bay, and were apparently elevated over those in the livers
of sole from Port Susan (the reference area). Concentrations of
total PCBs in the muscle tissues of English sole from the
Duwamish River and Commencement Bay were lower than the liver
concentrations, but analyses were not performed on sole skeletal
muscle from Port Susan. The concentration of PCBs in the livers
of cod may have been slightly higher in Duwamish River and
Commencement Bay specimens than in those from Port Susan, but
the number of fish examined (a total of eight) renders such a
conclusion tentative. There were no apparent differences in the
concentrations of PCBs in the livers or skeletal muscle of the
salmon that might be related to the area of capture.
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Similar results were obtained by Gahler et al. (1982) who
reported elevated PCB levels in muscle tissue of English sole
from Commencement Bay* The highest tissue concentrations of
PCBs occurred in demersal or semidemersal fishes {e.g., sculpin,
greenlings} from the Hylebos Waterway, although the maximum
values (1.12 mg/wet kg) were well below the FDA Action Level of
5 mg/wet kg. PCB concentrations in "off-bottom" fishes such as
cod and hake were consistently low (* <0.09 mg/wet kg) in the
Commencement Bay samples and in the Discovery Bay reference
samples.
These results suggest that demersal fish species (such as
the English sole), may accumulate PCBs in their tissues when
they are exposed to PCB-contaminated sediments, but that the
concentrations of PCBs in wide-ranging pelagic species such as
salmon apparently bear no relationship to the sediment concen-
trations of PCBs in the area of capture. Similar results have
been obtained in studies done elsewhere, e.g., Courtney and
Langston (1980) demonstrated uptake of PCBs from sediments by
turbot over a 15-day exposure period.
Other Organic Compounds. Various studies have attempted to
analyze the concentrations of anthropogenic organic compounds
other than PCBs in the tissues of fishes from a number of
locations in Puget Sound. These compounds include pesticides,
CBDs, PAHs, and other organic compounds known to be discharged
to the Sound in industrial and municipal effluents. There is
concern that certain of these compounds may be accumulated in
the tissues of fish to the extent that they either have adverse
effects on the fish or represent a health hazard to humans
eating the fish.
Sherwood and McCain (1976) measured the concentrations of
p,p'-DDE (a pesticide derivative) in muscle, liver, and brain
tissues of starry flounder collected in the Duwamish and
Nisqually River estuaries. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE were
low in all of these tissues, although there was a suggestion of
higher concentrations in the livers of fish from the Duwamish
River (0.213 ppm wet weight) than in those from the Nisqually
River (0.035 ppm wet weight). Further studies would be required
to verify that these concentrations were in fact significantly
different, and to ascertain whether there were differences in
the concentrations in the other tissues.
In addition to the aforementioned analyses of PCBs in
English sole during chronic bioassays of West Point sewage
effluent, Stober et al. (1977) also measured the concentrations
of total chlorinated hydrocarbons in these fish. After 8-weeks'
exposure to the effluent, the fish in all dilutions of the
effluent, as well as those in the seawater control, lost chlori-
nated hydrocarbons relative to the concentration in a similar
fish analyzed at the start of the experiments. The results
suggest that these fish did not bioaccumulate chlorinated hydro-
carbons from the effluent, perhaps because these compounds, like
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the PCBs, were not in a chemical state readily assimilated by
the fish. The apparent depuration of chlorinated hydrocarbons
in the test fish could, as in the case of PCBs, be due to the
replacement of a natural, contaminated food source by a rela-
tively uncontaminated food source during the course of the
bioassays.
Roubal et al. (1978) examined the uptake of low molecular
weight aromatic hydrocarbons in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus
kisutch) and starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) exposed in
flowing seawater aquaria with approximately 0.9 ppm of a wa-
ter-soluble fraction of crude oil. Both species were found to
accumulate a complex spectrum of low molecular weight aromatic
hydrocarbons, although bioconcentration factors were higher for
the flounder than for the salmon. In general, the alkylated
aromatic hydrocarbons were accumulated to a greater degree than
the unsubstituted derivatives. Whereas the salmon were able to
purge their tissues of the accumulated hydrocarbons within
2 weeks when transferred to clean seawater, the flounder still
retained substantial concentrations of substituted napthalenes
and benzenes. It appears that the presence of aromatic hydro-
carbons may be responsible for the induction of enzyme systems
responsible for the metabolism of these compounds (Roubal et al.
1978) .
In addition to the analyses for metals and PCBs described
earlier, Malins et al. (1980) measured the concentrations of
petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated pesticides, and other
chlorinated hydrocarbons in the livers of English and rock sole,
Pacific staghorn sculpins, quillback rockfish, and Pacific
tomcod. Due to their widespread distribution and their higher
prevalence of pathological abnormalities, the results for
English sole and rock sole were discussed in greatest detail.
Whereas the concentrations of individual polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons in the livers of these species caught in the
nonurban areas of Puget Sound were either below or close to the
detectable limits of these compounds, the livers of fishes from
Elliott Bay and Commencement Bay generally had higher levels of
these compounds. For the CBDs, the only area where the concen-
trations in the fish livers were consistently high was the
Hylebos Waterway of Commencement Bay. Both the chlorinated
hydrocarbon pesticides and hexachlorobenzene were present in
highest concentrations in the livers of fishes from the Duwamish
Waterway, the Seattle waterfront, and the Hylebos Waterway. The
pesticides were present at intermediate levels in fish from
Sinclair Inlet, Brown's Point, Southwest Commencement Bay, and
West Point, and at low levels in outer Elliott Bay, Port
Madison, and Case and Budd Inlets. Malins et al. (1980) also
demonstrated that the concentrations of both hexachlorobenzene
and hexachlorobutadiene were higher in the livers of English
sole collected from Commencement Bay than in the muscle tissues
of those same fish. Although data were provided on the concen-
trations of all of the above organic compounds in the other fish
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species, the lack of comprehensive geographic coverage for these
species limits the interpretation of these data.
Further analyses of the concentrations of other organic
compounds in fish were conducted by Malins et al. (1982a) .
English sole were collected from the Duwamish River, the Hylebos
Waterway of Commencement Bay, and in Port Susan. Chinook salmon
and Pacific cod were collected from Commencement Bay, Point
Jefferson (near Port Madison), and Elliott Bay. The livers of
these fish were analyzed for the concentrations of polynuclear
aromatic hydrocarbons, hexachlorobenzene, chlorinated
butadienes, and chlorinated pesticides. In general, the results
agree with those of Malins et al. (1980), i.e., the concen-
trations of most of the compounds analyzed were higher in the
livers of fish caught in either the Hylebos Waterway or the
Duwamish River than in those caught in the reference areas (Port
Susan or Point Jefferson). The concentrations were generally
higher in the demersal English sole than in the semi-pelagic cod
and pelagic salmon, reflecting the more intimate association of
the former species with regions having sediments contaminated
with these organic compounds. Malins et al. (1982a) cautioned,
however, that despite clear evidence of chemical contamination
of the target species, it is difficult to assess the effect such
contamination may be having either on the organisms themselves
or on human consumers of these organisms. The very complex
association of diverse chemicals makes the identification of
cause-and-effeet relationships extremely difficult, especially
in view of the fact that interactions between these xenobiotic
compounds alter the biological effects of the individual com-
pounds. Hence, linking the presence of these chemical contami-
nants to observed biological changes in Puget Sound will require
careful integration of laboratory and field investigations.
McCain et al. (1982) also conducted limited analyses of the
concentrations of PAHs in the livers of English sole collected
in the Duwamish River, in the Lake Washington Ship Canal, and in
McAllister Creek, a reference estuary in Southern Puget Sound.
Only low concentrations of PAHs were found in the livers of fish
from the two urban estuaries, and they were below the limits of
detection in the livers of fish from McAllister Creek. While
fish are known to possess the ability to metabolize most aro-
matic hydrocarbons, one chemical (i.e., napthalene) was fre-
quently detected in the livers of fish from the Duwamish River
and the Lake Washington Ship Canal, suggesting that this com-
pound may be more slowly metabolized than other aromatic hydro-
carbons .
Gahler et al. (1982) did not detect chlorinated butadienes
in Commencement Bay fishes, but elevated levels of hexachloro-
benzene, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene were detect-
ed in fishes from the Hylebos Waterway. Pentachloropropene, a
strong mutagen, was also tentatively identified in effluent,
sediment, and fish tissue samples from the Hylebos Waterway.
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Pathology
A variety of pathological conditions possibly caused by
chemical contaminants have been reported from various locations
throughout Puget Sound and adjacent waters. These include fin
erosion, skin tumors, hepatomas and other liver abnormalities,
and miscellaneous other conditions. Studies of these pathologi-
cal conditions have included attempts to describe their exact
nature, to estimate their prevalence in different areas of Puget
Sound, and to examine associations between the distributions of
these pathological conditions and the distributions of known
chemical contaminants, especially in areas known to receive
waste discharges. Additional studies just completed have
attempted to experimentally induce certain pathological con-
ditions through the exposure of fishes to suspected causative
agents.
Fin Erosion. According to Wellings et al. (1976a), fin
erosion disease (or fin rot, as it is sometimes called) is "a
progressive destruction of fin tissue observed in a number of
species of freshwater and marine fish",*and this disease may be
"acute with ulceration and necrosis or more chronic with
epidermal hyperplasia and dermal fibrosis." The etiology is
presently unknown, although certain bacterial and chemical
agents are strongly implicated.
Wellings et al. (1976a) collected demersal fishes at eight
stations in the lower Duwamish River and estuary and examined
them for evidence of fin erosion disease. Among 6,547 fishes of
29 species examined, fin erosion was observed only in English
sole (Parophrys vetulus) and starry flounder (Platichthys
stellatus). The prevalence of fin erosion among the starry
flounder varied seasonally, from a low of 1.6 percent in July to
a high of 14.6 percent in March, with an average prevalence of
8 percent. The prevalence of fin erosion among English sole was
lower, averaging only 0.5 percent. Although differences in
prevalence were noted among stations, they were probably not
significant due to small sample sizes. Wellings et al. (1976a)
could not identify a causative agent, although they recognized
that the Duwamish River sediments contained high concentrations
of various chemical contaminants, such as PCBs. They suggested
that the available data best fit a multifactorial hypothesis of
etiology, stating:
"It is logical to assume that multiple environmental vari-
ables (such as chemical pollutants, physical factors,
mechanical injury, etc.) act in some combination on a
susceptible genetic background to produce a particular
incidence of disease in the population at risk."
Fin erosion is apparently relatively rare in unpolluted,
nonindustrialized areas of Puget Sound and adjacent waters.
Miller et al. (1974) , for instance, in a baseline predischarge
survey of the sites of two sewage outfalls (at Stadium,
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Washington, on Case Inlet, and at Union, Washington, on lower
Hood Canal), reported that among 5,009 fish from 41 species
captured at Stadium, none had any degree of fin erosion, while
among 14,377 fish from 59 species obtained at Union, only one, a
starry flounder, had symptoms of fin erosion.
Sherwood and McCain (1976) attempted to examine possible
relationships between fin erosion disease and abnormal body
burdens of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and ten trace metals cations. They
collected three starry flounder with fin erosion and three
without fin erosion from the Duwamish River estuary, and three
starry flounder without fin erosion from a control area, the
Nisqually River estuary. Composite tissue samples were taken
from each group and analyzed for the above chemicals. Due to
the compositing of the samples from each area, no statistical
analysis of the resulting data is possible, but there were
suggestions that the concentrations of PCBs were higher in the
tissues of fish from the Duwamish River than in those from the
Nisqually River, especially in the liver samples. The liver PCB
concentrations were also higher in fish with fin erosion
(18.8 ppm wet weight) than in fish without fin erosion (11.9 ppm
wet weight) from the Duwamish River. Similar results were
obtained with Dover sole from polluted and unpolluted areas of
southern California. There were no notable differences in the
concentrations of the other substances analyzed among the three
groups from Puget Sound. While Sherwood and McCain (197 6)
stress that the results do not imply cause-and-effeet, they
concluded that the similar levels of PCBs in the diseased fishes
from the two regions suggest that PCBs may be involved in the
disease in both places. More detailed analyses, including other
chemical contaminants, are necessary.
Sindermann (1979) conducted an extensive review of pol-
lution-associated diseases of fish, including fin erosion. A
number of pollutants have induced fin erosion under laboratory
conditions: PCB 1254 (concentrations of 3-5 ppb); crude oil
(4-5 ppm in 12 ppt salinity); lead; zinc; and cadmium. Although
the mechanism has not been determined by these studies, Mearns
and Sherwood (1974) and Sherwood and Mearns (1977) suggest that
certain toxic substances remove or modify the protective mucus
coat and expose the underlying epithelial tissue to either the
toxic effect of chemicals or to bacterial infection. Some
experimental evidence supports the latter hypothesis
(Sindermann 1979).
Skin Tumors. Skin tumors, classified as angioepithelial
nodules, epidermal papillomas, or angioepithelial polyps, are
relatively common pathological conditions among certain fishes,
especially flatfishes, of Puget Sound. Tumor incidences of
5-10 percent are frequently reported in the English sole
(Parophrys vetulus), flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon),
sand sole (Psettichthys melanostictus), and starry flounder
(Platichthys stellatus) at certain collecting sites (Wellings
et al. 1976b). Other species occasionally having similar tumors
213

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include Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus), rex sole
(Glyptocephalus zachirus)~ and butter sole (Iopsetta isolepis)
(Wellings et al. 1976b; McArn et al. 1968).
In some cases, tumor incidence has been reported to be high
in fish from areas near known sources of pollutants. Wellings
et al. (1976b) report, for instance, that among some collections
of starry flounders from the Nooksack Estuary of Bellingham Bay,
over 50 percent of the age group 0 fish have tumors (either
angioepithelial nodules or transitions to epidermal papillomas).
In other areas far removed from known pollutant sources, tumor
incidence is low. Miller et al. (1974) reported that the inci-
dences of skin tumors in English sole from Stadium and Union,
Washington, were only 2 percent (7 of 325) and 1.5 percent (28
of 1,849), respectively. Skin tumors are by no means limited to
areas near known sources of pollutants, since they have been
found in flatfish from virtually all areas of Puget Sound and
the adjacent waters (Wellings et al. 1976b).
The geographical variability of tumor incidence is as yet
unexplained, but it is characteristic of this disease in all
species so far studied. Wellings et al. (1976b) suggest that a
possible hypothesis is that as yet undefined environmental
variables may play a role in tumorigenesis, although an alterna-
tive hypothesis is that genetic susceptibility to unknown
tumorigenic agents varies among different fish stocks.
The three types of skin tumors represent different stages
of what is apparently the same disease. Angioepithelial nodules
are the first to appear, generally in young-of-the-year fish
soon after metamorphosis (Angell et al. 1975). These tumors
later develop into either epithelial papillomas or angioe-
pithelial polyps (Angell et al. 1975). While the individual
tumors increase in size and weight with increasing age of the
fish, the incidence of tumorous fish declines with age (Angell
et al. 1975), suggesting that tumor-bearing fish disappear from
the populations more rapidly than do normal fish (i.e., that
they experience higher than normal mortality) (Wellings et al.
1976b).
The fact that angioepithelial nodules are first apparent on
recently-metamorphosed juveniles suggests that the "tumorigenic
event" may occur at or about metamorphosis (Angell et al. 1975).
In flatfishes, metamorphosis includes migration of the eyes to
the same side of the head and corresponds with beginning of life
on the bottom. If the etiological agent is external to the
fish, one would expect angioepithelial nodules to occur with
equal frequency on both sides if the "tumorigenic event" oc-
curred during the bilaterally-symmetrical planktonic stage of
the fish, but with unequal frequency if it occurred after
metamorphosis and is associated with physical contact with
contaminated sediments (Angell et al. 1975). While there are
significantly more tumors on the eyed side than on the blind
side of flathead sole, this relationship does not apply to
214

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tumors of English sole and starry flounder (Wellings et al.
1976b), so the timing and nature of the "tumorigenic event" is
unclear.
Campana (1983) reported that the incidence of skin tumors
in starry flounder from Bellingham Bay is highest in young-of-
the-year and declines to near-zero by age II. A sharp decline
in tumor incidence occurred at the same time that the growth
rate of tumorous fish deviated significantly from that of
nontumorous cohorts. Furthermore, this same period was noted by
increasing susceptibility of tumorous fish to stress. These
differences between tumorous and nontumorous fish were not
apparent prior to age I, but more importantly, these differences
strongly suggest differential mortality associated with skin
tumors.
Sindermann (1979) has reviewed a number of studies on the
induction of tumors by environmental pollutants. Although
circumstantial evidence has accumulated from a number of
studies, the etiology of skin tumors remains unknown, and its
interpretation is complicated by the possibility of multiple
factors acting independently or synergistically. According to
Angell et al. (1975), possible factors include:
1.	Chemical carcinogens and cocarcinogens in the environ-
ment, either natural or introduced by man.
2.	Induction by virus or parasite.
3.	Nutritional deficiencies.
4.	Genetic influences or control of susceptibility to
carcinogenic agents.
Hepatomas and Other Liver Abnormalities. Hepatomas (liver
tumors) and other liver abnormalities represent another type of
pathological condition reported in fishes from Puget Sound and
adjacent waters. Because detection of these conditions is
dependent on dissection and microscopic analysis of the internal
organs of the fishes, there have been fewer studies of these
conditions than of skin tumors and fin erosion, which can be
detected externally. Pierce et al. (1978), Pierce et al.
(1980) , and McCain et al. (1982) describe the wide variety of
liver abnormalities found in Puget Sound flatfishes. Ex-
amination of fishes for these conditions has been concentrated
on fish collected from heavily industrialized areas of Puget
Sound, such as the Duwamish River and Commencement Bay.
McCain et al. (1977) reported finding hepatomas in English
sole and starry flounder from the Duwamish River estuary, but
too few fish were examined to establish a geographic dis-
tribution of tumorous fish within the river. Pierce et al.
(1978) reported in greater detail on the occurrence of hepatomas
and other liver abnormalities in English sole collected in the
heavily-industrialized Duwamish River, at Alki Point and West
Point (two areas adjacent to sewage outfalls), and at Point
Pully (a control area south of Seattle). The prevalences of
215

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microscopic liver lesions were as follows: Point Pully, 22 per-
cent (4 of 18); West Point, 60 percent {15 of 25); Alki Point,
90 percent {9 of 10) : and the Duwamish River, 92 percent {51 of
62| . Hepatomas were cbseive-d in 32 percent (20 of 62) of the
English sole collected in the Duwamish River, but in none of the
fish from the other areas1. Pierce et al, {1580) reported in
greater detail on the occurrence of hepatomas and other liver
abnormalities in starry flounder collected in the Duwamish
River, at Point Pully, and in the lower reaches of McAllister
Creek, an estuary in lower Puget Sound near Olympia. Unusual
liver characteristics were noted in 92 percent (127 of 138) of
the fish from the Duwamish River, while only 13 percent (5 of
39) of the fish from McAllister Creek had liver abnormalities.
Pierce et al. (1930) concluded that while the etiology of
these liver abnormalities is presently unknown, circumstantial
evidence suggests that toxic chemicals acting separately or
synergistically may be the cause, in support of this suggestion
they noted the following:
o Abnormal livers examined microscopically do not show the
inflammatory response associated with an active bacteri-
al infection.
o Attempts to isolate bacteria from abnormal livers have
been unsuccessful.
o The histopathologica1 characteristics of the liver
lesions do not resemble those caused by known viral
pathogens.
o The microscopic structure of the liver lesions resembles
chemically-induced lesions reported in other fish
species.
Dietary deficiencies are also a possible cause, although stomach
content analyses did not indicate an insufficient supply of food
organisms. Pierce et al. (1978, 1980) noted that the Duwamish
River estuary is known to be highly polluted, with high sediment
concentrations of PCBs, DDT, DDt> (or DDE), copper, and lead, as
well as numerous other chemical contaminants.
Malins et al. (1980, 1982a} found a variety of pathological
conditions in fish species from various sampling sites through-
out Puget Sound. Their analyses concentrated primarily on
idiopathic liver lesions in English sole (Parophyrya vetulus)
and rock sole {Lepidopse11a bilineata)f since these were tKe
most abundant and widely-distributed fish species examined in
this study. Certain pathological conditions, such as liver
neoplasms, were restricted to fish from the most chemically-
contaminated urban areas. Other conditions, such as preneo-
plastic lesions and specific degenerative/necrotic lesions were
suggestive of such a relationship, although individual fish with
these conditions occurred in uncontaminated reference areas as
well. Malins et al. <19fl2a) offered three possible explanations
for the occurrence of these conditions in uncontaminated areas:
1) a fish may be exposed to the causative agent(s) in an urban
216

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area and subsequently migrate to a reference area; 2) the
lesions may be caused by concentrations of chemicals as low as
those found in reference areas; or 3) a variety of other factors
(e.g., infectious organisms, physicochemical and physiological
factors) may cause these lesions, and while these factors are
present in both urban and nonurban areas, more of these factors
may be present in urban areas.
The pesticide lindane has been shown to induce liver degen-
eration in rainbow trout (Couch 1975). Long-term exposure
(9-12 months) to 1.6 ppm ammonia induced histopathological
lesions in the liver and intestine of trout (Smith and Piper
1975) . it is not known whether similar associations can be
expected in studies of steelhead.
Other Pathological Abnormalities. Various other pathologi-
cal abnormalities (e.g., lesions oF the gill, kidney, spleen,
and gall bladder, as well as certain cardiac abnormalities) have
been reported from fish species in Puget Sound and adjacent
waters (Malins et al. 1980, 1982a; McCain et al. 1982). While
there are reasons to believe that certain of these conditions
may be related to chemical contaminants in the environment,
either the prevalences of these conditions are very low or the
geographical distributions of fish with these conditions are
such that clear-cut associations with urban areas or known
sources of chemical contaminants are tenuous (McCain et al.
1982) .
Studies conducted elsewhere provide little additional
information on the causes of pathological abnormalities.
Marthur (1962) induced histopathological changes in various
organs of salmon by exposure to DDT. Hansen et al. (1971)
showed that PCB 1254 induced histopathological features in spot
and pinfish. Sindermann (1979) has noted that a number of
studies have associated certain heavy metals (cadmium, lead,
zinc), chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., toxaphene, kepone,
trifluralin), and even organophosphorus pesticides (malathion,
parathion) with induced skeletal deformities. Von Westernhagen
et al. (1981) showed that hatching success in flounder eggs was
inversely correlated with ovarian PCB levels. Chlorinated
hydrocarbons and certain heavy metals are known to interfere
with calcium metabolism. There is some evidence that exposure
to pollutants may affect immune responses of fish. One of the
best sources of evidence was a multidisciplinary study of
short-term sublethal exposure of cunner to cadmium (NMPS 1974).
A wide array of pollutants have been associated with
various diseases, lesions, or other abnormalities. Although the
weight of the evidence indicates that the associations do exist,
it is almost impossible to state positively that the condition
is caused by specific environmental contaminants. Most of the
studies are flawed by one or more of the following features:
217

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o Dosage levels are elevated over observed environmental
levels.
o Synergisms and antagonisms are ignored (with exception
of some work on zinc and various environmental vari-
ables, [Sindermann 1979]).
o Tests are static acute rather than chronic flow-through.
o Experimental animals are often under stress from con-
finement .
o Control of contamination is focused on a specific chemi-
cal, and the presence of other contaminants is not
ascertained.
Pathological Conditions Among Fish in the Vicinity of
Municipal Sewage Discharges. Due to the presence of chemical
contaminants in municipal sewage discharges, there is reason to
suspect that certain pathological conditions of fish may occur
in higher prevalence in fish inhabiting areas near sewage
outfalls than in unpolluted control areas. If this is the case,
such conditions would more likely be observed in demersal fish
species than in pelagic fish species, since the former tend to
reside in specific areas for longer periods of time, while the
latter are only transient residents in a given area. Conse-
quently, there have been several studies of the prevalence of
fish diseases in the vicinity of municipal sewage discharges on
Puget Sound.
Moulton et al. (1974) examined the prevalences of skin
tumors and fin erosion in flatfishes caught in trawls and beach
seines at West Point (site of Metro's largest sewage effluent
discharge) and Alki Point (site of a much smaller sewage dis-
charge) . Only occasional specimens were observed with fin
erosion, and Moulton et al. (1974) concluded that it did not
appear to be a significant problem in either area. Tumorous
English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and rex sole (Glyptocephalus
zachirus) were caught only It West Point, while a single
tumorous Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) was caught in the
vicinity of each point. The prevalence of skin tumors in
trawl-caught young-of-the-year English sole at West Point was
quite variable, ranging between 0 and 67 percent, but Moulton
et al. (1974) caution that sample sizes were small and that the
highly variable percent prevalences were therefore misleading.
Moulton et al. (1974) did not sample fish at a control area for
comparison with fish caught near the two sewage outfalls.
Miller et al. (1975, 1977) examined the prevalences of fin
erosion and skin tumors in demersal fishes collected in trawls
and beach seines at West Point, Alki Point, and Point Pully, a
control area south of Seattle. There was apparently little
reason to believe that the discharge of sewage effluent had been
responsible for either condition since fin erosion was not
observed at either West Point or Alki Point, and the prevalence
of skin tumors was actually higher at Point Pully (control) than
at either of the outfall sites.
218

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The only other observations of fish disease made in the
vicinity of municipal sewage discharges in Puget Sound and
adjacent waters are those near the Anacortes Main and Anacortes
Skyline outfalls. Demersal fishes collected near each outfall
had prevalences of fin erosion similar to those of demersal fish
from a control area, and lower prevalences of superficial
tumors, infections, and other abnormalities than the control
group. Pelagic fishes collected near these outfalls had no
clear cases of fin erosion. Hence, there is little reason to
believe that these relatively small sewage discharges have
caused an increased prevalence of fish diseases.
Cause-and-Effeet Studies of Fish Pathology. There have
been few studies of pathological conditions among Puget Sound
fishes which have included attempts to identify causes of the
observed effects. Of particular interest, of course, is the
question of whether the observed pathological conditions are
related in any way to pollution of the Sound with chemical
contaminants.
Malins et al. (1982a) discussed three approaches to at-
tempting to identify cause-and-effeet relationships for the
pathological conditions found in fish in their study: 1)
comparison of the histopathological and physiological charac-
teristics of the affected fish with characteristics described in
the literature for laboratory animals exposed to specific toxic
chemicals or infectious agents; 2) statistical methods to
correlate the prevalence of fish having certain types of lesions
with environmental concentrations of particular classes of
chemicals; and 3) laboratory experiments exposing normal fish to
suspected causative agents (either individually or in com-
bination) under controlled conditions, and comparison of the
resulting effects with lesions found in the field.
Malins et al. (1982a) document a number of similarities
between the histopathological conditions observed in fish from
chemically-contaminated areas in Puget Sound and those document-
ed in the literature for other animals exposed to a variety of
chemical pollutants (e.g., PCBs, DDT, dieldrin, metals, etc.).
These similarities suggest that chemical pollutants may be a
contributing factor in the prevalence of these conditions in
urban areas of Puget Sound.
Using two different statistical techniques, Malins et al.
(1982a) were able to show that certain of the histopathological
conditions observed in these fish were more prevalent at
stations where concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and toxic
metals in the sediments were high. Malins et al. (1982a)
caution, however, that the actual causative agent may be yet
another substance which was not measured but whose presence and
abundance was correlated with those of the aromatic hydrocarbons
and toxic metals. In addition, the fact that two chemically
different classes of sediment contaminants are correlated with
219

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the prevalence of fish with similar lesions suggests that these
classes of chemicals may interact to cause the lesions. Al-
though it would have been of interest to compare the chemical
concentrations of xenobiotic substances in the tissues of the
fish with the prevalence of lesions, this was not possible for
two reasons: 1) detailed chemical analyses had been performed
on too few fish, and 2) aromatic hydrocarbons are rapidly
metabolized in fish and are not detectable by routine chemical
analysis of fish tissues.
The third approach to ascertaining the causes of the
lesions observed in these fish (i.e., exposing normal sole under
laboratory conditions to toxic chemicals suspected of being
causative agents) was not attempted for two reasons: 1) the
long-term culture of sole under simulated natural conditions is
difficult; and 2) since the culture of English and rock sole
from egg to adult is presently not feasible, experimental
animals must be collected from wild stocks which have a high
degree of genetic heterogeneity or may have had previous contact
with toxic chemicals. Malins et al. (1982a) also caution that
different species of fish are known to respond differently when
exposed to the same xenobiotic substance, so experiments on one
species may not necessarily identify the causative agent of a
similar condition in another fish species.
Malins et al. (1982b) conducted a number of experiments
relating hydrocarbon exposure to pathology. Three species of
juvenile and adult flatfish exposed to oil-contaminated sediment
differed substantially in their degree of hydrocarbon accumu-
lation. Pathological changes occurred in the livers of all
species tested, but similar changes were also frequently ob-
served in the controls.
High doses of hydrocarbons administered for 2-12 months by
Malins et al. (1982b) were shown to produce ultrastructural
changes in liver and lens tissues of adult trout. Salmon and
flatfish exposed to waterborne hydrocarbons exhibited gill
lesions characterized by loss of surface cells. Exposure of
embryonic smelt and flatfish to low ppb concentrations of
seawater-accommodated crude oil resulted in high mortality at
hatching. The eye and brain of the smelt embryos were the
primary organs affected, and they showed extensive necrocytosis
in later embryonic stages. Disruption of epithelial cell
mitochondria and olfactory epithelium were noted in flatfish.
McCain et al. (1982) have recently completed a detailed and
comprehensive investigation of the pathology of English sole
(Parophyrys vetulus) and starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus)
from Puget Sound. Specimens were collected from the Duwamish
Waterway, the Lake Washington Ship Canal, the Snohomish River
estuary in Everett, and McAllister Creek, a reference estuary
near Olympia. In addition to a detailed macroscopic and micro-
scopic examination of the fishes for a variety of pathological
conditions, chemical analyses were conducted to determine the
220

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concentrations of toxic metals, PCBs, and PAHs in the fishes.
Finally, laboratory studies were conducted in an attempt to
elucidate possible cause-and-effeet relationships between
sediment-associated chemical pollutants and the abnormalities
observed in English sole.
McCain et al. (1982) documented a variety of pathological
conditions in the English sole and starry flounder from these
four areas. These included: lesions of the skin and fins;
liver lesions; gill lesions; and various abnormalities of the
heart, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Liver lesions were
the most common pathological condition. Preneoplastic and
neoplastic liver lesions were found only in English sole and
starry flounder from the Duwamish Waterway and the Lake
Washington Ship Canal. The prevalences of English sole having
either or both of these conditions in these two areas were 20.5
percent (113 of 551 fish) and 20.4 percent (10 of 49 fish),
respectively. The prevalences of English sole with liver
neoplasms in these two areas were 12.9 percent (71 of 551 fish)
and 8.4 percent (4 of 49 fish), respectively. The prevalence of
starry flounder with liver neoplasms was only 1.1 percent <3 of
2 79 fish) in the Duwamish Waterway. Among fishes collected in
the Snohomish River and in McAllister Creek, the only non-
neoplastic liver lesions were found, and the prevalences of
these conditions were very low in each area. Among the patho-
logical abnormalities of the other organ systems, either the
prevalences of these conditions were very low or the geograph-
ical distributions of fish with these conditions were such that
there were no clear-cut associations with urban areas or known
sources of chemical contaminants.
McCain et al. (1982) reported that the concentrations of
PCBs in the livers of English sole and starry flounder reflected
the relative concentrations of these compounds in the sediments
where the fish were collected. Hence, the highest concen-
trations of PCBs (17-161 ppm dry weight) were found in the
livers of English sole collected in the Duwamish Waterway, whose
sediments are known to be contaminated with PCBs, while the
lowest concentration of PCBs (0.5 ppm dry weight) was found in a
composite sample of livers from English sole collected in
McAllister Creek, the control estuary. There were no clear
trends in the tissue concentrations of cadmium, chromium,
copper, lead, or zinc. Tissue concentrations of most of the
aromatic hydrocarbons were low, which reflects the ability of
flatfishes to rapidly metabolize these compounds to undetectable
metabolites, although one such compound, naphthalene, was
frequently found in the livers of English sole from the Duwamish
Waterway but not in those from McAllister Creek.
Three types of laboratory experiments were conducted by
McCain et al. (1982) in an attempt to evaluate whether English
sole may be adversely affected by exposure to chemically-
contaminated sediments. In the first, McCain et al. (1982) were
able to show that the mortality rate of English sole maintained
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for up to 3 months in aquaria containing Duwamish Waterway
sediments was not significantly higher than that of English sole
maintained in similar aquaria with control sediments. There
were, however, possible problems with chemical contaminants in
the control sediments, and the experiment should be repeated
with better control sediments. The second set of experiments,
which included intraperitoneal injections of juvenile English
sole with extracts of either contaminated Duwamish Waterway
sediments, reference sediments, or a carrier (corn oil) only,
revealed that the first treatment 
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Benthic Macroinvertebrates
Ecology
Analyses of benthic community structure and of abundances
of individual species have been conducted near several pollutant
sources in Puget Sound, including sewage discharges, industrial
discharges, and dredged material disposal sites.
Surveys of benthic macroinvertebrates have been conducted
near several sewage discharges in Puget Sound. Most of the
surveys were conducted in support of applications for modified
discharge permits under the 301(h) program administered by EPA.
The available studies are summarized in Table 7-1. In theory,
these studies should demonstrate minimal effects on benthos
because municipal outfall sites in Puget Sound are generally
selected for oceanographic characteristics that result in rapid
dilution and dispersion of the effluent. Results of these
studies should be considered with appropriate caution because
sampling may not have occurred in areas of deposition of the
discharged particulates.
Metro's West Point discharge was studied more intensively
than any other sewage discharge in Puget Sound. In a comprehen-
sive survey of benthic infauna at 100 sites in the Central
Basin, including several near the West Point outfall, Thom et
al. (1979) concluded that the effect of the discharge was
related to limited organic enrichment of areas near the outfall.
The observed effects included an apparent increase in filter-
feeding species. The author's conclusion was based on eval-
uation of ITI values, total numbers of individuals, and total
biomass.
In a subsequent analysis of the Thom et al. (1979) data,
Word and Striplin (1981) attempted to separate nutrient-related
and toxic effects of the West Point discharge. Word and
Striplin (1981) concluded that:
o Total macrofaunal abundances were below natural back-
ground levels near the discharge.
o Abundances of suspension-feeding taxa were reduced near
the discharge.
o Abundances of miscellaneous phyla (e.g., echinoderms,
bryozoans) were reduced near the discharge.
The authors state that these results, combined with the analysis
of ITI values, suggest that macroinvertebrate communities near
the West Point discharge were responding to toxic effects of
discharged particulates. Word and Striplin (1981) also charac-
terized the toxicity sensitivities of major infaunal taxa as
follows (from most sensitive to least sensitive): echinoderms,
crustacea, molluscs, and polychaetes.
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Table 7-1. Summary of Studies of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities
Near Sewage Discharges in Puget Sound.
Outfall Name
Location
Number of
Sampling
Stations
Biological
Variables
Reference
ro
NJ
West Point
West Point
Main Basin
Main Basin
Tacoma North End	Commencement Bay
Tacoma Western Slopes Narrows
Anacortes Main
Anacortes Skyline
Port Angeles
Steilacoom
Richmond Beach
Denny Way CSO
Guemes Channel
Rosario Strait
Port Angeles Harbor/
Strait of Juan de Fuca
Main Basin
Main Basin
Elliott Bay
100	ITI, biomass, total
abundance
100	ITI, biomass,
total abundance with
abundances of major taxa
6 Abundance, community
variables
6	Abundance, percent
cover
4 Abundance, community
variables
3 Abundance, community
variables
6	Abundance, community
variables
2	Qualitative observations
6	ITI, species abundances
19 Species abundance
Thom et al. 1979
Word and Striplin
(1981)
City of Tacoma
(1979a)
City of Tacoma
(1979c)
City of Anacortes
(1979a)
City of Anacortes
(1979b)
Northern Tier
Pipeline Company
(1979)
Town of Steilacoom
(1979)
Word et al. (1981)
Armstrong et al.
(1980)

