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Environmental News
d «at sr c' '-e.v:	ad»-so' es to tht press ana otre' timely irs|orr-,3t,or
Fc*	ce-.s ,t c:.202 382-4355
RRLFASK: Aiu»nqf |, 1 q«8
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today
announced new domestic regulations limiting the produc-
tion and consumption of certain stratospheric-ozone-
depleting chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
and halons. The rules fulfill the U.S. commitment under
the Montreal Protocol, which has now been signed by 37
nations and ratified by six.
The rule, under the authority of the Clean Air Act,
allocates quotas to each of the firms engaged in pro-
duction and consumption of CFCs and halons in 1986.
"This regulation provides a low-cost means of
achieving our goal of reducing CFC and halon damage
to stratospheric ozone," said EPA Administrator Lee
M. Thomas. "It also spurs technological innovation,
which is critical to the eventual elimination of these
chemicals from our environment."
In addition to the final rule, EPA also seeks
public comment on adding a regulatory fee to its use of
quotas to capture the multi-billion-dollar windfall
profits to CFC and halon producers which might be an
unintended result of the allocated quota system. The
agency is concerned that the existence of such windfalls
would create a potential economic incentive for the
producers to delay the introduction of chemical substi-
tutes. The agency also seeks comment on shifting to
auctions or further supplementing its quota system with
specific-use controls or bans.
The final rules require a freeze at 1986 production
and consumption levels of CFC-11, -12, -113, -114 and
-115 on the basis of their relative ozone-depletion
weights. This freeze will be followed in mid-1993 by a
R 1 16

20-percent reduction from the 1986 levels and in mid-1998 by a 50-percent
redaction from the 1986 levels.
The rules also prohibit production and consumption of Halon 1211, 1301
and 2402 from exceeding 1986 levels on a weighted basis beginning in approxi-
mately 1992.
The agency received almost 500 comments in response to its proposed rule
last December. Today's final rule contains only minor changes from that pro-
posal. A public hearing on the proposal was held in Washington in February.
U.S. producers of CFCs are E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co Inc, Allied-Signal
Inc., Pennwalt Corp., Kaiser Chemicals and Racon Inc. In addition to Dupont,
Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and ICI Americas Inc. are U.S. producers of halons.
The Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which accompanies the final
rule provides the rationale and EPA's intention to develop possible regula-
tions to remedy the potential windfall-profit consequences of the final rule.
Such windfalls would accrue to the CFC and halon producers because of future
price increases in their chemicals due to EPA's limits on their supply. The
agency is seeking comment on the appropriate structure and legal issues
related to a regulatory fee to address this concern. EPA's regulatory-impact
analysis estimates windfall profits of between $1.8 to $7.2 billion through
the end of the century depending on the rate at which firms employed low-cost
technologies to replace CFCs.
EPA is also seeking public comment on the use of auctions as an alterna-
tive to its rule which allocates rights to past producers and importers. An
auction system would also shift windfalls from producers to the U.S. Treasury-
Second, EPA is concerned that some industries, particularly those in
which CFCs and halons are a small part of the price of the final goods, e.g.,
a refrigerator or computer, may be slow to respond to market-driven price
increases and may delay their shift away from these chemicals. The agency
is considering requiring certain user groups to increase recycling or to
switch to alternative chemicals or processes to decrease their use of these
chemicals to prevent unexpected price increases.
Finally, recent new scientific evidence contained in the summary of the
Ozone Trends Panel Report issued this spring suggests that EPA may have
underestimated the risks of depletion. The notice describes the findings
contained in the summary and states that EPA will make the full report of the
"•zone Trends Panel available to the public upon its release and seek public
The control requirements in today's rule are scheduled to take effect
at the same time they are required under the Montreal Protocol. Article 16
of the Protocol provides that the Protocol will enter into force on Jan. l,
1989, provided that 11 nations or regional economic-integration organizations
representing two-thirds of 1986 global consumption have ratified the Protocol
by that date and that the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone
Layer has entered into force. Otherwise, the Protocol will enter into force
90 days after that condition has been satisfied. As of July 30, six nations

(Mexico, the United States, Norway, Sweden, Canada and New Zealand) had
ratified the Protocol. The Vienna Convention has been ratified by the
requisite number of nations and enters into force on Sept. 22, 1988.
Concern about possible depletion of the ozone layer from CFCs was first
raised in 1974 with publication of research which theorized that chlorine
released from CFCs could migrate to the stratosphere and reduce the amount of
ozone which shields the planet from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Because
some of the CFCs have an atmospheric lifetime of over 120 years and do not
break down in the lower atmosphere, they migrate slowly to the stratosphere
where higher energy radiation strikes them, releasing chlorine. Once freed,
the chlorine acts as a catalyst repeatedly combining with and breaking apart
ozone molecules. If ozone depletion occurs, because of the long atmospheric
lifetimes of CFCs, it will take from many decades to over a century for the
ozone layer to return to past concentrations.
In 1978, EPA and the Food and Drug Administration banned the use of CFCs
as aerosol propellents in all but essential applications. During the early
1970s, CFCs used as aerosol propellents constituted over 50 percent of total
CFC consumption in the United States. This particular use of CFCs now has
been reduced by approximately 95 percent of the amount consumed in aerosols
in 1974. Today's proposal does not affect the 1978 regulations. Since
1978, CFC use has continued to expand in other applications (e.g., as a
foam-blowing agent, refrigerant and solvent). Total production in the United
States now has surpassed pre-1974 levels. Since 1983, worldwide production
of CFCs has grown at an average annual rate of five percent.
EPA has conducted environmental- and economic-impact analyses of the
regulation. Approximately 3.7 million deaths will be avoided in the United
States for the population alive today or born by the year 2075. These
deaths would have occurred due to increases in various skin cancers. Other
health effects, such as cataracts and suppression of the immune system,
will also be reduced. Stratospheric-ozone depletion and increased incidence
of damaging ultraviolet radiation have been linked to such ecological and
welfare effects as crop loss, aquatic damage and materials damage. CFCs also
contribute to climate change (CFCs are a greenhouse gas) and associated
impacts on health and the environment.
EPA estimates that the total social cost of this regulation through 2075
is approximately $20-40 billion, depending on the rate at which firms adopt
low-cost reductions, while the estimated benefits under a wide range of
assumptions would far outstrip the costs.
Today's rule and notice will appear in the Federal Register within
the next several days.
# » »

