December 1993



When the new Denver International Airport (DIA) opens in 1994;
it will feature design, construction, and operational elements intended
specifically to reduce the amount of pollution generated there. These "pollution
prevention" elements include numerous measures for reducing air pollution
that make sense both economically and environmentally.
All who pass through Denver
Inside DIA
Inside the airport buildings, pollution
prevention opportunities existed.
Source reduction measures such as
banning smoking and reducing
hazardous cleaning agents are the
most effective'way to reduce indoor
air pollution. Both of these will be
implemented at DIA. Source reduction
alone, however, cannot eliminate all
- indoor air pollutants.
To remove remain-
International Airport—and
who breathe Denver area
air—will benefit from air
pollution prevention efforts
taken at the new airport.
ing pollutants, the '
City and County, of.
Denver will install
an air filtering
system effective in
treating the most
predominant indoor
air contaminants
associated with airport operations.

Energy Conservation
Energy conservation is often over-
looked as a means to reduce air
pollution, yet the two are closely
linked. If, for example, energy-efficient
lighting were installed wherever prof-
itable in the U.S., the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) estimates
reductions in emissions ofcarbondiox-
ide by 232 million tons, sulfur dioxide
by 1.7 million tons, and nitrogen oxide
by 900,000 tons.
Several energy conservation features
will be implemented at DIA: the most
significant is the use of natural gas-
powered chillers for cooling. Using
natural gas will reduce peak energy
demands during thesummer months.
When outside air is below 55 degrees
Fahrenheit, the terminal and con-
courses will be cooled using outside air.
Variable air volume ventilation sys-
tems in the ter'minat and concourse
perimeter areas will supply only the
amount of heat or air conditioning
necessary, as programmed according to
the season and time of day.
Energy needs for indoor lighting will
be reduced by the natural daylight
allowed in the terminal atrium

¦	53af*i
In addition to decreasing air pollution, careful planning and collaboration can reduce landfill discharge and help-conserve natural.resources.
through the translucence of the teflon-
coated fiberglass roof. Fluorescent
lights using compact bulbs will be used
for background lighting only when
natural lighting is insufficient.
As a result of the many energy conser-
vation features incorporated at DIA,
the local power company (Public
Service Company) will not need to
significantly increase its power supply
capabilities or air emissions in order
to serve the new airport. In response,.
Public Service Company has proposed
a $1.5 million rebate to the City and
County of Denver, to be used for energy
conservation education.
Outside at DIA
Emissions from vehicles traveling to
and from the new airport present DIA's
greatest potential environmental
impact. Estimates indicate that DIA
employees and passengers will travel
one million miles more per day than is
the case with Stapleton International
Airport. In order to reduce this
impact, EPA Region 8 provided
assistance to the City and County of
Denver to analyze possible travel
reduction measures. The most promis--
ing solution appears to be a rail line
from downtown to the new airport.
Denver has undertaken a study to
design the rail system, determine con-
struction and operation costs, and
compare the benefits of this alternative
with other measures to reduce fravet
and/or traffic congestion associated
with DIA.
Parking and terminal access areas also
pose problems. Here, carbon monoxide
emissions often create "hotspots"—
areas of highly-concentrated, pollution
extremely harmful to human health.
The design of these areas at DIA
includes several innovative features to
control hotspots. (1) The parking
structure will be separated into three
distinct sections to allow for adequate
ventilation. (2) Road access to the
passenger drop-off and pick-up areas
will be constructed in a stepped
manner, rather than in the usual
stacked manner which traps vehicle
exhaust fumes. (3 ) Passengers will
arrive'and depart on different levels,
reducing traffic congestion. (4) Parking
for Continental and United, DIA's
biggest carriers, will be separated from
the main parking area.
DIA operations vehicles will play their
part as well. By using natural gas rather
than gasoline, these vehicles will emit
less Carbon monoxide and nitrogen
oxide. The'fueling operations for these
vehicles, as well as for airplanes, pose
the largest potential'source of volatile
organic compound .(VOC) emissions
at DIA. VOCs react with sunlight to
form ozone, a major component in the
smog that plagues the Denver metro-
politan area. To reduce such emissions,
internal floating roofs will be incorpo-
rated into above-ground fuel storage
tanks, and a vapor recovery system
will capture VOC emissions at fueling
stations. These measures will reduce
VOC emissions by more than 52 tons
per year—-a 95 percent reduction. .
DIA's central plant,'which will heat and
cool the terminal and concourse areas,
will use low nitrogen oxide burners
and flue recirculation. These measures
will realize an 84 percent reduction in.
nitrogen oxide emissions over conven-
tional heating and cooling systems.
An Experience to be Shared
The successful incorporation of
pollution prevention features at DIA
taught the City and County of Denver
and EPA to apply new ways of think-
ing and to use new tools for solving
difficult problems. Thanks to "pollu-
tion prevention by design," Denver
International Airport will serve as a
model of sustainable development for
future projects, large and 3mall.
Please contact:
¦ U.S. EPA Region 8 '
Office of Policy & Management
999 18th Street, Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202-2466

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