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Research on the applicability of the ITI to detecting
pollutant effects is currently being conducted at the University
of Washington (Word pers. comm.). Specific areas of investiga-
tion include:
o Selection and grouping of Puget Sound taxa.
o Numerical review of the index algorithm.
o Response of index to water depth.
o Effects of screen size on index values.
o Isolation of toxic effects.
All other sewage discharges studied in Puget Sound are
considerably smaller than West Point. In general, any observed
biological effects have been associated with minor modifications
in community structure of the infaunal benthos. Several of
these smaller discharges are also located in areas of high
current veloci- ties where sewage particles do not accumulate in
the discharge vicinity (e.g., Tacoma Narrows, Guemes Channel).
Seattle Metro has sponsored a series of studies of the
effects of municipal wastewater discharges on intertidal biota
(Armstrong et al. 1977; Thorn et al. 1977; Staude et al. 1977).
The studies were conducted at five beaches in the Central Basin
(including West Point) from 1971-1975.
The studies by Armstrong et al. (1977) of epifauna and
infauna (1.0 mm and 6.0 mm screen sizes) indicated considerable
between-beach variability in biological characteristics. The
authors attributed the results to differences in beach stability
and substrate composition. Based on analyses of organism
density, biomass, diversity, and individual species abundances,
no effects of the sewage discharges located at West Point, Alki
Point, Carkeek Park, and Richmond Beach could be detected for
intertidal fauna.
Studies of intertidal and subtidal algae were conducted by
Thom et al. (1977) at the same five beaches that were sampled
for macrofauna. Differences in community structure and growth
rates were detected among beaches. The total number of species
present was generally lower at the four beaches near sewage
discharges than at the Lincoln Park control beach. In the
subtidal communities, the kelp Nereocystis was more dense and
slower growing at West Point when compared with Lincoln Park.
Alternatively, Laminaria saccarina grew significantly faster at
West Point than at Lincoln Park. The authors noted that water
turbidity was considerably higher at West Point than at Lincoln
Park at the time of sampling.
Overall, the intertidal studies near West Point indicate
that water quality conditions were improving during 1971-1975
(Staude et al, 1977). If the West Point discharge is affecting
intertidal communities, the effects are manifested only as minor
changes in community structure and function.
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Documentation of effects of chlorination of sewage on
benthos in Puget Sound is lacking. The California Department of
Fish and Game (1981) discovered that Cancer magister treated
with relatively high dilutions of chlorine-treated sewage
displayed slower turnover (righting) responses than those
treated with untreated sewage, including less diluted untreated
sewage. Behavioral effects such as these may play a role in
minor changes in community structure around the West Point
outfall.
Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages near a combined sewer
overflow (CSO) in Elliott Bay were studied by Armstrong et al.
(1980) . Sampling areas at a depth of 9 m from directly offshore
to about 150 m northwest of the CSO had a modified benthic
community structure when compared with surrounding areas. The
effects of the CSO were manifested as enhanced abundances of
subsurface deposit feeders (primarily the polychaete, Capitella
capitata) and slightly lower species richness near the CSO.
Total volatile solids were enhanced near the CSO and were cor-
related with the biological effects. Sediment metal concen-
trations displayed no clear trends in the study area. Overall,
the effects of the CSO were found to be highly localized.
Studies of the effects of pulp and paper mill wastes on
benthic macroinvertebrates were conducted during the period
1964-1966 near Bellingham, Everett, and Port Angeles (FWPCA and
WSPCC 1967). Thick sludge deposits were observed near the mill
discharges at all three sites. The heaviest deposits were found
in the upper harbor areas with limited circulation. Total
volatile solids of the sediment in such areas exceeded
10-15 percent.
At all three sites the areas of sludge accumulation oc-
curred over much of the harbor area. At Bellingham and Everett,
the areas of greatest sludge accumulation were found to contain
no macrofaunal benthos. Areas of lesser sludge accumulation
were characterized by very low species richness and abundance.
Since the pulp mill surveys had study design limitations,
some of the data should be interpreted only in a semiquantita-
tive manner. Nevertheless, the studies were adequate to demon-
strate the severe effects of previous pulp mill discharge into
areas of limited circulation.
The benthic infauna of Everett Harbor and surrounding areas
were again sampled in 1973 (Malkoff 1976) . Sampling was con-
ducted along 11 transects extending from near the pulp mill
diffusers in Everett Harbor to an area about 4.5 km southwest of
the diffusers in Port Gardner. The data indicated that a slight
improvement in the numbers and kinds of infaunal organisms had
occurred since the 1967 sampling. There was also an indication
that total volatile solids in the sediments had decreased during
that period. Both taxon richness and number of individuals
increased with increasing distance from the pulp mill outfalls.
Infaunal communities near the discharges were limited mainly to
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the opportunistic polychaete Capitella capitata and nemerteans.
Near the outfalls, total numbers of individuals were less than
2,000 per m2, while densities in areas away from the discharges
were about 14,000 per ma.
Infaunal sampling was again conducted in Everett Harbor and
Port Gardner in 1974-1975 following a reduction in effluent
discharge from the pulp mills (Malkoff 1976) . However, no
conclusions were reached about the possible recovery of benthic
communities. In the 1974-1975 surveys, sampling was not
conducted in the immediate discharge vicinity, and different
sampling gear was used.
Pearson and Rosenberg (1978) have examined change in
benthos as a function of effects of paper mill waste on benthic
populations in Scotland. Rosenberg (1973) documented the change
in benthic community structure following closure of a paper
mill. Pearson (1975) studied in another location the benthic
community around a paper mill outfall for 10 years, beginning 3
years before discharge began. The changes in community struc-
ture at the two sites were remarkably mirrored. During their
analysis (Pearson and Rosenberg 1978) of the data, an effort was
made to determine whether early indications of stress could be
identified at the population or community level. Close scrutiny
indicated that the only significant indication of stress was the
increased abundance of "middle order" species, i.e., the neither
rare nor common species based on a log normal distribution
analysis. These studies are fairly unique in that they address
the potential recovery rate of the benthic community and suggest
a useful index of stress at the community level.
Malins et al. (1980, 1982a) sampled macroinvertebrate
infauna at various sampling sites in Puget Sound including
industrial and nonindustrial areas (see previous section on Fish
Ecology). Although the studies represent a comprehensive
sampling of infauna in many industrialized and nonindustrialized
areas of Puget Sound, they are of little value in assessing
cause-and-effeet relationships. The major limitations of the
studies are associated with:
o Combining samples from several depths which differ among
sampling sites.
o Taxonomic identification of only Infaunal Trophic Index
(ITI) taxa.
o Deletion of oligochaetes from sample identifications.
The reliance on ITI taxa in assessing the community-level
response of benthic infauna presents considerable interpretive
problems. The ITI list used by Malins et al. (1980, 1982a)
contains 48 taxa, consisting of 25 genera, 19 families, and
4 higher taxa. These taxa are unequally divided among four
feeding types (e.g., 17 taxa of suspension and surface detritus
feeders and 6 taxa of subsurface deposit feeders). Thus, by
only counting ITI taxa, an assemblage dominated by suspension
feeders may appear to have a higher taxon richness or diversity
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than an assemblage dominated by deposit feeders. Because of the
unequal allocation of ITI taxa to feeding groups, the community
parameters are biased, and the actual community structure may be
considerably different than indicated in the study results.
Deletion of oligochaetes from the sample analyses also results
in a considerable bias toward reduced abundance and taxon
richness, especially in lower saline depositional environments
(e.g., near the heads of inlets).
In an attempt to relate calculated infaunal community
variables to environmental variables, Malins et al. (1980,
1982a) conducted simple and multiple regression analyses. Most
toxic constituents were negatively correlated with the three
ITI-related variables (richness, abundance, and ITI); however,
individual correlation coefficients were relatively low (Malins
et al. 1980). Stepwise multiple regression analyses resulted in
the highest multiple coefficient of determination of 0.59 for
diversity when all variables were entered into the equation
(Malins et al. 1982a).
Because of the aforementioned study design limitations in
the infauna studies of Malins et al. (1980, 1982a), the predic-
tive value of the statistical relationships is extremely limit-
ed. The ITI can be useful in detecting pollutant-induced
effects; however, its use in examining effects of toxic pollu-
tants results in severe interpretive limitations.
A comprehensive study of the effects of dredged material
disposal on macrofaunal benthos was conducted at the Elliott Bay
dredged material disposal site (Bingham 1978). The study is
important from a cause-and-effeet perspective because it docu-
ments spatial response gradients relative to dredged material
deposition rates. In addition, the recovery of the benthos was
monitored for a period of 9 months after disposal.
Significant decreases in taxa number, diversity, abundance
and biomass were detected at the actual disposal mound and at
adjacent stations. Greatest effects were observed at the dis-
posal mound where deposition of dredged material exceeded 2 m in
depth. During the study period there was incomplete recovery of
the benthos at the center of the disposal area and adjacent
areas. For example, mean biomass near the disposal area center
was only about 33 percent of reference values 9 months after
disposal.
Stations at the corner of the disposal area (170 m from the
center) were covered by less than 0.5 m of dumped material.
These sites displayed only moderate effects relative to the
central area stations and had recovered completely within
3 months after disposal.
The only statistically significant difference observed by
Malins et al. (1982a) in a sediment recolonization experiment
was a lower taxon richness (presumably only ITI taxa) in local
sediment exposed in the Duwamish Waterway when compared with
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recolonization of reference sediment at that site. Although
these results are in correspondence with the findings of lower
overall taxon richness in the station group, including the
Duwamish Waterway, the exclusive analysis of ITI taxa limits the
interpretation of the results.
A study of the effects of water quality on the colonization
rates of artificial substrates is currently being conducted by
A. Schoener with support by NOAA (Long pers. comm.). Substrates
are exposed in situ at several industrialized areas (e.g.,
Commencement Bay Waterways) and at two reference areas. Prelim-
inary results indicate depressed colonization rates, based on
species number, after 12-months' exposure in the industrialized
waterways (Long 1982) .
The effects of experimental oiling and subsequent recovery
of benthic invertebrate communities was studied at four sites
near Sequim Bay and Discovery Bay on the Strait of Juan de Fuca
(Vanderhorst et al. 1980a). Experiments with Prudhoe Bay crude
oil were conducted for a period of 15 months in soft bottom and
hard bottom substrates. Overall, recovery time for oiled habi-
tats varied according to substrate type, tide level, and orga-
nism feeding type. The following times to full recovery were
estimated:
o Sand (1,758 ppm) - 31 months.
o Commercial clam bed (2,500 ppm) - 46 months.
o Experimental hard substrate (500 g/ma) - 3-13 months
(loss of oil).
Two species (Leptochelia dubia [a tanaid crustacean] and Exogone
lourei [a syllid polychaete])were identified as good indicators
of recovery from oil pollution effects in the Strait of Juan de
Fuca.
Toxicity Bioassays
A variety of bioassays have been performed using Puget
Sound benthic organisms. The available studies are summarized
in Table 7-2. Most of the studies have used sediment samples as
the exposure medium and have ranged from limited surveys of a
few contaminated areas to broad-scale surveys of many sites
throughout the Sound. Most of the studies have used mortality
as the response variable; however, recent and ongoing research
is also being conducted on sublethal responses (e.g., respira-
tion, motility, reproduction).
Several laboratory toxicity studies have been conducted to
determine effects of contaminated water or sediments on benthic
invertebrates in Puget Sound. Swartz et al. (1982) conducted
175 bioassays on Commencement Bay sediment samples using the
infaunal amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius. The studies were
conducted by exposing the test organism to a 2 cm layer of
sediment. Two major conclusions were reached:
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Table 7-2. A Summary of Sediment Bioassay Tests on
Puget Sound Organisms.
Test Species
Exposure Exposure Response
Method Time Variable
Location or
Source(s)
References
Rhepoxynius abronius
(Amphipoda)
sediment,
laboratory
240 h mortality,
moribundity
17 sites,
Puget Sound
Ott et al. (1982)
Rhepoxynius arbonius
(Amphipoda)
sediment, 240 h mortality
laboratory
175 samples,
Coirmencement Bay
Swartz et al. (1982)
Gasterosteus aculeatus
(Three spine stickleback)
Eogammarus convervicolus
Monopylephorus cuticulatus
(01 igochaeta)
water,
sediment/
water slurry
mortal ity
97 samples,
Puget Sound
Chapman et al. (1982)
Monopylephorus cuticulatus water,
(01 igochaeta)	elutriate
Fish cell culture
water/sedi-
ment extracts
respiration
anaphase
aberration
97 samples,
Puget Sound
97 samples,
Puget Sound
Chapman et al. (1982)
Chapman et al. (1982)
Acartia tonsa and
Tigriopus californicus
(Copepoda)
elutriate, 24 h mortality	Duwamish River
suspended	(2 sites)
particulate
Shuba et al. (1978)
Rangia cuneata
(Mollusca)
Palaemonetes pugeo
(Decapoda)
sediment 14 day mortality,	Duwamish River
bloaccumulation (2 sites)
Shuba et al. (1978)
Protothaca staminea
Macoma inquinata
(Mollusca)
Glycinde picta
(Polychaeta)
Rhepoxynius abronius
(Amphipoda)
Cumaceans (several spp.)
sediment 240 h mortality
Duwamish Waterway Swartz et al. (1979)
(3 sites), El 1iott
Bay (1 site), Puget
Sound (1 site)
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o Sediments from central Commencement Bay, including the
two designated disposal sites, were not acutely toxic.
o Areas of both high and low toxicity were detected in the
waterways and other nearshore areas of Commencement Bay.
There was a very high level of spatial heterogeneity in the
toxicity of waterway sediments. Samples resulting in 100
percent mortality were in some cases collected directly adjacent
to sites that resulted in negligible mortalities (i.e., not
different from controls). Within the waterways the highest
mortalities were generally associated with intertidal sediments,
while the lowest mortalities were associated with mid-channel
sediments.
The studies of Swartz et al. (1982) provide important
evidence for cause-and-effeet relationships since the distri-
bution of amphipods at the sediment sampling sites was deter-
mined. Amphipod distribution was correlated with the level of
sediment toxicity, and phoxocephalid amphipods (i.e., same
family as the bioassay test species) were absent from the
waterways.
In an earlier series of experiments, Swartz et al. (1979)
conducted similar sediment bioassays on five different test
groups: Protothaca staminea and Macoma inquinata (Bivalvia) ,
Glycinde picta (Polychaeta), Rhepoxynius abronius (Amphipoda) ,
and several cumacean species. Test sediment sources included
three sites in the Duwamish Waterway, and adjacent sites in
Elliott Bay and Puget Sound. Overall survivals (of all five
taxa) were significantly less than Yaquima Bay controls in all
but the Duwamish mouth sediments. There were considerable
interspecific differences in the sensitivities of test orga-
nisms. Glycinde picta and P. staminea were not significantly
affected by any of the test sediments. In contrast, R. abronius
experienced significantly higher mortalities at three of the
five sediment exposures relative to controls.
A comprehensive sediment bioassay program was conducted by
Chapman et al. (1982b) under sponsorship of NOAA. Sediment
samples were collected from 97 sites in Elliott Bay,
Commencement Bay, Sinclair Inlet, Port Madison, and Birch Bay.
Three types of bioassays were conducted: acute lethal
(stickleback, amphipod, and oligochaete), sublethal respiratory
(oligochaete), and anaphase aberration (fish chromosomes). The
test procedures differ from those of Swartz et al. (1982) since
test organisms are exposed to water and sediment slurries in the
acute bioassays.
In contrast to the study by Swartz et al. (1982) , the
results of acute bioassays conducted by Chapman et al. (1982b)
showed essentially no indication of lethal conditions at the
sites surveyed. The only acutely lethal response was observed
using sediments from a site near the Denny Way CSO. The
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difference in results may be due in part to methodological
differences and in part to differential sensitivities of test
species.
Sublethal bioassays conducted by Chapman et al. (1982b)
indicated potentially toxic conditions (respiratory or
cytogenic) at numerous sites. Forty of the 97 sediment samples
resulted in respiratory stress in oligochaetes, while only one
toxic response was observed in control areas.
Sediment extracts from many of the test locations caused
chromosomal damage in fish cells. Highest levels of
mutagenicity were detected at sites in outer Elliott Bay, Denny
Way CSO, inner Conutiencement Bay, and Blair and City Waterways.
There was only a 42 percent correspondence between cell toxicity
and anaphase aberration, indicating that two separate effects
may have occurred.
Based on combined test results (lethality, respiratory
toxicity, and mutagenicity), the areas of greatest toxic effects
are were ranked as follows:
o Denny Way CSO.
o City Waterway (Commencement Bay).
o Hylebos and Blair Waterways (Commencement Bay).
The authors also noted patchiness of toxic effects (in same
manner as Swartz et al. 1982) in sediments from Commencement Bay
and the waterways.
The primary limitation of the Chapman et al. (1982b) is the
lack of analyses of sediment contaminants. Thus, the bioassays
serve to identify areas with toxic sediments but do not provide
information on the causative agent(s). The sediment bioassay
program is currently entering into Phase II in which sediments
from 23 selected sites will be analyzed for contaminants and
used in the following bioassay series (Long pers. comm.):
o Capitella capitata (life cycle).
o Surf smelt egg and larvae,
o Oyster larvae,
o Pish cell toxicity.
A series of amphipod bioassays using sediment samples from
17 Puget Sound sites was conducted by Ott et al. (1982). Test
organisms were the infaunal amphipod species (R. abronius
[Phoxocephalidae]	and	Eohaustorius	washingtonianus
[Haustoriidae]). Organisms were exposed directly for 240 hours
to the sediments in a closed recirculating seawater system.
Sediments from four sites (one from Seattle Waterfront, two
from Duwamish Waterway, and one from Sinclair Inlet) caused
significantly lower survivals of R. abronius than the control
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station sediments. Similar to the observations of Swartz et al.
(1982), there was a spatial heterogeneity in the toxic response
within localized areas. For example, sediments from two sites
in the Duwamish Waterway did not result in significantly differ-
ent mortalities from control sediment, while sediment from two
other Duwamish sites caused significant mortalities. Interspe-
cific comparisons revealed that R. abronius is more sensitive to
toxic sediments than E. washingtonianus.
A series of in situ bioassay experiments was conducted by
Malins et al. (1982a) to determine the effects of organism expo-
sures at urban and nonurban (reference) areas. Juvenile crabs
(Cancer gracilis) and bivalve molluscs (Macoma spp., Tapes
phillippinarum and Protothaca staminea) were exposed in cages at
the Duwamish, Hylebos, and City Waterways, at the Seattle Water-
front, and at a reference area in Port Susan. Colonization of
defaunated (frozen) sediment cores was also examined at each of
the sites.
Crab survival after 8 weeks was lowest in the Duwamish
Waterway (25 percent), intermediate at the reference and City
Waterway sites, and highest at the Seattle Waterfront and
Hylebos Waterway sites (both 100 percent). In general, tubular
metaplasia of the hepatopancreas was the only observed signifi-
cant difference in the frequencies of histopathological abnor-
malities in surviving crabs from the Hylebos Waterway, City
Waterway, and Seattle Waterfront. A high survival rate was
observed in Macoma spp. exposed at all of the urban sites.
Malins et al. (1982b) tested effects of low (15-150 ppb)
waterborne hydrocarbons on a number of benthic invertebrates.
At these concentrations nudibranchs failed to locate mating
conspecifics and suffered impaired reproduction and embryo-
logical abnormalities. Shrimp overt feeding behavior and sea
urchin pedicellarial defensive responses were reduced by half.
Exposure to naphthylene (1-100 ppb) impaired fertilization and
embryonic development of mollusc larvae and survival of crusta-
cean larvae.
The primary result of the available bioassay information is
the identification of sites within Puget Sound that have suffi-
cient sediment contamination to cause a measurable response in
test organisms. The studies have been concentrated in industri-
alized areas of Puget Sound such as Commencement Bay, Elliott
Bay, and Sinclair Inlet. Highest sediment toxicities have been
observed in these areas, especially in associated waterways.
The available information also indicates that sediments from
areas away from industrial or municipal pollutant sources are
generally nontoxic to the species tested.
Bioaccumulation
Schell et al. (1977) measured trace metals in six species
of bivalve molluscs from seven central Puget Sound locations
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(West Point, Lincoln Park, Alki Point, Carkeek Park, Richmond
Beach, and Point No Point and Blake Island as background). The
organisms were collected from intertidal sites. Schell et al.
(1977) concluded that concentrations of several metals (e.g.,
lead, chromium, and zinc) were higher in mussels at the sites
near sewage outfalls than at background stations. However, it
should be noted that the sites near sewage outfalls (e.g., West
Point, Alki Point, and Carkeek Park) are also near metropolitan
Seattle where intertidal organisms are potentially exposed to a
variety of municipal and industrial sources of metals, Schell
et al. (1977) observed no detectable gradients in tissue concen-
trations of lead and mercury in intertidal algae, mussels, and
clams at the six stations from Lincoln Park to Richmond Beach.
A laboratory study of potential bioaccumulation of metals
in littleneck clams (Protothaca staminea) exposed to diluted
West Point sewage effluent was conducted by Stober et al.
(1977). Organisms were exposed for a period of 8 weeks under
continuous flow conditions. Although tissue concentrations of
copper and zinc were higher in organisms exposed to 10 percent
effluent by volume, the increases were not statistically signif-
icant. Mean whole-body copper concentrations were approximately
two times higher in clams exposed to diluted effluent than in
control clams.
Past discharges from a chloralkali plant located on
Bellingham Bay have resulted in considerable contamination of
sediments and invertebrate organisms (Bothner and Piper 1973;
Rasmussen and Williams 1975). Intertidal biota (e.g., Mytilus
edulis and Hemigrapsus spp.) had mean mercury concentrations for
a variety of tissues ranging from 0.04 to 0.30 mg/wet kg.
Tissue concentrations of mercury in intertidal organisms from
Bellingham Bay were about an order of magnitude higher than
those from nearby Birch Bay. Mercury in muscle tissue of
Dungeness crabs was about 4.5 times higher in Bellingham Bay
(0.23 mg/wet kg) than in Samish Bay (Rassmussen and Williams
1975) . Roesijadi et al. (1981) sampled mussels in Bellingham
Bay following a period of reduced mercury discharges from the
chloralkali plant. In 1978, tissue concentrations in mussels
from near the plant discharge were about 14 percent and 28 per-
cent of the values reported for 1970 and 1973, respectively.
However, mercury concentrations in Bellingham Bay mussels remain
about three times higher than those for mussels occurring in
uncontaminated areas of Puget Sound.
Gahler et al. (1982) compared muscle tissue concentrations
of metals in Dungeness crabs from Commencement Bay (Hylebos and
City Waterways) and Discovery Bay. Copper and lead concen-
trations were higher in the Commencement Bay waterway samples;
however, other metals were measured at similar concentrations
(e.g., mercury, zinc, and cadmium) or were higher at the Discov-
ery Bay reference site (e.g., arsenic and nickel).
As part of a Class II survey of the ASARCO copper refinery
(WDOE 1979), intertidal mussels (M. edulis) were sampled near
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the discharges and analyzed for concentrations of lead, copper,
zinc, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and arsenic. Although the
survey indicated that mussels near the refinery discharges may
be accumulating considerable levels of some metals (e.g., copper
and zinc), the results are somewhat anomalous. Arsenic concen-
trations ranged from 1.4-7.2 mg/wet kg (depending upon sampling
station and analytical laboratory) in mussels from near the
refinery. In a survey of 22 stations in Southern Puget Sound,
Price (1977) reports a medium arsenic concentration of 7.2
mg/wet kg. Olson and Shell (1977) report a mean control value
of about 0.6 mg/wet kg for mussels in Puget Sound. Thus,
although there is a relatively high discharge of arsenic at the
refinery, the actual bioaccumulation potential is not clear from
available data.
Arsenic concentrations in invertebrate organisms from near
the ASARCO smelter and from distant Puget Sound sites were
analyzed by Crecelius (1974) . Test organisms included several
species each of starfish, crabs, and shrimp. Abnormally high
concentrations of arsenic (reading 227 mg/dry kg in hermit
crabs) were detected in crustaceans living on the smelter slag
pile. However, these data must be interpreted with caution
since whole organisms were analyzed and the arsenic may have
been ingested or adsorbed rather than bioaccumulated. Analyses
of mussel (M. edulis) tissue revealed that arsenic concen-
trations near the smelter were similar to those at distant sites
(6-14 mg/dry kg).
Two studies have been conducted on the bioaccumulation of
metals and PCBs following dredge material disposal in Elliott
Bay. Teeny and Hall (1977) examined the uptake of mercury and
chromium, and Stout and Lewis (1977) evaluated bioaccumulation
of PCBs from the contaminated sediment. Pink shrimp (Pandalus
borealis) were sampled at the disposal site and at a reference
site. Mussels (Mytilus edulis), sea cucumbers (Parastichopus
californicus), and spot shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) were
exposed in mesh cages at the disposal site. Exposure of caged
organisms for up to 3 weeks and collection of indigenous orga-
nisms at periods up to 39 weeks after disposal revealed no
uptake of mercury, chromium, or PCBs. It should be noted,
however, that organisms used in the cage experiments already
contained substantial levels of PCBs because of existing con-
tamination in the Duwamish Waterway and Elliott Bay.
Clams (Rangia cuneata) and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes
pugeo) were found to bioaccumulate PCBs when exposed to Duwamish
River sediment slurries of from 0.5-5 percent for a period of
14 days (Shuba et al. 1978) . After the exposure to 5 percent
sediment slurries, tissue PCB concentrations of both species
were approximately equal to the sediment concentrations
(0.38-0.66 ppm) . Lead and zinc were the only metals bio-
accumulated during the test period.
Mowrer et al. (1977) analyzed PCB concentrations in mussel
tissue and sediments at 18 sites in Southern Puget Sound.
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Highest tissue concentrations were measured in samples from the
industrialized areas near Seattle, Tacoma, and Bremerton. In
general, highest mussel tissue concentrations of PCBs were
observed in areas of high sediment concentrations. The sedi-
ment-tissue relationship is not absolute, however, and some
sites (e.g., Magnolia) with relatively low sediment PCB concen-
trations had high mussel tissue concentrations. Alternatively,
a station in Sinclair Inlet had elevated sediment concentrations
on PCBs but a relatively low concentration in mussels.
Comparison of crabs (juvenile Cancer gracilis) and clams
(Macoma spp., Tapes phillippinarum, Protothaca stammea) exposed
in the Hylebos Waterway with reference organisms indicates that
several groups of organic compounds were bioaccumulated (Malins
et al. 1982a). After a 10-week exposure in the Hylebos Water-
way, the clams accumulated relatively high levels of PCBs (1.8
mg/dry kg) compared to reference samples (0.06 mg/dry kg). The
concentration of total aromatic hydrocarbons in the Hylebos-
exposed clams was 15 mg/dry kg compared to a reference concen-
tration of 0.97 mg/dry kg.
PCB levels in Dungeness crabs were considerably elevated in
the industrialized waterways of Commencement Bay (0.06
mg/wet kg) when compared with Discovery Bay samples
(<0.01 mg/wet kg) (Gahler et al. 1982). Tissue PCB concen-
trations in waterway crabs were well below the FDA Action Level
of 5 mg/wet kg. DDE was detected at low concentrations
(0.002-0.005 mg/wet kg) in Commencement Bay and Discovery Bay
crabs.
Pathology
Malins et al. (1982a) studied pathological conditions in
shrimp (Crangon alaskensis and Pandalus spp.) and crabs (Cancer
spp.) collected from the sampling sites identified in the
section on Fish Ecology. A variety of histopathological lesions
and parasitic infections were identified; however, the abnor-
malities were considered to be idiopathic. Necrotic and nodular
lesions had relatively high prevalences (in some cases 30-80
percent) in shrimp and crabs collected from urban areas (e.g.,
Commencement Bay Waterways, Duwamish Waterway, and Elliott Bay).
The prevalences of these lesions were generally lower in orga-
nisms collected from nonindustrialized areas. Although the
results suggest that adverse water quality conditions may be
causing diseases in invertebrate species (including species of
recreational or commercial importance), the study should not be
considered definitive. The major limitation is in the low
numbers of organisms examined, which precludes meaningful
statistical analyses of the data.
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Plankton
Ecology
There have been relatively few investigations of the
effects of pollution on the ecology of Puget Sound plankton.
Due to their transient nature and their extremely pronounced
seasonal variations in both abundance and species composition,
it is much more difficult to define resident populations, and
therefore much more difficult to follow changes in those popu-
lations which might be correlated with the effects of known
pollutants. The most extensive studies to date have examined
possible effects of the discharge of municipal sewage on the
ecology of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. These
studies have included measurements of phytoplankton productivity
in the vicinity of the largest sewage discharge on Puget Sound
(West Point), analyses of the distribution of ichthyoplankton in
the vicinity of West Point, and very limited studies of phyto-
plankton and zooplankton community composition in the vicinity
of three of Tacoma's municipal sewage discharges. Limited
studies have been conducted of the possible effects of pulp and
paper mill discharges on both phytoplankton and zooplankton
community composition, as well as on phytoplankton productivity.
In Liberty Bay, a study was made of possible effects of the
discharge of metal plating wastes and other wastes from the
Keyport Navy Torpedo Station on phytoplankton populations within
the bay. Another limited study has been conducted on the
effects of the disposal of dredge spoils in the south Sound on
phytoplankton productivity.
Metro has sponsored several studies (Anderson 1976;
Campbell et al. 1977? Ebbesmeyer aijd Helseth 1977) whose aim was
to assess possible effects of the West Point sewage effluent
discharge on the level of phytoplankton standing stock and
primary productivity in the Central Basin. None of these
studies dealt with possible changes in phytoplankton community
composition.
The University of Washington researchers (Anderson 1976?
Campbell et al. 1977) concentrated on the analysis of phyto-
plankton standing stock (as chlorophyll a concentration) and
primary productivity (measured by simulated in situ incubation)
at a station approximately 2.4 km (1.5 milesT"north of the West
Point outfall. Conditions at this station are believed to be
representative of conditions over large areas of the open waters
of the Central Basin. The periods of observation included
intensive sampling during the spring bloom periods of 1966,
1967, and 19 75, Since the West Point discharge was initiated in
November 1966, the intent of these studies was to assess whether
there were any changes in phytoplankton standing stock and
primary productivity after discharge of sewage effluent began.
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A discriminant analysis applied to these data indicated
that the years 1966 and 1967 could scarcely be distinguished,
but that both were clearly distinguished from 197 5. The year
197 5 differed from 1966 and 1957 by having lower chlorophyll a
concentrations and higher specific productivity. However, since
nutrients are only very rarely limiting in Puget Sound, and even
then for only very brief periods, differences between years in
standing stock or productivity are not likely to reflect
enrichment effects of sewage discharge. It is also difficult to
interpret the meaning of a difference among years when only 3
years of data are analyzed. A significant difference could be
attributed to natural year-to-year variation as easily as point-
ing to sewage effluents as the causal factor.
Ebbesmeyer and Helseth (1977) had a more comprehensive data
set available to them (e.g., measurements of algal biomass and
primary productivity at five stations between Elliott Bay and
Point Jefferson, at either weekly or monthly intervals between
1966-1975) . They were thus able to examine both spatial and
temporal variations in biomass and productivity. They reported
that there was a slight (although statistically insignificant)
northward increase in both algal biomass and productivity from
Elliott Bay to Point Jefferson. Although they interpreted this
slight increase to be a result of the estuarine circulation
pattern, it could also be associated with sewage inputs from
West Point since the net circulation in the surface layer is
northward. Ebbesmeyer and Helseth (1977) found no significant
difference in the yearly variations of mean integrated primary
productivity, but once again, annual means may obscure possible
seasonal (or shorter term) differences attributable to sewage
inputs. The available data suggest that the West Point dis-
charge may be responsible for a slight increase (15-20 percent)
in the extreme levels of integrated primary productivity in an
area extending about 6.4-8 km (4-5 miles) north and south of the
outfall. It should be emphasized that this possible increase is
only in the extreme values; the data are inadequate for quanti-
tative assessment of the contribution of the effluent's nutri-
ents to the overall level of productivity throughout the Central
Basin, Comparison of annual production figures for the pre- and
post-discharge periods, however, reveals no major stimulation of
algal growth for the main basin.
The analyses of Anderson (1976), Campbell et al. (1977),
and Ebbesmeyer and Helseth (1977) assume that the primary effect
of the West Point effluent on Puget Sound phytoplankton would be
the stimulation of growth through nutrient addition; inhibition
of primary production through the introduction of potentially-
toxic chemical contaminants (which would tend to cancel out the
former effect) has apparently not been considered. There are no
data available to estimate the importance of such an effect.
While the West Point discharge is the largest existing
municipal sewage discharge to Puget Sound, it would be of inter-
est to examine the possible stimulation of phytoplankton primary
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productivity by other smaller Puget Sound discharges, especially
those with semi-enclosed, poorly flushing receiving waters.
Unfortunately, studies of primary productivity in the vicinity
of other municipal sewage discharges on Puget Sound have not
been conducted. It would also be of interest to know what
effect sewage discharges to Puget Sound may have on phyto-
plankton community composition. The only collections of phyto-
plankton for taxonomic analysis which have been conducted in the
vicinity of municipal sewage discharges on Puget Sound were for
three Tacoma discharges (Central, North End, Western Slopes).
Unfortunately, the resulting data are so limited that virtually
nothing can be concluded regarding possible effects of these
discharges on phytoplankton community composition. Hence, there
is no definitive information available on the possible effects
of any municipal sewage discharge on Puget Sound phytoplankton
community composition.
Metro sponsored two sampling programs (English 1976a;
English and Thorne 1977) designed to assess possible impacts of
the West Point discharge on zooplankton communities of the
Central Basin. These included the analysis of ichthyoplankton
caught in nets and acoustic observations of zooplankton concen-
trations in the immediate vicinity of the effluent plume. There
was no analysis of zooplankton other than ichthyoplankton col-
lected in the net samples. The first sampling program included
the collection of samples at tri-weekly intervals over a
10-month period throughout the Central Basin, to identify
patterns of seasonal and geographical distributions in the
abundance of fish eggs and larvae. Fish eggs and larvae were
also collected during the second sampling program, but in a
smaller area from about 9.25 km (5.0 rani) north of the West
Point outfall to 12 km (6.5 nmi) south of the outfall. The
sampling frequency was approximately monthly over a 13-month
period. Acoustic observations were also made of zooplankton
aggregations in the vicinity of the West Point effluent plume to
determine whether there was any avoidance of the plume by these
organisms.
The sampling programs of English (1976a) and English and
Thorne (1977) are actually of very limited utility in attempting
to analyze possible effects of the West Point discharge on
either ichthyoplankton or zooplankton. Reasons for this conclu-
sion include inadequate sampling in the immediate vicinity of
the West Point outfall, failure to identify fish eggs beyond the
generic level, lack of replicate samples (thus precluding
rigorous statistical analysis of the data), and failure to
identify zooplankton other than ichthyoplankton. The only
statements that can be made regarding the impact of the West
Point discharge on the ichthyoplankton community are that,
qualitatively speaking, patterns of seasonal abundance of fish
eggs in a broad area surrounding the West Point outfall did not
appear markedly different from those in the Central Basin as a
whole, and that acoustic observations did not suggest a large
disturbance of organisms by the effluent plume. The organisms
responsible for sonic scattering in the vicinity of the West
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Point plume were not identified, however, and the statistical
significance of either observation is unknown.
The only other sampling of zooplankton in the vicinity of
municipal sewage discharges on Puget Sound was the collection of
zooplankton near the three Tacoma discharges mentioned earlier.
Unfortunately, as in the case of the phytoplankton sampling
programs at these locations, the resulting data are so limited
that virtually nothing can be concluded regarding possible
effects of these discharges on zooplankton community composi-
tion. Hence, there is no definitive information available on
the possible effects of any municipal sewage discharge to Puget
Sound on the ecology of the zooplankton community.
FWPCA and WSPCC (1967) reported on the investigation of
possible effects of the discharge of pulp and paper mill wastes
on phytoplankton and zooplankton in Bellingham Bay and in Port
Gardner (Everett). Sampling was conducted in each area at 4- to
8-week intervals over a 1-year period in 1964-1965. Ten
stations were occupied in Bellingham Bay, while five stations
were occupied in Port Gardner. At each station, zooplankton
were collected in horizontal net tows, and phytoplankton were
collected in water bottles. Preserved samples were analyzed for
species composition of each community. Copepods were identified
to species, other zooplankton were identified to broader taxo-
nomic groups. Phytoplankton were only identified to genera.
Other analyses included the measurement of chlorophyll concen-
trations to estimate phytoplankton biomass, and the measurement
of simulated in situ primary productivity.
Despite the collection of samples during 10 cruises over a
1-year period, the data were averaged over these cruises for
each station, and discussion of the data by FWPCA and WSPCC
(1967) is limited to differences among stations in these annual
mean values. This is a relatively insensitive method of analyz-
ing these data; it may not be capable of detecting effects which
are only apparent at one time of the year. Not surprisingly, it
was reported that in each area there were no significant differ-
ences among stations in any of the following values:
chlorophyll a concentration, phytoplankton concentration, number
of phytoplankton taxa, zooplankton concentration, number of
zooplankton taxa, and the percentage of adults making up the
zooplankton. Furthermore, there was general agreement among
stations in the dominant organisms in both the phytoplankton and
zooplankton communities. The authors concluded that the struc-
ture of the plankton community was essentially the same through-
out each study area.
The only significant difference observed among the stations
in each study area.was in the rate of primary productivity. In
Bellingham Bay, the mean productivity was significantly lower at
two stations than at any of the remaining eight, while in Port
Gardner the mean productivity was significantly lower at one
station than at any of the remaining four. In each area, the
stations with these depressed productivity values were those
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with the highest concentrations of sulfite waste liquor (SWL).
Further analyses of the data revealed that depression of phyto-
plankton productivity apparently occurred at concentrations of
SWL greater than 50 ppm, a value which was often exceeded in the
northeastern quarter of Bellingham Bay and in the inner harbor
at Everett. While a definite cause-and-effect relationship was
not demonstrated between SWL and depressions in phytoplankton
productivity, it did appear that the discharge of pulp and paper
mill wastes in each area was adversely affecting the productiv-
ity of the phytoplankton community.
In a study of the possible effects of the discharge of
metal plating wastes and other wastes from Keyport Navy Torpedo
Station on the biological communities of Liberty Bay, Cummins et
al. (1976) examined the abundance and species composition of
phytoplankton at four locations. A dense phytoplankton bloom
composed primarily of dinoflagellates (Prorocentrum gracile and
Gymnodinium splendens) was found in the surface waters near the
center of the bay. This bloom was attributed to the supply of
nutrients entering the bay from Port Orchard and the slow
flushing of the bay. It was deemed possible that the decomposi-
tion of the algal biomass produced during the spring
phytoplankton bloom was primarily responsible for elevated
ammonia concentrations which may have further stimulated phyto-
plankton growth. Cummins et al. (1976) also indicated, however,
that ammonia and organic matter discharged to the bay by local
sewage treatment plants "should also be considered as potential-
ly important sources capable of supporting localized algal
blooms." Their study did not attempt to assess the relative
magnitude of the various nitrogen sources.
Chlorine is used as a disinfectant in municipal sewage and
to prevent slime build-up in cooling water systems. Chlorine
has been shown to inhibit photosynthesis by phytoplankton.
Although no research has been conducted in Puget Sound, data
collected elsewhere (Eppley et al. 1976) would indicate that
inhibition of photosynthesis by chlorine is likely to occur in
nearfield plumes from cooling water discharges.
Westley et al. (1975) analyzed both phytoplankton abundance
(as chlorophyll a concentrations) and productivity (in situ
measurements) in the vicinity of both the barge and pTpeline
disposal of dredge spoils from Olympia Harbor in order to ascer-
tain whether such disposal operations had any adverse effects on
phytoplankton. They did not, however, analyze the species
composition of the phytoplankton community. The sediments of
Olympia Harbor, although having a relatively high volatile
solids content, had been judged to have only a moderate to low
relative toxicity. Natural changes in phytoplankton abundance
and productivity at the site of the barge disposal of dredge
spoils masked any minor changes which might have been attributed
to effects of the barge disposal operations. The pipeline
dredging operation appeared to stimulate phytoplankton growth
since both phytoplankton abundance and productivity were found
to be higher in the most turbid part of the spoil plume than in
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adjacent clear water areas. Such an effect might be attributed
to the increased availability of nutrients to the phytoplankton,
caused by the suspension of sediments high in organic content.
Extrapolation from these results to other situations where
dredge spoils are disposed of may not be appropriate if the
character of the sediments is markedly different. Chemically-
contaminated sediments (e.g., those from portions of the
Duwamish River or from the Commencement Bay Waterways) might
have very different effects than did these relatively innocuous
sediments from Olympia Harbor.
Toxicity Bioassays
Plankton have been used in several ways to assess adverse
effects of chemical contaminants in Puget Sound. The most
extensive uses of plankton for this purpose have been bioassays
utilizing the meroplanktonic larvae of the Pacific oyster
(Crassostrea gigas). Similar studies have occurred on the
Atlantic coast (Calabrese et al. 1973). Limited use has also
been made of phytoplankton and zooplankton in bioassays to test
for adverse effects of PCBs on these organisms, which are
important components of Puget Sound communities.
Development of the bioassay techniques using the Pacific
oyster has taken place for over 20 years, primarily by WDF. The
bioassay was designed to provide a statistically-validated
biological measure which could be readily applied to the problem
of assessing the water quality of receiving waters subjected to
a broad variety of pollutant inputs. The early development of
this bioassay is reviewed by Woelke (1972), who also describes
the procedures in considerable detail. Briefly, the bioassay
involves innoculating a sample of the receiving water to be
tested with a large number of newly-fertilized embryos of the
Pacific oyster, holding this sample in a water bath at constant
temperature for 48 hours, and allowing the embryos to develop
into fully-shelled veligers. After this time, a subsample is
preserved with formalin and examined under a microscope to
assess the numbers of completely shelled (normal) and incom-
pletely shelled (abnormal) larvae. Using a broad variety of
pollutants, it has been shown that the percent of the larvae
developing abnormally is a valid measure of the toxicity of the
water sample containing the pollutant in question.
Extensive testing has shown that abnormal development of
the oyster larvae occurs in response to a wide variety of
chemical contaminants, and that for most of the contaminants
tested, the oyster larvae are either as sensitive or more
sensitive than other organisms used in bioassays. It has been
shown (Woelke 1972) that, in general, the level of physical or
chemical stress that causes an increase in the percent of
abnormal development of the oyster larvae will also have an
adverse effect on other stages of the oyster's life, on the
larvae and older stages of other bivalves, and, in many cases,
on fish, crustaceans, sea urchins, algae, and other forms of
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marine life. It has also been shown (Woelke 1972) that, in
general, levels of physical or chemical stress having little
effect on the oyster larvae will not be toxic to other species
of marine life (although there are important exceptions, notably
some pesticides and insecticides) . It is felt that the oyster
larvae bioassay provides an important method for assessing
compliance with water quality standards in addition to the more
conventional parameters (e.g., temperature, pH, dissolved
oxygen, etc.).
While the use of the receiving water bioassay with oyster
larvae to characterize pollution in situ is analogous to
live-box studies using other organisms (e.g., salmon fry; see
the section on fish toxicity bioassays), it differs from the
live-box studies in its ability to test hundreds of discrete
samples at one time using thousands of test specimens while
requiring only a small volume of sample. The oyster larvae
bioassay also bridges a void in relating purely laboratory
studies to the effects of pollutants in situ (Cardwell et al.
1979a). It measures the response of a critical life stage to
toxicants which have undergone the complex interactions and
changes in chemical form accompanying their introduction into
seawater.
One important refinement of the oyster larvae bioassay was
the addition of an assessment of percent survival to the afore-
mentioned assessment of the percent abnormal development.
Cardwell et al. (1979a) compared the response of Pacific oyster
larvae to several toxicants to the responses of other organisms
(e.g., the larvae of other bivalves, Pacific herring [Clupea
harengus], Dungeness crab [Cancer magister], and spot shrimp
[Pandalus platyceros]). Cardwell et al. (T579a) concluded that
pollutant concentrations not causing acute effects on bivalve
larvae should offer protection to other forms of marine life,
but because in a few cases the oyster larvae were not as sensi-
tive as the other species, the lack of acute effects on oyster
larvae cannot be concluded to be unequivocal evidence of
nontoxicity for marine life in general.
Cardwell et al. (1976) discussed the use of the oyster
larvae receiving water bioassay for assessing the efficiency of
pollution abatement procedures instituted at sulfite pulp mills
in Port Angeles and Everett, and at an aluminum smelter and an
oil refinery in Perndale. Reductions in the BOD loading by pulp
mills in both areas were associated with dramatic decreases in
receiving water toxicity to oyster larvae. At Port Angeles, the
receiving water toxicity was apparently nearly eliminated, while
at Everett the area of receiving water causing at least 50 per-
cent abnormal larval development decreased from more than 50 kma
prior to wastewater treatment to 1 km* after an aggregate reduc-
tion of BOD loading of 67 percent. Cardwell et al. (1979a)
cautioned, however, that results near Everett suggest that
improvements in the water treatment processes may not always
result in reductions in receiving water toxicity to oyster
larvae. Near Perndale, initial attempts to remove the fluorides
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and particulates from the process effluent of the aluminum
smelter by precipitation with polyelectrolytes was shown to be
of limited merit for reducing either total effluent loading of
these substances or receiving water toxicity to oyster larvae.
Subsequent neutralization of the highly acid effluent and
recovery of the contaminants by filtering stack emissions
through felt bags not only reduced effluent loading substantial-
ly, but also ameliorated both effluent and receiving water
toxicity to oyster larvae. Although the oil refinery was found
to have only a limited effect on receiving water toxicity, the
installation of additional secondary waste treatment facilities
appeared to mitigate this effect. While reductions in receiving
water toxicity are clearly associated with reductions in waste
loading, attempts to establish a causal relationship between
these events were inconclusive (Cardwell et al. 1979a).
In addition to the investigation of water quality in the
vicinity of pulp mills, an aluminum smelter, and an oil refin-
ery, oyster larvae bioassays have been used in a variety of
other ways to investigate problems with the quality of the
receiving water environment in various locations around Puget
Sound. It is not necessary here to describe all of these uses
of the oyster larvae bioassays, but a few representative uses
will be discussed briefly to demonstrate the adaptability of
these procedures.
Westley et al. (1975) utilized oyster larvae bioassays as
one method of assessing the environmental impact of dredging and
dredge spoil disposal operations in Southern Puget Sound. Some
problems were encountered in applying the oyster larvae bioassay
to an investigation of the effects of the actual clamshell and
pipeline dredging operations in the vicinity of Olympia Harbor
and Budd Inlet. Even before the start of the dredging, high
mortalities of the larvae occurred, and this condition persisted
throughout the dredging operation. It became apparent that
unknown properties of the water in this area were inimical to
Pacific oyster embryos, and that in the presence of such high
mortalities, it was impossible to detect adverse effects of the
dredging operations. The oyster larvae bioassay was applied
successfully to an assessment of the effects of the barge
dumping of dredge spoils in Dana Passage, where little mortality
or abnormal development was detected, suggesting that this
method of dredge spoil disposal is not harmful to the developing
oyster larvae.
Cardwell et al. (1979b) used the oyster larvae bioassays to
investigate the problem of persistent and recurrent toxicity of
the waters of Southern Puget Sound to adult oysters. The bio-
assays were used to assess the toxicity of the receiving waters,
of the effluent from sewage treatment plants, of laboratory
cultures of dinoflagellates, and of alterations in the salinity
and ammonia content of the water. The results clearly implicate
blooms of the dinoflagellates Ceratium fusus and Gymnodinium
splendens as the causes of the observed mortalities ol the
Pacific oyster larvae in these bioassays. It is therefore
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assumed that blooms of these dinoflagellates, known to occur in
Southern Puget Sound, are responsible for the mass mortalities
of adult Pacific oysters, and that they may contribute to the
reduced reproductive success and viability of the native Olympia
oyster.
In an investigation of possible causes of mortalities of
Pacific oyster embryos and larvae at a hatchery on Liberty Bay,
Curantins et al. {1976) made use of the oyster larvae bioassay
techniques to assess the toxicity of the receiving waters of
Liberty Bay, of the bay's sediments, and of the effluent from
several local sewage treatment plants. Survival of the oyster
larvae was relatively high and the percent abnormal development
of the larvae was relatively low in the water samples from all
stations in the bay except in those from the vicinity of a dense
algal bloom. This algal bloom was composed primarily of the
dinoflagellates Prorocentrum qracile and Gymnodinium splendens.
The adverse effects of theLibertyBay sediments on the oyster
larvae were demonstrated to be relatively minor, suggesting that
these sediments were not contaminated with acutely toxic sub-
stances. The concentration of sewage treatment plant effluent
resulting in 50 percent mortality of oyster larvae was estimated
to range between 25 and >200 ml/1 for the three plants tested,
while the concentration of effluent resulting in 50 percent
larval abnormality was estimated to range between 20-140 ml/1.
Crude estimates of the effluent dilution to be expected from
each of these discharges suggest that only the effluent from the
Poulsbo sewage treatment plant could have been responsible for
the observed mortalities at the hatchery site, although even
this determination is subject to some uncertainty. Cummins et
al. (1976) concluded that the most likely cause of the observed
oyster larvae mortalities at the hatchery was the presence of
high concentrations of dinoflagellates in the waters of Liberty
Bay. The fact that one of the abundant dinof 1 age Hates, Gymno-
dinium splendens, was the same species implicated in the mortal-
ities of adult and larval oysters in Southern Puget Sound
(Cardwell et al. 1979b) lends credence to this conclusion.
Pavlou and Dexter <13771 utilized a variety of laboratory
experiments to assess both toxic and sublethal effects of PCBs
on representative phytoplankton and zooplankton species from
Puget Sound. Two basic types of stress response functions were
measured for phytoplankton (two species of diatoms): 1) al-
terations in growth characteristics (measured by monitoring cell
density or biomass density), and 2) changes in the activity of
specific enzymatic or metabolic systems (processes measured
included nutrient uptake, electron transport system JETS}
activity, and glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH] activity). These
studies were performed in both static reactors (batch cultures)
and continuous flow systems (chemostats). For zooplankton (one
species of copepod) , the respiration rate was measured to
establish toxicity threshold values, and observations were made
of both dead and moribund individuals.
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Pavlou and Dexter*s (1977) results are in general agreement
with established literature data on the effects of PCBs on
plankton. An acute toxicity threshold of approximately 10 ppb
was found for both phytoplankton and zooplankton, with more
subtle effects on phytoplankton nutrient uptake and GDH activity
occurring at an order of magnitude lower concentrations. These
concentrations were then compared with ambient levels of PCBs
measured in Puget Sound. Even for the most toxic compound, the
environmental levels were approximately two orders of magnitude
below the toxicity thresholds. They caution, however, that the
ambiguity of the available data does not justify establishing an
absolute "safe" level for these compounds. Since the toxicity
thresholds are above the solubility of these compounds, ad-
sorption may take place on the surface of these organisms, thus
resulting in greater exposure than would be predicted by equi-
librium partitioning. Additional problems in extrapolating
these laboratory data to the field include the failure to
consider possible synergistic effects of other natural or
anthropogenic stresses, and the different sensitivity of other
phytoplankton and/or zooplankton species. Finally, although the
results of this and other studies are often given in terms of
"total PCBs", the toxicity may be due to only one or a few
components of that mixture, and thus the threshold concen-
trations of that component may be lower than that of the total
mixture.
Rosenthal and Alderdice (1976) reviewed the literature on
the sublethal effects of pollutants on marine fish eggs and
larvae. The presence of some heavy metals or other pollutants
blocked fertilization or embryonic and larval development.
Longwell (1977) found similar effects in the presence of oil.
Sindermann (1979) noted that experimental exposure to sulfuric
acid and to certain algicides found in pulp mill effluent
resulted in abnormal embryos and larvae of Atlantic herring.
During his review, Sindermann (1979) also noted that a number of
heavy metals, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
have been shown to be mutagenic or toxic in fish gametes,
embryos, larvae, and juveniles, e.g., fish eggs in 1 ppm cadmium
produced few larvae.
Sublethal effects of certain insecticides have been noted
for mysid shrimp. Nimmo et al. (1981) found that dimilin (a
benzoylphenyl urea) and EPN (an organophosphate) adversely
affect reproductive success of a mysid. Dimilin showed a
gradual effect with dose, whereas EPN showed a strong threshold
effect with dose. Two organophosphate insecticides (methyl
parathion and phorate) adversely impacted mysid swimming speed
after 96 hours of exposure. Threshold effect concentrations
were low (0.31-0.58 ppb and 0.078-0.18 ppb, respectively).
Effect and no effect concentrations were very similar to those
observed in 28-day life cycle tests.
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Bioaccumulation
Relative to other biotic groups, there have been relatively
few attempts to examine the bioaccumulation of chemical contami-
nants in the plankton of Puget Sound. Limited analyses have
been conducted of the concentrations of certain trace metals in
zooplankton collected from a number of locations in the Sound,
but there are no data available on the concentrations of trace
metals in phytoplankton. Similarly, there have been only a very
limited number of analyses of PCBs in the zooplankton of the
Sound, and none which examined the concentrations of PCBs in
phytoplankton. No studies could be located which examined the
concentrations of organic contaminants other than PCBs in Puget
Sound plankton.
Schell et al. (1976, 1977) analyzed trace metal concen-
trations in zooplankton collected in net hauls at various loca-
tions throughout Puget Sound. There is no indication that any
effort was made to separate zooplankton from all other particu-
late matter, however, so the reported metal concentrations may
represent the concentrations in the total particulate matter
retained by the net. Sampling was initially conducted in
September 1974 between Shilshole Bay and Carkeek Park as well as
off West Point. These samples were analyzed for the concen-
trations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. Sampling
was conducted in March 1975 at four locations (near West Point,
Alki Point, Point No Point, and the 4-mile dump site off
Magnolia), and in July 1975 in Hood Canal. West Point, Alki
Point, and Carkeek Park all represent areas with sewage out-
falls; the 4-mile dump site represents the site where dredged
sediments from the Duwamish River are dumped. The samples
collected at Point No Point and in Hood Canal were intended to
serve as background stations. The 1975 samples were analyzed
for the concentrations of antimony, cadmium, chromium, cobalt,
copper, lead, selenium, and zinc.
With the exceptions of cadmium and selenium, the highest
concentrations of all of the metals analyzed by Schell et al.
(1976, 1977) were found in the plankton samples collected in the
vicinity of the 4-mile dump site. While Schell et al. (1976)
indicated that there were "no significant differences" in the
concentrations of cadmium, chromium, and selenium at Point No
Point and 4-mile dump site, there is no indication that repli-
cate samples were taken and no discussion of statistical tests
being applied to the data. Hence, this conclusion is subject to
some uncertainty. Among the remaining metals, there were rather
large differences between the concentrations observed in
plankton at the 4-mile dump site and those at Point No Point
(antimony, 50.2 vs. 0.33 ppm dry weight; cobalt, 1.72 vs. 0.63
ppm dry weight; copper, 189.8 vs. 57.1 ppm dry weight? lead
[reported by Schell et al. 1976 as 589.6 ppm dry weight, but by
Schell et al. 1977 as 885.6 ppm dry weight] vs. 17.8 ppm dry
weight? and zinc, 331 vs. 95.2 ppm dry weight) . Schell et al.
(1976, 1977) speculate that these high metal concentrations in
the plankton near this dump site may be due either to parti-
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culate matter contaminated with metals adhering to the plankton
or to ingestion of this particulate matter by the plankton. Due
to the lack of replicate samples and a statistical analysis of
the data, it is impossible to determine whether the metals
concentrations were elevated in plankton collected near the
sewage outfalls. Further study is certainly suggested since
some of the metal concentrations reported for the plankton near
the dump site are exceedingly high.
There have been a few attempts to measure the concen-
trations of PCBs in zooplankton from different areas of Puget
Sound (Clayton 1975; Clayton et al. 1977; Pavlou and Dexter
1977, 1979). Mixed zooplankton samples were collected in the
Central Basin, Elliott Bay, Whidbey Basin, Sinclair Inlet, Hood
Canal, Admiralty Inlet, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. As in
the case of Schell et al. (1976, 1977), there is no indication
that zooplankton were separated from other particulate matter,
so the reported metals concentrations may represent the concen-
trations for all particulate matter retained by the net. Vari-
ations in the concentrations of PCBs in the zooplankton from
these areas may reflect not only differences in the ambient
seawater concentrations which the organisms were exposed to, but
also species-specific physiological differences since the zoo-
plankton samples contained different combinations of species.
An important difference of this nature is the amount of lipid in
the organisms, which may vary either with species or with
season. Clayton (1975 in Dexter et al. 1981) has shown, for
example, that while the mean concentration of PCBs on a wet
weight basis for zooplankton collected in the Whidbey Basin
varied considerably between a November collection and a July
collection (0.288 ppm wet weight vs. 0.031 ppm wet weight), the
concentrations were actually more similar when reported on a
lipid weight basis (4.44 ppm lipid weight vs. 2.69 ppm lipid
weight). The zooplankton collected in November had a mean lipid
content of 6.6 percent, while those collected in July had a mean
lipid content of only 1.1 percent. Hence, for comparative
purposes, it is probably best to report the concentrations of
PCBs in zooplankton on a lipid weight basis. On this basis, the
concentrations of PCBs in the zooplankton from the various areas
listed above ranged between 1-16 ppm lipid weight (Clayton
et al. 1977). The highest concentration was found in zoo-
plankton from Sinclair Inlet, while the lowest concentrations
were found in Hood Canal, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and
Admiralty Inlet. The remaining areas (i.e., the Central Basin,
Whidbey Basin, and Elliott Bay) had intermediate concentrations.
Clayton et al. (1977) have shown that the concentrations
of PCBs in zooplankton (on a lipid weight basis) are primarily a
function of the concentration of PCBs in the water from which
the zooplankton were collected. This suggests that the accumu-
lation of PCBs in zooplankton is primarily the result of equi-
librium partitioning of these compounds between the organisms
and seawater, and not a result of other mechanisms (e.g.,
ingestion of PCB-contaminated particulates by the zooplankton) .
The accumulation of PCBs may be viewed as a balance between the
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intake rate, the storage capacity of the organism, and the
elimination rate (Dexter et al. 1981) . For small organisms such
as zooplankton, with a high surface area-to-volume ratio, the
PCB residues are capable of facile exchange between the sur-
rounding water and the internal sorption sites, primarily
lipids. Although PCB residues may be accumulated from the food,
this facile exchange mechanism results in a rapid equilibration
of the concentrations in the organism with the concentrations in
the surrounding water. Hence, the ultimate body burden of PCBs
in zooplankton reflects a partitioning of the residues between
the lipid and water phases (Dexter et al. 1981). Clayton et al.
(1977) suggest that if this relationship is strong enough
(admittedly, more data should be collected to validate this
hypothesis), the concentrations of PCBs in zooplankton might be
used as indicators of the PCB concentrations in seawater, which
are usually very low and difficult to measure.
Clayton et al. (1977) note that a similar equilibrium
partitioning mechanism may be applicable to fish as well,
despite their smaller surface area-to-volume ratio, due to rapid
exchange across the gill surfaces and subsequent transport to
and from internal lipid pools via the circulatory system.
Accumulation of PCBs by equilibrium partitioning may not be
applicable to marine mammals, however, since they possess no
equivalent external surface for exchange. For mammals, the
primary mechanism for uptake of PCBs is likely through the food,
and since elimination of PCBs through excreta is relatively
inefficient, PCBs may be expected to accumulate with time in the
bodies of mammals (Dexter et al. 1981).
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a dangerous condi-
tion which results when humans eat marine organisms (especially
bivalve molluscs, e.g., clams, mussels, oysters) which have
ingested large numbers of certain species of dinoflagellates.
From 1971-1977, 12 outbreaks and 68 cases of PSP were reported
in the United States (Hughes 1979). These dinoflagellates
produce a chemical which is acutely toxic to humans when it is
concentrated in the bodies of these filter-feeding organisms.
The toxicity of these organisms is primarily of concern when the
dinoflagellates have been present in excessively large concen-
trations commonly referred to as "red tides." PSP in the Puget
Sound area is associated with blooms of the dinoflagellate
Gonyaulax catenella, and although other dinoflagellate species
in this area can bloom to the point where they impart a red
color to the water, they do not apparently produce a toxin
associated with PSP.
Work by Wall (1975), Dale (1977), and Turpin et al. (1978)
support the hypothesis that blooms may be initiated by benthic
resting cysts. Field" observations and laboratory research by
Anderson and Morel (1978) shed light on the key environmental