United States
Environmental Protection
Office of
Public Affairs (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
vvEPA Environmental News
The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency said that
Mitsubishi Motors Corp. is recalling approximately
100,000 1984 and 1985 passenger cars because the vehicles
are exceeding the federal carbon monoxide exhaust-emission
s tandard.
EPA said the cars were built by Mitsubishi, but
the majority of the vehicles in the United States were
sold by Chrysler with Dodge or Plymouth nameplates.
Others were sold by Mitsubishi and bear Mitsubishi
model names.
The affected 1984 models are the Dodge and Plymouth
Colt and Mitsubishi Precis (sold in Puerto Rico) with
1.4-liter engines. The 1985 models are the Dodge and
Plymouth Colt and the Mitsubishi Mirage with 1.5-liter
engines. California models are not included in the
The repair involves modifications to the air-
injection system, which will provide more complete
combustion of the carbon monoxide emissions, and
recalibrat ion of the automatic choke. The manufacturer
will also service the exhaust-gas-recirculation system.
The 1984 model year will also receive a new carburetor
main air jet.
Chrysler dealers will handle repairs for the Dodge
and Plymouth models and Mitsubishi will repair the
Precis and Mirage models. Owners of recall models
purchased outside the United States will be given
repair locations in the manufacturer's notification
# # #

Office of
Public Affairs (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
vvEPA Environmental News
EPA PROPOSES	The U.S. Env i ronmental Protection Agency has pro-
SYSTEM	posed to establish a tracking system for the transport,
storage ur.c disposal of polychlor i nated biphenyls (PCBs).
"Tr.:s proposal will establish, for the first time
ever, a crjdle-to-grave tracking system for PCBs," said
Charles El Kins, Director of the Office of Toxic Sab-
stances. "The tracking system will help us catch fly-
by-night operators and illegal dumpers who are putting
Oui environment and health in jeopardy."
The proposed tracking system, proposed under the
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), is based on the
Resource Conservation Recovery Act's (RCRA) tracking
system, for hazardous wastes. The new PCB rule would
require certain PCB waste handlers, who are disposers,
commercial storers, transporters and generators with
FCB storage areas, to notify EPA of their PCB waste
activities and use the RCRA uniform manifest in con-
nection with their shipments of regulated PCB wastes.
Under the notification requirement, PCB waste handlers
must file a "notification of PCB activity" form with EPA
before engaging in PCB waste activities. The form is
similar to the RCRA notification form and the require-
ments are similar to those in RCRA. The notification
requirement will provide EPA with basic information on
the location and activities of those who handle PCB
The rule also proposes that generators of PCB waste
will only be permitted to turn over their waste to com-
mercial storers, transporters and disposers of PCB waste
who have notified EPA of their PCB waste activities and
received EPA identification numbers and any required
approvals. In addition, commercial storers, trans-
porters and disposers of PCB waste will be permitted to
accept only PCB waste from other commercial storers,
transporters and disposers who have notified EPA of
their PCB waste activities.

The recordkeeping and reporting requirements of this rule would physi-
cally track the PCB waste from point of generation to the site of storage
or disposal. This proposal requires that the manifests themselves be
retained as records by waste handlers and that EPA be notified in the
event of irregularities in the transport of the regulated waste. There are
three proposed waste-tracking reports:
° "exception report" that is to be filed with EPA whenever a generator
has not received verification of delivery within 45 days;
° "discrepancy report" that will be required of storage or disposal facilities
in such cases when the waste actually delivered does not correspond
exactly with the t>pes and quantities described on the manifest; and
° "unmanitested waste report" that will be required of disposers or storers
in such cases when waste arrives at a facility unaccompanied by a required
man i fest .
In audition, a "one-year exception report" will track compliance with the
requirement under TSCA that limits storage of PCBs priur to disposal to no
more than one year. Information on when items of PCB waste have been
removed from use will te included with the manifests that accompany the
waste from generation to disposal. Disposers will be required to certify
the oate of PCB disposal, and if more than one year elapses since the PCBs
were removed intially from use, a report will be filed with EPA. Finally,
the annual documents that disposers and commercial storers of PCB wastes
are already required to prepare and keep on site will now be submitted on
July 15 of every year to EPA regional aarn i n i s t r a t or s .
After PCB waste handlers no'ily EPA of their PCB waste activities,
they will bt assigned unique identification numbers that will identity then,
in the manifests, EPA's data base and in other records. PCB waste handlers
who have previously notified and received identification numbers urtoer kCKA
would not need to obtain new identification numbers from EPA, but will
instead ut;e on their manifests the numbers pre vi ou&ly issued to them.
These waste handlers would still have to notify EPA of their activities
in order to be enrolled in the national TSCA data case of PCB waste handlers
and to receive verification of their existing EPA icentificatiun numbers.
The identification numbers that EPA would issue under this proposal
would be based upon the same 12—digit numbering system used uncier RCKA to
designate hazardous waste facilities.
This proposal will have an expedited public comment perioc of 30 days
in order to implement the tracking system as soon as possible. EPA intends
to promulgate a final rule within six months of this proposed rule.
# * 4

United States	Office of
Environmental Protection	Public Affair* (A-107)
Agency	Washington DC 20400
*>EPA Environmental News
EPA SETS	The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today issued
FOR UNDERGROUND	comprehensive and stringent requirements for nearly
two million underground storage tanks, half of which are
used to store gasoline at service stations.
EPA Administrator Lee M. Thomassaid : "Today's
action will ensure that underground storage tanks no
longer pose a public health or environmental threat.
EPA's new controls will protect local water supplies from
contamination by petroleum and chemical products stored
underground. The standards will ensure that tanks are
operated safely during their lifetime and closed properly
when removed from service. For the thousands of tanks
which are now leaking, EPA is providing funds to states
to identify and clean up existing contamination."
EPA's new rules require owners and operators of under-
ground tanks containing petroleum products or certain
hazardous chemicals (not hazardous wastes, which are
regulated separately) to monitor tanks for leaks and, in
the event of a leak, notify appropriate authorities and
clean up the contamination. In October, EPA expects to
issue financial standards requiring owners and operators
to maintain the financial capability to clean up contami-
nation and to compensate third parties for damages.
Underground storage tanks are those with 10 percent
or more of their volume underground, including pipes.
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) excludes
a number of tanks from federal requirements, including
farm and residential tanks storing less than 1,100
gallons of motor fuel for non-commercial purposes, tanks
storing heating oil for use on the premises and tanks on
or above floors in underground areas, such as basements
or tunnels.