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factors effecting spring and fall cyst germination and emer-
gence. Of the four parameters studied (nutrients, salinity,
rainfall, and temperature), only seasonal temperature changes
correlated with two blooms. Laboratory experiments supported
the theory that spring blooms begin in response to warming
waters, and initiation of fall blooms depend on the cooling of
elevated summer water temperatures; but viability, referred to
as the ability of a germinated cyst to become motile, depends on
light and trace element availability.
Nuisance blooms of Gonyaulax catenella have not historical-
ly been a problem in the Central Basin, although they had
occurred frequently in the Strait of Juan de Fuca and in the
coastal waters of British Columbia. In recent years, however,
catenella has become abundant enough to cause PSP in the
Central Basin. In 1978, there was an outbreak of red tide in
Penn Cove, on the east side of Whidbey Island, which was caused
by excessive growth of G. catenella (Norris-Nishitani et al.
1979; Nishitani and Chew 1979). Mussels collected in October
1978 in Penn Cove had extremely high levels of PSP toxin, far
exceeding the allowable level of 80 ug toxin/100 g shellfish
meat (Norris-Nishitani et al. 1979). This red tide appeared to
originate in the area around Penn Cove and Holmes Harbor and
then spread southward (Chew pers. comm.). Although red tides
have continued to occur in Puget Sound waters in the years
following 1978, it is no longer believed that the red tides
originate in the Penn Cove-Holmes Harbor area. The entire
Central Basin is now "seeded" with G. catenella cysts, and a
bloom can originate anywhere (Chew pers. comm.). In 1979,
mussels containing PSP toxin in concentrations exceeding the
allowable limit were found throughout the Central Basin
(Nishitani and Chew 1979).
Nutrients, Trace Metals, and Upwelling. Although a link
between sewage discharges and the occurrence of red tides has
been suggested for other areas (Doig and Martin 1974), a
cause-and-effeet relationship between the two has not been
identified in the Puget Sound region (Chew pers. comm.). Sewage
discharges might affect the growth of red tide organisms in
several different ways. There is concern, for instance, that
the introduction of sewage nutrients may have an effect on the
peak algal biomass attained during a bloom of dinoflagellates,
although this does not appear likely since algal growth in Puget
Sound is generally controlled by stability of the water column,
estuarine flushing, and the light environment (Winter et al.
1975). Of perhaps greater concern is the possibility that
alterations in the nutrient environment (e.g., changes in the
relative concentrations of nitrate and ammonia) caused by the
discharge of sewage effluent might promote the growth of G.
catenella over other phytoplankton species. Also, although no
relationship has been demonstrated to date, it is possible that
some factor (e.g., trace metals) introduced to the Sound either
through municipal or industrial discharges might in some way be
responsible for initiation of blooms of G. catenella. Further
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study will be required to determine whether there is, in fact,
any relationship between anthropogenic perturbations to the
Puget Sound environment and the growth of these red tide orga-
nisms.
One of the most well documented environmental conditions
associated with dinoflagellate blooms is the occurrence of
upwelling. This upward, vertical flow of deep water brings
nutrients to the surface layers. Early studies by Hutner and
McLaughlin (1958) and more recently Blasco (1975) and Sorokin
and Kogelschatz (1979) have shown that blooms of dinoflagellates
often occur in areas of upwelling. However wind-driven upwell-
ing can also prevent the accumulation of dinoflagellates on the
surface by creating strong currents that restrict their mobility
(Provasoli 1979).
Since red tides are largely coastal, it has been suggested
that terrestrial runoff rich in phosphates (Bold and Wynne
1978), humic acids (Prakash and Rashid 1968), and to some
extent, vitamin B1? (Stewart et al. 1966), can induce these
phytoplankton blooms. Rain-generated runoff may also reduce
saline concentrations in marine coastal waters, and thereby
promote dinoflagellate blooms (Bold and Wynne 1978). Prakash
and Rashid (1968) have found that some toxic dinoflagellate
species prefer saline solutions less concentrated than usual
marine salinities.
Research has indicated that "preconditioning" of waters by
previous algal biological activity such as diatom blooms may
promote subsequent dinoflagellate population explosions by
concentrating nutrients, or by decreasing certain nutrients
which are holding their numbers in check (Takauji 1981) .
Organic secretions of nondinoflagellate species may also "condi-
tion" waters through complexing toxic trace metal ions such as
copper (McKnight and Morel 1979).
Trophic Effects
Almost all the studies that have been conducted to try to
document cause-and-effeet relationships between pollutants and
changes in the biota have examined only one particular aspect of
the biota, e.g., fish, plankton or benthic communities. No work
has been done in Puget Sound to examine the effects of pollu-
tants on simple food chains.
Stirling (1974 in Steele 1979) examined the effects of
copper and mercury on a simple food chain, phytoplankton-
Tellina tenuis-plaice, in British waters. Copper demonstrated
adverse effects on all three species, and the deleterious
effects were augmented at the second and third level by food
chain interactions. It was noted, however, that deleterious
effects of mercury on the food supply of the clam were offset by
reduced predation pressure resulting from adverse effects of
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mercury on plaice. This rather simple experiment demonstrates
the difficulty in documenting cause-and-effeet relationships in
complex natural communities.
Marine Birds, Marine Mammals, and Human Health
NOAA is currently sponsoring studies on accumulated levels
of xenobiotics and heavy metals in marine birds and mammals of
Puget Sound. The study on contaminants in marine birds is near
completion, and the preliminary results indicate that some
birds, especially from Commencement Bay have high levels of PCBs
relative to values reported in the literature (Long pers.
comm.). The highest levels were 80 ppm in adipose tissue from
heron taken near Tacoma. Values were lower in birds taken from
the Seattle area and Protection Island/Sequim Bay. There were
significant differences in cadmium, lead, and mercury
concentrations in tissues between the two urban and two
reference sites, but no clear pattern in the differences.
Surprisingly, the only organic contaminants detected were PCB
and traces of DDE. A second study is planned by NOAA to
determine whether there is evidence that observed levels in bird
tissues are associated with deleterious effects.
Arndt (1973) conducted a study of DDT and PCB levels in
three seal populations: one in northern Puget Sound, one in
Southern Puget Sound, and a third in Grays Harbor. Of the three
populations, only PCB levels in the Southern Puget Sound
population were significantly higher than in the other two, and
these levels were much higher than previously recorded in
pinniped populations. The Southern Puget Sound population also
displayed a high rate of spontaneous abortions and birth de-
fects. Preliminary data from the recent NOAA study are not yet
available (Long pers. comm.).
No studies have been conducted to determine the impact on
human health following ingestion of diseased or contaminated
fish from urbanized areas of Puget Sound. Two specific human
diseases have been attributed to pollutants: excessive cadmium
in drinking water led to the occurrence of itai-itai disease in
an area of Japan (Kobayashi 1971) and ingestion of seafood or
seed contaminated or treated with mercury compounds has been
known to cause Minamata disease (Irukayama 1967).
Carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties of many
organic compounds are known or suspected at moderate to high
dosages, but little is understood about these properties at low
dosages. Major concern has been focused in the past on com-
pounds known to bioaccumulate (e.g., PCBs) in body tissues
because of known or suspected adverse effects on human health.
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Summary
Fish
Investigations of the ecology of fish communities in Puget
Sound have failed to indicate any substantial adverse impacts of
municipal waste discharge on species composition, abundance, or
diversity. The available data suggest that in the vicinity of
Seattle's West Point sewage outfall, there may be some increased
abundances of demersal fishes, and there may be relatively minor
alterations in species composition of this community which might
be caused by the discharge of sewage effluent. Other differ-
ences noted at West Point may be attributed to natural habitat
differences rather than to sewage discharge. Studies of the
ecology of fish communities in the vicinity of other municipal
sewage effluent discharges on Puget Sound are inappropriate for
demonstrating effects on fish communities.
Extensive studies conducted in the vicinity of several pulp
and paper mills in the mid-1960s demonstrated that the mills
were often located adjacent to important nursery areas for both
anadromous and marine fish species. In addition, it was appar-
ent that the effluent from these mills was often highly toxic to
juvenile fishes, and that the ecological implications of these
industrial discharges were therefore potentially very important.
Since that time, there have been dramatic reductions in the
pollutant discharges from these mills, as they were forced to
either institute more advanced treatment measures or shift to
other processing methods. Follow-up studies have been conducted
in Port Gardner as part of the ECOBAM program, but the results
have not yet been released.
The Puget Sound region has two heavily-industrialized urban
estuaries: the Duwamish River-Elliott Bay system in Seattle,
and the Puyallup River-Commencement Bay system in Tacoma. Both
are known to have received large quantities of toxic chemicals
over the years, and several studies have attempted to examine
the effects that industrialization and chemical contamination of
these areas have had on the resident fish communities. Detailed
comparisons have not been made, however, between the fish
communities of the urban, industrialized estuaries and those of
undeveloped, nonindustrialized estuaries (e.g., the Nisqually
River Delta), so it is difficult to describe accurately how the
fish communities of the urban estuaries may have been altered by
industrial activities. Malins et al. (1982a) found that the
abundance of some fish species (as indicated by the catch per
unit effort) was negatively correlated with the distributions of
some toxicants in the sediments of these estuaries. While such
correlations are suggestive of cause-and-effect relationships
between the fish distributions and the concentrations of chemi-
cal contaminants, far more detailed studies will have to be
conducted before it is known what factor ultimately influences
the abundance of these and other fish species.
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It is of interest to know what effect the disposal of
dredge spoils (especially chemically-contaminated dredge spoils
from the urban estuaries) might have on fish populations, but
the limited studies conducted to date do not permit definitive
conclusions. Studies of such relationships must be relatively
extensive in order to discriminate natural population fluc-
tuations from dredge spoil disposal effects, and such extensive
sampling has not been conducted at any disposal area in Puget
Sound.
Laboratory toxicity bioassays with fishes have been con-
ducted using sediments and sewage treatment plant effluents.
Effluent bioassays can be used as an indication of relative
toxicity under controlled conditions. Toxic constituent concen-
trations can also be measured throughout the exposure period.
Their major limitation is that they do not enable an assessment
of the interactive or cumulative effects of the numerous pollu-
tant sources that exist in many industrialized areas of Puget
Sound. Existing data indicate that lethal toxicity of municipal
effluent is a function of sewage treatment technology and
periodic releases of "slugs" of toxicants. Studies on toxic
effects of dredge spoil activities are limited by site-specific
conditions.
In situ bioassays with fishes have been used in the Puget
Sound area near pulp and paper mill effluents and near dredging
operations. The results of such studies can be confounded by
the lack of available water quality information at the exposure
site and high mortalities in control cages. Such studies are
valuable, however, in assessing relative changes in toxicity
(i.e., water quality), either in a spatial or temporal context.
For example, previous in situ studies have demonstrated that
acute toxicity can occur in salmonids exposed to pulp and paper
mill discharges. Continuing use of this technique coudl poten-
tially serve to examine the change in ambient toxicity associ-
ated with improvements in effluent treatment.
While there have been numerous investigations of the
concentrations of metals in the tissues of various fish species
from Puget Sound, there have been few, if any, definitive
results which conclusively demonstrate the accumulation of
metals in these tissues in excess of "normal" or "background"
concentrations. Although virtually all of the metals examined
exist in detectable concentrations in the tissues of the fishes,
the general conclusion is that it is not known whether the
reported concentrations are in excess of background concen-
trations for fishes in relatively "unpolluted" waters. Several
reasons can be cited for this lack of conclusive evidence of the
existence or absence of significant bioaccumulation of metals.
First and foremost is the fact that none of the studies to date
has included sufficient numbers of replicate samples to allow
statistical analysis of the data. In the absence of sufficient
replicates, it is impossible to judge whether an apparent
difference in the tissue concentrations of a given metal in the
fish from two different areas is statistically significant or
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whether observed differences simply reflect natural variation.
Studies completed to date have utilized a wide variety of fish
species, and virtually nothing is known about species-specific
susceptibility to the bioaccumulation of metals. The available
evidence suggestive of bioaccumulation is primarily for demersal
fish species, while pelagic fish species are apparently less
prone to bioaccumulate metals. Many of the past studies have
often suffered from the lack of fish samples collected from an
appropriate control area. While it is often difficult to select
a control area having characteristics similar to those in a
polluted area except for the presence of chemical contaminants,
past studies have often included no control area at all or an
area whose "unpolluted" status is either assumed or poorly
documented.
Available data on the concentrations of PCBs in fishes of
Puget Sound (and similarly for most other organic contaminants)
suffer from many of the same problems found with data on the
concentrations of metals in fishes (e.g., lack of adequate
replication, differences in fish species analyzed, lack of
appropriate controls). Nevertheless, these data are more
suggestive of significant bioaccumulation because the differ-
ences in the concentrations of these compounds between fish in
known polluted areas and those in background or control areas
are much larger than are the usual differences in metals concen-
trations between two such areas. Whereas metals concentrations
often only differ by two- or three-fold between fish in polluted
urban areas and those in presumed control areas, the
concentrations of PCBs in fish from two such areas often differ
by one or two (or even more) orders of magnitude. The available
evidence suggests that accumulation of PCBs is most pronounced
in demersal fishes (e.g., English sole, rock sole, sculpins)
inhabiting urban estuaries (e.g., Commencement Bay, Elliott Bay,
Duwamish River) known to have sediments contaminated with high
concentrations of these compounds.
There have been very few studies of the concentrations of
organic contaminants other than PCBs in the tissues of fishes
from Puget Sound. The limited data available suggest that
chlorinated butadienes are found in consistently high concen-
trations in fish from the Hylebos Waterway in Tacoma but nowhere
else, while chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and hexa-
chlorobenzene are found in high concentrations in fish not only
from the Hylebos Waterway by also from the Duwamish River and
the Seattle Waterfront. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are
generally present only in low concentrations in the livers of
fishes from all areas of Puget Sound. This reflects the fact
that fish are apparently able to metabolize these compounds.
They are, however, present in slightly higher concentrations in
fish from Elliott and Commencement Bays. Correlations between
the body burdens of virtually all of the organic chemical
contaminants and known sources of these compounds are best for
the demersal fishes, and not well developed for semi-pelagic or
pelagic species.
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The mechanisms of bioaccumulation of organic contaminants
are not known at this time* It is not known, for instance,
whether the primary pathway into the bodies of the fishes is via
ingestion or contaminated prey organisms, uptake through the
gills, or direct uptake through the skin. There is a limited
amount of data that suggest uptake of PCB does not result from
exposure to PCB in the water column. The consequences to
fishes, if any, that result from accumulation of these sub-
stances are also largely unknown.
Numerous studies of pathological conditions among fishes of
Puget Sound have revealed several consistent relationships: the
conditions often occur in higher prevalence in areas known to be
contaminated by a diversity of chemicals, they appear to affect
demersal fish species (e.g., flounder and sole) more often than
pelagic fish species {e.g., salmon), and their etiology is
largely unknown. Fin erosion disease, while not confined to
polluted, urban areas, is more prevalent in such areas, suggest-
ing that the condition is in some way caused by exposure to
chemical contaminants. While certain evidence from lab expo-
sures and field studies suggests that chemical contamination may
be involved in the initiation of this disease, it is entirely
possible that a combination of factors (e.g., chemical con-
tamination, mechanical injury, physical factors) act in concert
to bring about fin erosion. The distribution of skin tumor
prevalence basically follows that of fin erosion; it is more
common in areas with chemically-contaminated sediments than in
less polluted areas. However, the association of skin tumors
with contaminated environments is even more tenuous than the
incidence of fin erosion. While the consequences of fin erosion
for the individual fish are unknown, there are indications that
skin tumors may be eventually fatal to fishes. It has been
established, for instance, that the prevalence of tumor-bearing
fish decreases with increasing age of the fish, suggesting that
tumor-bearing fish disappear from the populations more rapidly
than do normal fish. As is the case with fin erosion, it is
entirely possible that multiple factors act either independently
or synergistically to cause skin tumors.
Hepatomas and other liver abnormalities clearly occur much
more frequently in demersal fishes from industrialized, urban
estuaries than in less polluted areas of Puget Sound. Circum-
stantial evidence once again points to chemical contaminants as
an important factor in the induction of these conditions.
For the other pathological abnormalities observed among
fishes of Puget Sound, there have been relatively few detailed
studies. Since these conditions occur at relatively low fre-
quencies, much more extensive studies would be required to
demonstrate any relationship between the distribution of these
conditions and the distribution of known areas of chemical
contamination.
Whereas there is a good evidence of an association between
the occurrence of pathological conditions in demersal fishes and
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the sites of intense industrial activity, the prevalence of fish
disease does not appear markedly higher in the vicinity of large
municipal sewage discharges, such as West Point, than in other
similar areas without municipal sewage discharges. One possible
hypothesis is that these pathological conditions are a function
of some factor present in industrial wastes, but absent, or in
considerably lower concentration, in municipal sewage effluents.
An alternative hypothesis is that municipal sewage discharges
are deliberately sited in areas of high flushing where fine
suspended particulates are unlikely to settle, and therefore,
initiation of toxic conditions is minimized.
It is a relatively straightforward proposition to sample
the fishes in polluted and unpolluted areas of Puget Sound, to
examine them for a variety of pathological conditions, and to
assign percent prevalences of each condition to the respective
areas. Given sufficiently large sample sizes, it is possible to
demonstrate that statistically-significant differences occur in
the prevalences of these conditions in the various areas, and
that some of the conditions are most prevalent in the most
contaminated areas.
Beyond simply documenting the existence of fish disease in
various areas of Puget Sound, there have been relatively few
attempts to investigate the causes of the observed pathological
conditions. There are similarities between certain of these
conditions occurring naturally in the fishes of Puget Sound and
those induced in laboratory animals by exposure to a variety of
chemical pollutants. There are interesting statistical corre-
lations between the distribution of fish with certain of these
conditions and the distribution of groups of chemical contami-
nants. This does not imply cause-and-effect, however, since it
is still not known whether one chemical acting independently, or
several acting synergistically, or even an as yet unmeasured
chemical which happened to be correlated with the other chemi-
cals, was/were the causal factor(s). Measurements of the
concentrations of chemical contaminants in the tissues of fish
with specific pathological conditions, as well as in the tissues
of healthy fishes, have been performed on too few specimens to
provide statistically-significant correlations which might
indicate what chemicals cause these conditions.
Laboratory experiments designed to attempt to induce
certain pathological conditions in fish by exposing them to
chemically-contaminated sediments or by injecting them with
extracts of those sediments have failed to reproduce those
conditions observed in natural fishes from contaminated areas.
The prospect of testing individually all or even a large frac-
tion of the total array of chemical contaminants known to occur
in such sediments is overwhelming, while testing the likelihood
of synergistic effects among all of the possible combinations of
those chemicals is virtually impossible.
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Benthic Macroinvertebrates
Investigations of the ecology of benthic communities near
pollutant sources have documented responses associated with
changes in community structure and with changes in abundances of
selected species. Although only on study examined the effects
of dredged material disposal on benthos, the immediate effects
and subsequent recovery were well documented. Studies of
benthic communities in many industrialized embayments and
nonindustrial areas in Puget Sound have not resulted in defini-
tive conclusions on the possible modifications of benthic
communities in areas of known sediment contamination.
Several studies of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages
near sewage discharges in Puget Sound have been conducted in
support of applications for waivers from secondary treatment
requirements. Biological effects at the largest single sewage
discharge in Puget Sound (West Point) were associated with
reduced total abundances and reduced abundances of some taxa in
areas near the discharge. Although the causative agent(s) for
the observed effects is unclear, recent evaluation of the in-
faunal data suggests that the local subtidal benthic communities
may be responding to contaminated particulates. Comprehensive
studies of intertidal floral and faunal assemblages near West
Point and other areas of central Puget Sound receiving sewage
discharges indicated that the only apparent effect was associ-
ated with modification of algal communities near West Point.
No definitive effects of smaller municipal sewage dis-
charges have been documented at other sites in Puget Sound.
These results may be due in part to the limited nature (e.g.,
few samples) of most of the studies. However, many of the
smaller municipal discharges are located in erosional environ-
ments where high currents prevent sewage solids from accumulat-
ing near the outfalls. Thus, potential effects on the benthos
are minimal at such sites.
Effects of pulp and paper mill discharges on subtidal
benthos have been documented at several Puget Sound sites. The
effects ranged from almost complete absence of macrofaunal
benthos in inner harbor areas near the discharges to moderate
changes in community structure at sites farther from the dis-
charges. The reviewed studies were conducted during periods
when pulp and paper mill discharges were considerably greater
than at present, or when the magnitude of those discharges was
just being reduced. Thus, the actual degree of recovery that
may have occurred is unknown. Data from European waters
(Pearson and Rosenberg 1978) indicate that recovery is possible
in as little as 3 years, and present a potentially useful
indicator of environmental stress on the benthic community.
Several studies have been conducted to determine the toxi-
city of Puget Sound sediments to benthic organisms. Amphipods
have been the major test organisms used; however, tests have
also been conducted on oligochaetes, polychaetes, several
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bivalve mollusc species, and decapod crustaceans. The results
have indicated that sediments in the industrialized areas of
Puget Sound are toxic to many of the species tested. Specific
results are dependent upon test species used and exposure
apparatus/procedure. In one case (Swartz et al. 1982) the
bioassay results were related to observed distributional charac-
teristics of infaunal species (i.e., absence of amphipods from
areas with toxic sediments). Perhaps the most interesting
outcome of these bioassay results is the observation that
sediment toxicity is very localized, suggesting that sediment
contamination is also very patchy. More than one investigator
has noted that sediment samples taken in the same general area
show noticeably different toxic effects. These data suggest
that sediment toxicity bioassays should incorporate a sampling
design that accounts for highly localized distribution of
contaminants.
The primary limitation of the sediment bioassays is the
general absence of two kinds of information:
o Biological characteristics of indigenous benthic commu-
nities at the site of sample collection.
o Chemical analyses of sediment contaminants.
The previously conducted bioassays have served primarily to
identify areas of potentially toxic sediments in the Puget Sound
region. The causative agent(s) or the actual effects on in-
digenous organisms are presently unknown.
Surveys of bioaccumulation of metals in benthic organisms
indicate that higher tissue levels of several metals are found
near Seattle. There is also evidence of elevated levels of some
metals in mussels in Commencement Bay. However, the studies of
bioaccumulation of metals in invertebrates are limited by the
same factors that were identified in studies on fishes. Of
special note are the rather inconclusive results obtained in
studies of arsenic accumulation in the vicinity of a major point
source of arsenic in Commencement Bay.
Shrimp, clams, and mussels have been shown to accumulate
PCBs in areas of PCB contamination. The degree of PCB bio-
accumulation is generally related to the degree of sediment
contamination.
Only one study was reviewed that examined pathological
conditions in invertebrate organisms. Although the results are
somewhat inconclusive due to small sample sizes, there was an
indication of increased prevalences of lesions in crabs and
shrimp from industrialized areas.
Plankton
Studies of phytoplankton ecology have been conducted near
sewage discharges, pulp and paper mill discharges and dredge
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spoil disposal sites. The most comprehensive studies were
oriented toward effects of the West Point sewage discharge on
primary production. Overall, the only indication of effects on
phytoplankton at West Point are associated with the possibility
of stimulation of primary production during periods of nutrient
depletion.
Studies of meroplankton (e.g., ichthyoplankton) have been
extremely limited and cause-and-effeet pollution-related studies
of zooplankton have apparently not been conducted in Puget
Sound.
Because of the naturally high levels of spatial and tempo-
ral variability of plankton assemblages, studies sufficient to
define cause-and-effeet relationships must generally be rather
intensive. Large numbers of samples collected at relatively
short time intervals are generally necessary to define pollutant
effects. Because of study design limitations and because of the
low probability of pollutant or nutrient impacts in the main
basins of Puget Sound, cause-and-effeet relationships for
plankton have not been established.
Bioaccumulation studies of plankton have concentrated on
uptake of PCBs in zooplankton. Tissue levels of PCBs have been
shown to be dependent upon PCB concentrations in the water and
lipid content of the organisms. Studies of metal accumulation
in Puget Sound zooplankton are largely inconclusive.
Toxicity tests using plankton have concentrated on Pacific
oyster larvae. Limited studies have also been conducted on the
toxic effects of PCBs on phytoplankton and zooplankton. The
oyster larvae bioassay has been used extensively in testing a
variety of pollutants using mortality and abnormal development
as toxic responses. The bioassays have been used to test larval
responses to dredge spoils; pulp mill, smelter, and oil refinery
effluents; and dinoflagellate blooms. In general, oyster larvae
were more sensitive to toxicants than other Puget Sound biota.
Thus, the bioassay provides an important mechanism for estab-
lishing safe effluent levels for most Puget Sound organisms.
Conclusions
Numerous studies have been conducted in the Puget Sound
region that have sought to establish relationships between
pollutants and effects on biota or beneficial uses. The
presumed causes of biological effects (i.e., pollutant sources)
are divided into four main categories in Table 7-3 i sewage
effluents, pulp and paper mill effluents, dredge spoils, and
diverse industrial sources. It should be noted that limited
studies have also been conducted near specific industrial
sources (e.g., ASARCO smelter), but are not included in the
summary table. Important biological effects include
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Table 7-3. Occurrence of Studies Examining Relationships
Between Pollutant Loading and Biological Effects
in Puqet Sound
Pollutant Sources
Biological
Effects
Sewage
Effluents
Pulp and Paper
Mill Effluents
Diverse
Industrial Dredge
Sources Spoils
Fish Abundance	X
Fish Pathology	X
Fish Toxicity	X
Fish Behavior
Fish Reproduction
Fish Bioaccumulation	X
Benthos Abundance	X
Benthos Pathology
Benthos Toxicity
Benthos Behavior
Benthos Reproduction
Benthos Bioaccumulation	Xa
Plankton Abundance
(production)	X
Plankton Toxicity	X
Plankton Bioaccumulation	X(L)
(X) Data available
(L) Limited information.
(P) Planned or ongoing studies.
a Intertidal studies only.
X
X
X(L)
X
X
X
XU)
X(P)
X
X
X(l)
X
X(P)
X
X
X(L)
X(L)
X(L)
X
X
X(L)
X
X(L)
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modifications in abundance (or community structure), pathology,
toxicity, behavior, reproduction, and bioaccumulation.
For the Puget Sound region, the most intensively studied
biological effects include organism abundances, toxicity, and
bioaccumulation. Fishes have received the greatest study
effort; however, considerable work has also been conducted on
assessment of toxicity using benthos and plankton. There is
little or no information concerning potential biological effects
on behavior and reproduction.
The reviewed studies have produced several kinds of infor-
mation that characterize biological effects, including identi-
fication of effects (or absence thereof) on indigenous biota;
identification of tissue contamination and abnormal pathological
conditions in organisms inhabiting industrialized areas; and
identification of probable relationships between contaminated
sediments and bioaccumulation, disease, and mortality of Puget
Sound organisms.
Although effects on biota (e.g., fin erosion, bioaccumu-
lation) have been implicated in field studies, information on
quantitative cause-and-effeet relationships is lacking in many
areas. For example, apparent effects of the West Point sewage
discharge have been detected in local infaunal communities.
However, the available information is not adequate to character-
ize the cause(s) of the observed effects or to establish a
quantitative cause-and-effeet relationship.	Information
required for such determinations would include measurements of
solids deposition rates or sediment contaminant concentrations
at the same sites used for infaunal benthos sampling. With
those kinds of data, changes in biological response variables
(e.g., abundance of species A) could be quantitatively related
to causative agents.
Studies of bioaccumulation have demonstrated that various
contaminants (e.g., PCBs, CBDs, and several metals) occur in
elevated concentrations in Puget Sound biota. However, informa-
tion on uptake routes, intertrophic transfer, and depuration
rates is generally lacking. Moreover, quantitative relation-
ships between sediment or water concentrations and organism
tissue levels also are not available.
Overall, past studies in the Puget Sound region have served
to identify the nature and location of biological effects.
Although some cause-and-effeet relationships have been estab-
lished or are suggested by available data, additional studies
will be required for the determination of quantitative relation-
ships that are useful for predictive purposes.
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Chapter 8
MONITORING PROGRAMS
Introduction
Monitoring programs are established to detect over a period
of time changes in environmental conditions or other effects
occurring after the onset of certain activities. This chapter
describes and evaluates the extent and nature of existing moni-
toring programs. These programs are evaluated with regard to
location, timing, parameters monitored, species and habitats
involved, toxicity test and dose-response informatics, consid-
eration of synergistic effects, and the compatibility of the
programs and their data.
Existing Monitoring Programs
Monitoring programs conducted on Puget Sound have changed
over the years. When the region began to industrialize, little
thought was given to water quality. With development of the
pulp mill industry and decline of the oyster population around
1925, water pollution became a recognized problem (Chasan 1981).
Since then, regulatory requirements have increased, more precise
analytical techniques have been developed, a greater knowledge
of toxicity levels has been established, and a greater awareness
of ecosystem interactions has developed. As a result,
monitoring programs have become more complex and refined over
the years.
Monitoring programs generally focus on state water quality
standards or on effluent limitations stated in federal water
quality criteria. In the majority of cases, available
monitoring technology is more sophisticated than that actually
used. Time and cost factors often prohibit monitoring of many
substances and, in addition, levels of toxicity for many
pollutants have still not been determined. For at least these
reasons, routine monitoring for substances such as hydrocarbons
or pesticides has not been accomplished. Likewise, impacts on
the ecosystem and biota are not generally monitored, although it
seems desirable to do so.
Monitoring programs may examine either the discharged
effluent or the receiving waters. WDOE, Metro, and USGS
maintain ongoing programs to monitor Puget Sound waters. Other
agencies and groups, including the University of Washington,
NOAA, EPA, and the COE, occasionally monitor various areas of
the Sound, but they usually do not maintain routine monitoring
stations.
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However, these agency monitorings do provide short-term discrete
bodies of data, and a number of such studies are available in
the EPA STORET data system as well as other data bases.
Department of Ecology (WDOE) Programs
NPDES Monitoring and Analysis. NPDES permits are primarily
focused on effluent, not receiving waters. Discharge permits
under the NPDES program are issued on a case-by-case basis by
WDOE. Monitoring is nearly always required as a condition of
the permit, except for very small dischargers which typically
must maintain only a flow record. Permit conditions normally
include: parameters to be monitored, data collection and
analysis techniques, monitoring frequency, and reporting
schedules. The reports generated from monitoring are called
discharge monitoring reports (DMRs), and are filed at the
appropriate regional WDOE office semiannually or more
frequently, depending on size and type of discharge (Wright
pers. comm.). Monitoring is conducted by the permitted
discharger; DMRs seldom contain data or information not required
by the permit.
In addition to the DMRs, two WDOE programs provide more
extensive but less frequent information. A Class I (operation
and maintenance) or a Class II (sampling and analysis)
inspection is typically carried out by WDOE annually for all
major dischargers, although Class II inspections for smaller
plants may occur only every 3-4 years. The parameters included
in the analysis vary for each Class II inspection, but contain
those listed in the discharger's NPDES permit and often a few
additional ones, primarily for laboratory checks. Organic
priority pollutant analyses are rarely performed. Dischargers
to receive Class II inspections are listed in the State/EPA
Agreement. This list changes annually; therefore, consecutive,
annual Class II reports may not exist for a particular
discharger.
Additional inspection analyses may be required for NPDES
permit renewal if the discharge is significant or has changed
from the previously permitted discharge. Monitoring of conven-
tional, extended conventional, priority pollutants, or
additional parameters such as salts may then be required. This
monitoring is conducted only once, and is performed by the
discharger.
All three NPDES-related monitoring efforts are directed
toward monitoring water quality of the effluent before it enters
Puget Sound. Little, if any, ambient water monitoring is con-
ducted in conjunction with this program.
301(h) Waiver Application. Several municipal wastewater
treatment plants have applied for waivers from secondary treat-
ment, as allowed by Section 301(h) of the CWA. The application
must contain an analysis of the effluent that includes conven-
tional, extended conventional, and priority pollutants. The
analysis generally represents a single grab or composite sample,
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and does not analyze levels in the receiving water. The
applications provide some data on effluent composition, but do
not provide monitoring data in the strict sense.
River Monitoring. The WDOE surface water quality
monitoring stations occur near the mouths of major rivers as
well as upstream. These stations have been used for several
years to monitor temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and
conductivity, nitrates, phosphates, fecal coliform, turbidity,
color, and suspended solids. A few stations also are used to
monitor COD; total and dissolved cadmium, chromium, copper,
lead, mercury, zinc; and hardness. Limited analyses for
pesticides have also been made. Some stations coincide with
USGS gaging station locations, and are also sampled by the USGS,
as discussed below. Monthly and annual summaries are stored in
computer files by WDOE.
Marine Water Monitoring. The WDOE surface water quality
monitoring program includes 44 mid-channel stations located in
all major areas of Puget Sound and the Straits. Grab samples
are collected monthly from April through October. During poor
weather months (winter) when runoff and particulate loading are
greatest, sampling is not attempted because WDOE uses small
planes to transport field personnel (Haines pers. comm.). Marine
water is normally analyzed for conventional and extended conven-
tional pollutants including: dissolved oxygen, temperature,
water clarity (Secchi disk), fecal coliform bacteria, turbidity,
salinity, conductivity, pH, nitrates, and phosphates. At some
stations sulfite waste liquor, chlorophyll a, and/or arsenic are
also monitored.
Several years of data have been collected and are stored in
the WDOE computer as well as in the EPA STORET system. Once a
year, as a federal requirement under the Basic Water Monitoring
Program (BWMP), WDOE samples the tissues of mussels for metals
and some organic pollutants. This involves primarily intertidal
mussels. The program has been in operation for several years
(Determan pers. comm.).
Intensive Surveys. WDOE conducts a number of intensive
surveys directed toward assessing problem areas. The studies
are generally short term and site specific, and address such
problems as assessing effects of an outfall, determining
wasteload allocations for a stream segment, etc. The Ecological
Baseline and Monitoring (ECOBAM) program, the longest intensive
survey, lasted approximately 7 years and terminated in 1981.
This study of Everett Harbor evaluated water quality changes in
the harbor as a result of the upgrading of pulp and paper
industry discharges. WDOE also monitored biota by use of live
box fish bioassays and settling plates (primarily to determine
diversity and biomass) (Bernhardt pers. comm.; Determan pers.
comm.). Because of their specificity and generally short
duration, these surveys should not be considered an integral
part of a regional monitoring network.
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USGS River Monitoring Program
USGS maintains on larger rivers continuous flow gaging
stations which often coincide with WDOE monitoring stations.
Where the two stations coincide, USGS obtains the samples.
Parameters include those taken by WDOE stations, but often
include additional parameters such as phytoplankton and fecal
streptococcus bacteria. Sampling at USGS/WDOE stations is
generally performed 6 times per year. The flow record often
covers a number of years but may not be continuous. Data are
published annually by water year and stored on computer.
Metro Monitoring Studies
Seahurst Baseline Study. Metro is conducting a baseline
study near the proposed Seahurst outfall; the phase I annual
report is due for completion later in 1983. The study includes
investigation of the water column, intertidal and subtidal
habitats, and microbiology/virology.
The water column study investigates temperature, salinity,
oxygen, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica) , chloro-
phyll, particulate matter, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and
phytoplankton production. The intertidal study characterizes
the infauna, epifauna, microflora, and macroflora. Sediment
samples are analyzed for metals, toxic organic compounds,
petroleum hydrocarbons, and nutrients. Organisms collected with
the sediments are also being identified. Bacterial and viral
levels in water, sediment, and shellfish are documented. The
fisheries study includes collections and health determinations
of existing pelagic and demersal fish. The investigative
programs are designed to collect at least 2 years of data,
followed by a period of analyzing and synthesizing data, and are
concentrating on the Seahurst area, including stations and
transects in both East and Colvos Passages. Although not a
monitoring program, as defined in Chapter 2, this investigation
will provide baseline data useful to any subsequent monitoring
effort in the area.
Toxicant Pretreatment Planning Study (TPPS). This 3-year
program terminated in July 1983, and provides information for
Metro regarding industrial pretreatment and facility planning.
Its objectives are to determine what toxic substances enter the
Metro collection system and local receiving waters of Puget
Sound and Lake Washington; what effects these toxicants are
having on the environment and treatment plant operations; where
these toxicants come from; and how these materials can be
controlled at their sources and through the treatment plants.
Collection system monitoring for metals and organic pollu-
tants includes specific industries; general industrial,
commercial and residential areas; plus all process streams at
both Renton and West Point treatment plants. Nonpoint sources
such as urban runoff and household wastes are also addressed.
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Environmental sampling includes water, suspended particulates,
and sediments in both Lake Washington and Puget Sound, and from
riverine sources. Extensive surveys of benthic community
structure are being made near West Point, the Denny Way CSO, and
near a storm drain in Lake Washington to identify any
correlation between observed changes in benthic community
structure and concentrations of toxicants in sediments.
Combined Sewer Overflow Monitoring Program. Several Metro
CSOs are automatically monitored, primarily for flow discharge.
The flow data are stored in Metro computer files. CSOs
currently are being analyzed for a large number of contaminants
as part of the Metro TPPS program, and this information could be
used in conjunction with flow data to obtain loading and
contaminant estimates.
Marine Monitoring Program. Metro's ambient water
monitoring program centers around the municipal outfalls and
adjacent beaches. Sampling is performed at various depths, and
varies from biweekly to quarterly. Parameters typically include
dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, and bacteria (total and
fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus). Sampling stations are
located in concentric rings around the outfall to a distance of
about one nautical mile (Tomlinson pers. comm.).
Occasional analyses, primarily for metals, have also been
made of water, sediment, and biota in the area near the outfall,
but this is not routinely done. Influent and effluent of the
plants are monitored on a daily basis for the NPDES program and
as part of normal operational procedure. Parameters include a
number of conventional pollutants, residual chlorine, and a few
others. Metal data are also taken, although most priority
pollutants are not included.
Industrial Waste Discharge Monitoring Program. Metro
monitors effluent from industries that have a permit to
discharge to the Metro collection system. Although these
industries do not directly discharge to the study area, a
portion of their effluent could directly discharge to marine
waters during a CSO event.
Other Monitoring Efforts
Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency Air Quality Moni-
toring. The Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency (PSAPCA)
has established several air quality stations in Pierce, King,
Snohomish, and Kitsap Counties. Parameters potentially
impacting Puget Sound through wetfall and dryfall and monitored
by PSAPCA include suspended particulates, nitrogen oxides,
hydrocarbons, and lead (PSAPCA 1980). Organic pollutants are
not monitored. Measurements of concentration in the atmosphere
are taken several times a month and summarized in an annual
report. Two other air pollution agencies monitor air quality in
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other counties adjacent to Puget Sound, but their programs are
not as extensive as PSAPCA's.
EPA. EPA does not conduct any routine monitoring, but it
occasionally conducts short-term investigations in problem areas
(Bogue pers. comm.)- A recent Everett Harbor investigation,
conducted in conjunction with WDOE, for example, analyzed
sediments for priority pollutants and investigated abnormalities
in fish. Other areas which have been studied include Commence-
ment Bay and the Duwamish Waterway.
DSHS. DSHS is responsible for monitoring safety of shell-
fish from commercial clam, mussel, and oyster beds. They do not
maintain a routine monitoring of water or in situ shellfish, and
do not ordinarily monitor sport shellfish areas. Analyses
consist primarily of fecal coliform bacteria in tissues. Shell-
fish tissue is examined weekly at processing plants. Intensive
field surveys lasting 4-10 days are conducted on fecal coliform
levels in the water column and sediment in various areas, but
there is no established monitoring pattern for the beds them-
selves.
NOAA. The MESA program was established to develop an
understanding of the environmental impacts of human activities
on the Puget Sound ecosystem. Over 20 research projects have
been conducted under the MESA program, several of which include
some form of investigative or monitoring effort. Most of the
data that are useful from a monitoring perspective are obtained
during sampling of fish and sediments for pollutants. Effort
also has been spent on examining ecosystem processes and
documenting occurrence of pathological abnormalities in fish.
Little information has been compiled to link mass loading to
levels in the environment or in the biota, and data are not
available to link the occurrence of pollutants in the
environment with observed pathological characteristics of the
biota. A 2-year effort has recently been started to synthesize
these data (Long pers. comm.).
Applicability of Existing Data and Monitoring
Methodology to Evaluating and Predicting
Cumulative Impacts
Development of a management model ideally requires spatial
and temporal knowledge of physical, chemical and biological
processes and components in the study area. Knowledge of water,
sediment, biota, and habitats is important, as is information on
pollutant characteristics, toxicity levels, dose-response data,
and synergistic effects.
Several monitoring programs, as well as individual studies
involving water, sediment or biota, are ongoing or have been
carried out in Puget Sound. Most were designed for use in a
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particular area or situation, without thought to their com-
patibility with previous or ongoing studies by others. While
this has allowed each investigator to choose methodologies which
best fit his study needs, it has resulted in a wide diversity of
sampling and analysis techniques, units of measurement, and
types of error. The synthesis of data from these diverse
sources is often difficult and, at worst, even inaccurate,
because comparisons may be made using data which, due to
differences in sampling, are not comparable.
Most monitoring programs have concentrated on one environ-
mental compartment, usually the water column. This may give the
misleading impression that a pollutant is absent or in low
concentrations, when in fact the concentrations in sediment or
biota are quite high. In addition, even water column analyses
often do not distinguish between pollutant concentrations in the
dissolved state and those associated with suspended matter. In
many cases, the chemical species and state is important to
toxicity and biological uptake, but it is not identified during
the monitoring effort. Also, primarily due to cost consid-
erations, parameters monitored do not normally include such
things as polycyclic or monocyclic hydrocarbons, PCBs, or other
organic compounds, yet these are often the compounds having the
greatest toxicity and potential for bioaccumulation, and in some
cases are most clearly associated with adverse effects on
organisms and beneficial uses.
In conclusion, these common limitations to existing
monitoring programs make it difficult to use these data to
evaluate environmental conditions and. predict impacts of water
quality management decisions. In contrast, private studies
often tend to provide more in-depth data, but only for localized
areas and over short durations, which makes trend determinations
difficult. However, because of their greater detail, short-term
studies may ultimately provide data of greater value than those
provided by routine water column monitoring. Value of these
studies would be enhanced if collection and analysis procedures
can be standardized to allow comparison of study results.
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Chapter 9
SYNTHESIS OF FINDINGS
The purpose of this chapter is two-fold. First, we discuss
how available information on pollutants; mass loading of
pollutants (Chapter 4) , distribution in the environment (Chap-
ters 5, 6, and 7), and effects on the biota (Chapter 7); can be
used to predict impacts of pollutants on beneficial uses and
resources of Puget Sound. This discussion focuses on the
ability of resource managers to predict impacts resulting from
regulatory decisions, based on knowledge of how pollutant
loading is linked to adverse impacts on beneficial uses (see
Chapter 3, Figure 3-1, and Table 3-1). Second, in evaluating
the usefulness of the existing data base, we begin to identify
areas that have been improperly or inadequately documented.
To simplify the discussion of the usefulness of the
existing data base to decision making, the discussion is
separated into two sections. The first section describes
management's ability, using existing information, to trace a
pollutant from the source to its eventual distribution in Puget
Sound. The second section of the discussion describes ability,
using existing information, to trace pollutants in the
environment to their eventual distribution in the biota, and how
they affect species.
Pollutants in Puget Sound
Linkages between the inputs of pollutants and their
eventual distributions in the environment can only be generally
outlined by the existing data base. Water quality managers are
therefore faced with isolated pieces of information and often
must rely on educated guesses in predicting impacts resulting
from their management decisions.
Mass Loading Data
Mass loading data are generally incomplete or inadequate
for their needed uses. Mass loadings of conventional pollutants
(e.g., BOD) from major point sources and major rivers are
generally well documented and usable by resource managers, but
many conventional pollutants are of relatively little concern
except in localized areas with poor flushing (e.g., Budd Inlet).
Few data are available on the mass loading of heavy metals
to Puget Sound. Most of these data are provided by Metro and by
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industrial dischargers in Commencement Bay. Some data on
riverine input and atmospheric deposition of heavy metals are
also available, but these are limited to only a few metals at a
few locations. Absence of data on riverine input of heavy
metals during the winter is another limitation to these data.
Additional data for CSOs and storm drain runoff in the Metro
service area will soon be available with completion of the
Toxicant Pretreatment Planning Study (TPPS) by Metro. Heavy
metal mass loading, even for the Metro service area, will be
incomplete until data are also available from industrial
dischargers.
Another, and more severe problem with existing mass loading
data, is the widespread absence of data on the mass loading of
the organic priority pollutants. Metro and industrial
dischargers in Commencement Bay have provided some information,
but analytical procedures in certain cases result in inaccurate
data. For example, some analyses of effluent composition are
made prior to chlorination. Many chlorinated compounds,
including some priority pollutants, may be formed during the
chlorination process; therefore, mass loading of these compounds
could be underestimated if measurable quantities of these
compounds are formed. In other cases the analytical methodology
may not accurately assess concentrations. For example, "oil and
grease" measurements do not normally accurately reflect
hydrocarbon content because the low boiling fractions are
typically lost during analysis (Pizzo et al. 1976). In still
other cases, a toxic material may escape notice simply because
it is not considered a priority pollutant or is not a parameter
covered by water quality standards. The industrial pretreatment
program is attempting to identify compounds of this sort. A
closer look at regional industries not discharging to municipal
systems might disclose toxic materials which have escaped the
monitoring process.
A third major problem that hinders the water quality
manager's ability to use the existing data base is lack of
information on mass loading from nonpoint sources. This problem
is of particular concern in shellfish growing areas and at
dredge spoil disposal sites.
Transport, Fate and Distribution in the Physical Habitat
The resource manager can predict the movement of pollutants
between water masses on a very broad scale, and it is possible
to adequately model nearfield discharge plumes and zones of
dilution, but managers typically do not have the information
needed to model transport of pollutants between these two
extremes. Generally a major portion of the pollutant load is
adsorbed to fine particulate matter and is transported to
deposition environments within the regional receiving water but
outside the nearfield zone. Furthermore, nearfield models
rarely address the role of flocculation and sedimentation
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rates in depositing pollutants in the nearfield. Ambient
currents play a major role in the deposition of particulate
matter. Areas with strong currents typically have
coarse-grained sediments. Fine particulate matter is unlikely
to permanently settle in these areas, and may be transported for
some distance before it can settle out. Existing modeling
efforts rarely address this sedimentation problem. Studies have
not been conducted that concurrently examine pollutant loading,
dispersal paths and processes, and deposition in the sediments.
A few monitoring efforts have been made that concurrently sample
outfall suspended solids and sediments in the nearfield, but
these provide little meaningful data in the absence of dispersal
information.
Chemical compounds having similar structures often display
similar properties. It is possible, therefore, to generally
predict the physical or chemical fate of most pollutants based
on known properties associated with the general chemical
structure. The ability to make predictions is hampered,
however, for several reasons. First, speciation of pollutants
affects their toxicity and fate, but existing data frequently do
not identify the form or isomer of a compound. Similarly,
pollutants in the dissolved state have quite different
properties relative to those in the adsorbed state. The
existing data frequently do not identify whether the pollutant
is in a dissolved or adsorbed state. Second, local conditions
play a significant role in determining the fate of pollutants.
Much of the existing fate information is based on studies in
freshwater systems. Marine processes can be expected to differ.
Although it may be possible to identify the various physical and
chemical processes that alter the form and distribution of
pollutants, it is usually not possible to determine with
existing data which processes are most important locally.
Third, a number of compounds produce degradation products that
are as toxic or even more toxic than the parent compound. In
the case of many organic pollutants, the degradation products
remain unknown or have not been sought in the existing data.
Finally, phenomena such as synergistic effects and chemical
interaction of pollutants are rarely understood or reported.
Effects of Pollutants on Biota
Sindermann (1979) has pointed out that when scientists are
asked to "state positively that the disease condition seen in
natural populations is caused by specific environmental
contaminants," the scientist cannot do so; however, the weight
of evidence "leads to the conclusion that associations do exist
between pollutants and disease." This dilemma for the resource
manager is no different in Puget Sound. We do know, however,
from the evidence obtained in Puget Sound that:
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o The occurrence of fish disease and the concentration of
organic compounds in fish and sediments are higher in
urbanized embayments than in other areas,
o Municipal and industrial effluent are toxic in specific
cases to a wide array of organisms,
o In a few tests, sediments from certain areas are toxic
to certain organisms,
o Skin tumors of demersal fish may be accompanied by
differential growth and mortality.
The key data that are missing in each of the above observations
is knowledge of the specific contaminant that results in the
effect. As described below, the existing data do not allow the
resource manager to determine that regulatory decisions will
alter the adverse impacts of specific pollutants on biota.
Heavy Metals
There have been no definitive studies that demonstrate the
bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish tissues above "normal"
or "background" concentrations. None of the studies to date has
included sufficient replicates to allow statistical analysis of
the data. The existing data are from a variety of fish species,
but nothing is known about species-specific susceptibility to the
bioaccumulation of metals. Many of the existing studies are of
no value because samples were not collected from an appropriate
control area (either no control samples were taken, or the
unpolluted status of the control area was not verified) . No
efforts have been made to date to calibrate the procedures and
results of the various laboratories that have conducted the
analyses. Finally, existing data are plagued by inconsistency in
the unit measurements reported (e.g., dry vs. wet weight).
Apart from mercury, a literature survey indicates that
bioaccumulation of heavy metals by fish in Puget Sound is not
likely. Arsenic, lead, and copper could be of localized concern
in Puget Sound, but the existing studies have not concurrently
sampled levels of these metals in fish, sediments, the diet, and
the water column. At the moment, the data indicate that heavy
metal contamination of sediments may be correlated with the
occurrence of pathological conditions, but this is not evidence
of a cause-and-effeet relationship.
PCBs
Available data on the concentrations of PCBs (and similarly
for most other organic contaminants) in fishes of Puget Sound
present many of the same problems found in the data on concen-
trations of metals in fishes (e.g., lack of adequate
replication, differences in fish species analyzed, lack of
appropriate controls, and variations in both analytical proce-
dures and in the units reported). Nevertheless, these data are
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more suggestive of significant bioaccumulation because the
differences in the concentrations of these compounds between
fish in known polluted areas and those in background or control
areas are much larger than are the usual differences in metals
concentrations between two such areas. Whereas metals
concentrations often only differ two- or three-fold between fish
in polluted urban areas and those in presumed control areas, the
concentrations of PCBs in fish from two such areas often differ
by one or more orders of magnitude. The available evidence
suggests that accumulation of PCBs is most pronounced in
demersal fishes (e.g., English sole, rock sole, sculpins)
inhabiting urban estuaries (e.g., Commencement Bay, Elliott Bay,
Duwamish River) known to have sediments contaminated with
comparably high concentrations of these compounds.
As in the case of some heavy metals, it is known that PCBs
are toxic to many organisms at low concentrations. Data from
the literature indicate that PCBs are taken up from sediments
and from the water column, and that PCBs induce some of the
pathological conditions observed in fish in urbanized embayments
of Puget Sound. These latter observations, although obtained
under laboratory conditions, are evidence that PCBs may be
causing some of the observed pathologies of fishes. This does
not, however, constitute evidence that PCBs are the only causal
agent for fish abnormalities in Puget Sound.
Other Organic Compounds
A number of organic compounds known to be highly toxic to
marine organisms have been found in Puget Sound, e.g., DDT and
derivatives, other pesticides, chlorinated butadienes, poly-
chlorinated phenols, and higher molecular weight polyaromatic
hydrocarbons. In all cases, evidence to show that these are
causal agents for fish abnormalities in Puget Sound has not been
obtained, for some of the same reasons that such evidence has
not been obtained for heavy metals and PCBs.
Summary
With a few exceptions, available data do not clearly link
specific pollutants to adverse impacts on beneficial uses;
nevertheless, the weight of the circumstantial evidence
indicates a positive association between wastewater discharge
and changes in or adverse impacts on beneficial uses. The water
quality manager is faced with the knowledge that regulatory
decisions currently cannot be focused on the causal agents of
observed symptoms of water pollution, and there is, therefore,
no assurance that a decision will be the correct one, i.e., one
that will remedy or abate the adverse impact. In the face of
this dilemma, the water quality manager may well ask how
existing data can be used until such time that appropriate data
are made available.
Two sets of observations can be of use to water quality
managers at the present time. First, in the absence of
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documented cause-and-effeet relationships between specific
pollutants and pathological abnormalities observed in fish popu-
lations, it may be valid to look for pollution characteristics
common to those localities. In reviewing contaminants in the
environments of diseased fish in areas such as Elliott Bay, Com-
mencement Bay, coastal Southern California, and Chesapeake Bay,
the most obvious similarity is the presence in the sediments of
a number of chlorinated hydrocarbons, especially PCBs,
pesticides, and compounds typically associated with wastewater
chlorination. Among these pollutants, PCBs have usually been
detected in fish tissues, but the concentrations vary widely and
no meaningful correlation between levels in tissues and
incidence of disease can be obtained.
Second, although documented cause-effect relationships may
not be currently available, there is a large body of information
suggesting a positive correlation between certain pollution
conditions and observed effects on biota or beneficial uses. In
some cases, these correlations can be useful indicators for
choosing appropriate regulatory decisions, e.g., whether to
issue a new source permit or alter wastewater treatment
practices in a local area if other options are available.
At the present time, the quantities or mass loading of
pollutants discharged to various areas of Puget Sound are
generally uninterpretable for possible cause-and-effeet
purposes, with the possible exception of Elliott and
Commencement Bays. Even in these two areas, it seems likely
that sufficient data are not available. For example, loading
from CSOs is not presently incorporated into mass loading
calculations. CSOs represent short-term, seasonal, but poten-
tially major, loading events. Even if data were available, too
little is known about the transport and fate mechanisms to
determine whether CSOs can be dealt with on an average daily
basis or as seasonal events. Furthermore, some industries on
these two bays may discharge low volumes of effluent that
represent significant loading sources that current monitoring
efforts overlook, because toxic constituents are not on the EPA
priority pollutant list.
Existing circulation modeling efforts are generally useful
to water quality managers to predict dilution rates and dilution
zones of the outfall plume. Some models may help estimate the
flushing rate for a localized water body, but all of these
models describe dilution of the wastewater and, therefore,
describe the likely transport of dissolved pollutants and pollu-
tants adsorbed to suspended particulates that remain in the
water column during the dilution period.
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Conclusion
Water quality managers have the regulatory tools to respond
and prevent and abate pollution once there is sufficient
evidence to show reasonable cause that a discharge or polluting
activity has an adverse effect on beneficial uses or resources.
Although a comprehensive water quality management structure is
operating, it is not fully integrated and coordinated with
respect to the acquisition and use of technical data and
information.
With the exception of effluent analyses done as part of the
301(h) waiver applications for municipal discharges, and as
NPDES permit compliance monitoring on behalf of a few selected
industrial discharges, there are few data to describe sources
and mass loadings of priority pollutants. Although the EPA
priority pollutant list is a reasonable starting point for
identifying pollutants requiring special consideration in Puget
Sound, the list should be used in conjunction with other
factors. Many of the compounds on the list have not been found
in the Puget Sound ecosystem, while a few other compounds known
to be toxic, but not on the list, have been found.
Knowledge about the dispersion and fate of pollutants is
based primarily on theoretical considerations, simplifying
models, and limited empirical data identifying where certain
toxicants have accumulated in the environment. The build-up of
potentially toxic substances in bottom sediments is documented,
particularly in the Central Basin. These data indicate highly
localized distributions of contaminants in the sediments.
The acutely toxic characteristics of priority pollutants
are well documented (otherwise they would not have been
designated as an EPA priority pollutant). Pathogenic conditions
observed in some demersal fish, especially English sole and
starry flounder, are inferentially associated with bottom
sediments containing abnormally high concentrations of
toxicants. Generally, there are few data that link indirect
effects on biota with specific pollutants, much less with
sources of pollutants.
Water quality monitoring in Puget Sound is done primarily
by WDOE, NPDES permittees, USGS, and DSHS. In some cases, the
objectives of monitoring are not given or are poorly defined.
Although conventional pollutants are often included in monitor-
ing, priority pollutants are usually not included, and consis-
tency is lacking in the coordination of sampling and data
treatment to permit maximum uses of all data.
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278

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Pp. 249-255 in V. R. LoCicero, ed., Toxic dinoflagellate
blooms. Proceeding of the First International Conference,
Massachusetts Science and Technology Foundation, Wakefield.
Wang, J. D. 1979. Finite element model of two-dimensional
stratified flow. J. Hydraulics Division, ASCE., 105 (No.
HYl2. Proc. Paper 15040:1473-1485.
Wang, J. D., and J. J. Connor. 1975. Mathematical modeling of
near coastal circulation. Tech. Rep. No. 200, R. M. Parsons
Lab, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA.
Wang, D. P., and D. W. Kravitz. 1980. A semi-implicit
two-dimensional model of estuarine circulation. J. Phys.
Oceanogr. 10(3)441-454.
Washington Department of Ecology. 1979. ASARCO Class II
survey, 20 September 1978. Memorandum dated April 19, 1979 to
R. Pierce.
Washington Department of Ecology. 1981. Memorandum dated
December 7, 1981 from M. Heffner to R. Pierce. Subject:
ASARCO Class II survey, February 24 and 25, 1981.
Washington Department of Ecology. 1983. FY 1983 Water Quality
Management Program. Prepared by U. S. EPA, Office of Water
Programs Operations, Washington, D.C.
298

-------
Water Resources Engineers, Inc. 1975. Ecological modeling of
Puget Sound and adjacent waters. WRE 11930, OWRR C2044-X. U.
S. EPA. 119 pp.
Wellings, S. R., C. E. Alpers, B. B. McCain, and B. S. Miller.
1976a. Fin erosion disease of starry flounder (Platichthys
stellatus) and English sole (Parophyrys vetulusTj Tn trie
estuary of the Duwamish River, Seattle, Washington. J. Fish.
Res. B. Can. 33:2577-2586.
Wellings, S. R., B. B. McCain, and B. S. Miller. 1976b.
Epidermal papillomas in Pleuronectidae of Puget Sound, Wash.
Prog, in Exp. Tumor Res. 20:55074.
Westlake, D. W. S., and F. D. Cook. 1980. Petroleum
biodegradation potential of northern Puget Sound and Strait of
Juan de Fuca. EPA 600/7-80-133. U. S. EPA, Washington, DC.
Westlake, D. W. S., F. D. Cook, and A. M. Jobson. 1978.
Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons - interagency
energy/environment R&D program report. EPA 600/7-78-148.
U. S. EPA, Washington, DC. Pp. 1-65.
Westley, R. E., E. Finn, M. I. Carr, M. A. Tarr, A. J. Scholz,
L. Goodwin, R. W. Sternberg, and E. E. Collias. 1975.
Evaulation of effects of channel maintenance dredging and
disposal on the marine environment in southern Puget Sound,
Washington. Tech. Rep. No. 15. Washington Department of
Fisheries, Olympia, WA. 137 pp.
Westside Water District. 1979. Application for 301(h)
modification. Prepared for U. S. EPA, Office of Water Program
Operations, Washington, D. C.
White, H. H., and M. Lockwood. In press. A holistic approach
to solving marine pollution problems: The basis for wise
management.
Wiley, M. (ed.) 1976. Estuarine processes. Vol. II:
Circulation, sediments, and transfer of material in the
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York. SO3 pp.
Williams, R. W., R. M. Laramie, and J. J. Ames. 1975. A
catalog of Washington streams and salmon utilization. Volume
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Olympia, WA.
Winter, D. F. 1973. A similarity solution for steady-state
gravitation circulation in fjords. Est. Coast. Mar. Sci.
1:387-400.
299

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Winter, D. F., K. Banse, and G. C. Anderson. 1975. The
dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in Puget Sound, a fjord in
the northwestern United States. Mar. Biol. 29:139-176.
Woelke, C. E. 1972. Development of a receiving water quality
bioassay criteria based on the 48-hour Pacific oyster
(Crassostrea gigas) embryo. Tech. Rep. No. 9. Washington
Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA. 93 pp.
Word, J. Q., and P. L. Striplin. 1981. Effects of municipal
waste discharge on the benthic invertebrate communities living
in the erosional environment off West Point: Toxic and
nutritional aspects. Manuscript on the reanalysis of data
contained in Thom et al. (1979) submitted to Seattle Metro.
2 9 pp.
Word, J. Q., P. L. Striplin, and K. K. Chew. 1981. Richmond
Reach sewage outfall survey: A survey of benthic subtidal
communities. College of Fisheries, University of Washington,*
Seattle, WA. Unpublished manuscript.
Yearsley, J. R. 1973. A steady-state three-dimensional
diffusion model for Port Gardner - a subsystem of Puget Sound.
U. S. EPA, Region 10, Seattle, WA. 13 pp.
Zucher, F., and M. Thuer. 1978.
fuel oil in natural waters:
Env. Sci. Tech. 12(7):838-843.
Rapid weathering processes of
Analyses and interpretation.
Personal Communications
Becker, S. 1982. December 7, 1982. Letter to Dr. L. McCrone,
Tetra Tech, Inc., Bellevue, WA.
Bernhardt, J. December 28, 1982. Environmentalist, Washington
Department of Ecology, Tumwater, WA. Telephone conversation.
Bogue, W. December 13, 1982. Monitoring Division, U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA.
Telephone conversation.
Chew, K. May 12, 1982. College of Fisheries, University of
Washington, Telephone conversation.
Cokelet, E. 1982. Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory,
NOAA, Seattle, WA. Personal communication.
Cox, F. December 28, 1982. Shellfish Sanitation, Department of
Social and Health Services, Olympia, WA. Telephone
conversation.
Cox, J. 1982. Evans-Hamilton, Inc. Seattle, WA. Personal
communcation.
300

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Crean, P. 1982. Institute of Ocean Sciences, British Columbia,
Canada. Personal communication.
Crecelius, E. November 30, 1982. Batelle Labs, Sequim, WA.
Marine pollution seminar presentation OMPA-NOAA. Seminar.
Dahlgren, C. November 22, 1982. Fisheries Biologist,
Washington Department of Fisheries, Tumwater, WA. Meeting.
Determan, T. December 28, 1982. Environmentalist, Department
of Ecology, Tumwater, WA. Telephone conversation.
Frandsen, L. December 23, 1982. Pesticide Program Manager, EPA
Hazardous Waste Division, U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Region 10, Seattle, WA. Telephone conversation.
Galvin, D. November 23, 1982. Metro Water Quality Planner,
Seattle, WA. Telephone conversation.
Haines, A. December 13, 1982. Environmentalist, Washington
Department of Ecology, Tumwater, WA. Telephone conversation.
Hansen, F. January 20, 1983. Marine Office, Washington
Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA. Telephone
conversation.
Long, E. November 9, 1982, et seq. Office of Marine Pollution
Assessment, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration,
Seattle, WA. Meetings and telephone conversations.
Matsuda, R. December 13, 1982. Metro Water Quality Planning,
Monitoring and Analysis, Seattle, WA. Telephone conversation.
Mearns, A. J. December 14, 1982. Marine pollution seminar
presentation OMPA-NOAA, Seattle, WA.
Monn, B. October 6, 1982. Head, Water Quality Management
Section, Washington Department of Ecology, Lacey, WA.
Telephone conversation.
Pavlou, S. 1982. JRB Associates, Inc. Bellevue, WA. Meeting.
Romberg, P. July 7, 1983. Toxicant Control Section, Metro,
Seattle, WA. Meeting.
Simmler, J. December 29, 1982. Head, Toxicant Control Section,
Metro, Seattle, WA. Telephone conversation.
Springer, S. December 6, 1982. Engineer, Department of
Ecology, Lacey, WA. Telepone conversation.
Tomlinson, R. December 14, 1982. Field Services Supervisor,
Metro, Water Quality Division, Seattle, WA. Telephone
conversation.
301

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Wright, D. December 27, 1982. Environmentalist, Washington
Department of Ecology, Redmond, WA. Telephone conversation.
302

-------
LIST OF PREPARERS
Name &
Firm

Field of
Expertise
Responsibility
Dr.
C.
Hazel
JSA
Water quality, biology
Program manager; contribution
to Chapter 1.
Dr.
H.
Van Veldhuizen
JSA
Marine biology
Project manager; Chapters 1,
2, 3, 9; contributions to
Chapters 4, 6, 7 & 8.
Ms.
A.
Godbey
JSA
Water quality, engi-
neering
Chapter 4; contribution to
Chapter 8.
Mr.
G.
Ruggerone
JSA
Fisheries biology
Contribution to Chapter 4.
MS.
J.
Cabreza
JSA
Water quality, biology
Chapter 6; contribution to
Chapters 8 & 9.
Mr.
R.
Denman
JSA
Stream hydrology
Contribution to Chapter 4.
Dr.
T.
Ginn
TTI
Marine biology
Chapter 7; contribution to
Chapter 9.
Dr.
L.
McCrone
TTI
Fisheries biology
Contribution to Chapter 7.
Mr.
G.
Bigham
TTI
Oceanographic modeling
Chapter 5.
Ms.
L.
Little
TTI
Oceanographic modeling
Contribution to Chapter 5.
Mr.
J.
Pagenkopf
TTI
Oceanographic modeling
Contribution to Chapter 5.
JSA - Jones & Stakes Associates, Inc.
TTI - Tetra Tech, Inc.
303

-------
304

-------
Priority Pollutants Identified by EPA
tl!
"acenap^itvene
'oionrotoluene
Q\
'acro-em
13s! 2,4-Omit rovoiuene
(3)
'acfylonllf ilt
(36} 2.6(Stnuroioiutne
(*)
"benjene
(37) ' 1,2 dchicrot>en2ene	143)
J 9} hexachlotobeoiene
*ch)or«nated eihanei {includtng 1.2t)i-
chJo?oe thane. 1.1. Mnchlcroetnane.	1^4;
and he*achl©foethane)	(45J
4-cnfurophEnyi phen>3 ether
4-0'on-iophenyl phenyl ether
bisi2~cnloroiscpropyl) ether
tii!.2 chJO'"'>etho*yi methane
"hale-methanes {other than tnose listed else-
«r« r«l
PC) 1.2 CiChloroeihane	<463
(MJ 1 JJ-inthloroeihane	I4?)
(12} htxachlotoethane	(4e)
p3t 1,1-dtcMoroetnane	***(4&)
(U) 1.1.2-uichloroethane	¥*¥160)
H5) ^J,2.2teuacWoroethane	{515
(16] cJiloraei^r.e	(521
oroa!kyl ethers (cW&romeiihYl. chloro- 153)
ethyJ. and rmted ether*!	(64)
**¥ (17) biilchtorometM) ether	(651
(16i ths(2-chlofoeihy]) ether	(56)
(19J 2-cMoroetnyl vinyl eiher (m.xed) *muc
'chlorinated naphthalenes
(20} 2-ch'Of onaphcfuJene
*chiof inated phenois {other Tfuan iho*e
If sled elsewhere, includes vichlorophe-
noti »nd chlorinated ccesots)
(2M	2,4,6-t^chioropheool
(22)	para-c^loro meta-crevot
(23J	* chioroiQtm (ifichioromethane}
(24 J	*2-chloropheno!
*diChio^oben2enet
(251	i,2-d'ChlOfOt»en2«ne
(26)	\.3-d«chlojobenzene
(2?)	1.4-dichlorobenaene
*d4Chforoben2idine
(28) 3.2J-d»chiofct>eniidine
*dich2ofpethy»enes U,Vd»chiOfoet^ySer\e
and V2.iram-d-chlor»fiihY'enef
(29$ l.l-^'ChioroeUiY^^
(30) V2-if»n*-o:ctt&roeifc>HM
(3U " 2,4-dichlorophenol	(72)
*OiCh^o-n-propy(afne -e
{' Zj'i
d-a iC^.prj
1761
anthricent
iC 3:
b-6 r^C-oe*.a
(79)
ben^o'njh'jperylene (1.^2-
04 )
f-BHC !,:-"aanei-Gjn-,Ti3

beniopcy lent
'; G D
5-shC De. io
mi
i'luOfene
"pQ-VCh
Of.n'.il D p'-tr.yiS
(Bl)
pnenanthrene
noe,
PC5-l2-;2 ;A;oC:y ;24?
<82j
o.Den/ota.^ j anthricene
\\ 0 7;
PC 3- * 254 :A/ocior 1 25-:

I 'i^.S.fi-a.benzan'.nraceriei
! u8;
P:3-122i SA
183}
»ndeioi 1,2.3-cdjpyrene
(ICS)
PC3-1 232 iA.'e;;or- 1 232
(B4i
p>r«ne
(UOi
PC5-'\2-iS (A'OCiQr-1 2-iSl
l65)
" tetrachl or ethylene
nm
PC3-1250 1 A?oc':cr-1 26C'
(66)
*»o'Liene
! \2)
PCB-10 3 6 jAf or-10 J 6'
IS?!
"s.'>chJof£>ethy»en«
(\T31
" toxap-ene
166)
'vyny) vhJor.cfr irhJoroeihyit'n^;-
ill 4;
*anLmony Jrciai.J
pest'Ctdes and met^boiii«i
(115)
*i/semc (toiai!
(391
"a.ds.n
»n6)
'aibcisos ;'iD'Ous)
!90|
*Oie(dnn
(117)
"teryih^m (tota'i
'91 i
"cf'.tarjane iiec^nicai mixture
(n 3i
*caarr.ium (;otal:

anu iTteiabo-ntesJ
{ i 19,
'cnromiyni: ^ota<)
*DOT and meuboines
(1201
'copper
(92)
4.4'-OOT
<12)1
'cyanide ho:*!)
^93>
4.4--DOE ip.p'-DCXi
U22i
#ieid ;*oiar
:543
4,4'-DDO ip.p- IDE)
(I23i
*mejcu'y i':ot3i)
enaosuJfa-n ana mtubo^te-s
(12Ji
'nickel iJOJai)
(96)
a-endoiutian Alpha
r.25t
"seiijiv.un*' iioUi'i
(96)
t> en£oiuti*n Bel*
! 126)
'sa»er iioia'}
{9?)
^ndosuiUn su ftfie
(12?)
"thaiiiuTi itouii
'endrm
and trseiaboist-e^
(1251
"«
-------
A-2

-------
Appendix B
NPDES PERMITTED DISCHARGERS TO PUGET SOUND
Map ID number refers to Figure 4-1. Individual dischargers
are designated by county and with an individual number. County
names used in the ID number are abbreviated in Figure 4-1 as
fo1lows:
w
= Whatcom
SK
= Skagit
SN
= Snohomish
K
= King
S
= San Juan
I
= Island
KT
- Kitsap
P
= Pierce
T
=¦ Thurston
C
= Clallam
M
= Mason
J
= Jefferson
B-l