- 2 -
EPA estimates that over 95 percent of the nation's two million
underground storage tanks hold petroleum products. Of all tanks in
use, an estimated 80 percent are unprotected bare-steel tanks, which
are most likely to corrode and leak; the other 20 percent are protected
tanks, either steel, fiberglass or some combination of both.
Rased on a study of the causes of releases from underground storage
tanks, EPA has determined that corrosion of bare steel accounts for
almost all leaks from underground tanks and a significant portion of the
leaks from connected bare-steel pipes. Improper installation and
structural failure due to accidents also cause leaks. The most frequent
types of leaks are caused by spills and overfills.
Some standards concerning underground storage tanks are already in
effect. Under a congressional mandate effective May 7, 1985, under RCRA,
all newly installed tanks now must he protected from corrosion, either
through "cathodic" protection (preventing the electrical charge which
leads to the corrosion of bare steel when placed in the ground) or
through the use of corrosion-resistant materials, such as fiberglass.
In addition, the materials must be compatible with the stored products,
and the tanks must be installed using certain procedures to prevent
Notification requirements also are in effect. Owners of all new
tanks brought into use after May 8, 1986, must notify their states within
30 days. The notifications require information about the age, size,
type, location and use of each tank. Today's rule additionally requires
owners or operators to certify that the tanks are installed properly.
The new rules differ for new and existing petroleum storage tanks
and new and existing chemical storage tanks.
Tank owners installing new, corrosion-protected tanks will have to
certify that the tank was installed correctly to ensure the structural
integrity of the system to provide leak-free performance. Owners of
existing tanks (defined as those tanks in service before December 1988)
will have to provide corrosion protection within 10 years.
Leak detection methods will have to be developed or installed at all
tanks. Leak detection can be accomplished by a variety of methods ranging
from tank testing with inventory controls (requiring daily measurements) to
the installation of monitoring wells around the tank.
Existing petroleum tanks must use a leak-detection system within five
years, depending on the age of the tank. For example, bare-steel tanks
25 years old or older have only until December 1989 to begin to use, at
the minimum, monthly testing methods using leak-detection equipment or
annual tightness testing combined with daily inventory controls to detect
leaks. Tanks less than 10 years old have until 1993 to provide leak
detect ion.

- 3-
If a leak is detected from any tank, the tank must be repaired in
accordance with established industry standards. Piping cannot be repaired
and must be replaced, with the exception of loose fittings which can be
t ightened.
Within 10 years, existing tanks must be equipped with devices that
prevent spills and overfills, such as overfill alarms and catch basins.
Correct tank-filling practices must be immediately followed at all tanks.
Stored products are often spilled during transfer operations from the
delivery t:uck to the tank. Although these spills are often small, they
can build up over time and become an environmental threat.
Lpik-ietection, corrosion-protection and spill- and over fill-prevention
equipment must be used immediately at installation of new tanks.
Underground tanks holding one or more of 701 chemicals listed under
the Superfund law a i e affected by today's rules. There are an estimated
,000 chemical tanks, accounting for nearly four percent of the total
tank oopulation.
Mew chemical tanks are now required to have dual containment (called
secondary containment), either through the installation of double-walled
tanks, or concrete vaults or impenetrable liners around the tank. In
addition, they must have leak-detection systems installed between the two
layers of containment. Spill and overfill equipment is also required,
some variances are allowed.
At the end of 10 years, existing chemical tanks must meet the same
dual-containment and leak-detection requirements as new tanks. In the
meantime, the same leak-detection requirements are imposed for existing
chemical tanks as for existing petroleum tanks, including the same schedule,
depending on the age of the tank.
All requirements apply to new tanks at the time of installation.
EPA is requiring certain actions by tank owners to ensure that leaks
and any resulting contamination are cleaned up. Petroleum tank owners
and operators who discover a leak, or an above-ground spill over 25 gallons,
are required to report the leak to state regulatory authorities within 24
hours. Chemical tank owners also must report all leaks; spills and overfill
must be reported in accordance with certain Superfund requirements. In all
cases, the ownar may want to check with the local fire department to ensure
there is no fire hazard. Any fire or explosive threats and free product
must be removed and, under certain circumstances, a more thorough investigat
must be conducted to confirm the leak and whether there is any damage to
nearby soil and groundwater. All additional information on the leak or spil
must be reported to the appropriate regulatory agency within 20 days and
again at 45 days from the spill. At 45 days, the owner must report whether
or not groundwater has been contaminated and, if necessary, submit a plan
for recovering any free product. More extensive examination of soil and
groundwater contamination may be required, as well as a corrective-action
plan for cleaning up groundwater.

Any tank temporarily not used must maintain leak-detection (unless
the tank is emptied) and corrosion-protection systems. All temporarily
closed bare-stiael tanks must be permanently closed after 12 months,
unless the temporary closure period is extended by the implementing
agency. Regulatory authorities must be notified 30 days prior to permanent
closure of the tank. At final closure, the tank must be emptied and
cleaned. Also, the owner must determine if there is any environmental
damage at the site and either remove the tank or fill it with inert
materia Is.
Certain recordkeeping is required, including the maintenance of
leak-detection reports and information on corrosion-protection systems,
repairs and closure.
EPA is Droviding all states with federal funds to identify and address
leaking tanks and to ensure cleanup. In most cases, the cleanup will be
accomplished by the responsible private party. The funds are available
from the Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund, set up by Congress
in October 1986. The fund will collect $500 million over five years
through a tax of one-tenth of a cent on gasoline.
EPA estimates the incremental cost to industry of the technical
standards to be $2.5 billion a year, with an incremental benefit of
S2.8 billion. The net benefit is estimated to be SO.3 billion a year.
A leak detection system could cost a typical gas station with three
5,000 gallon tanks between S3,000 to S8,000. The cost of retrofitting
cathodic protection to existing tanks could range anywhere from 510,000 to
Costs of installing three new 10,000 gallon.tanks can range from
S76,000 to $100,000, depending on the level of leak detection. Secondary
containment can cost up to one-third more than single-wall tanks. However,
the increased cost should be weighed against the significant cost of
cleanup from leaks into the environment, which could approach S225,000
or more in cases of groundwater contamination.
Violators of the regulations can be fined up to S10,000 per violation
per day for each tank. Pines up to $25,000 can be assessed for violations
of enforcement orders for each day of continued non-compliance.
The final rules are effective 90 days after publication in the
Federal Register, which is expected in mid-September. For more infor-
mation on how to comply with the rules, the public can call EPA's RCUA
Hotline at 800-424-9346 or 382-3000 in Washington, D. C.

Un led States	Office of
ir.r-T-ienta! Protection	Public Affairs (A-107j
Agency	Washington DC 20460
<>f:PA Environmental News
LEA AND ASSISTANT	I'. S . En v i ronmental Protection Agency Administrator
CALL F"R	Lee M. T'o.tcS an j Dr. Vernon J. Houk, Assistant Surgeon
G e•: : 1 of the Pufclic Health Service today announced a
n = : i 1 advisory urging the testing of most homes in
tL is ccuntry for radon.
"Radon-induced lung cancer is one of today's most
svrioj.- {..jolic health issues," Dr. Houk said. Next to
sn.ok i no , radon is the second leading contributor to lung
cancer. EPA estimates it causes as many as 20,000 lung
cancer deaths each year.
The national radon health advisory from the Public
Health Service states, "Indoor radon gas is a national
hea2 th problem. Radon causes thousands of deaths each
year Millions of homes have elevated radon levels. Most
homes should be tested for radon. When elevated levels
are confirmed, the problem should be corrected."
The advisory was issued in conjunction with EPA's
release today of the most recent survey results on indoor
radon in seven states and Indian lands. The agency found
that nearly one in three homes in these seven states had
screening levels over four picocuries per liter (pCi/L),
the agency's guidance level. (A picocurie, or one-
trillionth of a curie, is a common measurement of radia-
"Through this year's study, we have identified an
area similar in severity to the Reading Prong," Thomas
said. "This new area extends from Minnesota to North
Dakota. More than 45 percent of the houses tested in
Minnesota and 60 percent tested in North Dakota have
screening levels over four pCi/L."
R-160	(mare)

The Reading Prong is the area in Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey
where the radon problem first cair.e to national attention several years ago.
The seven states surveyed were Arizona, Indiana, Massachusetts, Min-
nesota, Missouri, North Dakota and Pennsylvania and Indian lands in Michigan,
Minnesota and Wisconsin.
EPA also announced the seven states that will be surveyed this winter.
They are Alaska, Iowa, Maine, New Mexico, Ohio ana Vermont and Kest Virginia
and Indian lands in New Mexico, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Iowa.
State health or env i r on jr. en tal agencies conducted the seven state surveys
last winter. Tne surveys are done during winter months when houses are closed
to obtain measurements of the highest dectectable radon levels.
The surveys measured a total of 11,000 homes over the seven states. Vvhil
only five readings exceeded 100 pCi/L, a significant percentage of screening
measurements exceeded 20 pCi/L, the level at which EPA recommends immediate
follow-up. EPA estimates that over 200 , 000 homes in ttiese states will have
levels greater than 20 pCi/L, a level that exceeds current hea 1 tn-pr o tec t i or,
standards for uranium, miners.
The data from this year's study, when acaed to i nlormat ion gathered in
last year's 10-state survey, allow EPA to predict that over three million
houses in the 17 states surveyec will have screen;;.-; levels greater than
pCi/L. (Ihe states surveyed last year were Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut,
Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Rhode Island , Tennessee, K i scons i n and V\'\on. i n)
EPA recommends tnat everyone living in detached houses (including trailer
homes with permanent foundations) shoula test f o r r wjon. Residents living in
townhouses or rowho^ses should test as we 11 as people i i v in- in bo sement,
first- or second-floor apartments.
Having e home tested involves a
the non.eow.ner ana can cost as little
levels can be fixes easily for about
their appropriate state agencies for
simple procedure that c a n be done r>j
as $10-$25. houses with eievat-rj racer,
$ $00 to $1,0(¦¦(.. Horn- owner s snjclc cor, tic
more i ntorma*.. i on on r au on .x i 11 a a 1i or. .
Rao or, is an ir.v i si cie, odor less radioactive g a.- p r ao u r e u cy tr.e cec^y
of uranium, in rock ana soil. Radon decays into radioactive particles,
which, if inhaled, may cause damage to lung tissu-.s, i v: i ta i ng the risk of
lung cancer. Scientists estimate that about 2G,0o0 lurvj Ca;,;tr aeaths a
year in the United Statc-s ma> Le attributed to r ctuor.. tint.- 3-:^^ General
attributes roughly 8 5 percent of all lung-cancer aeaths to s;t;c * i n ^ . )
R-l 6 0
# # *

United States
Environmental Protection
Office of
Public Affairs (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
*>EPA Environmental News
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has
received requests from the registrants of the pesticide
chlordimeform to voluntarily cancel all registrations
of these products effective Feb. 19, 1989.
Chlordimeform is used on cotton to destroy eggs
and larvae of the tobacco budworm and the cotton
EPA has amended the chlordimeform registrations so
that they will terminate on Feb. 19, 1989, and will
prohibit all sale, distribution and use after that
date. The voluntary cancellation of chlordimeform was
made by Ciba-Geigy Corp. and Nor-Am Chemical Co., the
only registrants of this product. Roth companies have
stated that they will recall any unused stocks down to
the user level and will dispose of those stocks.
Because of the voluntary cancellation action, EPA
is proposing not to initiate a special review (an
intensive risk/benefit review process) of chlordimeform.
A preliminary notification to chlordimeform registrants
of the agency's intention to commence a special review
was issued in 1985 based on evidence that this pesticide
induced tumors in laboratory animals. Again in 1986,
the agency indicated its intention in a draft
registration standard to place chlordimeform in the
special review process.
The agency has analyzed the data regarding the
risks associated with chlordimeform use on cotton.
Although its use appears to have significant risks for
applicators exposed over a lifetime, the available data
do not support initiation of an emergency suspension of

this pesticide. Therefore, the use of chlordimeform during the 1988 use
season would occur even if the agency could ultimately conclude that the
risks of such use outweighed the benefits and proposed to cancel the
registrations of chlordimeform. The agency does not believe that the risk
of chlordimeform from dietary exposure is significant.
In a separate action, the agency is proposing to revoke or reduce most
tolerances (maximum allowable residue levels in food or feed) of chlordime-
form. The agency expects to revoke all tolerances of chlordimeform within
several years or as soon as the cotton-related products with residues of
chlordimeform have been used up.
In early September, the agency will also take action related to certain
industrial intermediate chemicals closely related to chlordimeform. These
chemicals are no longer manufactured or imported into the United States. A
proposed Significant Mew Use Rule under the Toxic Substances Control Act
will require notification to EPA and review by the agency before manufacture
or imports of these chemicals could begin again.
EPA is aware of some recent evidence that production workers exposed over
long periods to a chemical closely related to chlordimeform may be at
increased risk of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can be relatively easily
detected by examination of urine, and early treatment is likely to be ,
successful. Representatives of EPA, the federal Centers for Disease Control
and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials recently met
to share risk information and to discuss possible notification of workers
who may have had significant exposure to chlordimeform and related compounds.
In addition, the agency has contacted the registrants concerning potential
notification of exposed workers.
Chlordimeform was first registered in 1968. Its two most common trade
names are Galecron® (Ciba-Geigy) and Fundal® (Nor-Am). Makers of the
product also claim that using it increases product yield. Estimated annual
usage ranges from 0.8 to 1.3 million pounds on approximately 1.3 million
acres (12 percent of the n_-"ional cotton acreage). Forty percent of all
chlordimeform applications are made in combination with other insecticides.
# # #