-------
B-2

-------
:d
i
3
4
5
6
/
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
h
5
6
7
8
9
NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Discharger
Puget Sound
Receiving Water
ARCO
CITY OF BELLINGHAM
BELLINGHAM COLD STORAGE C
BORNSTEIN SEAFOOD INC
BUMBLE BEE SEAFOODS
COLUMBIA CEMENT CORP
DAHL FISH CO
GEORGIA-PACIFIC CORP
GEORGIA PACIFIC CORP
WA ST. PARK & REC COMMISH
MOBIL OIL CORP (FERNDALE)
MT. BAKER PLYWOOD
OLIVINE CORP
R.G. HALEY INTERNAT'L COR
SEA PAC CO.
PUGET SOUND POWER & LIGHT
CITY OF BLAINE
WHATCOM CO. WATER DIST 8
LIQUID CARBONIC CORP
INTALCO ALUMINUM (FERNDL)
CITY OF ANACORTES
CITY OF ANACORTES
ALLIED CHEMICAL CORP
FISHERMAN'S PACKING CORP
LEONA M. SUNQUIST MAR LAB
PUBLISHERS FOREST PROD CO
SHELL OIL CO
TEXACO, INC.
WHITNEY FIDALGO SEAFOODS
ROCK POINT OYSTER CO
BLAU OYSTER CO
TOWN OF LA CONNER
MOORE CLARK CO.
SHELTER BAY COMMUNITY INC
SOMETHING FISHY FISH CO.
SKAGIT CO. SEWER DIST. #1
SWINOMISH INDIAN TRIBAL
NEW ENGLAND FISH CO.
WHITNEY FIDALGO SEAFOODS
STRAIT OF GEORGIA
BELLINGHAM BAY
SQUALICUM CK AND BOAT
BASIN
I & j ST. WATERWAY
SQUALICUM BOAT BASIN
BELLINGHAM BAY
WHATCOM CK WATERWAY
BELLINGHAM BAY
WHATCOM WATERWAY
SAMISH BAY
STRAIT OF GEORGIA
SQUALICUM WATERWAY
BELLINGHAM BAY
BELLINGHAM BAY
BELLINGHAM BAY
GEORGIA STRAITS
STRAIT OF GEORGIA
STRAIT OF GEORGIA
STRAIT OF GEORGIA
STRAIT OF GEORGIA
GUEMES CHANNEL
BURROWS BAY
PADILLA BAY
GUEMES CHANNEL
GUEMES CHANNEL
FIDALGO BAY
FIDALGO BAY
FIDALGO BAY
GUEMES CHANNEL
SAMISH BAY
SAMISH BAY
SWINOMISH SLOUGH
SWINOMISH CHANNEL
SWINOMISH CHANNEL
SWINOMISH CHANNEL
SKAGIT BAY
SWINOMISH CHANNEL
SWINOMISH CHANNEL
SALMON BAY

-------

NPDES Permitted Dischargers
; to Puget Sound


Permit No.
Discharger
Receiving Water
M
ap
WA-002 9025
AIRCO WELDING CO.
DUWAMISH R.
KING
1
WA-0029696
ARCO
DUWAMISH WATERWAY
KING
2
WA-0029017
METRO - ALKI
PUGET SOUND
KING
3
WA-00007 44
BETHLEHEM STEEL CORP
ELLIOT BAY (STORM DITCH)
KING
4
WA-0030368
BOEING AEROSPACE COM
DUWAMISH R.
KING
5
WA-0003514
BOEING
DUWAMISH R.
KING
6
WA-00029 17
BOEING
DUWAMISH R.
KING
7
WA-0030716
BOEING
DUWAMISH R. VIA STORM SEW
KING
8
WA-0000868
BOEING
DUWAMISH
KING
9
WA-0029874
BOEING
DUWAMISH R.
KING
10
W A-00291 73
METRO - CARKEEK
PUGET SOUND
KING
1 1
WA-0002488
CHAMPION BUILDING PRODUCT
LAKE WASHINGTON SHIP
KING
12


CANAL


W A-00018 56
COLUMBIA CEMENT
WEST WATERWAY
KING
13
WA-0020958
DES MOINES SEWER DIST
PUGET SOUND
KING
14
WA-0021351
FISHER MILLS
DUWAMISH WATERWAY
KING
15
WA-002 2144
GATX TANK STORAGE TERMIN.
DUWAMISH E. WATERWAY
KING
16
WA-0002232
IDEAL BASIC INDUSTRIES
DUWAMISH R.
KING
17
W A-0002 2 59
KAISER CEMENT & GYPSUM
DUWAMISH
KING
18
WA-002 26 24
LAKEHAVEN SEWER DISTRICT
PUGET SOUND-DUMAS BAY
KING
19
WA-002 34 51
LAKEHAVEN SEWER DIST
PUGET SOUND-POVERTY BAY
KING
20
WA-00207 53
LIQUID AIR, INC.
DUWAMISH R.
KING
21
WA-00005 58
LOCKHEED SHIPBUILDING COR
DUWAMISH R. W. WATERWAY
KING
22
WA-00292 20
MARALCO ALUM
DUWAMISH R.
KING
23
WA-002 9009
MOBIL OIL CORP
ELLIOTT BAY
KING
24
WA-0003395
MOBIL OIL CORP.
L. W. SHIP CANAL
KING
25
WA-0021270
MONSANTO CO.
STR. OF JUAN DE FUCA
KING
26
WA-0003093
MONSANTO IND. CHEM CO.
DUWAMISH R.
KING
27
WA-002 9122
N. COAST CHEM CO.
DUWAMISH WATERWAY VIA
KING
28


DITCH


W A-00012 95
N W BOLT & NUT CO
LK. WASH. SHIP CANAL
KING
29
WA-0002046
N.W. STEEL ROLLING MILLS
LAKE WASH. SHIP CANAL
KING
30
WA-000 34 33
NORTHWESTERN GLASS CO.
DUWAMISH RIVER
KING
31
WA-0001431
QUEMETCO, INC.
WEST WATERWAY VIA STORM
KING
32


SEWER TRIB


WA-00296 11
METRO - RICHMOND
PUGET SOUND
KING
33
WA-002 2306
SEABOARD LUMBER CO.
DUWAMISH WATERWAY
KING
34
WA-0003280
CITY OF SEATTLE
DUWAMISH RIVER
K ING
35
WA-0001597
SEATTLE STEAM CORP
ELLIOT BAY
KING
36
WA-0001503
SEATTLE STEAM CORP
ELLIOTT BAY
KING
37

-------
Permit No.
NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Discharger
WA-002 4651
WA-0022764
W A-002 2 7 7 2
WA-0003085
W A-000 12 79
W A-0001791
WA-0002615
W A-002 2 5 2 7
W A-002 9181
WA-002 9386
WA-0020567
WA-0020702
WA-0003468
WA-0029378
WA-0029190
W A-003 05 71
WA-0029891
WA-002 3582
W A-00296 37
WA-0030589
WA-00292 1 1
WA-0021822
WA-0030431
WA-0029904
WA-00032 39
WA-0023396
WA-0024031
W A-002 3299
WA-0020893
WA-0022497
WA-00208 26
WA-0000621
W A-000 34 17
WA-0024490
WA-00017 75
WA-0024058
WA-0025232
WA-0024805
WA-002 5097
WA-0020290
PORT OF SEATTLE IN D WST P
S.W. SUB. SEW. D.(MILLER)
S.W. SUB. SEW. D.(SALMON)
SHELL OIL
STD. OIL CO. OF CALIF.
TEXACO INC.
TODD SHIPYARDS CORP
VASHON SEWER DISTRICT
METRO - WEST POINT
PENN COVE SEWER DISTRICT
CITY OF OAK HARBOR
TOWN OF LANGLEY
NAVAL AIR STATION
TOWN OF COUPEVILLE
J.J.THEODORE CO.
EASTSOUND WATER DIST
ROSARIO RESORT DEV ELOPMNT
TOWN OF FRIDAY HARBOR
U OF WA FRI. HARBOR LAB.
FISHERMAN BAY SEWER DIST.
ISLAND FRESH SEAFOODS
ROCHE HARBOR RESORT
FRIDAY HARBOR WATER DEPT
FREE METHODIST CHURCH OF
STANDARD OIL OF CALIFORNI
OLYMPUS TERRACE SEWER DIS
CITY OF LYNNWOOD
CITY OF MUKILTEO
LAKE STEVENS SEWER DIST
CITY OF MARYSVILLE
ALDERWOOD WATER DISTRICT
SCOTT PAPER CO
WESTERN GEAR CORP
CITY OF EVERETT
UNION OIL OF CALIFORNIA
CITY OF EDMONDS
DEFENSE FUEL SUPPORT PT.
TULALIP TRIBES OF WASH
NO AA FISHERIES RESEARCH F
CITY OF STANWOOD
to
Puget Sound
Receiving Water
Map ID No.
PUGET SOUND
KING
38
PUGET SOUND
KING
39
PUGET SOUND
KING
40
ELLIOTT BAY
KING
41
EAST DUWAMISH WATERWAY
KING
42
DUWAMISH WATERWAY
KING
43
ELLIOTT BAY
KING
44
PUGET SOUND
KING
45
PUGET SOUND AT WEST POINT
KING
46
PENN COVE
ISLAND 1
OAK HARBOR
ISLAND 2
SARATOGA PASSAGE
ISLAND 3
CRESENT HARBOR
ISLAND 4
PENN COVE
ISLAND 5
GRIFFEN BAY
SAN JUAN
PRESIDENT CHANNEL
SAN JUAN
CASCADE BAY, EASTSOUND
SAN JUAN
FRIDAY HARBOR
SAN JUAN
SAN JUAN CHANNEL
SAN JUAN
SAN JUAN CHANNEL
SAN JUAN
OUTER BAY
SAN JUAN
ROCHE HARBOR
SAN JUAN
FALSE BAY
SAN JUAN
PORT SUSAN
SNOHOMISH
PUGET SOUND
SNOHOMISH
POSSESSION SOUND
SNOHOMISH
BROWN BAY PUGET SOUND
SNOHOMISH
POSSESSION SOUND
SNOHOMISH
EBEY SLOUGH
SNOHOMISH
EBEY SLOUGH
SNOHOMISH
PUGET SOUND
SNOHOMISH
EVERETT HARBOR
SNOHOMISH
PORT GARDNER
SNOHOMISH
SNOHOMISH RIVER
SNOHOMISH
PUGET SOUND
SNOHOMISH
PUGET SOUND
SNOHOMISH
POSSESSION SOUND
SNOHOMISH
POSSESSION SOUND
SNOHOMISH
POSSESSION SOUND
SNOHOMISH
STILLAGUAMISH RIVER
SNOHOMISH
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

-------

NPDES Permitted Di3
chargers to Paget Sound



Permit No.
Discharger
Receiving Water
Map
ID
N o
WA-002 5241
TULALIP TRIBES
TULALIP BAY
SNOHOMI
SH
20
WA-0003000
WEYERHAEUSER CO.
STEAMBOAT SLOUGH
SNOHOMI
SH
18
WA-0003590
WEYERHAEUSER CO.
SNOHOMISH RIVER
SNOHOMI
SH
19
WA-0023957
TOWN OF GIG HARBOR
PUGET SOUND - GIG HARBOR
PIERCE
1

WA-0002135
MINTERBROOK OYSTER
CO. PUGET SOUND, HENDERSON
PIERCE
2

BAY
WA-0038920
WOLLOCHET HARBOR CLUB
WOLLOCHET BAY
PIERCE
3
WA-0037575
KETRON ISLAND ENTERPRISES
PUGET SOUND
PIERCE
4
WA-0037656
TAYLOR BAY BEACH CLUB
TAYLOR BAY/CASE INLET
PIERCE
5
WA-0021946
U.S. PENITENTIARY-MCNEIL
PUGET SOUND
PIERCE
6
WA-003 7044
TOWN OF STEILACOOM
PUGET SOUND
PIERCE
7
W A-0001040
BOISE CASCADE
PUGET SOUND CHAMBERS CR.
PIERCE
8
WA-0000582
GLACIER SAND & GRAVEL
PUGET SOUND
PIERCE
9
WA-0037214
TACOMA NORTH END PLT #3
COMMENCEMENT BAY
PIERCE
10
WA-0037087
CITY OF TACOMA PLANT #1
PUYALLUP RIVER
PIERCE
11
WA-003 7 206
CITY OF TACOMA PLANT #2
PUGET SOUND NARROWS
PIERCE
12
WA-0000647
ASARCO INC.
COMMENCEMENT BAY
PIERCE
13
WA-0022918
ATLAS FOUNDRY & MACHINE C
CITY WATERWAY VIA TAC.
STORM SEWER
PIERCE
14
WA-0002321
BUFFELEN WOODWORKING CO.
HYLEBOS WATERWAY,
COMMENCEMENT BAY
PIERCE
15
WA-0037958
CASCADE POLE CO.
BLAIR WATERWAY VIA TACOMA
STORN SEW
PIERCE
16
W A-0001287
CERTAIN TEED PRODUCTS COR
COMMENCEMENT BAY
PIERCE
17
WA-0001864
CONCRETE TECH CORP
BLAIR WATERWAY
PIERCE
18
WA-0001007
DOMTAR CHEMICAL CO
BLAIR WATERWAY
COMMENCEMENT BAY
PIERCE
19
WA-0037851
FICK FOUNDRY CO
CITY WATERWAY
PIERCE
20
WA-0003298
GEORGE SCOFIELD CO
CITY WATERWAY
COMMENCEMENT BAY
PIERCE
21
W A-003 7 265
HOOKER CHEMICAL & PLASTIC
HYLEBOS WATERWAY
COMMENCEMENT BAY
PIERCE
22
WA-0020788
HYDRADE FOOD PROD CORP
WHEELER OSGOOD WATERWAY
VIA ST.DR.
PIERCE
23
WA-0000931
KAISER ALUMINUM & CHEM
HYLEBOS WATERWAY
PIERCE
24
WA-0038679
LILYBLAD PETRO INC.
BLAIR WATERWAY
PIERCE
25
WA-0003387
MOBIL OIL CORP
INNER COMMENCEMENT BAY
PIERCE
26
WA-0037419
NALLEY'S FINE FOODS
TACOMA STORM SEWER
PIERCE
27
WA-0001252
PACIFIC NORTHERN OIL
CITY WATERWAY
PIERCE
28
WA-0038601
PACIFIC RESINS & CHEMICAL
SITCUM WATERWAY VIA T.
PIERCE
29
ST. SEWER

-------
N i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Discharger
to
Puget Sound
Receiving Water
PENNWALT CORP
PUGET SOUND PLYWOOD INC
PUREX CORP
ST REGIS PAPER CO
ST. REGIS PAPER CO.
REICHHOLD CHEMICALS
SHELL OIL CO
SOUND REFINING CO
STAUFFER CHEM CO
UNION OIL OF CA
U.S. OIL & REFINING CO
WESTSIDE WATER DISTRICT
ZIDELL DISMANTLING INC
DEPT OF THE ARMY
ST. REGIS PAPER CO
CITY OF OLYMPIA
BEVERLY BEACH UTILITIES
CARLYON BEACH COUNTRY CLB
CASCADE POLE CO
DELSON LUMBER CO
HUSTON OYSTER CO
NAT'L FISH & OYSTER
SEASHORE VILLA MOBILE HOM
STANDARD OIL CO OF CA
THURSTON CO. PUBLIC WORKS
CONTINENTAL. CAN CO.
GEORGIA PACIFIC CORP
LACEY CO-PLY ASSOC., INC
HAMA HAMA CO.
MASON COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS
CITY OF TACOMA DEPT P.W.
ITT RAY ONIER INC
CITY OF SHELTON
CITY OF SHELTON
CALM COVE OYSTER CO
HYLEBOS WATERWAY
INNER COMMENCEMENT BAY
SITCUM WATERWAY INNER
COMMENCEMENT
COMMENCEMENT BAY ST PAUL
WATERWAY
CITY WATERWAY
BLAIR WATERWAY
COMMENCEMENT BAY
INNER COMMENCEMENT BAY
CITY WATRWY
HYLEBOS WATERWAY
BLAIR WATERWAY
INNER COMMENCEMENT BAY
VIA CITY WW
BLAIR WATERWAY VIA
DRAINAGE DITCH
PUGET SOUND NARROWS
HYLEBOS WATERWAY
PUGET SOUND
COMMENCEMENT RAY
BUDD INLET
BUDD INLET
SQUAXIN PASSAGE
BUDD INLETT
BUDD INLET
MUD BAY
HOGUM BAY
BUDD INLETT
BUDD INLET
BUDD INLET
HENDERSON INLET
HENDERSON INLET
HENDERSON INLET
HOOD CANAL
CASE INLET
HOOD CANAL
HOOD CANAL
OAKLAND BAY
OAKLAND BAY
TOTTEN INLET

-------

NPDES Permitted Dischar
ger s
i to Puget Sound


Permit No.
Discharger

Receiving Water
Map ID N<
W A-0003484
ITT RAYONIER

OAKLAND BAY
MASON 8

W A-00207 45
JOHN A SELLS OYSTER HOUSE
TOTTEN INLET
MASON 9

W A-003 7133
OLYMPIA OYSTER CO.

TOTTEN INLET
MASON 10

WA-0038075
RUSTLEWOOD MASON CO PU
WK
PICKERING PASSAGE PUGET
MASON 11




SOUND


WA-0003174
SIMPSON TIMBER CO

OAKLAND BAY
MASON 12

WA-0003166
SIMPSON TIMBER CO

OAKLAND BAY
MASON 13

WA-0003182
SIMPSON TIMBER CO

OAKLAND BAY
MASON 14

WA-0003158
SIMPSON TIMBER

OAKLAND BAY
MASON 15

WA-0003191
SIMPSON TIMBER

OAKLAND BAY
MASON 16

WA-0021491
SKOOKUM BAY OYSTER CO

SKOOKUM INLET
MASON 17

WA-0037907
UNION OIL CO OF CAL

OAKLAND BAY
MASON 18

WA-0037753
ALDERBROOK INN

HOOD CANAL
MASON 19

WA-0038059
PENINSUL PLYWOOD

PORT ANGELES
CLALLAM
1
WA-0024279
COAST GUARD

PORT ANGELES BAY
CLALLAM
2
WA-002 39 73
CITY OF PORT ANGELES

ST. JUAN DE FUCA
CLALLAM
3
WA-003 7842
M&R TIMBER

PORT ANGELES
CLALLAM
4
WA-0002798
CITY OF PORT ANGELES

PORT ANGELES
CLALLAM
5
WA-0002925
CROWN ZELLERBACH CORP

PORT ANGELES
CLALLAM
6
WA-0000795
ITT RAYONIER INC

PORT ANGELES
CLALLAM
7
WA-0029289
CITY OF BREMERTON

SINCLAIR INLET
KITSAP
1
WA-0029271
CITY OF BREMERTON

PORT WASHINGTON
KITSAP
2
W A-002 32 56
KITSAP CO PUB WKS-SUQUAM.
PORT MADISON
KITSAP
3
WA-0020907
CITY OF WINSLOW

PUGET SOUND
KITSAP
4
WA-0029661
KITSAP CO SEWER DIST #
5
SINCLAIR INLET
KITSAP
5
WA-0023701
MANCHESTER WASTEWATER
TP
PUGET SOUND
KITSAP
6
WA-0023264
KITSAP CO. BOARD/COMMISSR
APPLETREE COVE, PUGET
KITSAP
7



SOUND


WA-002 2292
POPE & TALBOT, INC.

HOOD CANAL
KITSAP
8
WA-0020346
CITY OF PORT ORCHARD

SINCLAIR INLET
KITSAP
9
WA-0030317
KITSAP CO. SEWER DIST
#7
RICH PASSAGE
KITSAP 10
WA-0030520
KITSAP CO DEPT PUBLIC
WKS
PORT ORCHARD BAY, PUGET
KITSAP 11



SOUND


WA-0023469
MESSENGER HOUSE

PUGET SOUND
KITSAP 12
WA-0030333
LYNWOOD CENTER

RICH PASSAGE
KITSAP 13
WA-0029149
BLAKE ISLAND STATE PARK
EAST PASSAGE, PUGET SOUND
KITSAP 14
WA-0030449
DOMSEA FARMS INC.

RICH PASSAGE
KITSAP 15
WA-0021971
NAVAL TORPEDO & POLARIS M
HOOD CANAL
KITSAP 16
WA-0021989
NAVAL TORPEDO STATION

LIBERTY BAY
KITSAP 17

-------
Permit
No.
NPDES
Permitted Discharger
discharger
W A-0002062
WA-0002780
WA-002 5194
WA-0021997
WA-0030309
WA-0001163
WA-0038962
WA-0021202
WA-0037052
WA-0000922
WA-0039080
WA-0039098
PUGET SD NAVAL SHIP YARD
NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER
EPA MANCHESTER LAB
NAVAL TORPEDO STATION
COUNTRY CLUB OF SEATTLE
COAST OYSTER CO
SEA FARMS
POPE AND TALBOT DEVEL
PORT TOWNSEND
CROWN ZELLERBACH CORP
UNION WHARF CORP
COAST OYSTER CO
to
Puget Sound
Receiving Water
Map ID No.
SINCLAIR INLET
PUGET SOUND
CLAM BAY
PORT TOWNSEND BAY
PUGET SOUND
LIBERTY BAY
HOOD CANAL
PUGET SOUND
ST. OF JUAN DE FUCA
GLEN COVE
ST. OF JUAN DE FUCA
QUILCENE BY
KITSAP 18
KITSAP 19
KITSAP 20
KITSAP 21
KITSAP 22
KITSAP 23
JEFFERSON 1
JEFFERSON 2
JEFFERSON 3
JEFFERSON 4
JEFFERSON 5
JEFFERSON 6

-------
B-10

-------
25
5
21
HI
'72
68
41
27
31
4
5
7
10
3
3
3
1
8
7
8
31
14
3
4
3
3
8
8
5
3
3
10
3
3
5
4
5
4
8
31
21
323
39
23
APPENDIX C
Characteristics of Rivers Flowing into Puget Sound. Length and Area of Watershed are Estimated
WDF#
01-0001
01-0002
01-0044
01-0045
01-0085
01-0086
01-0087
01-0089
01-0100
01-0101
01-0102
01-0103
01-0104
01-0118
01-0120
01-0547
01-0552
01-0566
01-0622
01-0626
01-0632
01-0633
01-0634
01-0635
01-0636
01-0637
01-0638
01-0647
01-0648
03-0001
03-0005
03-0086
03-0087
03-0096
03-0100
03-0102
03-0115
03-0116
03-0118
03-0121
03-0132
03-0135
03-0140
03-0153
03-0155
03-0156
03-0157
03-0159
03-0162
03-0166
County
Whatcom
Whatccm
Hiatcom
Whatccm
Whatcom
Whatcom
Wiatcom
Whatoom
Whatcom
Whatcom
Whatoom
Whatccm
Whatcom
Whatoom
Whatocm
Whatoom
Whatcom
Whatoom
Whatcom
Vfriatccm
Whatoom
Whatcom
Whatoom
Whatcom
Vfoatccm
Whatcom
Whatoom
Whatoom
Whatoom
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit
Skagit

2
Km





Km
Watershea
Gage



Km
length
Area
Location
Name
WDF#
County
Length
2.6
7

Drainage Ditch
03-0167
Skagit
9.7
17.7
75

Hall Slough
03-0168
Skagit
1.9
1.9
1

Drainage Ditch
03-0169
Skagit
8.1
11.7
59

Drainage Ditch
03-0170
Skagit
8.1
2.6
4

Wiley Slough
03-0171
Skagit
4.8
3.5
9

Skagit River
03-0176
Skagit
261.3
2.6
9

UN
03-2949
Snohomish
10.1
14.0
23

Douglas Slough
03-2972
Snohomish
2.4
1.6
2

Stillaguamish River
05-0001
Snohcmish
113.0
1.6
2

Old Stillaguamish
05-0005
Snofcmish
13.4
3.2
8

West Pass
05-0006
Snohcmish
2.1
3.7
4

UN
05-0449
Snohcmish
6.8
8.4
58

UN
05-0455
Snohomish
3.7
1.6
2

UN
05-0456
Snohomish
4.7
129.1
2,141
Ferndale3
UN
05-0457
Snohcmish
3.2
2.1
2

UN
06-0001
Island
3.9
15.6
57

UN
06-0002
Island
4.0
26.2
—
b
UN
06-0006
Island
2.7
6.9
10

UN
06-0011
Island
5.5
10.5
26

UN
06-0015
Island
2.1
1.6
1

UN
06-0020
Island
1.8
1.6
1

UN
06-0022
Island
1.8
<1.6
1

UN
06-0023
Island
1.8
1.6
1

UN
06-0024
Island
2.6
<1.6
0

W
06-0025
Island
3.9
<1.6
0

UN
06-0026
Island
3.1
7.9
20

UN
06-0029
Island
6.4
<1.6
1

UN
06-0037
Island
6.6
9.0
22

UN
06-0044
Island
1.9
13.4
34

UN
06—0046
Island
2.9
46.9
275
Burlington3
UN
06-0049
Island
2.1
33.2
—

UN
06-0052
Island
1.6
10.6
27

UN
06-0053
Island
3.9
3.2
8

UN
06-0055
Island
4.5
<1.6
4

UN
06-0056
Island
3.1
11.1
28

UN
06-0057
Island
1.9
4.0
10

Drainage Ditch
06-0061
Island
3.2
1.6
4

UN
06-0062
Island
2.6
2.6
7

UN
06-0064
Island
1.9
3.2
e

UN
06-0068
Island
2.3
1.9
5

UN
06-0069
Island
3.1
2.6
7

UN
06-0070
Island
2.9
7.6
19

UN
06-0071
Island
2.7
4.8
12

UN
06-0073
Island
2.6
4.6
12

UN
06-0075
Island
3.4
3.1
8

Tulalip Creek
07-0001
Snohcmish
8.9
1.6
4

Mission Creek
07-0005
Snohcmish
9.8
3.9
10

Snohomish River
07-0012
Snohcmish
132.7
2.2
6

Ebey Slough
07-0043
Snohcmish
20.0
9.7
25

Steamboat Slough
07-0015
Snohomish
10.0

-------
2
1
•31
44
4
8
35
29
10
2
18
1
39
1
2
1
2
1
31
2
1
34
1
1
2
2
1
4
5
1
5
14
APPENDIX C (Continued)
Km2
Km Watershed Gage	Km
WDF#	County	Length Area	Location	Name	WDF#	County length
07-1722
Snohcmish
3.5
5

Kennedy Creek
14-0012
Mason
15.5
07-1723
Snohomish
2.1
3

Skookum Creek
14-0020
Mason
14.5
07-1725
Snohomish
4.7
6

UN
14-0026
Mason
1.6
07-1727
Snohomish
2.9
4

UN
"14-0027
Mason
1.9
07-1729
Snohanish
2.4
4

Mill Creek
14-0029
Mason
25.8
08-0001
King
2.1
—

Goldsborough Creek
14-0035
Mason
22.5
08-0004
King
3.5
—

Shelton Creek
14-0044
Mason
4.2
08-0005
King
1.8
2

Johns Creek
14-0049
Mason
13.4
08-0006
King
3.1
7

Cranberry Creek
14-0051
Mason
15.1
08-0009
King
2.6
—

Deer Creek
14-0057
Mason
13.7
08-0010
King
1.9
—

Malaney Creek
14-0067
Mason
4.7
08-0017
King
2.2
5

Uncle John Creek
14-0068
Mason
3.1
08-0020
King
2,2
5

Canpbell Creek
14-0069
Mason
7.2
08-0028
King
15.1
1,572

UN
14-0074
Mason
1.6
09-0001
King
150.7
1,140
Tukwilla3
UN
14-0079
Mason
2.4
09-0359
King
2.4
4

Jones Creek
14-0080
Mason
2.9
09-0361
King
<1.6
2

UN
14-0083
Mason
1.6
09-0362
King
3.1
6

UN
14-0084
Mason
2.4
09-0371
King
7.7
17

UN
14-0087
Mason
2.9
09-0377
King
5.6
21

UN
14-0093
Mason
1.6
09-0380
King
3.1
5

Sherwood Creek
14-0094
Mason
29.5
09-0381
King
2.3
5

UN
14-0110
Mason
2.6
09-0385
King
1.8
2

UN
14-0114
Mason
1.6
09-0386
King
2.1
3

UN
14-0115
Mason
2.6
10-0001
Pierce
2.3
—

UN
14-0117
Mason
2.4
10-0003
Pierce
1.8
—

Jarrell Creek
14-0122
Mason
2.3
10-0006
Pierce
14.5
39

UN
14-0124
Mason
2.1
10-0017
Pierce
22.4
14

UN
14-0126
Masbn
1.9
10-0021
Pierce
87.6
>2,455
Puyallup3
UN
14-0127
Mason
2.7
11-0001
Pierce
2.4
3

UN
14-0132
Mason
1.9
11-0008
Pierce
126.4
1,844
Nisqually3
Twanoh Creek
14-0134
Mason
2.1
11-0324
Pierce
8.9
21
Alderbrook Creek
14-0138
Mason
2.1
11-0330
Pierce
4.7
—

UN
15-0001
Pierce
1.9
12-0001
Pierce
1.6
—

Coulter Creek
15-0002
Pierce
12.9
12-0007
Pierce
29.9
280

UN
15-0012
Pierce
1.9
12-0019
Pierce
15.5
99

UN
15-0014
Pierce
2.1
13-0002
Thurston
1.9
3

Rocky Creek
15-0015
Pierce
8.1
13-0005
Thurston
2.4
3

UN
15-0023
Pierce
1.6
13-0006
Thurston
17.7
64

Dutcher Creek
15-0026
Pierce
2.9
13-0012
Thurston
12.1
22

UN
15-0028
Pierce
1.9
13-0015
Thurston
1.8
2

UN
15-0029
Pierce
2.7
13-0018
Thurston
2.9
12

UN
15-0036
Pierce
2.1
13-0022
Thurston
1.8
5

Warren Creek
15-0072
Pierce
1.8
13-0025
Thurston
2.4
2

Artondale Creek
15-0075
Pierce
3.5
13-0026
Thurston
5.3
12

UN
15-0080
Pierce
2.3
13-0028
Thurston
84.0
—
Rainier3
Sullivan Gulch
15-0087
Pierce
1.9
13-0133
Thurston
5.8
7

Lackey Creek
15-0046
Pierce
4.0
13-0138
Thurston
9.0
30

Minter Creek
15-0048
Pierce
10.1
14-0001
Thurston
7.2
—

Burley Creek
15-0056
Pierce
8.4
14-0005
Thurston
1.6
2

Purdy Creek
15-0060
Pierce
5.8
14-0006
Thurston
1.9
1

UN
15-0063
Pierce
1.6
14-0009
Thurston
8.5
—

McCormick Creek
15-0065
Pierce
2.5

-------
APMMDIX C (Continued)
Nane
WDF*
County
Km
Length
Km2
Watershed
Area
Gage
location
Name
WDF #
County
Km
Length
Km2
Watershed Gage
Area Location
UN
1S-0068
Pierce
2.4
2

Eglcsn Creek
15-0311
Kitsap
2.5
8
North Creek
15-0097
Pierce
2.3
—
b
UN
15-0313
Kitsap
2.2
2
Crescent Creek
15-0099
Pierce
5.0
—
b
UN
15-0316
Kitsap
2.4
5
Olalla Creek
15-0107
Kitsap
6.8
18

UN
15-0317
Kitsap
2.3
5
IW
15-0121
King
1.9
—

UN
15-0320
Kitsap
1.8
3
tN
15-0123
King
2.7
—

UN
15-0321
Kitsap
2.1
7
UN
15-0126
King
1.6
2

UN
15-0324
Kitsap
2.7
4
JUdd Creek
15-0129
King
4.7
11
c
IW
15-0325
Kitsap
1.6
3
UN
15-0139
King
3.7
3

UN
15-0340
Kitsap
3.2
8
Tahlequah Creek
15-0147
King
1.9
1

UN
15-0344
Kitsap
2.6
3
UN
15-0159
King
4.5
6.5

UN
15-0347
Kitsap
2.7
4
UK
15-0173
King
1.8
—

UN
15-0348
Kitsap
3.1
5
ON
15-0183
Kitsap
1.8
1

US
15-0349
Kitsap
2.9
6
Curley Creek
15-0185
Kitsap
8.5
16

UN
15-0350
Kitsap
2.4
3
Beaver Creek
15-0192
Kitsap
3.9
3

W
15-0353
Kitsap
3.4
8
l»
15-0193
Kitsap
2.3
2

Ganfele Creek
15-0356
Kitsap
7.9
13
IK
15-0196
Kitsap
1.9
3

Todhunter Creek
15-0360
Kitsap
2.1
4
Wilson Creek
15-0201
Kitsap
2.9
2

UN
15-0361
Kitsap
1.6
1
Annapolis Creek
15-0202
Kitsap
1.9
1

l»
15-0364
Kitsap
2.1
6
Blackjack Creek
15-0203
Kitsap
11.1
23

UN
15-0367
Kitsap
3.1
3
Itoss Creek
15-0209
Kitsap
2.3
3

Junpoff Joe Creek
15-0369
Kitsap
2.6
4
Anderson Creek
15-0211
Kitsap
2.9
4

UN
15-0370
Kitsap
2.7
5
UN
15-0215
Kitsap
2.1
2

UN
15-0371
Kitsap
2.1
3
Gorst Creek
15-0216
Kitsap
6.3
21

IN
15-0376
Kitsap
2.3
4
UN
15-0225
Kitsap
1.9
2

Little Andersen Creek
15-0377
Kitsap
3.2
19
IX
15-0226
Kitsap
1.9
2

Johnson Creek
15-0387
Kitsap
2.3
2
Chico Creek
15-0229
Kitsap
9.7
31
c
Big Beef Creek
15-0389
Kitsap
16.1
40 c
Koch Creek
15-0245
Kitsap
2.3
2

little Beef Creek
15-0399
Kitsap
1.6
1
Strawberry Creek
15-0246
Kitsap
4.0
2

Seabeck Creek
15-0400
Kitsap
5.8
11
Clear Creek
15-0249
Kitsap
5.2
9

Stavis Creek
15-0404
Kitsap
6.8
10
Barker Creek
15-0255
Kitsap
5.2
4

Boyoe Creek
15-0407
Kitsap
3.5
2
LW
15-0258
Kitsap
1.6
1

IN
15-0408
Kitsap
1.6
1
lllahee Creek
15-0266
Kitsap
2.3
—

Anderson Creek
15-0412
Kitsap
6.3
12
UN
15-0269
Kitsap
1.8
7

Dewatto River
15-0420
Kitsap
14.0
62 c
UN
15-0272
Kitsap
1.8
7

UN
15-0438
Kitsap
2.9
2
Steele Creek
15-0273
Kitsap
3.4
9

Rendsland Creek
15-0439
Kitsap
8.5
19
UN
15-0278
Kitsap
1.6
2

UN
15-0444
Kitsap
1.8
1
Little Scandia Creekl5-0279
Kitsap
2.9
3

Caldervin Creek
15-0445
Kitsap
2.4
2
Big Scandia Cred?
15-0280
Kitsap
3.5
2

Tahuya River
15-0446
Kitsap
34.0
140
UN
15-0283
Kitsap
1.6
4

Shoofly Creek
15-0478
Kitsap
2.4
2
Dogfish Creek
15-0285
Kitsap
5.6
12

Stimson Creek
15-0488
Kitsap
8.5
1
ON
15-0290
Kitsap
2.4
1

ON
15-0492
Kitsap
1.9
2
UN
15-0291
Kitsap
3.1
4

Little Mission Creek
15-0493
Kitsap
3.4
6
UN
15-0293
Kitsap
2.9
3

Big Mission Creek
15-0495
Kitsap
15.9
53
UN
15-0296
Kitsap
2.7
4

Union River
15-0503
Kitsap
15.6
61
Grovers Creek
15-0299
Kitsap
8.2
16

Skokociish River
16-0001
Mason
67.5
622 Potlatcha
UN
15-0306
Kitsap
1.8
2

UN
16-0215
Mason
2.9
2
UN
15-0307
Kitsap
1.9
2

IN
16-0216
Mason
2.7
3
UN
15-0308
Kitsap
2.4
3

UN
16-0217
Mason
1.6
1
UN
15-0309
Kitsap
4.7
2

UN
16-0218
Mason
2.3
2
UN
15-0310
Kitsap
2.4
3

UN
16-0220
Mason
2.3
2

-------
APPENDIX C (Continued)
Name
WDF#
County
Km
Length
Km2
Watershed
Area
Gage
Location
Name
WDF#
County
Km
Length
Km2
Watershed
Area
Hill Creek
16-0221
Mason
1.6
1

UN
17-0123
Jefferson
2.1
2
Finch Creek
16-0222
Mason
5.3
5

UN
17-0128
Jefferson
1.6
1
Clark Creek
16-0224
Mason
2.3
2

Tarbo Creek
17-0129
Jefferson
10.9
32
Miller Creek
16-0225
Mason
4.3
4

UN
17-0141
Jefferson
3.4
3
Sund Creek
16-0226
Mason
4.3
6

UN
17-0147
Jefferson
1.6
—
Little Lilliwaup Creek
16-0228
Mason
1.6
2

UN
17-0156
Jefferson
1.6
—
Lilliwaup River
16-0230
Mason
11.1
31

UN
17-0159
Jefferson
1.6
—
Eagle Creek
16-0243
Mason
5.2
18

UN
17-0161
Jefferson
2.1
—
Jorsted Creek
16-0248
Mason
6.1
10

UN
17-0163
Jefferson
2.3
—
Haitita Hanrna River
16-0251
Mason
28.7
219

UN
17-0166
Jefferson
1.9
2
Waketicken Creek
16-0318
Mason
10.6
18

UN
17-0167
Jefferson
4.3
6
UN
16-0325
Mason
2.6
1

Thorndyke Creek
17-0170
Jefferson
10.1
31
Schaerer Creek
16-0326
Mason
2.9
3

UN
17-0180
Jefferson
2.3
2
Fulton Creek
16-0332
Jefferson
9.0
29

Shine Creek
17-0181
Jefferson
3.2
3
McDonald Creek
16-0349
Jefferson
3.1
2

UN
17-0190
Jefferson
1.9
3
nuckabush River
16-0351
Jefferson
38.8
172
c
Ludlow Creek
17-0192
Jefferson
7.2
25
Pierce Creek
16-0438
Jefferson
2.6
1

UN
17-0200
Jefferson
2.3
4
UN
16-0439
Jefferson
2.3
1

Chimacum Creek
17-0203
Jefferson
22.9
87
Walker Creek
16-0441
Jefferson
2.7
2

McDonald Creek
18-0160
Clallam
21.9
60
Dosewallips River
16-0442
Jefferson
45.6
114

Siebert Creek
18-0173
Clallam
20.0
51
Turner Creek
16-0559
Jefferson
1.9
1

Bagley Creek
18-0183
Clallam
11.3
20
Marple Creek
17-0001
Jefferson
3.9
12

Morse Creek
18-0185
Clallam
26.2
—
Spencer Creek
17-0004
Jefferson
6.1
7

Lees Creek
18-0232
Clallam
14.0
—
UN
17-0007
Jefferson
4.2
6

Ennis Creek
18-0234
Clallam
6.9
—
UN
17-0011
Jefferson
2.7
3

Peabody Creek
18-0245
Clallam
7.7
—
Big Quilcene River
17-0012
Jefferson
30.4
238
Quilcene
Valley Creek
18-0249
Clallam
7.9
—
Little Quilcene River
17-0076
Jefferson
19.6
91

Tunwater Creek
18-0256
Clallam
8.2
697
Donovan Creek
17-0115
Jefferson
4.8
16

Elvira River
18-0272



Gage
Location
NOTES: a = See Table 4-1 for water quality data.
b = Limited water quality data, but no flow data.
= Flow data, but no water quality data.
Hadlock
McDonald Bridge

-------
Appendix D. Mass Loading Values Calculated
From Available Data
The following 14 tables summarize mass loading values for
pollutants in various regions or subareas of Puget Sound, and the
Straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. There are several features
about these tables that must be considered.
o The study area is broken down into regions and subareas.
The subareas were selected as localized water bodies in
which separate mass loading values would be of use to
water quality managers. Although these subareas are
located in certain regions of Puget Sound, the mass
loading data for these subareas are not included in the
mass loading data for the region as a whole.
o Caution is suggested when viewing the mass loading values
in Appendix D. These values should not be considered as
total pollutant loading estimates since the values
represent estimates obtained through monitoring programs
that may not have surveyed all of the pollutants in the
effluent. As an estimate of monitoring thoroughness, the
number of dischargers contributing to each loading value
is provided, as is the total number of dischargers.
Furthermore, the frequency of monitoring was quite low
for most pollutants, thereby limiting the accuracy of the
estimates.
o The calculations were made by multiplying the concen-
tration (usually in mg/1) by the average daily discharge.
The calculated values were rounded off to the whole
kilogram where possible, or to the tenth (0.1) or
hundredth (0.01) kilogram. Values calculated to be less
than 0.005 kg/d are shown as <0.01 kg/day.
o Loading values often are reported as less than a given
value. The "<" symbol denotes those cases where only a
maximum value was reported for a discharge and where the
calculated mass loading is <0.01 kg/day. Caution is
suggested since all of the potential loadings may not
have been monitored. Mass loadings reported as "t"
indicate a pollutant that was identified, but not
quantified. In many cases, pollutants were not detected
and denoted in the appendix by "ND". The threshold
concentration of detection was usually 0.01 mg/1, but may
have been as high as 0.25 mg/1.
o The values shown are average daily loadings obtained from
surveys conducted from 1979 to present. Data frpm the
most recent year were used when more than 1 year of data
were available. Where possible, values for wet and dry
seasons are reported. The annual average daily loading
is a weighted mean of the average daily loading for the 7
wet months and 5 dry months. If only wet or dry season
D-l

-------
data were available, the annual average daily load was
assumed to be equal to the average daily load for the
reported season.
Totals are provided only when data are available from
municipal and industrial dischargers, or permitted and
nonpermitted sources. The number of values contributing
to the total value is equal to the sum of the dischargers
providing mass loading data.
The mass loading values for municipal and industrial
dischargers were obtained from nearly every available
NPDES monitoring survey. Since NPDES permit limitations
indicated that certain monitoring surveys would include
at best a few conventional parameters, no special effort
was made to locate and obtain data for a few, small,
minor dischargers.
D-2

-------
Append 1'.: D. Mass loading values calculated -from available data. Number of sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data tor all values are given in kg/day, except where noted.
! Nonpar—
Total -for NPDES	! mitted ! Grand
Receiving Water
! Municipal (
-2__>
! Industrial
<_Z_>
! Permitted Dischargers
! Sources
! Total
Strait of Georgia
Wet
Dry
Annual
Wet
Dry
SAnnual
! Wet
: Dry
!Annual
! Annual
! Annual


***** ****** *•*•*¦»**** ***'***#******* ***************************************
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT











Flow (cubic m/d)
3,182
1,356
2,417 (2)
54,333
29,636
43/902 (4)
57,515
30,992
46,319


Biochemical Q::ygen











Demand (BOD)
53
18
39 (2)
221
238
223 (3)
274
256
267


Total Suspended Solids
34
14
26 (2)
1,148
873
1,033 (3)
1,182
887
1,059


Oils {< Grease



163
143
155 (3)





pH (range)
6.9-7.7
6.7-7.6
6.7-7.7 (2)
6.1-9.8
6.1-9.4
6.1-9.8 (3)
6.1-9.8
6.1-9.4
6.1-9.8


Fecal Col i -form











(MPN/1O0 ml)
1-134
19-146
1-146 (2)
6-100
5-100
5-100 (3)
1-134
5-146
1-146


EXTENDED











CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT











Chemical Oxygen


(0)
2,890
1,922
2,487 (3)





Demand (COD)











Total Solids


(0)


(0)





Total Nonvolatile


(0)


(0)





Soli ds











Total Nonvolatile


(0)


(0)





Suspended Solids











Total Nitrogen


(0)


315 (3)





Total Phosphorus


(0)


6 (2)





PRIORITY POLLUTANT











Heavy Metals & Inorg.











Antimony


(0)


0.7 (3)





Arseni c


(0)


0.2 (3)





Asbestos (-fibers/d)


(0)


(0)





Beryl 1i um


(0)


0.1 (3)





Cadmi um


(0)


0-1 (3)





Chromi um


(0)
2
0.8
1 (3)





Copper


(0)


1 (3)





Cyani de


(0)
3
2
2 (3)





Lead


(0)


0.3 (3)





Mercury


(0)


0.02 (3)





Nickel


(0)


1 (3)





Seleni um


(0)


0.3 (3)





Si 1ver


(0)


0.1 (3)





Thai1i um


(0)


0.01 (3)





Zinc


(01


4 (3)





Pesticides, PCBs, etc.











Acrolein


(0)


ND (3)





A1dri n


(0)


ND (3)





Chiorodane


(0)


M3 (3)





DDD


(0)


ND (3)





DDE


(0)


ND (3)





DDT


(0)


1® (3)






-------
Dieldrin	I	'	'	(0)
Endosul+an and	!	'	'	(0)
Endosulfan Sal-fate	!	!	I
Endrin and	!	'	'	(0)
Endrin Aldehyde	!	!	!
Heptachlor	•	¦	'	(0)
Heptachlor Epoxide	!	!	!	(0)
He;; ach] or ocyc 1 o-	:	!	!	(qj
henane Isomers	'	!	!
Isophor one	!	!	(Q)
TCDD	!	I	!	(0)
To«aphene	!	I	1	(qj
pcbb	;	s	:	(0)
2-Chloronaphthalene	!	!	!	(0)
Halogenated Aliphatic	!	I	!
Hydrocarbons	!	!	i
Methyl Chloride	!	!	!	(0)
Methylene Chloride	!	!	!	(0)
Chloroform	I	i	;	joj
Carbon Tetrachloride	!	!	!	(0)
Chloroethane	1	'	'	(0)
1, 1-Dichloroethane	'	!	!	(0)
1,2-Dichloroethsne	!	i	;	(0)
1, 1,1-Trichloroethane!	!	;	(0)
1, 1,2—TrichlDroethane!	!	!	(0)
O	1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro~	!	I	!	(0)
I	ethane	!	!	!
^	He>;achl oroethane	'	'	'	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	!	:	:	(0)
1, 1-DichlorDethy1ene	i	:	:	(0)
1,2-trans-Dichloro-	!	!	!	(0)
ethylene	!	I	!
T rlchloroethylene	!	I	!	(0)
Tetrachloroethylene	1	!	!	(0)
1.2-Dichloropropane	I	!	!	(0)
1.3-Dichloropropene	!	!	!	(0)
He;; ach 1 orobutad i ene	I	!	!	(0)
He:; ach 1 or ocyc 1 o-	1	I	1	10)
pentadiene	!	'•	'
Methyl Bromide	!	!	I	(0)
Dichlorobromomethane	1	!	(0)
Chlorodibromomethane	!	!	!	(0)
Bromoform	1	!	1	(0)
lia chl orodi f 1 uoro-	1	I	i	(0)
methane	I	'•	'•
Irichlorofluoro-	!	!	I	(0)
methane	!	!	!
Haloqenated Ethers	1	!	!
s(chloromethyl)	!	!	I	(0)
fcther	i	:	i
Bie(2-chloroethyl)	!	!	I	(0)
Ether	!	I	!
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
ND	(3)
0.1	(3)
ND
(3)
U.8
(3)
0.3
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
0.1
(3)
0.1
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
0.1
(3)
0.1
(3)
0.1
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
0.1
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
0.1
(3)
ND (3)
ND (3)

-------
0
1
m
Bi s(2-chX oraiso-


(0)


ND
<3)





propyl) Ether











2-chloraethyl


(0)


ND
(3)





Vinyl Ether












4-chlorophenyl


(0)


ND
(3)





Phenyl Ether












4-Bromophenyl


(0)


ND
(3)





Phenyl Ether












Bi s(2-chloroethosy)


(0)


ND
(3)





Methane












Monocyclic ftromatics












Bens en e


(0)


0.2
(3)





Chi orobensene


(0)


0.1
(3)





1,2—Dichlorobeniene


(0)


ND
(3)





J,3-Di chlorobenzene


(0)


ND
(3)





1,4-Di chlorobenzene


(0)


to
(3)





i,2,4-Tri chloro-


(0)


ND
(3)





benz ene












Hexachlorobenzene


(0)


ND
(3)





Ethy1bens ene


(0)


0.1
(3)





Ni trobenrene


(0)


ND
(3)





Toluene


(0)


0.1
(3)





2,4-Di ni trotoluene


(0)


ND
(3)





2,6-Di ni trotoluene


(0)


ND
(3)





Phenol


(0)


0.1
(31





2-Chlorophenol


(0)


ND
(3)





2,4-Dichlorophenol


(0)


ND
(3)





2,4,6—Tri choloro-


(0)


ND
(3)





phenol












Pentachlorophenol


(01


ND
(3)





2-Ni tr ophenol


(0)


ND
(3)





4-Nitrophenol


(0)


ND
(3)





2, 4-Di nitrophenol


(0)


ND
(3)





2,4-Dimethyl Phenol


(0)


0.1
(3)





p-Chloro-m-cresol


(0)


ND
(3)





4,6-Dini tro-o-cresol


(0)


I®
(3)





Phthalate Esters












Dimethyl Phthalate


(0)


ND
(3)





Diethyl Phthalate


(0)


0.1
(3)





Di—n-butyl Phthalate


(0)


0.1
(3)





Di—n-actyl Phthalate


10)


0.1
(3)





Bi s (2-ethylhey.yl )


(0)


0.1
(3)





phthalate












Butyl fctenzyl


(0)


0.1
(3)





Phthalate












Polycyclic Aromatic












Hydrocarbons






(3)





Acenaphthene


(0)


ND





Acenaphthy1ene


(0)


ND
(3)





Fluorene


(0)


ND
(3)





Napthalene


(0)


0.1
0.1
(3)
(3)





Anthracene


(0)








-------
F1uoranthene
Phenanthrene
Benz oC a 3 anthracene
Benzotb 3-f 1 uoranthene
BenzoCk3-f 1 uoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrene
benzoCghi Jperylene
BenzoLa]pyrene
Di benzo[a]anthracene
lndenotl,2,3-cd3-
pyrene
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
a
i
CT\
Nitrosamines !< Misc.
N—ni trosodimethyl -
ami ne
N-ni trosodi phenyl-
ami ne
N-ni trosodi-n~
propylamine
Benz i di ne
SjS'-Dichloro-
benzidi ne
1,2-Diphenylhydraz i ne
Acrylonitr i1e
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
4
2
(3)
0.1
(3)
0.1
(3)
0.1
(3)
ND
(3)
0.1
(3)
2
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
0.1
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)
ND
(3)

-------
Appendi;; D. Mass loading values calculated from available data. Number o-f sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data tor all values are given in kg/day, except where noted.
Receiving Water
Bellingham Bay
Wet
Municipal (	J	>
' Dry {Annual
Industri al
Wet i Dry

!Annual
Total -for NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Wet 1 Dry 'Annual
Nonper-
mitted ' Grand
Sources! Total
Annual I Annual

CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT








1


Flow (cubic m/ti>
53,900
32,348
44,923
(1)
147,156
147,156
147,156
(1)
201,056!
179,504
192,079
Biochemical Oxygen
2,645
6,859
4,400
11)
11,976
8,210
10,406
(1)
14,621'
15,069
14,806
Demand (BOD)







!


Tntal Suspended Solids
2,087
2,127
2,105
at
17,804
14,266
16,330
(1)
19,891!
16,393
18,435
Oils & Grease



(0)


ND
tt)
!


pH (range!
6.3-7.3
4.4-7.2
4.4-7.3
(11
5.0-6.9
4.8-7.5
4.8-7.5
(1)
5.0-7.3!
4.4-7.5
4.4-7.5
Fecal Coliform
17-123
9-51
9-123




J


{MPN/lOO ml)



(1)
2,400
2,400
2,400
(11
70-2,400.' 30-2,400
30-2,400
EXTENDED
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT
Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COO)
Total Solids
Total Nonvolatile
Sol ids
Total Nonvolatile
Suspended Solids
Total Ni trogen
Total Phosphorus
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
155,910
2,089
176
155/910
2,089
176
(1>
(0)
(0)
<0)
(1)
<1)
PRIORITY POLLUTANT
Heavy Metals & Inorg.
Antimony
Arseni c
Asbestos (fibers/dl
Beryli iurn
Cadmi urn
Chromi um
Capper
Cyani de
Lead
Mercury
Ni ckel
Seleni um
Si iver
Thai 11um
Zi nc
(0)
ND

ND
U)
(0)
0.9

V.9
<1)
(0)




(0)
ND

ND
<1)
(0)
ND

ND
(1)
<0>
30

80
tl)
(0)
4

4
(1)
(0)
1

1
d>

4

i
u>
(0)
0.C2
0.01
0.02
<1)
(0)
2

2
u>
(0)
1

I
(1>
(0)
2

2
(1)
(0)
ND

1®
(1)
(0)
18

18
(11
(0)
ND

ND
U)
(0)
ND

ND
(1)
(05
Id

*80
(1)
(0)
ND

" ND
(1)
<0)
ND

ND
(1)
10)
ND

ND
(1)
Pesticides, PCBs, etc.
Acrolein
Aldri n
Chiorodane
DDD
DDE
DDT

-------
Dieldrin
EndosuHan and
Endosulfan Sul-fate
Endrin and
Endrin Aldehyde
Heptachlor
Heptachlor Epoxide
He:;achl orocycl o-
he::ane Isomers
1saphorone
TCDD
Tonaphene
PCEis
'2—Chi oronaphthal ene
(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
9

9
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(It





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
di





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





(0)
ND

ND
(1)





Halogenated Aliphatic
Hydrocarbons
Methyl Chloride
Methylene Chloride
Chloro-f orm
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chioroethane
1.1-Dichloroethane
1.2-Dichloroethane
1.1.1-Tri	chloroethgne
1.1.2-Tr	i chloroethane
1,1,2,2—Tetrachloro-
ethane
Hesachloroethane
Vinyl Chloride
1.1-Dichloroethylene
1.2-trans-Di	chl oro-
ethyl ene
Trichloroethylene
T etrachloroethylene
1.2-Di	chloropropane
1.3-Di	chloropropene
He-achlorobutadiene
He::ach 1 orocycl o-
pentadiene
Methyl Bromide
Di chlorobromomethane
Chlorodibromomethane
Bromo-f orm
Dichlorodi-fl uoro-
methane
Trichlorofluoro-
methane
Halogenated Ethers
Bi s (chloromethyl )
Ether
Bi5(2-chloroethyl)
Ether

-------
Bis(2-chloroiso-	!
propyl) Ether	I
2-chloroethyl	!
Vinyl Ether	!
4-chlorapheny1	!
Phenyl Ether	I
4-Bromopheny1	!
Phenyl Ether	!
Bis(2-chloroethony) S
Methane	!
Monocyclic Aromatics	III	I	1	'
Benzene	i	I	i	(0)	! ND	!	!	ND	(1)
ChlorDbeniene	!	i	!	(0)	I ND	1	!	I®	(1)
1.2-Dichlorobenzene	!	!	!	(0)	! ND	I	I	ND	(1)
1.3-Dichlorobenzene	!	!	i	(0)	! ND	i	I	ND	<1)
1.4-Dichlorobenzene	!	!	!	(0)	! ND	!	i	ND	(1)
1,2,4-Tr i chl oro-	!	!	!	(0)	! ND	!	!	ND	(1)
benzene	!	i	!	II!
He>:achl orobenzene	!	I	!	(0)	I ND	!	I	ND	(1)
Ethyl benzene	!	I	!	(0)	I ND	I	I	ND	(1)
Nitrobenzene	I	I	I	(0)	I ND	!	I	ND	(1)
Toluene	!	I	I	(0)	I ND	!	i	ND	(1)
2,4-Dini trotol uene	!	I	!	(0)	I ND	!	!	ND	(1)
2,6-Dinitrotoluene	I	1	I	(0)	I ND	I	I	ND	(1)
Phenol	!	I	I	(0)	I ND	!	!	ND	(1)
2—Chl orophenol	!	I	I	(0)	! ND	I	I	ND	<1)
2,4-Dichlorophenol	!	!	!	(0)	! ND	!	!	ND	(1)
2,4,6-Tri choloro-	J	I	I	(0)	I ND	i	I	ND	(1)
.phenol	1	I	!	ill
Pentachlorophenol	I	I	!	(0)	I ND	I	!	ND	(1)
2—Ni tropheno 1	!	!	I	(0)	I ND	!	!	ND	(1)
4-Ni trophenol	I	I	I	(0)	! ND	I	I	ND	(1)
2,4—Di ni trophenol	!	I	I	(0)	I ND	!	I	ND	(1)
2,4-Dimethyl Phenol	i	I	!	(0)	! ND	I	I	ND	^1)
p-Chloro-m-cresol	!	I	!	(0)	I ND	I	!	ND	(1)
4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol	I	I	!	(0)	! ND	I	I	®	(1)
Phthalate Esters	II!	Ill
Dimethyl Phthalate	I	I	I	(0)	I ND I I	ND	(1)
Diethyl Phthalate	I	!	I	(0)	I ND I I ND	(1)
Di-n-butyl Phthalate	I	I	!	(0)	i ND I I	ND	(1)
Di-n-octyl Phthalate i	I	!	(0)	I ND	I I	ND	(1)
Bi s (2-ethyl hexyl )	!	I	!	(0)	ND I |	ND	(1)
Phthalate	!	I	I	ill
Butyl Benzyl	!	I	!	(0)	i ND | I	ND	(1)
Phthalate	!	I	I	III
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
Acenaphthene
Acenaphthylene
Fluorene
Napthalene
Anthracene
(0) I ND	!	I ND
I	I	1
III
(0) I ND	!	I ND
I	l	»
I	I	•
(0) ! ND	!	I ND
i	I	•
I	l	I
(0) I ND	I	: ND
I	I	I
I	I	¦
(0) I ND	I	I ND
(0)	|	ND	;	; ND	(1)
(0)	!	ND	•	j	ND	(1)
(0)	.	ND	.	; ND	(1)
(0)	j	ND	;	;	ND	(1)
(0)	;	ND	j	. ND	(1)


-------
Fluoranthene


(0) :
ND

ND
(1)





F'henanthrene


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





BensoCa3anthracene


(0) I
ND

ND
(1)





BensotbJ-f luoranthene


(0)
ND

ND
(1)
1



BensoC k3-f luoranthene


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





Chrysene


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





Pyrene


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





Benzotghi]perylene


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





BenzoCa3pyrene


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





DibenzoCa3anthracene


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





Indenot1,2,3-cd]-


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





pyrene












Nitrosamines !< Misc.












N-nitrosodi methyl-


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





ami ne












N-ni trosodiphenyl-


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





ami ne












N-ni trosodi —n—


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





propyl ami ne












Benzidine


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





3,3'-Di chloro-


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





benz i di ne












1,2-Di phenylhydrazi ne


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





Acrylonitrile


(0)
ND

ND
(1)





D
I
4

-------
Appendi:: D. Mass loading values calculated -from available data. Number of sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data for all values are given in kg/day, except where noted.
! Nanper—
Total for NPDES	! mitted i Brand
Receiving Water

Municipal (


Industri al
8 )

Permitted Dischargers
Sources
Total
Anacortes !
Wet
J
Dry I
Annual

Wet
Dry !Annual

Wet
Dry
Annual
Annual
Annual





*********
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT














Flow (cubic »/ri)
7.192

3,523
5,663
(2)
22,537
16,288
19,933
(4)
29,729
19,811
25,596


biochemical Oxygen













Demand (BOD)
921

689
824
(2)
208
159
187
(2)
1,129
848
1,011


Total Suspended Solids
327

440
374
(2)
363
227
306
(3)
690
667
680


Oils & Grease




(0)
93
70
83
(2)





pH (range)
6.0-7.3

6.5-7.2
6.0-7.3
(2)
6.5-8.9
6.6-8.7
6.5-8.9
<3)
6.0-8.9
6.5-8.7
6.0-8.9


Fecal Coliform














(MPN/lOO ml)
10-83

10-58
10-83
(2)
0-4
2-68
0-68
<2)
0-83
2-68
0-68


EXTEJOED














CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT














Chemical Oxygen














Demand (COO)




(0)
1,588
1,283
1,461
12)





Total Solids




(0)
357
222
299
<2)





Total Nonvolatile




(0)



<0)





Sol ids














Total Nonvolatile




(0)



(0)





Suspended Solids














Total Nitrogen




(0)
167

167
(2)





Total Phosphorus




(0)
6

6
(2)





PRIORITY POLLUTANT










-j


Heavy Metals & Xnorg.














Mntimony



<.01
11)
8

8
12)


8


Arseni c



.02
(11
0.5

0.5
(2)


0.5


Asbestos <-fibers/d)




(0>



<0)





Beryl1ium



<.01
(1)
0.2

0.2
(2)


0.2


Cadmium



0.02
(2)
0.2

0.2
(2)


0.2


Chromium



0.04
(2)
1
1
1
(2)


1


Copper



0.7
(2)
1

1
(2)


2


Cyanide



0.03
(2)
0.6

0.6
<2)


0.6


Lead



0.2
(2)
S

5
(2)


5


Mercury



<.01
(2)
0.04

0.04
12)


0.05


Nickel



1
(2)
2

2
(2)


3


Seleni um



.03
(2)
0.8

0.8
(2)


0.8


Si X ver



<.01
(2)
0.6

0.6
(2)


0.G


Thai1 J um



<.01
(2)
0.5

0.5
(2)


0.5


Zinc



0.8
(2)
1

1
(2)


2


Pesticides, PCBs, etc.














Acrolein



ND
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


ND


Aldrin



I®
(1)
ND

ND
(1)


ND


Chlorodane



ND
(2)
ND

ND
U)


ND


DDD



ND
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


ND


DDE




(1)


1®


NOTE: a - not confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometer.

-------
0
1
I-*
NJ
Di eldri n


ND (1)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Endosul+an and









tndosulfan Sulfate


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Endrin and









Endrin Aldehyde


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Heptachlor


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Heptachlor Epoxide


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
He>; achl or ocyc 1 o~









he::ane Isomers


<0.01a (2)
ND

ND (1)


<0.01
Isophorone


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
TCDD


(0)


(0)


loxaphene


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
PCBs


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
2~Chloronaphthalene


T (2)
ND

ND (1)


T
Halogenated Aliphatic









Hydrocarbons









Methyl Chloride


ND (2)
ND

ND (2)


ND
Methylene Chloride


0.9 (2)
ND

ND (1)


1
Chi oroform


ND (2)
ND

ND (2)


ND
Carbon Tetrachloride


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Chioroethane


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
1*1-Di ch1oroethane


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
1,2-Di chloroethane


ND (2)
ND

ND (I)


ND
1,1,1-Tri chloroethane


0.5 (2)
ND

ND (2)


0.5
1,1,2-Trichloroethane


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-









ethane


(0)
0.08

0.08


0.08
Hex achloroethane


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Vinyl Chloride


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
1,1 —Dichloroethylene


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
1,2-trans-Dichloro-









ethyl ene


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Tr i chloroethylene


ND (2)
ND

ND (I)


0.3
Tetrachloroethy1ene


0.3 (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
1,2-Di chloropropane


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
1,3-Dichloropropene


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
He::achl orobutadi ene


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
He:;achl orocycl o-









pentadiene


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Methyl Bromide


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Di chlorobromomethane


(0)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Chl orodi bromomethane?


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Bromo-f orm


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Di chlorodi f1uoro-


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
methane









Tr i chlorof 1 uoro-


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
methane









Haloqenated Ethers









Bis(chloromethyl)









Ether


ND (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND
Bi s 12-chloroethyl)









Ether


I© (2)
ND

ND (1)


ND

2





-------
©is <2-chloroi so-
propyl) Ether


ND
(21
ND

ND
(1)


ND
2-chloroethyl











Vinyl Ether


ND
(1)
ND

ND
(1)


ND
4—c h1 or Opheny1











Phenyl Ether


ND
(2)
ND

t®
(1)


ND
4—Br omopherty 1











Phenyl Ether


T
(2)
ND

ND
11)


T
Bis(2-chloroethoxy)











Methane


ND
(2)
to

I®
<1)


ND
Monocyclic Aromatics











Benjerie


ND
(2)
o.oe

0.08
(2)


0.08
Ch 1 or ob ens ene


ND
(2)
ND

ND
(2)


ND
1.2—Dichlorobenzene


ND
12)
ND

ND
(1)


ND
1, 3-Di chlorohenzene


ND
(21
ND

ND
(1)


ND
1, 4-Dichl orobem ene


I®
(2)
ND

ND
(X)


ND
1,2,4-Tri chloro-











benzene


(S3
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


ND
HexachlDrobenzene


T
(21
ND

ND
(1>


T
Ethylbenzene


0.6
(2)
to

ND
(2)


0.6
Nitrobertzene


ND
(2)
to

ND
(1)


m
Toluene


0.2
(2)
0.08

0.08
(2»


0.3
2,4-Di ni trotol uene


to
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


ND
2,6—Dini trotoluene


ND
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


ND
Phenol


0.3
12)
0.2

0.2
(2)


0.5
2-Chlorophenol


ND
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


ND
2,4-Di chlorophenol


ND
(2)
ND

M3
(1)


ND
2,4,6-Tricholoro-


ND
(2)
MS

ND
(2)


ND
phenol











Pentachlorophenol


0.5
U)
ND

ND
(1)


0.5
2-Nitrophenol


ND
(2)
ND

ND
tl>


ND
4—Ni trophenol


ND
(2)
ND

W
(1)


ND
2, 4--Di ni trophenol


ND
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


ND
2,4—Di methyl Phenol


m
(2)
ND

ND
(2)


ND
p-Chloro-m-cresol


T
12)
W

ND
(2)


T
4,6—Dini tro-o-eresol


ND
(21
ND

I®
(1)


ND
Phthalate Esters











Oxmethyl Phthalate


T
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


T
Diethyl Phtfialate


T
(2)
ND

m
(2)


T
Di—n-butyl Phthalate


T
m
ND

ND
(1)


T
Di—n—octyl Phthalate


ND
<2)
ND

M3
(1)


f®
Bis <2—ethylhesy1 ~











Phthalate


<0.01
(2)
ND

ND
(2)


<0-01
Butyl Benzyl











Phthalate


I®
<2}
ND

ND
(1)


ND
Polycyclic Aromatic











Hydrocarbons











Hcenaphthene


ND
(2)
0.08

0.08
(2)


0.08
Acenaphthylene


ND
(2)
0.08

0.08
(2)


0.08
Fluorene


T
(2)
ND

ND
(1)


T
Napthalene


T
(2)
ND

ND
(2)


T
Anthracene


IS}
(2)
0.08

0.08
(2)


0.08
0
1
H-1
Ul


-------
Fluoranthene


ND
(2)
ND
Fhenanthrene


ND
(2)
0.08
fen;ot a3anthracene


ND
(2)
ND
BensotbJUuoranthene


ND
(2)
ND
Benzol kj-f 1 uoranttiene


ND
(2)
ND
Chrysene


ND
(2)
ND
Pyrene


ND
(2)
0.08
BenzoCghi Jperylene


ND
(2)
ND
BenzoCaJpyrene


ND
(2)
ND
DibenzoCaJanthracene


ND
(2)
ND
IndenoEl,2,3-cd3-





pyrene


ND
(2)
ND
Ni trosami nes S* Misc.





N—ni trosodi methy1 -





ami ne


ND
(2)
ND
N-ni trosodiphenyl-





ami ne


ND
(2)
ND
N—ni trosodi —n—





propyl ami ne


ND
(2)
ND
Benz i di ne


ND
(2)
ND
3, 3' -Di chloro-





benzidine


ND
(2)
ND
1,2-Di phenylhydraz i ne


ND
(2)
ND
Acryloni trile


ND
(2)
ND
0
1
ND
0.08
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.08
ND
ND
ND
ND
(1)
(2)
(2)
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
ND
0.08
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.08
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND (1) !	I	:	ND
I	I	•
I	I	I
t© (l) :	:	: nd
i	i	<
i	i	i
nd (i) :	;	; nd
nd (l) :	:	! ND
t	i	•
i	(	»
ND (1)	I	!	ND
ND (1) !	I	! ND
nd (l) :	:	: nd

-------
Appendix D. Mass loading values calculated ¦from available data. Number o-f sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data for all values are given in kg/day, except where noted.
Receiving Water
Whidbey Basin
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT
Flow 
Beryl1i u»
Cadmi us
Chromium
Copper
Cyani de
Lead
Mercury
Ni cfsel
Selenium
Si 1ver
Thallium
Zinc
t0)
(0)
(0)
Io)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
(0>
10)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
10)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
71
68
245
499
490
4
0
109
811
Pesticides,
ficrol ei n
Aldrin
CHlorodane
DDD
DDE
DDT
PCBs, etc.
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
NOTE: a = Skagit River, see Table 4-1.
1

-------
Dieldrin	!	!	!	(0)
Endosul-fan and	I	!	!
Endosul-fan Sulfate	!	!	!	(0)
Endrin and	!	!	!
Endrin Aldehyde	!	i	i	(0)
Heptachlor	!	!	!	(0)
Heptachlor Epoxide	!	!	!	(0)
Hexachlorocyclo-	!	'	!
he::ane Isomers	!	!	!	(0)
Isophorone	'	!	(0)
TCDD	!	!	!	(0)
Toxaphene	!	!	!	(0)
PCBs	!	!	i	(0)
2-Chloronaphthalene	!	!	;	(0)
Halogenated Aliphatic	!	!	I
Hydrocarbons	!	!	!
Methyl Chloride	1	i	!	(0)
Methylene Chloride	!	!	i	(0)
Chloroform	!	!	i	(0)
Carbon Tetrachloride	!	!	:	(0)
Chloroethane	i	!	!	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
1.2-Dichloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
1,1, 1-Trichloroethanel	!	!	(0)
O 1.1,2-Trichloroethane!	!	!	(0)
| 1, 1, 2, 2-Tetrachloro-	!	!	!
•""* ethane	!	i	!	(0)
He::achl oroethane	!	!	!	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	!	1	(0)
1, 1-Dichloroethyl ene	!	i	(0)
1,2-trans-Dichloro-	!	i	!
ethylene	I	!	!	(0)
Trichloroethylene	I	I	!	(0)
Tetrachloroethylene	!	!	i	(0)
1.2-Dichloropropane	I	!	!	(0)
1.3-Dichloropropene	I	!	!	(0)
Hesachlorobutadiene	!	!	1	(0)
He::achlorocyclo—	!	!	1
pentadiene	!	!	1	(0)
Methyl Bromide	!	!	•	(0)
Dichlorobromomethane	!	!	!	(0)
Ch1orodibromomethane	!	!	I	(0)
bromoforu	!	!	!	(0)
Dichlorodif1uoro-	!	!	!
methane	i	i	I	(0)
Trichlorof1uoro-	I	!	I
methane	!	!	S	(0)
Halogenated Ethers	:	!	!
Bi s(ch1 oromethy1)	!	!	!
Ether	i	!	I	(0)
Bis(2—chloroethyl)	!	!	i
Ether	!	!	!	(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
Bi s(2-chloroi so-
propyl) Ether
2—chloroethyl
Vinyl Ether
4—chlorophenyl
Phenyl Ether
4—Bromophenyl
Phenyl Ether
Bis(2-chloroethoxy)
Methane
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Monocyclic Aromatics	!	!	!	!	I	!
Benzene	!	!	i	(0):	!	!	(0)
Chlorobenzene	!	!	!	(0) !	i	I	(0)
1.2-Dichloroben2ene	!	!	I	(0)!	i	!	(0)
1.3-Dichlorobenzene	!	:	!	(0) j	|	;	(0)
1.4-Dichlorobenzene	!	i	!	(0) !	i	|	(0)
1,2,4-Trichloro—	ill	i	!	!
benzene	!	i	!	(0):	;	!	(0)
Hexachlorobenzene	!	!	!	(0) !	;	!	(0)
Ethyl benzene	!	!	!	(0) !	!	!	(0)
Nitrobenzene	i	!	I	(0) }	j	i	(0)
Toluene	!	!	!	(0) j	:	|	(0)
2,4-Dinitrotoluene	i	!	!	(0) :	!	!	(0)
2,6-Dinitrotoluene	i	i	i	(0) i	i	;	(0)
0	Phenol	!	!	!	(0);	i	i	(0)
1	2—Chlorophenol	!	!	!	(0) !	;	|	(0)
•""* 2,4-Dichlorophenol	i	!	i	(0) i	i	I	(0)
2,4,6-Tricholoro-	!	!	!	Ill
phenol	¦	i	!	(0)i	!	!	(0)
Pentachlorophenol	!	!	i	(0) !	!	!	(0)
2—Nitrophenol	!	!	I	(0);	i	1	(0)
4—Nitrophenol	!	!	!	(0);	;	j	(0)
2,4-Dinitrophenol	i	!	!	(0) ¦	;	:	(0)
2,4-Dimethyl Phenol	!	!	!	<0) j	:	j	(0)
p-Ch1oro-m-cresol	!	!	!	(0) i	i	!	(0)
4«6-Dinitro-o-cresol i	i	!	(0)j	j	j	(0)
Phthalate Esters !	!	i	i	i	!
Dimethyl Phthalate i	I	i	(0)	!	i	I	(0)
Diethyl Phthalate 1	i	'	(0)	!	!	!	(0)
Di-n-butyl Phthalate !	!	!	(0)	!	!	i	<0)
Di-n-octyl Phthalate i	i	i	(0)	i	i	!	(0)
Bis<2—ethylhexyl) !	!	!	!	!	!
Phthalate !	!	:	(0)	i	:	i	(0)
Butyl Benzyl	ill	I	i	I
Phthalate !	!	!	(0)	;	i	j	(0)
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
Acenaphthene
Acenaphthylene
Fluorene
Napthalene
Anthracene
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
3

-------
F1 uor anthene
F'henanthrene
benzola3anthracene
Benrotbluoranthene
Benzot k 3-f 1 uoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrene
BenzoCghi Jperylene
BenzoCa 3pyrene
Di benzotaianthracene
IndenoC1,2,3-cd3-
pyrene
Nitrosamines & Misc.
N-nitrosodi methyl-
ami ne
N-nitrosodiphenyl-
ami ne
N-ni trosodi-n-
propylami ne
Ben:i di ne
3, 3'" -Di chloro-
benzidi ne
1,2-Di phenylhydraz i ne
Acryloni trile
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
Appendix D. Mass loading values calculated front available data. Number o*f sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data ¦for all values are given in kg/day, except where noted.












Nonpei—










Total -for NPDES
mitted
Grand
Receiving Water

Municipal
(	3 _)

! Industrial


Permitted Dischargers
Sources
ftnnuala
Total
Port Gardner
Wet
I Dry
!Annual

! Wet
Dry i Annual

Wet
Dry
Annual
Annual


*-***» *•##»#**»**-**«***«*#****#****** *#***¦****«******+*** *****¦»¦*•*-** *»¦*»***
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT

;
•
1

l
t








Flow {cubic m/d)

:
i 43,711
(3)
•' 84,657
83,522
84,184
(1)


127,895


Biochemical Oxygen

i
•
1








Demand (BOD)
1,089
'• 1,814
' 1,391
13)
! 5,126
3,720
4,540
(1)
6,215
5,534
5,931


Total Suspended Solids
1,266
; 2,236
• 1,670
(3)
! 4,763
4,672
4,725
(1)
6,029
6,908
6,395


Oils t< Brease



10)
»
l
422
422
(1)





pH trange)
6.5-9.2
fe.6-10.0
1 6.5-10.0
(31 <5.9-7.1
6.1-7.0 5.9-7.1
(1)
5.9-9.2
6.1-10.0 5.9-10.0


Fecal Col i -form

l
I
i
•









(MPN/100 ml)
5-2,500
1 5-2,200
'• 5-2,500
(3)
¦' 41,500

41,500
(1)
5-41,500
6-41,500


EXTENDED
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT
Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD)
Total Solids
Total Nonvolatile
Sol ids
Total Nonvolatile
Suspended Soli ds
Total Nitrogen
Total Phosphorus
272
599
36
18

272 (1)
599 (1)
(0)
(0)
36 (1)
18 (1)
64,685
150,465
82,468
989
2,427
308
64,142
1,445
259
64,ii3 (1)
150,465 (1)
82,468 (1)
989 (1J
2,018 (1)
2S7 (1)
64,957
151,064
2,463
326

64,686
151,064
2,054
305


PRIORITY POLLUTANT











Heavy Metals & Inorg.











Antimony


(0)

0.04
0.04 (1)





Arseni c


(0)

0.02
0.02 (1)





Asbestos t-fibers/d)


(0)








Beryl1iu«


(0)

ND
Ml (1)





Cadmi um


(0)
0.4
0.1
0.2 (1)



21

Chroitii um


0.8 (2)
1
2
1 (1)


2
41
43
Copper


0.2 (1)
2
3
3 (1)


3
34
37
Cyanide


(0)
to
ND
ND (1)





Lead


(01
7
3
5 (1)



31

Mercury


(0)
ND
0.01
<0,01 (1)



7

Nickel


to)
4
0.6
3 U)



145

Seleni um


10)
ND
0.03
0.01 (1)





Si 1 ver


(0)
0.02
0.3
0.1 (1)





Thai1lum


(0)

4
4 (1)





Zinc

0.4
0.5 (1)
9
1
C (1)


6
744
750
Pesticides, PCBs, etc.
Acrolein
Ajdran
Chiorodane
DDD
DUE
DDT


10) s
(0)!
(0):
(0) !
(0) :
(0):
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND \\) '•
ND (1):
i® (1) :
nd (l);
no 11):
nd (1):




= Snotanish Riwar, see Table 4-1.

-------
Di el dr 1 n	II!	(0)
tndocLi] -t an and	!	I
tndosul+an Sulfate	:	!	;	(Q)
Endrin and	!	i	i
Endrin Aldehyde	I	I	1	(Q)
Heptachlor	!	|	|	(qj
Heptachlor Epoxide	!	{	!	(0)
He::achl orocycl o-	1	!	!
he::ane Isomers	I	I	(Q)
Isophorone	:	!	i	(Q)
TCDD	!	!	(QJ
TaKaphene	;	!	j	jq)
PCBs	!	!	I	(0)
2-Chloronaphthalene	!	;	;	(Q)
Haloqenated Aliphatic	!	1	;
Hydrocarbons	!	i	;
Methyl Chloride	;	!	{	(0)
Methylene Chloride	I	I	(0)
Lhloro+orm	!	1	;	(0)
Carbon Tetrachloride	!	;	(0)
Chloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethane	!	1	;	(0)
1.2-Dichloroethane	!	i	;	(0)
1,1,1-Trichloroethanei	!	!	(0)
O 1 .1.2-Trichloroethane I	!	:	(0)
I 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-	!	!	!	(0)
ethane	I	:	I
He:: achl oroethane	!	!	!	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	!	!	;	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethylene	!	I	!	(0)
1.2-trans-Dichl	oro-	I	!	I	(0)
ethylene	;	:	i
7rich1oroethylene	!	!	!	(0)
T etrachloroethylene	!	;	!	(0)
1.2-Dichloropropane	!	!	!	(0)
1.3-Dichloropropene	!	!	!	(0)
Hexachlorobutadi ene	ill	(0)
He::achlorocyclo-	i	I	(0)
pentadiene	!	!	I
Methyl Bromide	J	'	I	(0)
Dichlorobromomethane	II!	(0)
Chl orodibromomethane	I	(0)
fciromotorm	!	!	!	(0)
Iji chl orodi -f 1 uoro-	!	!	!	(0)
methane	!	!	!
TrichloroUuoro-	!	!	!	(0)
methane	!	!	!
Halogenated Ethers	!	!	!
fci schl oromethy 1 )	:	I	:	(0)
Ether	I	!	:
bis(2-chloroethyl)	!	!	!	(0)
Ether	i	!	I
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
ND
0.5
12
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.5
12
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(I)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
ND
ND
ND
ND
(1)
(1)

-------
Bis(2-chJ oroi so-


10)

ND
ND
(1)





propyl) Ether












2-chloroethyl


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Vinyl Ether












4-chlorophenyl


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Phenyl Ether












4-Bromopheny1


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Phenyl tther












Bi s <2—chloroethoxy)


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Methane












Monocyclic Aromatics












Benzene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Chlorobenzene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





1,2-Di chlorobenzene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





1,3-Dichlorobenzene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





1,4—Di chlorobenzene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





1,2,4-Trichloro-


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





benrene












He::achl orobenzene


(0)

rc>
ND
(1)





Ethyl benzene


(0)

4
4
(1)





Nitrobenz ene


(0)

to
ND
(1)





Toluene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





2, 4-Di ni trotoluene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





2,6-Di m trotoluene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Phenol


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





2—Ch1or ophenol


(0)

ND
ND
U)





2,4-Dichlorophenol


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





2, 4,6—Tricholoro-


(0)

ND
ND
<1>





phenol


(0)









Pentachlorophenol



0.2
0.2
(1)





2—Ni trophenol


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





4-Ni trophenol


(0)

ND
ND
<1)





2,4-Dini trophenol


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





2, 4-Dimethyl F'henol


(0)

ND
to
(1)





p—Chloro-m-cresol


(0)

to
ND
(1)





4,6-Dini tro-o-cresol


(0)

ND
to
(1)





Phthalate Esters












Dimethyl Phthalate


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Diethyl Phthalate


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Di-n-butyl Phthalate


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Di-n-octyl Phthalate


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Bis<2-ethylhexyl)


(0)









Phthalate



0.5
0.5
(1)





Butyl Benzyl


(0)









Phthalate



0.5
0.5
(1)





Polycyclic Aromatic












Hydrocarbons












Acenaphthene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Acenaphthy1ene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





F1uqrene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Napthalene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





Anthracene


(0)

ND
ND
(1)





3

-------
Appcndi:: D. Mass loadinq values calculated -tram available data. Number of sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data tor ail values are given in I g/dsy, e-.cept where rioted.
! Nonper-
! Total -for NPDES	! mitted ! Grand
Rpccivinq Water	I	Municipal	!	Industrial	! permitted Dischargers ! Sources! Total
Central Basin	; Wet-	! Dry	; Annual	! Wet : Dry ! Annual	! Wet : Dry ! Annual ! Annual ! Annual
+ ++¦+¦*¦*****	+ r***¦«¦*	+*»***»:*** *+¦* + **
LOIMVLUT IONAL PULLIJTANT I	1	:	111	!	!	1	!	i
Flow (cubic m/d) :734,644
505,065
638,936
(22)
103,020
92,755
98,740
(9)
837,778
597,820
737,0G0


biochemical Oxygon













lipuand !L !55,364
58,258
56,570
(20)
786
655
732
(4)
56,150
58,913
57,326


Total bur.pended faol ids
43,378
56,965
49,039
(2)
2,703
2,210
2,497
(5)
46,082
59,176
51,555


Cji 1 s- l< brease


39
(0)


376
(4)





pH \range) 15.7-9.1
5.9-8.0
5.7-9.1
(22)
5.5-7.2
6.5-7.8
6.5-7.8
(8)
5.7-9.1
5.9-8.0
5.7-9.1


Fecal CDli-form













D
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND

ND
(1)
ND

ND


DDL
ND

ND
(4)
ND

ND
(1)
ND

ND


Din
ND

ND
(4)
ND

ND
(1)
ND

ND


NOTE: a = Lake Washington Ship Canal, see Table 4-1.
J

-------
Fluoranthene
Phenanthrene
Benzolalanthracene
Benro Cb 3-f 1 uor anthene
Benzo[k3-f luoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrene
BenzoCghi Jperylene
BenzoCaDpyrene
DibenzoIaJanthracene
IndenoC1,2,3-cd3-
pyrene
Nitrosamines & Misc.
N-ni trosodimethyl -
amine
N-nitrosodiphenyl -
ami ne
N-ni trosodi-n-
propylami ne
Benzidine
3, 3"—Dichioro—
benzidine
1,2—Di phenylhydr az i ne
Acryloni trile
ND	!	ND	(1)
ND	!	ND	(1)
ND	i	ND	(1)
ND	!	M)	(1)
ND	ND	(1)
ND	!	H»	(1)
ND	S	ND	(1)
ND	!	ND	(1)
ND	i	ND	(1)
ND	!	ND	(1)
ND	I	ND	(1)
ND ! ND	(1)
I
ND i ND	(1)
I
I
ND ! ND	(1)
I
I
ND i ND	(1)
ND ! ND	(1)
I
I
ND : ND	(1)
ND ! ND	(1)

-------
Dieidrin
ND

ND (4)
ND
Lndocul+an and




fcndosuIfan Sulfate
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Endrin and




Endrin Aldehyde
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Heptechlor
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Heptachlor Epoxide
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Hc::achl orocycl o-




he::ane Isomers
ND
0.04
0.01 (4)
ND
1sophorone
ND
4
2 (4)
ND
TCDD
ND
3.4
0.2 (4)
ND
1 dv: aphene
ND
0.4
0.2 (4)
ND
H'CPs
ND
<0.01
<0.01 (4)
ND
2-Ch1 oronaphthalene
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Halogenated Aliphatic




Hydrocarbons




Methyl Chloride
0.3
1
0.6 (4)
ND
Methylene Chloride
23
24
24 (4)
ND
Chioro+orm
11
3
8 (4)
ND
Carbon Tetrachloride
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Chi oroethane
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
1, 1-Jji chl or oethane
0.03
ND
0.02 (4)
ND
1.2-Dichloroethane
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
1.1,1-1richloroethane
2
ND
ND (4)
ND
1.1,2—Tr i chloroethane
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
1,1,2,2-Tetr achlor o—




ethane
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Hexachloroethane
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Vinyl Chloride
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
1,1-DichlorDethy1ene
24
15
20 (4)
ND
3,2-trans-Di chloro-




ethylene
10
4
8 (4)
ND
1richloroethylene
18
1
11 (4)
ND
Tetrachloroethylene
10
2
6 (4)
ND
1,2-Di chloropropane
0.01
ND
0.01 (4)
ND
1,3-Di ch1 oropropene
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Hex achlorobutadiene
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
He::achl orocycl o-




pentadi ene
ND
0.4
0.2 (4)
ND
Methyl Bromide
0.5
1
0.9 (4)
ND
Dichlorobromomethane
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Chlorodibromomethane
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
broffio-t or m
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Uichlorodi + 1uoro-




methane
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
Iri chlorofluoro-




methane
0.01
0.7
0.3 (4)
ND
Halogenated Ethers




Bi s ch 1 oromethy 1 )




Ether
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
hi s(2—chloroethy1)


ND (4)

Ether
ND
ND
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
0.3
ND
(1)
23
ND
(1)
11
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
0.03
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
2
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
24
ND
(1)
10
ND
(1)
18
ND
(1)
10
ND
(i)
0.01
ND
(1)
ND
ND
11)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
0.5
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
ND
ND
(1)
0.01
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.01
2
0.2
0.2
<0.01
ND
0.6
24
8
ND
ND
0.02
ND
1
ND
ND
ND
ND
20
11
6
0.01
ND
ND
0.2
0.9
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.3
ND (X)
ND (1)
ND
ND
ND
ND

-------
Bi s(2-chloroi so—
propyl) Ether
2—chloraethyI
Vinyl Ether
4-chlorophenyl
Phenyl Ether
4-fcir omopheny 1
Phenyl Ether
Bis <2-chloroethoxy)
Methane
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
T
to
ND
ND
T
T	(4)
ND	(4)
ND <4)
ND (4)
T (4-)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
(1)
ND

T
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(X)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

T
ND
(1)
26

16
ND
(1)
ND

0.3
ND
(1)
ND

0.5
ND
(1)
ND

0.01
ND
(1)
ND

0.9
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
24

14
ND
(1)
ND

T
ND
(1)
69

59
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
10

7
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

0.08
ND
(1)
3

4
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

0.03
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

T
2
(1)
3

4
ND
(1)
3

2
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
9

11
ND
(1)
ND

0.09
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
ND

ND
ND
(1)
21

14
ND
(1)
ND

ND
0
1
fo
Ul
Monocyclic Aromatics
Ben:ene
Chlorobenzene
1.2-Dichlorobenzene
1.3-Dichlorobenzene
1.4-Di	chlorobenzene
1,2,4-Trichloro-
beniefiE
Hexachloroben:ene
Ethyl benzene
Nitrobenzene
Toluene
2,4-Dinitrotoluenp
2,6-Dini trotoluene
phenol
2-Chlorophenol
2,4-Dichlorophenol
2,4,6-Tricholoro-
phenol
Pentachlorophenol
2-Ni trophenol
4-Ni trophenol
2,4—Di ni trophenol
2,4-Dimethyl Phenol
p-Chloro-m-cresol
4,fa-Ui m tro-o-cresol
26
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
23
ND
69
ND
ND
10
ND
ND
ND
3
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2
0.7
1
0.04
2
ND
ND
1
T
45
1©
ND
3
ND
ND
0.2
5
ND
ND
ND
0.07
ND
ND
16	(4)
0.3	14)
0.5	(4)
0.01	(4)
0.9	(4)
t©	<4)
ND	(4)
14
T
(4)
(4)
59 <4)
ND (4)
ND
7
(4)
(4)
ND	(4)
ND	(4)
0.08	(4)
4	(4)
I®	(4)
ND	(4)
ND	(4)
0.03 (4)
ND	(1)
ND	(4)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Phthalate Esters
Dimethyl Phthalate
Diethyl F'hthalate
Di-ri-butyl Phthalate
Di-n-octyl Phthalate
Bisxi-ethylhewyi)
Phthal ate
Butyl Benzyl
F'hthal ate
ND
T
T (4)
0.6
3
2 (4)
3
0.9
2 (4)
ND
ND
ND (4)
9
14
11 (4)
ND
0.2
0.09 (4)
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
ND
ND (4)
ND
ND
ND (4)
21
4
14 <4)
ND
ND
ND (4)
3

ND
2
ND
ND
ND
ND
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
Acenaphthene
Acenaphthylene
F1uorene
Napthalene
Anthrarene
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

-------
F1uoranthene
ND
0.2
0.06
(4)
ND
Fhenanthrene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
benrola]anthracene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Ben:o[b]+1uoranthene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
BenzoC k3f1uoranthene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Chrysene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Pyrene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
benzoCqhi 3perylene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Ben:o[a]pyrene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Di benz oC a 3 anthracene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Indenot1.2,3-cd 3-





pyrene
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Mi tr osami nes S< Misc.