United States	Office of
Environmental Protection	Public Affairs (A-107)
Agency	Washington DC 20460
&EPA Environmental News
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today said
construction bans will be imposed on major new pollution
sources in as many as four areas before the end of this
year, and 10 additonal areas also may become subject to
the same sanctions. The action is required by the Clean
Air Act for failure to devise adequate clean air plans
for meeting ozone or carbon monoxide standards by last
year's Dec. 31 attainment date.
In late 1987, Congress passed the Nitchell-Conte
amendment. It prohibited EPA from imposing the otherwise
mandatory sanctions prior to Aug. 31, 1988.
The ban on construction of major new sources will
automatically go into effect for the South Coast area
of California (all or portions of Los Angeles, San
Bernadino, Riverside and Orange counties) on Aug. 31.
EPA disapproved the South Coast clean air plan in January,
and the sanction will take effect automatically upon the
expiration of the moratorium.
"Los Angeles is the first of a number of areas that
will have sanctions imposed on them for failure to develop
and implement adequate plans to address ozone or carbon
monoxide problems," said Lee M. Thomas, EPA Administrator.
"The Clean Air Act requires that bans on construction of
major new sources of these pollutants be placed on those
areas nat in compliance."
Thomas called on Congress to reauthorize the Clean
Air Act so areas not meeting the standards could move
ahead in their planning to cut ozone and carbon monoxide

pollution. The present Clean Air Act is unclear	on what cities must do
if attainment was not reached by Dec. 31, 1987.	EPA has identified about
100 cities that failed to achieve one or both of	those clean air standards
by the Dec. 31 deadline.
"This summer# especially in the East, many cities have experienced
severe ozone problems. While weather conditions have played a large
role, it is indisputable that the pollutants leading to the formation of
ozone must be reduced, in some cases substantially, 30 everyone can
breathe healthful air," Thomas said.
"Failure to reauthorize the Act could lead to many more sanctions on
areas as well as mandatory federal pollution plans and litigation, which will
only further delay reaching the goal we all want—clean air," Thomas said.
The ban on construction of major industrial sources that may add
to the urban ozone problem also will be placed in effect for Ventura
County, Calif., as early as late October. EPA also will decide by the end
of October whether to disapprove the Indiana and Illinois ozone plans for
the Chicago metropolitan area (which includes Lake and Porter counties in
Indiana and Cook, DuPage, Kane and Lake counties in Illinois) and impose
bans there. These areas were originally part of a group of 14 areas
that the agency proposed to sanction in July 1987. However, because of
litigation involving these areas and Los Angeles, sanctions will be imposed
on them prior to final action on the remaining 10.
The agency intends to finalize its July 1987 proposals to disapprove
clean air plans for the remaining cities at the same time it finalizes
its policy on dealing with all 100 areas that have not attained the standards
The 10 cities for which the agency proposed disapproval of plans include
Denver (carbon monoxide)(CO); Washoe County (Reno), Nev. (CO); Kern County
(Bakersfield), Calif, (ozone); East St. Louis, 111. (ozone); Clark and
Floyd counties, Indiana (suburbs of Louisville)(ozone); Cleveland (CO);
Sacramento (ozone); Fresno (ozone and CO); Dallas (ozone) and Atlanta
EPA has indicated that Dallas may escape sanctions on the basis of
new elements added to its clean air plana since the proposed disapprovals.
Although EPA has no immediate plans for imposing sanctions elsewhere,
other non-attaining areas* depending upon the agency's ultimate decision
on their pending attainment plans, could be subject to sanctions in the
"It is absolutely essential that Congress revise the existing law so
states and cities with EPA assistance can begin to compile accurate
information on sources of pollution and develop reliable plans to reduce
these emissions as quickly as possible," Thomas said.
If Congress fails to amend the Clean Air Act this session, EPA has
indicated it intends later this year to finalize its policy under the
existing law for dealing with cities that failed to meet the standards by
the Dec. 31 deadline. That policy, which was proposed last November,
would require that areas failing to meet the ozone or carbon monoxide
standards by the Dec. 31 deadline submit to EPA for approval stringent


plans on how and when they expect to achieve the standard. The November
proposal stated that EPA would call for states to adopt new plans to
bring about attainment by roughly 1994-96 or face construction bans
similar to those being imposed or considered for the areas mentioned
above. The proposal also stated BPA's intent to impose additional
sanctions on any area that fails to submit a new plan achieving at least
a three-percent-per-year reduction in volatile organic compounds (precursors
of ozone) or carbon monoxide, as applicable.
In May, EPA listed 68 areas of the country, mostly major metropolitan
areas, that failed to achieve the ozone standard by the Dec. 31 deadline
and 59 areas that failed to achieve the carbon monoxide standard. In all,
about 100 areas are on one or both lists.
EPA also sent letters in late May to the governors of 44 states and the
¦nayor of the District of Columbia telling them their plans were inadequate for
achieving the standard and to begin planning for submittal of State
Implementation Plans (SIPs), or clean air plans, indicating how and when
they would meet the standard(s) for areas that failed to meet one or both
of them. In that May announcement, the agency indicated that an "extended
planning area," which adds additional counties to the ring around the
urban core, should be taken into account in devising the plan.

United States
Environmental Protection
Office of
Public Affairs (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
oEPA Environmental News
The fJ.S. Environmental Protection Agency today took
its first major regulatory action to control the disposal
of municipal garbage. In this effort, the agency proposed
standards to upgrade the condition and help ensure the
safety of municipal landfills used to dispose of solid
Under the proposal, states would use the standards
to ensure protection of the environment from the operation
of the landfills. In addition, landfill operators would
be required to set up groundwater-monitoring systems and
clean up contamination at operating landfills as well as
close down within five years landfills located in unstable
areas; landfills in some restricted areas would reguire
special controls.
The proposed new standards for both new and existing
municipal solid waste landfills also include location
restrictions, facility-design and operation standards,
closure, post-closure care for at least 30 years and
financial-responsibility requirements. The standards
also include requirements for day-to-day management of
both new and existing landfills, including waste-handling
procedures, daily cover, rodent control, access control,
liquids management, explosive-gas control, control of
open burning, run-on/run-off controls and recordkeeping.
The proposal specifies a risk-based performance standard
for landfill design.
Dr. J. Winston Porter, EPA's Assistant Administrator
for Solid Waste and Emergency Response, said "These
standards will help states protect the public from the
adverse effects of improperly operated landfills and will
provide a framework for designing sound new landfills.

- 2 -
"Landfills will continue to play an important role in the future for
garbage disposal, in conjunction with other options now available, such as
recycling and incineration with energy recovery," Porter said. "However,
we continue to encourage cities to explore all available options in addition
to landfills to help reduce the environmental impacts of garbage disposal.
Within the next few weeks, we will announce additional steps to help states
address their continuing solid waste management and disposal-capacity crunch."
Once the federal standards are issued in final form, states must
adopt and implement a permit or similar program within 18 months to ensure
that facilities comply with the standards. In the event a state declines
to incorporate the standards in its current solid waste regulatory program,
EPA now has the authority to enforce the use of the federal standards.
EPA set general criteria for solid waste landfills in 1979 under the
solid waste provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA).
At that time, RCRA did not provide authority to set federally enforceable
regulations. Amendments to RCRA passed in 1984 required EPA to develop
regulations for solid waste landfills to include standards for location,
groundwater monitoring and corrective action. However, RCRA envisions
state and locally implemented solid waste programs.
Today's proposal applies to an estimated 6,000 municipal solid waste
landfills. Over 80 percent of the 160 million tons of solid waste
produced each year by this country is landfilled; about 10 percent is
incinerated; and another 10 percent is recycled. Municipal solid waste
landfills are located throughout the country. They are owned predominantly
by local governments (78 percent), with 17 percent owned by private entitites,
four percent by the federal government and one percent by states. Nearly
one-half are relatively small (less than 10 acres), disposing of small
amounts of waste, or less than 18 tons a day.
States report that only 15 percent of the landfills have liners, and
only five percent have leachate-collection systems. Less than a third
have some type of groundwater-monitoring system. At least a quarter of
these are reported to be violating one or more state groundwater-protection
EPA today also is proposing reporting requirements for industrial solid
waste and construction/demolition-debris facilities to gather information
for possible regulation of these facilities at a later date. EPA estimates
that more than seven billion tons of industrial solid waste is disposed
annually in over 27,000 industrial solid waste facilities. In addition,
nearly 2500 landfills receive construction and demolition debris. EPA is
seeking information on ownership, location, size, type and amount of waste,
among other information.
Under the proposal, landfills near airports, in floodplains, wetlands,
fault areas and seismic impact zones must incorporate special controls.
The agency also is proposing to close within five years existing landfills
in unstable areas prone to landslides and excessive soil settlement.
The proposed groundwater monitoring standards require, at a minimum,
semi-annual monitoring for a limited set of key contaminants. If
significant levels of the contaminants are detected, quarterly monitoring
wn'ild be required for those substances.
R- . ,7.

- 3 -
Actual costs of the proposed rule will vary significantly depending
on the design and operating controls states specify to meet the minimum
performance standards in the proposal. EPA estimates, for one possible
control scenario, that the proposed rule will result in a median cost per
landfill of $43,600 per year. This cost corresponds to an average annual
cost of $11 per household or a total annualized cost of $880 million at
the national level. EPA determines that for most communities and house-
holds these costs are reasonable.
The proposal will be published in the Federal Register next week.
EPA will provide a 60-day public-comment period and hold four public
meetings: one in Washington, D.C., on Oct. 11; one in Chicago on Oct. 13;
one in Atlanta on Oct. 18; with the final hearing in Los Angeles on Oct.
20. For further information, the public can call EPA's hazardous waste
hotline at 800-424-9346 or 382-3000 in Washington, D.C.

United States
Environmental Protection
Office of
Public Affairs (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
&EPA Environmental News
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced
today that it has issued a Notice of Violation to Ford
Motor Co. for its failure to provide coverage under the
federally mandated emission-control warranty. This is
the first such action taken by EPA for violations of the
warranty provisions. The agency has proposed a penalty
of $230,000 for these violations.
The Clean Air Act requires motor vehicle manufacturers
to warrant that each vehicle is designed, built and equip-
ped to comply with the federal emission standards and
free from defects in materials and workmanship which
could cause the vehicle to fail to comply with applicable
emission standards. The emissions warranty applies to
motor vehicles manufactured since 1972. The warranty
covers passenger cars and light trucks for five years or
50,000 miles, whichever comes first.
The emissions-defect warranty provides an incentive
for manufacturers to design, build and equip their vehicles
to comply with the federal emission standards.
The violation notice against Ford resulted from its
implementation of a policy which the agency believes is
inconsistent with the warranty requirements of the Act.
Ford's policy provides limited warranty coverage only
for emission-control components, but not for other compon-
ents which significantly affect emissions. EPA said it
believes Congress intended coverage for any parts which
would cause vehicles to fail to comply with the applicable
emission standards.

Don Clay, EPA Acting Assistant Administrator for Air and Radiation,
said "We are concerned that Ford, after this many years, continues to
implement a warranty policy which is clearly in violation of the Clean
Air Act."
As a result of the increasing number of local emissions-inspection
programs, the agency is taking a closer look at this time at all manu-
facturers' emissions-defect warranty policies and the information they
provide to vehicle owners regarding the warranties. The agency will be
taking additional actions if similar problems are found. Currently,
approximately 100 areas across the country violate the ozone and carbon
monoxide air-quality standards. Sixty-four areas presently have local
emissions-inspection programs.
The EPA Notice of Violation alleges that Ford denied emissions-
defect-warranty claims for carburetor replacements, fuel-injector pumps,
catalytic converters, intake manifolds, turbo chargers and other compon-
ents which can cause a vehicle to exceed the emission standards. Clay
advised motorists to check their owner's manual for information on the
manufacturer's emission-warranty policy and the coverage to which they
are entitled. Additiortal information can also be obtained from two EPA
brochures: "What You Should Know About Your Auto Emissions Warranty" and
"If Your Car Just Failed An Emission Test." For copies, write to U.S.
EPA, Warranty Compliant, EN-397F, 401 M St. S.W., Washington, D.C.
# # #

United States
Environmental Protection
Office of
Public Affairs (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
oEPA Environmental News
in Livingston, La. Of that amount, $2 million represents
the highest penalty ever obtained in a hazardous Waste
court case, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) said today.
In addition, EPA said the defendants could spend
another million dollars to install groundwater monitoring
wells, verify proper closure of certain landfill cells,
implement a computerized waste tracking system, and conduc
an independent environmental audit, as required under the
settlement. The companies will arrange and pay for the
audit, to be approved by EPA and the State of Louisiana.
The audit will assess compliance with the federal Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA's hazardous
waste management law, the Clean Water Act and the Clean
Air Act, as well as assessing management systems, policies
and practices at the Livingston facility and at corporate
offices. The staffs of EPA's Region 6 Hazardous Waste
Division in Dallas and the National Enforcement Investi-
gations Center in Denver will oversee the work conducted
at the facility.
EPA Administrator Lee M. Thomas said, "EPA will not
tolerate hazardous waste mismanagement in this country,
especially by the nation's major disposal companies.
This significant penalty should send a signal to all wast<
handlers that the cost of noncompliance with our require-
ments will be more costly than compliance."
Subsidiaries of Houston-based Browning-Ferris Indus-
tries will pay $2.5 million to settle a federal and state
lawsuit against their commercial hazardous waste facility