N—ni trosodimethyl -





amine
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
N-ni trosodi phenyl-





ami ne
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
N—ni trosodi-n-





propylami ne
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Ben:i dine
ND
0.4
0.2
(4)
ND
3,3'-Di chl oro-





benrldi ne
ND
ND
1®
(4)
ND
1, 2-Di phenylhydraz i ne
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
Acrylonitri1e
ND
ND
ND
(4)
ND
ND	(1)	!	ND	!	!	0.06
ND	(1)	i	ND	I	!	ND
ND	(1)	!	ND	'•	i	ND
ND	(1)	!	ND	i	!	ND
ND	(1)	!	ND	i	I	ND
ND	(1)	!	ND	!	I	ND
ND	(1)	!	ND	!	!	ND
ND	(1)	I	ND	!	!	ND
ND	(1)	!	ND	i	i	ND
ND	(1)	i	ND	!	!	ND
I	I	>
«	I	I
ND	(1)	!	ND	i	!	ND
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.2
ND
ND
ND

-------
Append!.-.- X). Mass loading values calculated from available data. Number of sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data for all values are oiven in kg/day, e;:cept where rioted.
Wet
Municipal
1 Dry
<	0 _)
! Annual
Receiving Water
Elliott Bay
CONVtKTIONAU POLLUTANT
Industrial <_29_>
Wet f Dry ! Annual
Total for NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Wet	Dry ! Annual
Nonper-
mi tted ! Grand
Sources', Total
Annual3! Annual
Flaw (cuoic m/d)
biochemical G::ygen
Demand (bOD)
lotol buspondcd Solids
Cu 1 e & brease
pH (range)
Fecal Coliform

35
135
F'esti ci des,
Hcrolein
nldrin
Chiorodsne
DDD
DDL
DDI
F'CBs, etc.
(0)
(0)
(01
(0)
(0)
(0)
NOTE:
= Duwamish River, see Table 4-1.
= Duwamish River data from Harper-Owes 1983, taken near mouth.

-------
if !	_>id
t t i.i . ¦ .11 » .hi bu Mate
t ;. : r i ri Mir id
t r ,!f i n nl df.hyde
hi ;it*ic n 1 or
.irr.I or hpo::lde
He- .ir.nuirocvclo-
hc	Isomers
!¦ i;jjhorone
ILl'H
lo . ^phene
t LK
-Chi oronaphthal ene
Halogenated Aliphatic	! ! i	:	!	:
Hydrocarbons	! ! ',	111
Methyl Chloride	! i ;	;	;	;	(0>
Methylene Chloride	! ! I	I	!	!	(0)
Chloroform	! !	111	(0)
Carbon Tetrachloride	II:	;	!	I	(0)
Chioroethane	! ! i	!	I	I	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethane	II;	! ! !	(0)
1,.'-Oichloroethane	! ! J	I ! !	(0)
1,1,l-1richl oroethane!	i I	III	(0)
P 1, 1,2-1 r i chl oroethane!	I ;	!	I	!	(0)
I 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-	! I ;	ill	(0)
W ethane	! ! ;	II!
He;:achl oroethane	ill	!	!	!	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	! ! ;	j	;	;	(0)
1, 1-Dichloroethylene	! : i	;	|	;	(0)
1.2-trans-Dichloro-	I	! ;	111	(0)
ethylene	II!	ill
Trichloroethylene	I ! :	111	(0)
Tetrachl oroethylene	1 I I	I	I	I	(0)
1.2-Di	chloropropane	I ! I	!	I	!	(0)
1.3-Dichl	oropropene	! I I	I I I	(0)
He::achl orobutadi ene	III	III	(0)
He:: achl orocyc 1 o-	III	III	(0)
pentadiene	III	III
Methyl Bromide	I I I	III	(0)
Dichlorobromomethane	I I I	I	I	I	(0)
Chlorodibromonethane	! ! I	III	(0)
Bromotorm	I I I	I	I	I	(0)
Di chl or odi -f 1 uoro-	III	III	
-------
Bi s <2-chloroi so-
propyl) Ether
2-chloroethyl
Vinyl Ether
4-chlorophenyl
Phenyl Ether
4-Bromophenyl
Phenyl Ether
Bi s <2—chloroethoxy)
Methane
D
I
M
VO
Monocyclic Aromatics
Benzene
Ch1 or obenz ene
1.2-Di	chiorobeniene
1.3-Di	chiorobeniene
1.4-Di	chlorobenzene
1,2,4-Tri chloro-
benzene
Hex ach1 or obenz ene
Ethyl benzene
Ni trobenzene
Toluene
2,4-Dini trotoluene
2,6—Di ni trotoluene
Phenol
2-Chlorophenol
2,4-Dichlorophenol
2,4,6-Tricholoro-
phenol
Pentachlorophenol
2—Ni trophenol
4-Ni trophenol
2,4-Dinitrophenol
2,4-Dimethyl Phenol
p—Chloro—m-cresol
4,6-Dini tro-o-cresol
Phthalate Esters
Dimethyl Phthalate
Diethyl Phthalate
Di—n—butyl Phthalate
Di-n-octyl Phthalate
Bi s <2—ethylhexyl)
Phthalate
Butyl Benzyl
Phthalate
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
Acenaphthene
Acenaphthylene
F1uorene
Napthalene
Anthracene
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
F1uoranthene
F'henanthrene
Benzol aJanthracene
fcienzoCbJ-f luoranthene
Benzol k34luoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrenc
BenzoCqhi Jperylene
Benzol aJpyrene
DibenzoCaJanthracene
Indenot1,2,3-cd]-
pyrene
Nitrosamines !< Misc.
N-ni trosodimethyl-
ami ne
N-ni trosodiphenyl-
ami ne
N-nitrosodi—n-
propylami ne
Benzi dine
3,3'-Oichloro-
benz i di ne
1.2—Di phenylhydraz i ne
Acrylonitrile
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
Appendix U. Mass loading values calculated from available data. Number of sources contributing to eacn calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data tor all values are given in Ig/day, escept where rioted.
Receiving Water
Sinclair Inlet
Wet
Municipal (_4	)
Dry	Annual
Industrial <_!_>
Wet ! Dry Annual
Total for NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Wet ! Dry Annual
Nonper-
mi tted
Source;
Annual
Grand
Total
Annual
* **** ***» ******** ****** *~ ************************************************* ************************************** ****************
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT









Flow (cubic m/d)
27,037
16,894
22,810

24,090
24,090 (1)

40,984
46,900
Biochemical 0:;ygen









Demand (HOD)
2,694
2,041
2,422 (4)


(0)



Total Suspended Solids
1,964
1,397
1,729 (4)


(0)



Oil? S< brease


(0)

13
13 (1)



pH (range/
6.2-9.4
6.5-9.3
6.2-9.4 (4)

7.6-7.7
7.5-7.7 (1)

6.5-9.3
6.2-9.4
Fecal Coliform









(MPN/100 ml)
10-238
9-176
9-238 (4)


(0)



0
1
u>
EXTENDED
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT
Chemical Oxygen
Demand 
due	:	i	:	(0)	i	i	;	(0)
DDI	:	:	i	(0)	!	!	!	(°)
1

-------
fcndosultan and	!	!	I
Endosul+an Sul-fate	!	!	!	(0)
Endrin and	!	!	I
Endrin Aldehyde	!	!	I	(0)
Heptachlor	i	!	!	(0)
Heptachlor Epoxide	!	!	!	(0)
Hexachlnrocyclo—	!	:	!
ho'iane Isomers	!	I	I	(0)
Isophorone	!	!	!	(0)
TCDD	J	!	!	(0)
To::aphene	I	!	!	(0)
PCPs	;	;	;	(0)
2-Chloronaphthal ene	!	!	:	(0)
Halogenated Aliphatic	!	!
Hydrocarbons	!	i	!
Methyl Chloride	!	:	:	(0)
Methylene Chloride	i	I	!	(0)
Chloro+orm	!	!	I	(0)
Carbon Tetrachloride	!	:	:	(0)
Chloroethane	!	I	!	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethane	i	i	i	(0)
1.2-Dichloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
1,1,1-Trichloroethanei	i	!	(0)
1. 1, 2-Tri chloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
I 1, 1,2,2-Tetrachl oro-	!	I	(0)
to ethane	!	i	!
fo He::achl oroethane	!	I	!	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	!	!	!	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethyl	ene	!	!	!	(0)
1, 2-trans-Di chl oro-	:	I	(0)
ethylene	!	i	'
Trichloroethylene	!	!	!	(0)
Tetrachloroethyl ene	!	i	!	(0)
1.2-Dichloropropane	i	!	!	(0)
1.3-Dichloropropene	!	!	!	(0)
He:;achl orobutadi ene	!	!	!	(0)
Hexachlorocyclo-	:	I	1	(0)
pentadlene	!	I	!
Methyl Bromide	;	!	1	(0)
Dich1orobromomethane	!	!	!	(0)
Chlorodibromomethane	!	i	!	(0)
faromoform	!	!	'
Dich1orodif1uoro—	!	1	!	(0)
methane	1	!	!
Trichlorof1uoro-	i	i	I	W
methane	I	!	!
Halogenated Ethers	!	!
Bi s(chloromethyl)	I	!	'
Ether	!	!	I
bis(2-chloroethyl>	!	!	I
Ether	!	!	!	C)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
Bi s iU-chi oroi so-	¦'	i	j	(0) i	!	!	(0)
propyl) Ether	!	!	i	f	!	1
2—chl oroethyl	!	!	j	(0) !	!	!	(0)
Vinyl Ether	ill	III
4-chlorophenyl	!	1	|	(0) !	!	:	(0)
Phenyl Ether	!	I	j	III
4-Bromophenyl	!	!	!	(0) :	:	:	(0)
Phenyl Ether	!	!	!	Ill
Bis(2-chloroethoxy) !	!	I	(0) I	!	!	(0)
Methane	!	:	!	!	!	!
Monocyclic Aromatics	II!	ill
Benzene	i !	i	(0)	:	!	!	(0)
Chlorobenzene	i !	I'	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
1.2-Dichlorobenzene	!	!	!	(0)	!	:	(0)
1.3-Dichlorobenzene	1	!	I	(0)	I	!	!	(0)
1.4-Dichlorobenzene	I	i	I	(0)	I	!	1	(0)
1,2,4-Trichloro-	I i	i	(0)	I	I	(0)
benzene	I !	!	ill
Hexachlorobenzene	I !	I	(0)	!	:	l	(0)
Ethylbenzene	! '	!	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
Nitrobenzene	! >	!	(0)	:	I	I	(0)
Toluene	! !	!	(0)	!	I	I	(0)
2,4-Dinitrotoluene	! i	!	(0)	!	I	!	(0)
2,6-Di ni trotol uene	! >	1	(0)	:	!	:	(0)
Y Phenol	! !	!	(0)	!	I	I	(0)
^ 2-Chlorophenol	! !	!	(0)	!	i	!	(0)
U) 2,4—Bichlorophenol	!	I	(0)	i	:	!	(0)
2,4,6-Tricholoro-	i !	!	(.0)	:	!	!	(0)
phenol	! !	i	III
Pentachlorophenol	! !	!	(0)	i	!	I	(0)
2—Ni trophenol	i 1	i	(0)	I	!	!	(0)
4—Ni trophenol	! '	1	(0)	i	!	!	(0)
2,4—Dini trophenol	i I	!	(0)	I	!	I	(0)
2,4-Di methyl Phenol	! !	I	(0)	!	I	!	(0)
p-Chl aro-in-cresol	! !	I	(0)	!	!	!	(0)
4,6—Dinitro-o—cresol !	!	I	(0)	!	!	i	(0)
Phthalate Esters	ill	ill
Dimethyl Phthalate	1 1 !	! ' I	(0)
Diethyl Phthalate	! I !	<°> ! I i	<0)
Di—n-butyl Phthalate	! I !	(0) 1 ! !	(0)
Di-n-octyl Phthalate	! I !	«°> I I	<°)
Bi s (2—ethyl hex yl )	I I I	(0) ¦ ¦ ;	(0)
Phthalate	! ! I	111
Butyl benzyl	I ! !	'°> I ¦ i	<°>
Phthalate	III	I ! I
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
flcenapfithene
ftcenaphthylene
F1uorene
Naphthalene
Anthracene
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
3

-------
F1uoranthene
F'henanthrene
Benzola]anthracene
BenzoCb 3-f 1 uoranthene
Benzol kUluoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrene
BenzotqhiJperylene
Ben:ola]pyrene
DibenroCa3anthracene
IndenoC1,2,3-cd 3-
pyrene
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
D
I
u>
¦b.
Nitrosamines !< Misc.
N-ni trosodimethyl-
ami ne
N-ni trosodiphenyl—
ami ne
N—ni trosodi-n-
propylamine
Benzidine
3,3'-Di chloro-
benzi di ne
1,2-Di phenylhydraz i ne
Acrylonitrile
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
4
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)

-------
Appendi:: D. Mass loadinq values calculated -from available data. Number of sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data tor all values are given in Kg/day, e::cept where noted.
Receiving Water
!	Municipal (	2_>	!	Industrial
Commencement Bay	! Wet 1 Drv : Annual	: Wet : Dry
***.**.**.~.*.**** .fc.it.*.**************.**********.*****************************.)
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT!
<_29_>
i Annual
Total -for NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Wet ! Dry !Annual
Nonper-
mitted ! Brand
Sources J Total
Annual
Annual
****************************-**¦**
Flow (cubic m/d)
137,120
85,230
115,500
(2)
522,788: 548,134
533,349

689,908
633,3641 648,523


Biochemical 0::yqen
21,080
9,820
16,388
(2)
2,116
4,272
3,016
(4)
23,196
14,092: 19,404


Demand (bOD)




!




1


Total Suspended Solids
10,450
6,700
8,890
(2)
4,212
6,338
5,098
(9)
14,662
13,038: 13,988


Oi 1 s S< Urease
ND
1,630
680
(1)
166
167
166
(7)
166
1,797: 846


pH (range)
6.7-9.1
6.2-7.4
6.2-9.1
(2)
1.4-13.1
0.6-12.6
0.6-13.1
(9)
1.4-13.1
0.6-12.6: 0.6-13.1


Fecal Coliform



!







(MPN/lOO ml)
19-455
36-156
19-455
(2)


(0)





EXTENDED













CONVENT IONAL POLLUTANT













Chemical Oxygen













Demand (COD)
54,890
36,200
47,100
(1)

61,346
61,346
(3)

97,546
108,446


Total Solids
115,220
57,110
91,000
(1)

256,742

(4)

347,742



Total Nonvolatile













Soli ds
68,500
38,060
55,800
(1)

187,031

(4)

242,831



Total Nonvolatile













Suspended Solids
5,440
2,130
4,060
(1)


1,696
(5)


5,756


Total Nitrogen
1,950
1,360
1,700
(1)


921
(5)


2,314


Total Phosphorus
725
570
660
(1)


529
(4)


1,189


PRIORITY POLLUTANT













Heavy Metals & Inorg.













Antimony



(0)


64
(3)





Arsenic
7
6.9x10
^14
6.9x10
(2)


34
(6)


39
16
55
Asbestos (fibers/d)

(2)



(0)





Beryl 1i um



(0)


2
(1)





Cadmium
0.6
0.5
0.6
(2)


3
(7)


3
8
11
Chromi um
5
5
5
(2)


10
(7)


15
58
143
Copper
15
4
11
(2)


22
(7)


33
66
99
Cyani de
23
1
14
(1)


33
(4)


47
65c
112
Lead
24
5
16
(2)


16
(7)


32
91
123
Hercury
0.1
0.1)6
0.1
(2)


0.02
(6)


0.1
0.7
0.8
Ni ct;el
47
4
29
(2)


24
(7)


53
12
65
Belenium
3
5
4
(2)


5
(2)


9
0
9
Si 1 ver
1
1
1
(2)


3
(3)


4
0
4
T hal1ium



(0)


61
(2)





1 i nc
44
28
37
(2)


39
(7)


76
173
249
Pesticides, PCBs, etc.
ftcrolein
Aldrin
Chiorodane
DDD
DDE
DDT
Puyallup River, see Table 4-1
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
(0):
(0):
(0):
(1):
(0);
dti
0.05 (2)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
ND
5

= Present, but also found in blanks
= DOE data taken above Cleveland Avenue

-------
Di eldrln
tndosuHan and
Endosul +ari Sul-fate
Endrin and
tndrin Aldehyde
Heptachlor
Heptachlor Epoxide
He:: achl Drocyc 1 o—
hc::ane Isomers
Isophorone
TCDD
1 o::aphene
PCBs
2-Chloronaphthalene
0.3
ND
0.03
ND
0.2
ND
0
1
u>
CT\
Halogenated Aliphatic
Hydrocarbons
Methyl Chloride
Methylene Chloride
Chloroform
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chloroethane
1.1—in	chloroethane
1.2-Dichloroethane
1,1,1-1richloroethane
1,1, 2—Tr i chl oroethane?
1,1,2,2-1etrachloro-
ethane
He:: achl oroethane
Vinyl Chloride
1,1 —Dichloroethy1ene
1,2-trans-Dichloro-
ethylene
Trichloroethylene
retrarhl oroet.hyl ene
1.2—Dichlor	Dpropane
1.3-Di	chloroprnpene
He::achl orot'Litadi ene
He:: ach 1 orocyc 1 o-
pent adlenc
Methyl Bromide
Di chlorobromomethane
Ch1orodibromomethane
bromo+orm
Uichlorodif1uoro-
methane
Trichloro-fluoro-
methane
ND
0.1
0.1
ND
t©
0.6
0.2
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.3
ND
ND
ND
30
0.1
ND
Halogenated Ethers
Bls(chloromethyl )
Ether
tn s(2-chloroethyl)
Et her
(0) i	: !	ND (l) : : :
(0):	i i	nd (l) : : !
t	• >	iii
•	• <	(ii
(0) i	: !	nd (l) : : :
i	i «	iii
¦	ti	ii>
(0)1	! !	ND (1) ! : :
(0) :	! :	ND (1) i 1 !
(2) :	: i	t (2) : ; : 0.2
lit	tii
111	tii
(0)1	: '	0.02 (2) ! i :
(0)	:	: i	ND (2) ! ! :
(0>:	i :	nd (l) : i :
(1)	i	: :	nd (l) : 1 nd
(0)i	' i	nd (l) : ; :
(0) : : :	o.l	(2) !	>	:
(0): : :	1	(5) ;	:	:
(0) : : 1	220	(7) :	:	i 221
(0)	: : :	0.02	(5) :	:	:
(1)	: : i	T	(2) :	:	: t
(l) ; ; ;	<0.01	(3) ¦.	:	: <0.05
(0)	: : :	0.01	(2) :	:	:
(1)	: : ;	0.02	(5) :	:	: 0.2
(0)	: : 1	0.01	(2) !	i	:
111	iii
lit	tit
(1)	: : :	0.01	(2) :	:	: 0.01
(0) : : :	<0.01	(3): : :
(0) : : !	0.01	(2):	:	:
(0)	! ! i	0.01	(3):	:	!
111	111
111	iii
(1)	: : :	0.1	(4):	;	i o.l
(l)i : :	0.1	(5) i : 1 0.5
(l) : : :	0.4	(5):	:	: 13
(0) : : :	0.01	(2):	:	:
(0)	i i :	0.01	(2):	:	i
(1);	: ;	<0.01	(5):	:	: <0.05
111	111
iii	111
(0): : :	0.06	(2):	:	:
(0)	: * :	0.01	(2>:	:	:
(1);	: :	0.9	(3):	:	: 0.9
(0): : :	0.3	(4); : :
(0): : :	9	(4):	!	:
i«i	iii
iii	tti
(0)i : :	0.01	(2):	i	:
111	lit
(0); : :	0.07	(3):	:	i
(0)i	:	: nd (1)
1	1	1
(0)!	i	: <0.01 (2)

-------
o
to
—J
Bis(2-chloroiso-













propyl ) Ether
0.1
ND
0.06
(1)


<0.01
(2)


0.07


2-chloroethyl













Vinyl Ether



(0)


0.01
(2)





4—ch1 orophenyl













Phenyl Ether



(0)


0.07
(2)





4-Bromopheny1













Phenyl Ether



(0)


0.01
(2)





Bi s <2-chloroethosy)













Methane



(0)


<0.01
(2)





Monocyclic Aromatics













Benzene
ND
0.8
0.3
(1)


0.8
(3)


1


Chlorobenzene
ND
ND
ND
(1)


0.01
(2)


0.01


1,2-Dichlorobenzene
0.4
0.4
0.4
(2)


0.02
(3)


0.4


1,3-Di chlorobenzene
0.02
ND
0.01
(2)


<0.01
(2)


0.02


1,4-Dichlorobenzene
ND
0.2
0.03
(1)


0.01
(3)


0.09


1,2,4—Trlchloro-













benzene



(0)


<0.01
(2)





Hexachlorobenzene
1
ND
0.7
(2)


0.02
(3)


0.7


Ethylbenzene
ND
ND
ND
(1)


0.01
(3)


0.01


Nitrobenzene



(0)


<0.01
(2)





Toluene
2
ND
1
(1)


0.6
(5)


2


2,4-Dinitrotoluene



(0)


0.01
(2)





2,6-Di nitrotoluene



(0)


0.01
(2)





Phenol
5
2
4
(2)


0.7
(6)


5


2-Ch1orophenol
2
0.5
1
(1)


<0.01
(3)


1


2,4-Di chlorophenol
2
0.3
1
(1)


<0.01
(3)


1


2,4,6—Tricholoro—













phenol
3
0.3
2
(1)


0.2
(5)


2


Pentachlorophenol
7
ND
4
(2)


0.9
(6)


5


2-Ni trophenol



(0)


<0.01
(2)





4-Ni trophenol



(0)


0.1
(3)





2,4—Di nitrophenol



(0)


0.5
(2)





2, 4-Di methyl F'henol
ND
0.2
0
(1)


<0.01
(2)


0.1


p-Chloro-m-cresol
0.7
ND
0.4
(2)


0.01
(2)


0.4


4,6-Dini tro-o-cresol



(0)


ND
(2)





Phthalate Esters













Dimethyl phthalate



(0)


<0.01
(2)





Diethyl Phthalate



(0)


<0.01
(3)





Di—n-butyl Phthalate
to
ND
ND
(1)


<0.01
(2)


<0.01


Di—n-octyl Phthalate
ND
0.1
0.05
(1)


<0.01
(2)


0.06


Bi s (2-ethylhe>:yl )













Phthalate
ND
2
1
(1)


0.4
(4)


1


Butyl benzyl
ND
ND
ND
(1)


<0.01
(3)


<0.01


Phthalate













Polycyclic Aromatic













Hydrocarbons













Acenaphthene
ND
0.04
0.02
(1)


<0.01
(3)


0.03


Acenaphthy1ene



(0)


<0.01
(2)





F1uorene
1
ND
0.6
12)


<0.01
(3)


0.6


Napthalene
2 -
0.3
1
(2)


0.5
(4)


2


Anthracene
0.01
J®
0.01
(2)


<0.01
(3)


0.02


3

-------
F1uoranthene
0.08
ND
0.05
F'henanthrene
0.03
ND
0.02
Ben:oL a3anthracene



Benrotb 3-f 1 uoranthene
ND
0.04
0.02
Benzot I; 3-f 1 uoranthene
ND
0.09
0.04
Chrysene
0.5
0.02
0.3
Pyrene
ND
0.1
0.04
BenzotghiIperylene



benzol a3pyrene



Di ben:otalanthracene
0.8
ND
0.5
Indenot1,2,3-cd]-



pyrene
Nitrosamines fc Misc.
N-nitrosodimethyl-
ami ne
N-ni trosodiphenyl-
ami ne
N-ni trosodi-n-
propylami ne
Benr i di ne
3,3'-Dichloro-
tienz i dine
1,2-Di phenylhydraz i ne
Acrylonitri1e
ND
0.7
0.07
0.02
0.05
(2)	1	1	1	<0.01	(4)	1	'	'• 0.06
(2)	!	!	!	<0.01	(3)	'<	•	'< 0.03
(0)	1	1	1	0.01	(4)	'	!	!
(1)	!	:	!	<0.01	(2)	!	!	'• 0.03
(1)	!	'•	!	<0.01	|3)	!	*	' 0.05
(2)	!	{	!	0.01	(2)	'	i	' 0.3
(2)	•'	!	1	<0.01	(3)	•'	!	'• 0.05
(0)	!	'	'	0.01	(3)	:	'	!
(0)	1	'•	!	0.01	(3)	1	!	!
(2)	!	1	!	0.01	(2)	!	'¦	! 0.5
Sit	iii
(0)	!	;	1	0.01	(3)	'	•'	'
(2) i ! S	0.06	(2) i	!	! 0.8
III	iff
(0) : i :	
-------
Append1D. Mass loading values calculated from available data. Number of sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data tor all values are given in kg/day, escept where noted.
Receiving Water
Municipal <_
Industrial ( 1R )
I Nonper-
Total for NPDES	i mitted i Grand
Permitted Dischargers ! Sources! Total
Southern Puqet Sou«i !
Wet !
Dry T
Annual
!
Wet ! Dry !
Annual
Wet
Dry !Annual
Annual3
Annual
** ******* ************** **: ******* *




CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT











Flow (cubic iti/d)
42,848
31,636
38,176
(6).
67,765! 67,973
67,852 (8)
110,613
99,609
106,028


biochemical Oxygen




l
1





Demand (BOD)
2,132
1,582
1,903
(7)
2,540: 1,277
2,014 (2)
4,672
2,859
3,917


Total Suspended Solids
1,905
1,254
1,634
(7)
2,483! 3,006
2,700 (4)
4,388
4,260
4,334


Oi 1 s 8t Grease
14
6
11
(1)
40!
40 (1)
54

51


pH (range)
6.2-7.3
6.2-7.7
6.2-7.2
(7)
3.2-9.016.2-11.9
3.2-11.9 (8)
3.2-9.0
6.2-11.9
3.2-11.9


Fecal Col i-form










(MPN/100 ml)
0-2,600
0-lxl06
0-lxl06
(71
37,4001
37,400 (1)
0-37,400

0-lxl06


EXTENDED











CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT











Chemical Ov:ygen











Demand (COD)
1,403

1,403
(2)
11,030!
11,030 (1)
12,433

12,433


Total Solids
984

984
(1)







Total Nonvolatile











Soli ds
582

582
(1)







Total Nonvolatile




I
1






Suspended Solids
39

39
(1)







Total Nitrogen
122

122
(2)
126:
126 (1)
248

248


Total Phosphorus
44

44
(2)
56|
56 (1)
100

100


PRIORITY POLLUTANT




i
1






Heavy Metals & Inorg.




i
1






Antimony




NDi
ND (1)





Arsenic ,
0.3
°-h
9s4
3x10
»)
ND:
ND (1)
0.3

0.4
4
4
Asbestos 
-------
Dieldrin	!	!	!	(£))
Endosulfan and	i	1	I	(0)
Endosul-fan BuHate	!	!	!
Endrin and	!	!	!	(0)
Endrin Aldehyde	!	!	!
Heptachlor	III	(0)
Heptachlor Epoxide	II!	(0)
HexachloVocyclo-	111	(0)
he::ane Isomers	!	!	!
Isophorone	!	!	!	(0)
TCDD	ill	(0)
Tosaphene	!	I	:	(0)
PCBs	!	!	!	(0)
2-Chloronaphthalene	!	i	I	(0)
Halogenated Aliphatic	! !
Hydrocarbons	! ! !
Methyl Chloride	ill	(0)
Methylene Chloride	! ! !	(0)
Chloroform	! 1 :	(0)
Carbon Tetrachloride	! ! t	(0)
Chloroethane	I ! !	(0)
1,1-Dichloroethane	ill	(0)
1«2-Dichloroethane	II!	(0)
1.1.1-Trichloroethanei	!	!	(0)
1.1.2-Trichloroethane!	!	!	(0)
o 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-	! ! !	(0)
t ethane	! i !
q Hexachloroethane	i ! !	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	! ! I	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethylene	ill	(0)
1.2-trans-Dichloro-	III	(0)
ethylene	! ! I
Trichloroethylene	1 I !	(0)
Tetrachloroethylene	II!	(0)
1.2-Dichloropropane	!	! !	(0)
1.3-Dichloropropene	!	! !	(0)
Hesachlorobutadiene	! !	(0)
Hesiachl orocycl o-	! ! !	(0)
pentadiene	! I !
Methyl Bromide	1 I !	(0)
Dichlorobromomethane	! ! !	(0)
Chlorodibromomethane	i i !	(0)
Bromoform	! ! I	W)
Di chl orodi-f 1 uoro-	! ! !	(0)
methane	! ¦ '
Tri chl orof 1 uoro-	! ! !	(0)
methane	! ! i
Halogenated Ethers	!	I	!
Bis	!	ND !	0.01 i <0.01 (1)
Ether	!	!
2
I©:	!	ND (1)
nd:	:	nd (l)
I	t
I	I
nd!	:	nd (l)
i	i
•	i
nd:	:	nd (l)
nd:	:	nd (l)
nd:	I	ND (1)
t	i
¦	i
nd:	:	nd (l)
M3!	:	nd (l)
nd:	:	nd (l)
nd:	1	nd (l)
nd:	:	nd (l)
1
nd:
ND
(1)
ND!
ND
(1)
nd:
ND
(1)
nd:
ND
(1)
nd;
ND
(1)
nd:
ND
(1)
nd:
ND
(1)
nd:
ND
(1)
nd:
ND
(1)
nd:
i
ND
(1)
ND!
ND
(1)
ND!
ND
(1)
ND!
ND
(1)
ND!
ND
(1)
ND:
ND
(1)
NDi
ND
(1)
nd:
ND
(1)
ND!
ND
(1)
ND:
ND
(1)
ND:
ND
(1)
ND;
ND
(1)
ND;
ND
(1)
ND:
ND
(1)
ND-
ND
(1)
ND;
ND
(1)
nd;
ND
(1)
ND;
!
ND[
ND (1)
ND (1)
ND
<0.01

-------
Bi s(2-chloroi so-
propyl) Ether
2-chloroethyl
Vinyl Ether
4-chlorophenyl
Phenyl Ether
4-Bromophenyl
F'henyl Ether
Bi s<2-chloroethosy)
Methane
0.03
<0.01
0.02 (1)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0) ,
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND (1)
ND (1)
ND (1)
ND (1)
ND (1)
0.03

0.02


Monocyclic Aromatics











Benzene


(0)
ND

ND (1)





Ch 1 or ob enz ene


(0)
ND

ND (1)





1,2-Dich1arabenz ene
0.09
ND
0.05 (l)
ND

ND (1)
0.09

0.05


1,3-Di chlorobenzene
<0.01
0.03
0-02 (1)
ND

ND (1)
<0.01

0.02


1,4-Di chlorobenzene

(0)
ND

ND (1)





1,2,4-Trichloro-


(0)
ND

ND (1)





benzene











Hexachlorobenzene
0.07
0.03
0.05 (1)
ND

ND (1)
0.07

0.05


Ethylbenzene


(0)
ND

ND (1)





Nitrobenzene


(0)
ND

ND (1)





Toluene


(0)
ND

ND (1)





2,4-Dinitrotoluene


(0)
ND

ND (1)





2,6-Di n i trotoluene
ND
0.01
<0.01 (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

<0.01


Phenol
0.02
ND
0.01 (1)
ND

ND (1)
0.02

0.01


2-Chlorophenol


(0)
ND

ND (1)





2.4-Dich1 orophenol


(0)
ND

ND <1)





2,4,6-Tri choloro-


(0_)
ND

ND (1)





phenol











Pentachlorophenol
0.3
ND
0.2 (1)
ND

ND (1)
0.3

0.2


2—Ni trophenol


(0)
ND

ND (1)





4—Nitrophenol


<0)
<0.01

<0.01 (1)





2,4—Dinitrophenol


(0)
ND

ND (1)





2,4-Dimethyl Phenol


(0)
ND

ND (1)





p-Chloro-m-cresol
<0.01
ND
<0.01 (1)
ND

ND (1)
<0.01

<0.01


4, 6-Di ni tro-o-cresol


(0)
ND

ND (1)





phthalate Esters
Dimethyl Phthalate
Diethyl Phthalate
Di—n—butyl Phthalate
Di-n-octyl Phthalate
Bi s <2-ethyl he::yl )
Phthalate
Butyl Benzyl
Phthalate
(0)
ND
(01
ND
(0)
<0.01
(0)
ND
(0)
<0.01
(0)
ND
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
<0.01	(1)
ND	(1)
<0.01	(1)
ND	(1)
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
Acenaphthene
Acenaphthylene
F1uorene
Napthalene
Anthracene


(0)
ND


(0)
ND
0.2
0.05
0.01 (1)
ND
<0.01
ND
<0.01 (1)
ND
<0.01
ND
<0.01 (1)
ND
ND
(1)

ND
(1)

ND
(1)
0.2
ND
(1)
<0.01
ND
(1)
<0.01
0.01
<0.01
<0.01

-------
F1uoranthene
F'henanthrene
Benrota]anthracene
Benz oCb]f1uoranthene
Bern oC t.- 1-f 1 uoranthene
Chrvsene
Pyrene
EienroCghi Jperylene
Ben:olalpyrene
DibenzoC a Janthracene
IndenoC1,2,3-cd]-
pyrene
0.02
ND
0.03
0.2
<0.01
ND
0.07
ND
ND
ND
(0)
0.01 (1)
0.04 (1)
(0)
(0)
0.02 (1)
0.1 (1)
(0)
(0)
<0.01 (1)
a
i
•b.
NJ
Nitrosamines S< Misc.
N-nx trosodi methyl -
amine
N-ni trosodiphenyl —
ami ne
N-nitrosodi —n-
propylami ne
Benzidine
3, 3'" —Di chloro-
benr i di ne
1,2-Di phenylhydraz i ne
Acryloni tri1e
ND
<0.01
<0.01
0.08
ND
ND
0.03 (1)
(0)
<0.01 (1)
<0.01 (1)
(0)
4
nd	:	:	nd	(l)	:	!	:
ND	!	I	ND	(1)	:	0.02 !	« 0.01
nd	:	:	nd	(i)	:	nd i	i 0.04
nd	:	:	nd	(l)	i	i	:
ND	!	I	ND	(1)	i	i	1
ND	:	!	ND	(1)	0.03 1	! 0.02
nd	:	:	nd	(l)	:	0.2 :	'• 0.1
ND	!	:	ND	(1)	:	!	!
ND	!	ND	(1)	]	j
ND	!	!	ND	(1)	!	<0.01 !	i <0.01
ND	i	1	ND	(1)	I	I	!
ND I !	ND (1) ! ND :	i 0.03
II	III
t I	III
nd ; :	nd (1) ; i	:
ii	iii
ii	it»
ND : :	ND (1) ! <0.01 I	I <0.01
II	III
II	III
nd : :	nd (l) i :	i
ND i 1	ND (1) 1 ;	i
II	ill
I I	III
ND ; I	ND (1) | <0.01 !	! <0.01
ND ! !	ND (1) : :	i

-------
Hppondi;: L>. Mass loading values calculated -from available data- Number of sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data tor all values are given in kg/day, e::cept where noted.
Receiving Water
Budd Inlet
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT
Flow (cubic m/d)
Biochemical 0::ygen
Demand (bOD)
Total Suspended Solids
Gi 1 s S< Brease
pH (range)
Fecal Coliform
(MPN/100 ml)
Municipal <	4_)
Wet	! Dry '.Annual
31,969
6.5-7.1
12
31,939
6.5-7.1
7-262
31,954 (4)
561 (2)
606 (3)
(0)
6.5-7.1 (1)
7-262 (2)
Industrial <_2_)
Wet 1 Dry !Annual
! Nonper-
Total -for NPDES	1 mitted ' Grand
Permitted Dischargers ! Sources I Total
Wet ! Dry [Annual ! Annual Annual
if#####-***#-#*#*#*****************
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
0
1
•b
u>
EXTENDED
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT
Chemical Oxygen
Demand (COD)
Total Solids
Total Nonvolatile
Soli ds
Total Nonvolatile
Suspended Solids
Total Nitrogen
Total Phosphorus
1,558
318
272
1,558 (1)
(0)
(0)
(0)
318 (1)
272 (1)
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
PRIORITY POLLUTANT
Heavy Metals & Inorg.
Anti mony
Arsenic
Asbestos (fibers/d)
Beryl 1i um
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Cyanide
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Se?l eni um
Si 1ver
Thai 1i um
2i nc
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
10)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Pesticides, PCBs, etc.
HcroJei n
A1dri n
Chiorodane
DDD
DUE
DDT
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
Dieldrin	!	i	!	(0)
Endosul+an and	!	!	!
tndosultan Sul-fate	!	!	1	(0)
Endrin and	!	!	i
Endrin Aldehyde	!	!	!	(0)
Heptachlor	i	!	i	(0)
Heptachlor Epoxide	!	!	!	(0)
He::achlorocyclo-	!	!	;
he::ane Isomers	!	(0)
Isophorone	!	;	!	(0)
TCDD	!	!	!	(0)
Toxaphene	!	;	(0)
PC. 6s	!	!	!	(0)
2-Chloronaphthalene	!	!	!	(0)
Halogenated Aliphatic	1	i	;
Hydrocarbons	I	1	!	(0)
Methyl Chloride	;	;	i	(0)
Methylene Chloride	!	!	i	(0)
Chloroform	!	1	1	(0)
Carbon Tetrachloride	!	1	!	(0)
Chloroethane	!	!	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
1.2-Dichloroethane	!	i	!	(0)
1,1«1-Trichloroethane!	I	I	(0)
1,1,2-Trichloroethane!	i	!	(0)
O 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-	!	!	!
^ ethane	!	!	!	(0)
jn. Hesachloroethane	!	!	i	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	!	!	!	(0)
1.1-Dichloroethylene	!	!	i	(0)
1.2-trans-Dichloro—	!	i	!
ethylene	!	!	!	(0)
Trichloroethylene	!	!	!	(0)
Tetrachloroethylene	!	!	!	(0)
1.2-Dichloropropane	!	!	!	(0)
1.3-Di	chloropropene	!	!	!	(0)
He::achlorobutadiene	!	!	!	I")
Hexachlorocyclo-	!	!	!
pentadiene	I	i	!	(0)
Methyl Bromide	!	!	(0)
Dichlorobromomethane	i	!	!	(0)
Chlorodibromomethane	!	!	!	(0)
hromoform	!	!	!	(0)
Dich1 orodi +1uoro-	'	!	!
methane	!	!	I	(0)
Trlchlorof1uoro-	!	!	!
methane	!	!	!	(0)
Halogenated Ethers	i	i	I
Bis(chloromethyl)	!	!	I
Ether	!	!	I	(0)
E
-------
Bist2-chloroiso-	ill	!	!	!
propyl) Ether	!	!	I	(0) I	I	I	(0)
2-chloroethyj	i	i	|	III
Vinyl Ether	I	!	I	(0) I	I	(0)
4-chlorophenyl	I	!	j	III
Phenyl Ether	!	!	|	(0) I	I	I	(0)
4—bromophenyl	!	!	i	III
Phenyl Ether	!	!	I	(0) I	I	I	(0)
Bis(2-chloroethoxy)	III	I	)	!
Methane	!	!	I	(0) I	I	I	(0)
Monocyclic Aromatics	ill	III
Benzene	I	I	!	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
Chlorobenrene	I	I	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
1.2-Dichlorobenzene	I	I	I	(0)	I	I	1	(0)
1.3-Dichlorobenzene	i	I	I	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
1.4-Dichlorobenzene	I	I	I	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
1,2,4-Trichloro-	III	III
benzene	I	!	I	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
Hexachlor obenzene	I	I	I	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
Ethylbenzene	I	I	!	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
Nitrobenzene	I	I	I	(0)	I	!	I	(0)
Toluene	I	I	I	(0)	i	I	I	(0)
2,4-Dinitrotoluene	I	I	1	(0)	I	I	!	(0)
2, 	: i I	<°>
Polycyclic Aromatic I	I	I	III
Hydrocarbons	III	III
Acenaphthene	!	I	I	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
Acenaphthylene	I	I	I	(0)	|	|	|	(0)
Fluorene	!	I	I	(0)	I	I	I	(0)
Naphthalene	•'	s	¦'	(0)	•	¦	;	(0)
Anthracene	I	I	(0)	•	j	•	(0)

-------
Fluoranthene	!	!	!	(0)
F'henanthrene	!	!	>	(0)
Ben:ola]anthracene	!	!	!	(0)
BenzoCb341uoranthene	!	>	!	(0)
BenzotkD-f luoranthene	!	!	!	(0)
Chrysene	!	i	!	(0)
pyrene	i	!	i	(0)
BenzoCqhi]p
4
(0)
(0)
<0>
(0)
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)

-------
Appendi;: 0. Mass loading values calculated -from available data. Number of sources contr i but i nq to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data for all values are given in kg/day, except where noted.
! Nonper-


Total -for NPDES
mi tted
Grand
Receiving Mater !
Municipal <
2 ) i Industrial <_7_> : Permitted Dischargers
Sources
Total
Hood Canal s
Wet !
Dry 1 Annual i Wet !
Dry !Annual ! Wet
Dry !Annual
Annual
Annual

-tr#-**#*#*#**-!!-*****************-*¦*¦»*****«* **********~¦*¦»~*¦¦**# ****~¦ It******-************ ***
CONVENT IONAL POLLUTANT




1
>




Flow (cubic m/'d)
144
174
156 (2) ! 2,461

2,461 (1) > 2,605

2,617


Biochemical 0::ygen




¦
»




Demand (BOD)
1
1
1 (2) ! 17

17 (1) 1 18

18


lotal Suspended Solids
1
1
1 (2) : 12

12 (1) 1 13

13


Oils & Urease


(0) 1

(0) I




pH (range)
6.6-7.0
6.6-7.0
6.6-7.0 (2) 16.0-9.3

6.0-9.3 (1) 16.0-9.3
i 6.0-9.3


Fecal Col i-form


¦
1


1






Zinc


(0#

(0#



Pesticides, PCBs, etc.