EPA found that over 1,700 violations of RCRA occurred between November
1980 and January 1986 at the Browning-Ferris Industries, Chemical Services,
Inc. and CECOS International, Inc. (CECOS) commercial hazardous waste
treatment, storage and disposal facility in Livingston. The facility is
located about 40 miles east of Baton Rouge.
EPA inspections of the facility in 1985 and again in 1986 revealed
such violations as landfilling of ignitable waste and hazardous waste
containing liquids, failure to properly analyze hazardous waste, unauthor-
ized waste piles, inadequate facility closure plan and record-keeping,
and failure to conduct facility inspections and personnel training.
Under the terms of a Consent Decree, filed today in federal District
Court in Baton Rouge, the penalty will be divided as follows: $1,100,000
to the United States, $900,000 to the State of Louisiana, co-plaintiff in
the action, and $500,000 to Louisiana State University to start an endow-
ment for research into hazardous waste disposal.
The Consent Decree, a legal document settling the lawsuit -- which
all parties sign -- becomes final after a 30-day public review and comment
period and approval by the Court. EPA filed suit against the companies
on April 28, 1987.
In March 1988, EPA also filed suit against the companies for viola-
tions at their commercial hazardous waste facility in Lake Charles, La.
That case is pending.
# # #

United States
Environmental Protection
Office of
Public Affairs (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
<&EPA Environmental News
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is
proposing to conclude the special review of the
pesticide linuron after determining that exposure to
this chemical does not pose unreasonable risks to-.public
Linuron is registered for pre-emergent and post-
emergent control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds
and is used primarily on soybeans.
EPA began a special review of linuron pesticide
products in 1984 to assess the risks and benefits
associated with their use based on evidence that they
cause tumors in laboratory animals and may pose a
hazard to public health from both dietary and work-place
Subsequent to initiating the special review, EPA
received additional exposure and toxicity data. Based
on the data available, EPA and the Scientific Advisory
Panel (established under the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide and Rodenticide Act and comprised of independent
scientists who advise the agency on its pesticide
program) agree that the evidence of oncogenicity in
laboratory animals caused by linuron is limited and have
classified this pesticide as a possible human carcinogen
(a Group C oncogen).
This assessment is based on findings that tumors
observed in rat and mouse studies were benign, showed a
definite lack of malignant progression, occurred late
in the life cycle, were not life-threatening and are
known to form spantaneously in the test animals used.
Further, there is no positive evidence of mutagenicity
(mutagenicity data are used as an indicator of oncogenic
potential). In announcing its decision on linuron, the

agency said that it would not regulate linuron as a carcinogen because
evidence of its human carcinogenic potential is low.
After concluding that the evidence supporting linuron's carcinogenicity
in humans is not strong enough to support a continuation of the special review,
EPA examined the other toxicological effect of possible concern from exposure
to linuron, hematotoxicity, or toxic blood effects. After examining the
actual residue levels of linuron consumed by the U.S. population in its
diet, the agency determined that the potential risk of hematotoxicity is not
Although not a basis for special review, the agency noted that dietary
exposure through water contamination was possible. Linuron runoff into
rivers and leaching into aquifers could contaminate drinking water which
is drawn from either groundwater or surface water. Data submitted to the
agency indicate that linuron leaches moderately. Additional data to clarify
further the leaching potential of linuron are under assessment.
In May 1987, the National Academy of Sciences (MAS) issued a report,
"Regulating Pesticides in Food." In the report, NAS estimated that the
potential lifetime risk of cancer to the U.S. population from dietary exposure
to linuron is one in a thousand. That estimate was based on the assumptions
that linuron was used on 100 percent of the crops for which it is registered
and that residues were at tolerance or maximum allowable residue limits.
The agency considers these assumptions unrealistic. Using assumptions
which the agency considers more realistic, namely maximum residue levels
expected and the percentage of crops treated, would result in a decrease in
the MAS risk estimate of approximately two orders of magnitude to one in
one hundred thousand. However, for reasons noted above, EPA now believes
that the evidence of linuron's carcinogenicity is weak enough that it should
not be regulated as a carcinogen.
Registered since 1966, linuron is produced by E.I. du Pont de Memouts
& Co. Inc., Drexel Chemical Co., Griffin Corp., Hoechst AG, Makhteshim-Agan,
and Mippon Kayaku Co. Ltd. Approximately 84 percent of linuron, or 5.8
million pounds, is used annually on soybeans. Other food sites include
field and sweet corn, cotton, sorghum, wheat, asparagus, corrots, celery,
parsnips and potatoes. Non-food sites include fence rows, fairways and
highway rights-of-way.
Public comments on EPA's proposal to conclude the special review of
linuron should bear the control number OPP-3000/41B and must be submitted
within 60 days to:
Information Service Section
Program Management and Support Division (TS-757C)
401 M St. S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460
# # #

United States	Office of
Environmental Protection	Public Affairs (A-107)
Agency	Washington DC 20460
&EPA Environmental News
EPA RESTRICTS	The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today
ONE-THIRD OF ALL	restricted the land disposal of nearly one-third of all
regulated hazardous wastes. The action is part of the
agency's effort to restrict the land disposal of most
hazardous wastes by 1990, unless the wastes are first
treated to reduce their toxicity or potential for
EPA today is requiring prior treatment for 39
significant hazardous waste streams. EPA is specifying
treatment standards for these wastes and establishing
effective dates based on the availability of treatment
Today's action restricts the land disposal of
nearly 861 million gallons of a wide range of industrial
wastes produced annually, including 172 million gallons
of petroleum-refinery wastes, 129 million gallons of
electroplating wastes and 83 million gallons of
electric-arc-furnace dust from emission-control devices
at steel mills.
The federal hazardous waste management law, the
Resource conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), requires
treatment, if available, or restricted disposal of 14
additional waste streams and 107 untreated, discarded
commercial chemical products and small-volume wastes.
When fully effective in two years, the restric-
tions are expected to cost the industry up to $950
million a year.
Dr. J. Winston Porter, EPA's Assistant Adminis-
trator for Solid Waste and Emergency Response, said,
"Today's action will require that nearly a third of all
hazardous wastes be de-toxified or restricted in some
way when disposed of on land. This action provides