•

¦




flcrolein


(oa

(0!)




Aldrin


(Q)

(0!)




Lhlorodane


(Q)

(00




UDD


(Q)

(0!)




liUL


(Q)

(0:)




DDT


(Q)

(Q)





-------
Diel dr i n	I	I	(0)
Endosul-fan and	i	!	i
tndosulfan Sulfate	i	I	!	(0)
Endrin and	!	I	!
Endrin Aldehyde	S	!	!	(0)
Heptachlor	!	I	;	(0)
Heptachlor Epoxide	I	!	I	(0)
Hexachlorocyclo-	;	!	i
he::ane Isomers	!	!	!	(0)
Isophorone	I	!	(0)
TCDD	!	!	!	{0)
Tosaphene	!	:	!	(0)
PCBs	i	i	!	(0)
2-Chloronaphthalene	!	i	i	(0)
Halogenated Aliphatic	!	!	!
Hydrocarbons	i	!	!
Methyl Chloride	!	!	1	(0)
Methylene Chloride	!	J	!	(0)
Chloroform	;	i	!	(0)
Carbon Tetrachloride	i	!	!	(0)
Chloroethane	!	!	i	(0)
1.1—Dichloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
1.2-Dichl	oroetharre	!	!	!	(0)
1, 1, 1-Tr ichl oroethane!	!	<0)
1,1,2-Trichloroethane!	!	[	(0)
O 1,I,2,2-Tetrachloro-	!	!	{
^ ethane	!	!	!	(0)
00 Hexachloroethane	i	!	!	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	!	i	!	(0)
1, 1-Dichloroethylene	:	!	I	(0)
1, 2—trans-Dichloro-	!	!	!
ethylene	I	!	!	(0)
Trichloroethylene	!	!	!	(0)
T etrachloroethylene	!	i	!	(0)
1.2—Dichloropropane	!	!	!	(0)
1.3—Dichloropropene	!	1	!	(0)
Hesachlorobutadiene	!	1	!	(0)
He:; achl orocycl o-	!	!	1	(0)
pentadlene	!	!	!	t0)
Methyl bromide	!	J	!	<0)
Dichlorobromomethane	!	!	!	(0)
Chlorodibromomethane	!	I	¦	(0)
Bromoform	!	!	!	(0)
Dichlorodif1uoro-	!	J	J
methane	1	i	!	(0)
"Trichlorofluoro-	!	!	!
methane	!	!	!	(0)
Halogenated Ethers	!	!	J
E>
(0)
(0)
(0J
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
Bi s(2-chloroiso-
propyl) Ether
2-chloroethy1
Vinyl Ether
4-chlorophenyl
Phenyl Ether
4-Bromophenyl
Phenyl Ether
Bi s (2—chl oroethovcy)
Methane
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
10)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
0
1
ifk
10
Monocyclic Aromatics
Benzene
Chlorobenzene
1.2-Dichlorobenzene
1.3-Di	chlorobenzene
1.4-Di	chlorobenzene
1,2,4—frichloro-
benzene
He::achl or obenzene
Ethyl benzene
Nitrobenzene
Toluene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
2,6—Dinitratoluene
Phenol
2-Chlorophenol
2,4—Di chlorophenol
2,4,h—Tricholoro-
phenol
Pentachlorophenol
2-Ni trophenol
4-Nitrophenol
2,4—Dini trophenol
2, 4—Di methyl Phenol
p-Chloro-m—cresol
4,6-Dini tro-o-cresol
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0>
<0)
(0)
<0)
<0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Phthalate Esters
Dimethyl Phthalate
Diethyl F'hthal ate
Di-n—butyl Phthalate
Di-r>-octyI Phthalate
Bi s (2-ethylhe>:y 1 )
F'htha) ate
Butyl Benzyl
F'hthal ate
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
ftcenaphthene
Acenaphthylene
F1 norene
Napthalene
Anthracene
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)


-------
Fluoranthene
F'henanthrene
benzol a]anthracene
BenjoCbKluor anthene
BenzolkDfluoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrene
BenzoCgtii Iperylene
BenzotaJpyrene
DibenzoCa3anthracene
Indenot1,2,3-cd1-
pyrene
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
D
I
tn
o
Nitrosamines & Misc.
N-ni trosodimethyl -
ami ne
N—ni trosodi phenyl —
ami ne
N—ni trosodi —n—
propyl amine
Benzidine
3, 3'—Dichloro-
bensidine
1, 2-Di phenylhydraz ine
Acryloni tri1e
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
4
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
Hppcndi:; i>. Ma;E5 loading values calculated -from available data. Number of sources contr i buti ng to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses- Data tor all values are given in tig/day,, except where noted.
Receiving Water	I	Municipal (	1	)	!	Industrial (	6_>
Port Angeles	• Wet ! Dry ! Annual	.1 Wet ! Dry ! Annual
~"* **¦~**~¦*¦**-#******»*****¦« *#***«#*************«-**# ************ ********•¦!<¦** + #**** *********** +
Nonper —
mitted ! Grand
Sources! Total
Dry ! Annual ! Annual Annual
Total -for NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Wet
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT











Flow (cubic m/d)
15,899
7,647
12,460 (1)
183,144
159,470
173,279 (3)
199,043
167,117
185,739


Biochemical Oxygen










Demand (BOD)
898
581
762 (1)
21,864
18,462
20,458 (2)
22,762
19,043
21,220


Total Suspended Solids
821
499
685 (1)
19,365
17,419
18,553 (2)
20,186
17,918
19,238


Di 1 s & Brease


(0)
296
695
462 (1)





pH (range)
6.8-7.1
6.5-7.0
6.5-7.1 (1)
4.0-10.0
4.0-9.5
4.0-10.0 (2)
4.0-10.0
4.0-9.5
4.0-10.0


Fecal Coli+orm



15,750-

15,750-
275-

275-


(MPN/lOO ml)
275-500
700
275-700 (1)
40,000

40,000 (2)
40,000

40,000


EXTENDED











CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT











Chemical Oxygen











Demand (COD)


(0)
103,334

103,334 (2)





Total Solids


(0)
265,684

265,684 (2)





Total Nonvolatile











Soli ds


(0)
170,560

170,560 (2)





Total Nonvolatile











Suspended Solids


(0)
4,400

4,400 (2)





Total Nitrogen


(0)
2,789

2,789 (2)





Total Phosphorus


(0)
866

866 (2)





D
I
tn
PRIORITY POLLUTANT







Heavy Metals & Inorg.







Ant i many


(0)
0.3

0.3
(1)
Arsenic


(0)
0.4

0.4
(1)
Asbestos <-fibers/d)


(0)



(0)
Beryl 1i um


(0)
0.3

0.3
(1)
Cadmi um


(0)
2

2
(2)
Chromium


(0)
18

18
(2)
Copper


(0)
4

4
(2)
Cyanide


(0)
0.3

0.3
(1)
Lead


(0)
8

8
(2)
Mercury


(0)
0.01

0.01
(1)
Nickel


(0)
8

8
(2)
Sel enium


(0)
0.3

0.3
(1)
Si 1ver


(0)
0.2

0.2
(1)
Thai 11 um


(0)
0.4

0.4
(1)
Zinc


(0)
16
27
20
(2)
Pesticides, F'CBs, etc.







ftcrol ei n



m

ND
(1)
A1dri n


(0)
ND

ND
(1)
Chiorodane


(0)
ND

ND
(1)
L)DD


(0)
ND

ND
(1) !
DUE


(0)
ND

ND
(1) :
DDT


(0)
ND

ND
(l) :

-------
0
1
en
N>
Di eldr i n
tndosultan and
Endosul+an Sulfate
Endrin and
Endrin rildehyde
Heptachlor
Heptachlor Epoxide
Hestachlorocyclo-
hes:ane Isomers
Isophorone
TCDD
Tosaphene
PCBs
2—Ch1or onaphthalene
Halogenated Aliphatic
Hydrocarbons
Methyl Chloride
Methylene Chloride
Chloro+orm
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chloroethane
1, 1-L>ichl oroethane
1,2-Di chloroethane
1.1.1-Tri	chloroethane
1.1.2-Tri	chloroethane
1,1,2, 2-Tetrachloro-
ethane
Hesach1oroethane
Vinyl Chloride
1, 1-Dichl oroettiylene
1,2-trans-Dichl oro-
ethylene
Tri chloroethylene
Tetraehloroethylene
1.2-Di	chloropropane
1.3-Di	chloropropene
He::achl orobutadi ene
Heviachlorocycl o-
pentadiene
Methyl Bromide
Dichlorobromomethane
Chlorodibromomethane
Bromaform
Dichlorodit1uoro—
methane
Tr i ch1 orof1uaro-
methane
(0>
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
JO
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
M3
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
<0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(01
f®
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
(0)
ND
Halogenated Ethers
Bis(chloromethyl )
Ether
Bi •=. (2-chl oroethyl )
tthcr
2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
(S3	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
M3	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	<1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
Id	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
1®	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
tC	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND	(1)
ND (1)
ND (1)

-------
a
i
Ut
u>
Bi s(2-chloroiso-


(0)
ND

ND
(1)
propyl> Ether







2-chloroethy1


(0)
ND

ND
(1)
Vinyl Ether







4-chlorophenyl


(0)
ND

ND
(1>
Phenyl Ether







4-bramophenyl


(0)
ND

ND
(1)
Phenyl Ether







Bis(2-chloroethoxy)


(0)
ND

ND
(1)
Methane







Monocyclic Aronatics







Benzene


(0)
ND

ND
(D !
Ch1orobenzene


(0)
ND

ND
(1) !
1, 2—Di chlorobenzene


(0)
ND

ND
(1) !
1, 3-Dichlorobenzene


(0)
ND

ND
(1) ;
1, 4—Di ch] orotien2enp


(0)
to
( ND
(1) I
1, 2,4-Tri chloro-


(0)
ND

ND
U) !
benzene
1





Hex achlorobenz ene


(0)
ND

ND
<1)1
Ethylbenzene


(0)
ND

ND
<1> !
Nitrobenzene


(0)
ND

ND
<1>
Toluene


(0)
ND
! ND
(1)1
2,4-Dinitrotoluene


(0)
ND

ND
(1) !
2,6-Dinitrotoluene


(0)
ND

ND
(Ui
Phenol


(0)
ND

ND
(l):
2-Chlorophenol


(0)
ND

ND
(1)!
2,4-Di chlorophenol


(0)
ND

ND
(1)!
2,4,6-Tricholoro-


(0)
ND

ND
(l)i
phenol







Pentachlorophenol


(0)
I®

ND
(1)1
2—Nitrophenol


(0)
ND

ND

-------
Fluoranthene
F'henanthrene
benzol aJanthracene
Benzotb J-f luoranthene
BenzoC k3f1uoranthene
Chrysene
Fyrenc
BensoCqhi Dperylene
BenzoLaJpyrene
DibenzoCa3anthracene
IndenoL1,2,3-cd3-
pyrenc
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
a
¦
U1
it*
Nitrosamines ?< Misc.
N-ni trosodi methyl-
ami ne
N-n i trosodi phenyl —
ami ne
N-ni trosodi —n-
propylamine
Benzidine
3,3'-Dichloro-
benzidirie
1,2-Di phenylhydraz i ne
Acrylonitri1e
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
4
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND

ND (1)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1©
ND
ND
t®
ND
f®
ND
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

-------
Hppendi': L>. Mass loading values calculated -from available data. Number of sources contributing to each calculated value
is shown in parentheses. Data tor all values are given in t;g/day, except where rioted.
Receiving Water	I	Municipal <__4_)	!	Industrial
San Juan Islands	'' Wet '• DrV Tftnnual	i Wet ! Dry
<_JL>
Annual
Total -for NPDES
Permitted Dischargers
Wet 1 Dry !Annual
Nonper-
mitted ' Grand
Sources! Total
Annual !	Annual
t **»***¦*»»«*«•*******#*«¦**¦***«¦* *~*##*•«¦**#***«*********«¦*
CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT









Flow (cubic m/d)
375
367
371 (4)
231
258
242 (3)
606
625
613
Biochemical Ov.ygen









Demand (BOO)
6
7
6 (3)
8
9
8 (3)
14
16
14
Total Suspended Solids
6
7
6 12)
2
2
2 (2)
8
9
8
Oils St Grease


(0)


(0)



pH (range)
6.8-7.2
6.2-7.4
6.2-7.4 (3)
5.5-7.6
6.5-7.4
5.5-7.6 (3)
5.5-7.6
6.2-7.4
5.5-7.6
Fecal Colifor*



180-
0-
0-
22-
0-
0-
(MPN/lOO ml)
22
21
21-22 (1)
19,000
22,000
22,000 (2)
19,000
22,000
22,000
EXTENDED









CONVENTIONAL POLLUTANT









Chemical Oxygen









Demand (COO)


<0)


(0J



Total Solids


(0)


(0)



Total Nonvolatile









Soli ds


(0)


(0)



Total Nonvolatile









Suspended Solids


<0)


(0)



Total Nitrogen


(0)


(0)



Total Phosphorus


(0)


(0)



a
t
U1
(J1
PRIORITY POLLUTANT	!	!	!	i	!	!
Heavy Metals &	Inorg. ill	!	!	!
Antimony	1	I	I	(0) i	!	(0)
Arsenic	f	i	!	(0) !	,	!	(0)
Asbestos (fibers/d) !	!	!	(0) S	'	!	(0)
Beryl1i urn	!	1	i	(0) i	1	:	(0)
Cadmium	i	i	(0) !	!	i	(0)
Chromium	!	i	!	(0)1	I	!	(0)
Copper	1	!	!	10)I	1	!	(0)
Cyanide	!	!	!	10) !:	:	(0)
Lead	!	!	!	(0) !	!	!	(0)
Mercury	!	!	!	(0) !	i	!	(0)
Nickel	i	:	i	(0):	:	:	(0)
Selenium	>	!	!	(0) !	I	;	(0)
Silver	!	!	!	<0):	;	:	(0)
Thallium	!	i	!	(0) !	-	•	(0)
Zinc	i	!	I	10) !	!	!	(0)
Pesticides, PCBs, etc.
Acrolei n
AJ dri n
Chlorodane
DDD
DDL
DDT
(0)
(0)
{0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0}
(0)

-------
Dieldrin	1	!	|	(0)
Endosul+an and	!	!	!	(0)
hndosuJ + an Sul-fate	!	!	!	(0)
Endrin and	!	i	!
Endrin Aldehyde	{	!	!	(0)
Heptachlor	!	!	|	(0)
Heptachlor Epoxide	!	!	!	(0)
Hexachlorocyclo-	!	!	!
he::ane Isomers	i	!	:	(0)
Isophorone	!	I	|	(0)
TCDD	!	!	!	(0)
Toxaphene	!	!	:	(0)
pcbs	:	i	:	(o)
2-Chloronaphthalene	i	I	!	(0)
Halogenated Aliphatic	!	!	!
Hydrocarbons	i	!	;
Methyl Chloride	!	!	!	(0)
Methylene Chloride	!	!	!	(0)
Chloroform	J	:	¦	(0)
Carbon Tetrachloride	i	i	i	(0)
Chloroethane	!	i	!	(0)
J,1-Dichloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
1.2-Dichloroethane	!	!	!	(0)
1, 1-j 1-Trichloroettiane i	i	!	(0)
1, 1, 2-Trichloroethane!	!	!	(0)
® 1,1,2,2—Tetrachloro-	!	I	!
y, ethane	!	!	!	(0)
0\ Hexachioroethane	!	!	i	(0)
Vinyl Chloride	!	!	!	(0)
1,1-Dichloroethylene	!	!	!	(0)
1, 2-trans-Dichloro-	:	:	:
ethylene	i	!	!	(0)
Trichloroethylene	!	!	!	(0)
Tetrachloroethylene	I	!	!	(0)
1, 2-Dichloropropane	I	!	i	(0)
1.3-Oichloropropene	!	!	!	(0)
HeNachlorobutadiene	!	!	!	(0)
Hexachl orocyclij-	!	!	I
pentadlene	!	!	!	(0)
Methyl Bromide	!	I	!	(0)
Dichlorobromomethane	!	!	i	(0)
Chlorodibromomethane	!	!	!	(0)
Bromoforn	!	1	(0)
Dichloroditluoro-	!	!	!
methane	!	1	!	(0)
Trichlorofluoro-	!	1	i
methane	!	!	!	(0)
Halogenated Ethers	!	1	!
EH E!chloromethyl)	!	!	!
Ether	!	!	!	(0)
Bis(2-chloroethyl)	!	!	!
Ether	!	!	I	(0)
2
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
<0J
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)

-------
Bist2-chloroi so-
propyl) Ether
2—chloraethyl
Vinyl Ether
4-chloropheny1
Phenyl Ether
4-Bromopheny1
Phenyl Ether
Bi E C 2-ch 1 or aetho:; y)
Methane
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
0
1
U1
Monocyclic Aromatics
Benzene
Chlorobenrene
J,2-Dichlorobenrene
1.3—Di	chlorobenzene
1.4-Dichlorobenzene
1,2,4-Tri chloro-
benzene
Hexach1orobensene
Ethylbenzene
Nitrobenzene
Toluene
2,4-Dinitrotoluene
2,6-Dinit.rotoluene
Phenol
2—Chlorophenol
2,4-Di ch1orophenol
2,4,6-Trichoioro-
phenol
Pentachlorophenol
2—Nitraphenol
4-Ni trophenol
2,4-Dinitrophenol
2,4—Dimethyl Phenol
p—Chloro-n-cresol
4,6-Di nitro-o-cresol
(0)
<0)
<0>
(0J
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0> !
(0) f
(0) I
(0) !
(0) :
(fl> I
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
10)
(0)
10)
10)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Phttialate Esters
Dimethyl Phthalate
Diethyl Phthalate
Di-n-butyl Phthalate
Di-n-octyl Phthalate
Bis(2-ethylhexyl>
Phthalate
Butyl Benzyl
Phthalate
(0)
<0>
<0)
t0)
10}
<0>
(0)
(0)
(0)
<0 |
(0)
(0)
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
Acenaphthene
Acenaphthy1ene
Fluorene
Naphthalene
Anthracene
CO)
(0)
(0)
(0)
ro)
(0)
(0)
10)
(0)
(0)
3

-------
F1uaranthene
F'hEnanthrene
benzol a Janthr acpne
BensoLb]+1uoranthene
Benzol l;3f 1 uoranthene
Chrysene
Pyrene
benzotqhi 3perylene
Berts ot e 3 pyrene
Diben:oCa 3anthracene
IndenaC1,2,3-cd]-
pyreni?
Ni tros-aiTii nes & Misc.
N-ni trosodj methyl -
ami ne
N-nitrosodiphenyl-
amine
N-nitrosndi-n-
propylamine
Benzi dine
3,3'—Bi ch1 oro—
bens idine
1,2—Di pheny1hydras i n e
Acrylcsnitr i-le
(0)
10)
(0)
(0)
10)
(0)
|0>
(0)
(0!
(0)
(0}
<0)
<0)
(0)
(0)

<0)
(0)

-------
APPENDIX E
Sunoary of Knowledge Regarding Transport, Fate, and Approximate Sampling Conpartments for Priority Pollutants
Chemical	Inportance in Aquatic Transport3 Importance in Determining Aquatic Fate3 Initial Primary Concerns Identified
	 	 Environ- in Puget Sound at Present
mental
Gcnpart-
E	C	ment for.
I	.2	£	^	Sanpling
3 I
B	8
Metals and inorganics	KanasevLchc primary ccntami-
nants of concern: lead.
Antincny
U<2)
YES (2)
YES (2)
NO (3)
YES(l)
NO (2)
YES (3)
W
copper, mercury, selenium,
Arsenic
*ES(1)
YES(l)
YES(l)
NO (3)
YES(l)
YES (2)
YES(l)
S.B
and silver.
Asbestos
NO (3)
NO (2)
XES(l)
NO (3)
NO (2)
ND(3)
NOP)
H

Berylliian
MOO)
YES (3)
YES (3)
NO (3)
YES (2)
0(2)
N0(3)
S,B
Dexter places most impor-
Cactadm
N0(2)
YES(l)
YES(l)
N0(3)
YES(l)
YES(l)
HD(3)
S.B
tance on arsenic, antiirony.
Omnium
NO (3)
YES(l)
YES (2)
NO (3)
YES (2)
YES(l)
N0(3)
S,B
copper, zinc, lead, and
Copper
NO (3)
YES(l)
YES (1)
NO (2)
YES (1)
YES(l)
W>(3)
S,B
mercury (primarily because
Cyanide
YES(l)
NO (2)
NO (2)
YESU)
0(2)
NO (2)
YES(l)
H
data of sufficient quantity
Lead
0(1)
YES(l)
YES a)
0(1)
YES(l)
YES(l)
YES(l)
S,B
and quality indicate very
Mercury
YES(l)
YES(l)
YES (1)
YES (2)
YES(l)
YES(l)
YES(l)
S,B
high local concentrations).
Nickel
NO (3)
YES(l)
YES(l)
M>(3)
YES (2)
N0(2)
MOO)
S,B

Selenium
0(2)
YES(l)
YES(l)
NO (3)
YES(2)
0(1)
YES(l)
S,B
Creceliuse metals of seme
Silver
NO (3)
YES(l)
YES(l)
N0(2)
YES(l)
0(1)
N0(3)
S,B
concern (based upon elevat-
Thallium
NO{3)
YES(l)
YES (1)
NO (2)
YES(l)
0(2)
N0(3)
S,B
ed levels in biota sediments
Zinc
ND(3)
YES(l)
YES (1)
N0(3)
YES(l)
YES(l)
N0(3)
S,B
and water) include silver.









mercury, lead, and copper.
Pesticides. PCBs, and Belated Compounds



Hydrolysis




Acrolein
0(2)
ND(2)
0(2)
0(2)
N0(1)
0(2)
YES (2)
S.B
Konasewichc primary contami-
Aldrin
D(2)
YES (2)
U(2)
0(2)
N0(1)
YES(l)
YES (2)
W.B
nants of concern: DDT and
Chlocdark!
U(2)
0(2)
0(2)
0(2)
N0(1)
YES(l)
0(2)
S,B
metabolites DOD, DDE, PCBs.
ODD
YES (2)
YES(l)
0(2)
0(2)
0(1)
YES(l)
0(2)
S.B

DOE
YES (2)
YES(l)
U(2)
0(2)
N0(1)
YES(l)
0(2)
S,B

DDT
YES (2)
YES(l)
U(2)
0(2)
0(1)
YES (1)
U(2)
S,B

Dieldrin
0(2)
YES (2)
U(2)
0(2)
ND(1)
YES(1)
0(2)
S,B

Qjdosiilfan and Ewlosulfan
0(3)
YES (3)
0(3)
0(2)
YES(l)
0(2)
YES (2)
S

Sulfate









Qndrin and Qidrin Aldehyde
U{2)
U(2)
U(2)
0(2)
N0(1)
YES(l)
U(2)
W,S,B

Heptachlor
U(2)
NO (2)
0(2)
0(2)
YES(l)
0(1)
N0(1)
S,B

Heptachlor Ffcoxide
U(2)
YES(l)
0(2)
0(2)
N0(1)
YES(l)
YES (2)
W,S,B

Hexachlorocyclohexane
0(2)
U(2)
0(2)
N0(1)
N0(1)
0(1)
YES(2)
W,S

(a, 6, 6 isaners)









y-Hexachloixxryclohexane
0(2)
U(2)
0(1)
N0(1)
N0(1)
0(1)
YES (2)
W.S

(Lindane)

-------
APPENDIX E (Continued)
Chemical	Importance in Aauatii- Trancmri-9
Importance m Aquatic Transport 	Importance in Determining Aquatic Fatea Initial Primary Concerns Identified
Environ- in Puget Sound at Present
mental
§	§	Ccnpart-
S	"X>	>	rrent for,
S	-3	c	¦§	Sanpling
¦§	II	%
4J	»S	P	P
*	^	In	rn	JS	S t!
*	e	f	™	"	"3 -2 -3
I	s	* S, I S 2
<0
I | i 8 nf
dp	-H	-H
j£_ _A_ £ I £
-H
CO CD
Isophorone
TCDO
Tbixaphene
Polychlorinated Biptonyls
2-Chloronaphthalene
Haloqenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Chlorcnethane
DichlorEraethane
Trichlorcmethane
Tetrac±iloronethane
CJiloroethane
1 > 1-Dichloroethane
1,2-Dichloroethane
1.1.1-Trichloroethane
1.1.2-Trichloroethane
1,1,2,2-Tetxachloroethane
Hexachloroethane
Ohloroethene
1.1-Dichloroethene
1.2-trans~Dichloroethene
Tridiloroethene
Tetrachloroethene
1.2-Dichloropropane
1.3-Dichloropropene
Hexachlorobutadiene
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
Biananethane
Branodichlorcmstharve
Dibrtxnochloromethane
Tribrcrcme thane
Dichlorodifluoromethane
Trichlorofluorome thane
U<3)
NO (3)
YES (3)
0(2)
N0(1)
0(2)
0(2)
W
U(2)
YES (1)
YES (3)
N0(2)
N0(1)
YES (1)
0(2)
S,B
U{2)
YES (1)
YES(2)
NO (2)
N0(1)
YES(1)
0(1)
S,B
YES(2)
YES(l)
U(3)
0(3)
NO (3)
YES(1)
t»(l)
S,B
U(3)
U(3)
U(3)
0(2)
N0(3)
0(2)
YES (2)
S,B
ns
YES (2)
N0<3)
U(3)
t»(3)
NO (1)
N0(3)
N0(3)
W
YES (2)
VO (2)
0(3)
NO (2)
N0(1)
NO(3)
N0(3)
W
YES (2)
N0<2)
UP)
N0(2)
N0(1)
N0(3)
N0(3)
H
YES (2)
N3(2)
0(3)
NO (3)
N0(1)
0(2)
N0(3)
W
YES<2)
NO (2)
0(3)
N0i3)
N0(1)
NO (3)
N0(3)
W
YES (2)
N0(3)
U(3)
t»(3)
M3(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
w
YES (2)
N0(3)
U(3)
N0(3)
NO (3)
NO<3)
0(2)
w
YES (2)
N0(2)
0(3)
N0(2)
N0<3)
N0(3)
ND(3)
w
YES (2)
N0(3)
0(3)
N0(2)
N0(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
w
U(2)
NO (3)
0(3)
NO (2)
N3(3)
0(3)
NO (3)
w
U(2)
U<3)
N0<3)
N0<3)
0(3)
0(3)
0(3)
w
YES(2)
NO (2)
N3(3)
N0(2)
0(3)
N0(2)
NO(2)
w
YES(2)
N0(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
NO (3)
w
YES (2)
NO (3)
0(3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
w
YES (2)
NO (2)
O (3)
N0(2)
NO (2)
0(2)
0(3)
w
YES (2)
NO (2)
0(3)
NO (2)
NO (2)
0(2)
0(3)
w
YES(3)
0(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
0(3)
0(3)
0(3)
w
YES (2)
0(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
0(3)
w
U(2)
YES(2)
MOO)
N0(3)
0(3)
YES(2)
0(3)
S,B
YES (3)
YES(3)
NO (3)
YES(2)
YES (1)
YES(2)
NO (2)
S,B
YES(3)
N0(3)
0(3)
NO (3)
YES (1)
N0(3)
NO(3)
W
0(3)
U(3)
0(3)
0(3)
N0(1)
0(3)
0(3)
W,S
0(3)
U(3)
0(3)
0(3)
N0(1)
0(3)
0(3)
W,S
YES (3)
U (3)
0(3)
0(3)
NO (1)
0(3)
0(3)
w,s
YES(3)
U (3)
0(3)
N0(3)
NO (2)
0(3)
0(3)
w,s
YES(3)
0(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
NO (2)
0(3)
0(3)
w,s
Konasewich primary contami-
nants of concern: chlori-
nated ethylenes (ethenes),
chlorinated butadienes.

-------
APPENDIX E (Continued)
Chanical	Importance in Aquatic Transport3 Inportance in Determining Aquatic Fate3 Initial Primary Concerns Identified
	 	 Environ- in Paget Sound at Present
I
s
5.	*
3	S3
3
V *0 ^	<0	R 4J
-*>	O jd
•H	-H	3 *0
a	
N0(3)
U(3)
w,s
U<2)
U(2)
0(3)
U(3)
N0(3)
0(1)
U(2)
S,B
0(3)
U(3)
0(3)
0(3)
NO (3)
0(3)
U(3)
S,B
NO (2)
NO (2)
YES (3)
NO (2)
U(3)
N0(3)
U(3)
w
YES(l)
U(3)
U(3)
NO (2)
NO (3)
NO (3)
0(2)
S
YES(2)
U(3)
U(3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
0(2)
0(2)
S,B
YES (2)
0(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
0(2)
0(2)
S,B
U(3)
U(3)
0(3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
YES (3)
0(3)
S,B
0(3)
U(3)
U(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
YES(3)
0(3)
S,B
0(3)
U(3)
0(3)
NOP)
N0(3)
YES(3)
0(3)
S,B
0(3)
YES (2)
0(3)
1»(3)
N0(3)
YES(l)
N0<3)
S,B
YES (2)
U(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
NO (3)
0(3)
S
U(3)
U(3)
U(3)
U(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
0(3)
S
YES (2)
U(3)
0(3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
0(3)
S
N0(3)
YES (2)
0(3)
YES (2)
N0(3)
0(3)
0(3)
S
N0(3)
YES (2)
0(3)
YES (2)
N0(3)
0(3)
0(3)
S
U(2)
NO (2)
0(2)
YES (2)
N0(2)
N0(2)
YES(1)
S
NO (3)
NO (3)
0(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
0(2)
0(3)
w
N0(3)
NO (3)
U(3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
0(3)
YES (2)
w
NO (3)
0(3)
U(3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
0(3)
0(3)
w
NO (3)
YES(l)
YES(l)
YES (1)
N0(3)
YES (1)
YES (1)
S
N0(2)
YES (2)
0(3)
YES (3)
U (3)
N0(3)
N0(1)
S,B
N0(1)
YES (1)
U(3)
YES(3)
0(3)
N0(3)
N0(1)
S
NO (2)
YES<3)
U(3)
YES (3)
0(3)
N0(3)
U<2)
S
NO(3)
U(3)
0(3)
YES (3)
N0(2)
0(3)
0(3)
s
NO (3)
ND(3)
0(3)
YES(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
0(3)
S,B
N0(3)
YES (3)
0(3)
YES (3)
N0(3)
0(3)
0(3)
S
Kcnasewich primary contami-
nants of concern: hexa-
chlorobenzene and other
chlorinated benzenes, (poly-
chlorinated dibenzofurans
and their possible precursors
tetrachlorophenol) and
pentachlorophenol.

-------
APPENDIX E (Continued)
Chemical Importance in Aquatic Transport	Inportance in Determining Aquatic Fate	Initial Primary Concerns Identified
	1	 	g—	 Environ- in Puget Sound at Present
8	.§	mental
S	^ "c	Compart
c SS	8	° c	nEnt forb
| |	S Ti	«-§	Sanpling
y	¦> _ u	Q -y
•H m
M-l TJ
•h nj
ft*
I f § | | i
Q	Q	^	JC	Jji	-H	rj-H
i>	In	E-4	EU	33	cq	CQCQ
Phthalate Esters and Polycyclic
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Phthalate Esters:
Dimethyl
N0(3)
U(2)
YES (1)
N0(3)
U(2)
U(2)
U(2)
S,B
Diethyl
N0(3)
U(2)
YES(1)
N0(3)
NO (3)
U(2)
U(2)
S,B
Di-n-butyl
NOP)
YES (1)
YES(l)
N0(3)
NO (3)
U(2)
U(2)
S,B
Hi n ¦ « '1 y t
r»i< t)
tl(^)
«•(-•*
N<><:t)
NOO)
n(2)
H(Z)
s,n
Bis(2-ethylhexyl)
NU(J)
Yfc£(i)
yiib(l)
NO(J)
NO (3)
*ii>(l)
yut; (i)
S,B
Butyl benzyl
U(3)
U (3)
U(3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
U(2)
YES (3)
S,B
Polycyclic Arcuiatic Hydrocarbons








Aoemaphthene
NO (3)
YES (3)
U(3)
YES(3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
YES (3)
S,B
Acenaphthylene
N0<3)
YES (3)
U(3)
YES (3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
YES(3)
S,B
Fluonene
NO (3)
YES (3)
U(3)
YES(3)
N0<3)
N0<3)
YES(3)
S,B
Naphthalene
U(3)
U(3)
U(3)
YES(3)
NO (3)
N0(2)
YES (1)
S,B
Anthracene
U(3)
YES (2)
U(3)
YES (3)
N0{3)
N0(2)
YES (1)
S,B
Fluorathene
NO (3)
YES (2)
U(3)
YES(3)
NO (3)
NO (2)
YES (2)
S,B
Phenanthrene
NO (3)
YES (2)
U(3)
YES(3)
N0(3)
N0(2)
YES(2)
S,B
Benzo [aj anthraoene
N0(3)
YES(2)
U(3)
YES(1)
N0(3)
N0(2)
YES(2)
S,B
Benzo[b]fluoranthene
U(3)
YES (2)
U(3)
YES(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
YES(2)
S,B
Benzo[k]fluoranthene
U(3)
YES(2)
U(3)
YES (3)
NO (3)
N0(3)
YES (3)
S,B
Qirysene
U(3)
YES(2)
U(3)
YES(3)
N0(3)
N0(3)
YES(3)
S,B
Pyrene
U(3)
YES (2)
U(3)
YES(3)
NO(3)
N0(3)
YES (3)
S,B
Benzo[ghi]perylene
U(3)
YES (2)
U(3)
U(3)
NO (3)
U(3)
U(3)
S,B
Benzo[a]pyrene
U(3)
YES (1)
U(3)
YES(l)
NO (3)
U(3)
YES(1)
S,B
Dibenzo[a]anthracene
U(3)
YES (3)
U<3)
U (3)
N0(3)
U (3)
U(3)
S,B
Indeno[1,2,3-cd)pyrene
U(3)
YES(3)
U(3)
U(3)
N0(3)
U(3)
U(3)
S,B
Konasewich primary contami-
nants of concern: phthalate
esters, naphthalene and sub-
stituted naphthalene benzo[a]
anthracene and dibenzo[a] an-
thracene, fluoroanthenes,
benzo[a]pyrene (and chlori-
nnt ncl nmi birmwii 4it hnli'iier;)-
Nitrosamines and Misc. Ocupounds
Dimethyl nitrosamine
N0(3)
NO (3)
U(3)
YES(2)
N0(3)
N0(3)
NO (2)
w
Diphenyl nitrosamine
N0(3)
U (3)
U(3)
U(3)
N0(3)
0(3)
U(3)
S,B
Di-n-propyl nitrosamine
N0(3)
NO (3)
U(3)
YES(2)
NO(3)
N0(3)
N0(2)
W,S,B
Benzidine
N0(1)
YES(1)
U(3)
YES(1)
N0(2)
N0(2)
U (2)
S
3,3'-Dichlorobenz idine
N0(1)
YES(1)
U(3)
YES(1)
NO(3)
YES (1)
N0(1)
S,B
1,2-Diphenylhyc_azine
N0(1)
YES (2)
U(3)
U(2)
NO(2)
YES(3)
U(3)
S,B
Acrylonitrile
YES (2)
NO(3)
U(3)
N0(3)
NO(3)
N0(3)
U(3)
W,S

-------
APPJNDIX E (Continued)
Fran Callahan et al. 1979. For each chemical and related process, two ratings are presented. The first is a statement of importance:
YES, NO, or U (uncertain). The second numerical rating deals with available supporting data, explained below:
(1)	Quantitative (rate constants, half-lives) data are available to support conclusions.
(2)	CMalitative description only; there are no direct environmental data. However, some laboratory data can be extrapolated to support conclusions.
(3)	There are no supporting data available; evidence is drawn from theoretical calculations, estimates, results for Similar chemicals, and
inferences.
Fran Chapman et al. 1982. W = water; S = sediments; B = biota.
Konasewich et al. 1982. (Other contaminants may be considered of more concern as more information becomes available.)
Dexter et al. 1981.
Creoelius pers. ccnro.
No longer on priority pollutant listing.

-------
E-6

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