- 2 -
significant protection to the public from the potential hazards of land
disposal. These restrictions have prompted technological advances and
increased the availability of treatment to de-toxify"these wastes. Although
more costly, treatment ultimately provides far greater levels of environ-
mental protection."
EPA is not setting specific treatment standards for 14 wastes commonly
produced by certain manufacturing industrial processes and by certain
industries, nor for 107 smal1-volume, discarded commercial chemical products
and spill residue and other products. Where treatment is available, such
treatment must be used. If treatment is not available, the generator must
certify this to EPA and send the waste to disposal facilities which meet
state-of-the-art technological requirements.
In 1984, Congress gave EPA the authority under RCRA to grant two-year
extensions for those wastes for which treatment capacity is not available.
EPA is allowing two-year extensions today for petroleum refinery wastes,
brine-purification muds generated in chlorine production and contaminated
soils and debris requiring incineration.
The treatment standards set for most wastes with high concentrations
of organics are based on incineration. Treatment standards set for organics
in the the five petroleum-refinery wastes affected today are based on
incineration and solvent extraction.
Treatment standards for wastes containing metals, such as electric-arc-
furnace dust, are based on metals recovery or stabilization. Most of the
metals in the furnace dust, such as zinc, can be recovered, but a two-year
interim treatment standard based on stabilization will apply for dust with
15-percent or greater zinc levels until sufficient recovery capacity is
created. No capacity extension is being granted for furnace dust with less
than 15-percent zinc. This waste must be stabilized, for example, with
cement-kiln dust or lime/fly ash.
Electroplating sludges must be stabilized, which can be accomplished
by using cement-kiln dust as a binding agent.
EPA today is rescinding a two-year variance granted July 1987 for
hazardous wastes containing halogenated organic compounds (HOCs). HOCs
are a wide-ranging group of commonly used organic chemicals that contain,
among other substances, chlorine, bromine and fluorine. The variance,
granted last year for lack of incineration capacity, is no longer effective
after Nov. 8, 1988, since new information indicates that sufficient
incineration capacity for the compounds now is available.
In July 1987, EPA also restricted the land disposal of an annually
produced 15 billion gallons of liquid wastes containing cyanides, metals
and polychlorinated byphenyls (PCBs) and one-billion gallons of corrosive
wastes. No extensions for these wastes were granted.
In November 1986, EPA restricted the land disposal of spent solvents
and dioxins, granting two-year extensions through Nov. 8 of this year.
Today's rule will be published in the Federal Register this week. For
additional information, the public can call EPA's hazardous waste hotline
800-424-9346, or 382-3000 in Washington, D. C.

United States
Environmental Protection
Office of
Public Affairs (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
oEPA Environmental News
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today
proposed new requirements to minimize lead in the
nation's drinking water.
EPA Administrator Lee M. Thomas said, "This proposal
will reduce lead in the drinking water of 138-million
Americans and will be especially beneficial to young
children, who are at much greater risk than adults."
Health effects from exposure to lead depend upon
total exposure from all sources—air, food, dust and
drinking water. Exposure is measured in terms of the
concentration of lead in blood in units of micrograms of
lead per deciliter of blood (ug/dl). For example, at
relatively low exposures (down to 10-15 ug/dl in some
cases), lead can interfere with the formation of red
blood cells, reduce birth weight, cause premature
birth, delay physical and mental development in babies
and young children, impair mental abilities in children
in general, interfere with hearing, and increase blood
pressure in adults. At high levels of exposure, lead
can cause anemia, kidney damage and mental retardation.
EPA's proposal addresses the two main contributors
of lead in drinking water—corrosion and source-water
The rule imposes three types of requirements on
public water supplies. It requires them to ensure water
delivered to customers is minimally corrosive to lead
in the distribution system. It requires them to remove
lead from their source-water supplies. Finally, it calls
for education of the public on how to protect itself
from remaining problems with lead found at the tap.

Lead usually does not occur naturally in source waters. Lead gets
into drinking water after it leaves the local treatment plant. Most lead
minimizing corrosivity of the water
tap by
at the consumer
ment plant.
Under the proposal, corrosion-control treatment would be required if
average lead levels are greater than 10 parts per billion (ppb) or if the
acidity is too high (pH less than eight). Acidity is an indicator of corro-
sive water. If the average lead levels are greater than 10 ppb, or if more
than five percent of the samples are greater than 20 ppb, the water suppliers
must conduct a public-education program to provide information to consumers
on how to reduce lead exposure. As part of the education program, suppliers
would be required to assist interested consumers in getting their homes
tested for lead.
Corrosion-control treatments include using substances such as caustic
soda to reduce pH, increasing alkalinity with a substance such as soda ash
or adding corrosion inhibitors such as zinc orthophosphate.
Up to 53,000 public drinking-water supply systems in the United state.s
might be affected by the corrosion-control proposal, including the public-
education requirements.
Compared to corrosion, contamination of source water is a relatively
small contributor to lead in drinking water. EPA is proposing a Maximum
Contaminant Level (MCL) of five ppb lead in water distributed by water
suppliers. This part of the proposal is expected to affect about 900
water systems nationwide. Compliance with this proposed standard would be
monitored in water just as it leaves treatment plants and before it enters
distribution pipes.
Besides the federally enforceable MCL of five ppb, EPA also is pro-
posing a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of zero for lead. Enforceable
standards are set as close to the MCLG (a purely health-based target) as
feasible. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, EPA must set MCLGs and
enforceable standards simultaneously.
The current MCL for lead in drinking water, originally set in 1975,
is 50 ppb. A 20 ppb MCLG was proposed in 1985. Today's action re-proposes
a more stringent goal of zero, based on more recent health-effects informa-
Today's proposal will reduce lead exposure for many people in this
country. Of children six-months to five-years old, 100,000 to 700,000 may
have their blood-lead levels brought below 10-15 milligrams per deciliter
(10-15 ug/dl), the range above which adverse health effects begin.

The proposed corrosion—control requirements also will prolong the life
of plumbing and pipes, saving about $500 million per year.
The total annualized cost of this proposal (operation and maintenance,
etc.) is estimated at $267 million per year. The estimate for capital
costs is $1 billion.
Today's proposal also regulates copper, which, like lead,
drinking water primarily as a corrosion by-product. Copper is
tionally essential element which causes gastric disturbances
doses. The proposed MCLG and MCL for copper is 1300 ppb.
occurs in
a nutri-
at high
Today's proposal will appear soon in the Federal Register
* #
GM RECALLS OVER	The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today said
OLDSMOBILES AND	that General Motors Corp. began notifying more than a half
million owners of 1983 Oldsmobiles and Buicks to bring
their cars in for emissions repairs.
The agency said the cars are being recalled because
a defective thermal vacuum switch in the evaporative-
emissions-control system causes the vehicles to exceed the
evaporative-emission and carbon monoxide standards. Over
a million 1982 and 1983 Chevrolet, Pontiac and GMC vehicles
were recalled by GM in 1987 for the same problem. In
March, EPA ordered GM to recall another half million 1985-
model-year Chevrolet, Pontiac and GMC vehicles with
defective thermal vacuum switches.
EPA said 613,582 vehicles, 26,238 of which are Cali-
fornia cars, are affected by today's action. The models
are the 1983 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme, Cutlass Cruiser,
Delta 88, Ninety-Eight, Toronado and Custom Cruiser. The
1983 Buick models are the Le Sabre, Estate Wagon, Electra
and Riviera. All models have five-liter engines. An
improved thermal vacuum switch will be installed on all
vehicles. The actual repair will take about 20 minutes.
GM suggests vehicle owners schedule repair appointments
with dealers.
R-15 3
# # «