West Point Lake
Phase I Diagnostic /Feasibility Study
Final Report
Alabama Department of Environmental Mgmt.
Field Operations Division
1890 Congressman W.L. Dickinson Drive
Montgomery, Alabama 3 6109
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
Environmental Protection Division
205 Butler Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30334

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EM
WEST POINT LAKE
PHASE I DIAGNOSTIC/FEASIBILITY STUDY
FINAL REPORT
30 September 1994
Prepared by:
David R. Bayne1, Principal Investigator
jSV'iP	Parshall Bush2
^	Vickie Blazer3
v*
Wendy C. Seesock1
Phillip P. F.mmerth1
Eric Reutebuch1
Fred Leslie4
Contributors:
Mike Struve1, Amy Watson1, David Watson1, Jan Steeger1,
Chris Harman1, John Slaughter1 and John Hurd5
1 - Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures
Auburn University
Auburn, Alabama
2 - Extension Pesticide Residue Laboratory, University of Georgia,
Athens, Georgia
3 - National Fish Health Lab, U. S.' Fish and Wildlife Service,
Kearneyville, West Virginia
- Alabama Department of Environmental Management, Montgomery, Alabama
5 - Biology Department, LaGrange College, LaGrange, Georgia

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WEST POINT LAKE
Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility Study
FINAL REPORT
Preface
Funding for the study was provided by 70% federal / 30% state matching
grants to the states of Alabama and Georgia. These grants were made
available through the Clean Water Act Section 314 Nationally
Competitive Clean Lakes Program. Federal funding was administered
through the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the
matching funds were provided by the Fuller E. Callaway Foundation.
This report includes results from a multi-year study. Comments or
questions related to the content of this report should be addressed to:
Alabama Department of	OR
Environmental Management
Field Operations Division
P.O. Box 301463
Montgomery, Alabama 36130-1463
Georgia Department of
Natural Resources
Environmental Protection
Division
205 Butler Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30334

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Diagnostic Study.
West Point Lake was chosen for a Phase I, Clean Lakes,
Diagnostic/Feasibility Study based on several studies that showed accelerated
eutrophication resulting from excessive nutrient loading. The objectives of this
study were to provide historic and current data on West Point Lake, identify
water quality problems and determine feasible solutions for their correction.
West Point Dam was constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers on the
Chattahoochee River near West Point, Georgia. The 10,481 ha lake first reached
full pool in June 1975 and in addition to generating hydroelectric power, served
as a potable water supply, recreational (swimming and boating) resource, fishery
and as flood protection. The planning of an impoundment on the Chattahoochee
River at West Point, Georgia, 170 river km downstream from metropolitan Atlanta,
attracted the attention of resource managers and scientists alike. Two
preimpoundment studies were conducted independently, one by the Georgia Water
Quality Control Board and the other by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Results of both studies revealed water quality problems associated with the
effects of Atlanta-area pollution of the Chattahoochee River. A series of
postimpoundment studies revealed degraded water quality conditions in the lake
particularly during the mid to late 1980's.
West Point Lake is a warm monomictic reservoir that thermally stratifies
in the lacustrine zone from about late April to early September during most
years. Stratification was rather weak, seldom involving thermocline temperature
gradients in excess of 3 C and water column temperature gradients in the deeper
areas rarely in excess of 10 CC. Chemical stratification always accompanied
thermal stratification in West Point Lake. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the
i

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lacustrine zone declined to <1.0 mg/1 by June of each year and persisted for
varying time periods, frequently until fall overturn.
West Point Lake waters are not naturally fertile. Specific conductance,
a measure of ionic content of water, and total alkalinity, the concentration of
bases in water, are crude indicators of natural fertility. These variables in
West Point Lake fell in the lower half of the range expected for Alabama lakes.
Nutrient enrichment of West Point Lake from point and nonpoint sources of
pollution greatly increased lake fertility. Nitrogen and phosphorus are plant
nutrients that are required in relatively high concentrations to support plant
growth. Nitrogen concentrations in West Point Lake were excessive. Bioavailable
nitrogen was abundant with seasonal mean concentrations in the headwaters usually
exceeding 1.0 mg/1 and lacustrine concentrations varying from about 0.3 - 0.5
mg/1. Of the macronutrients, phosphorus is usually in shortest supply and
therefore is the element most often limiting to plant growth in freshwater
ecosystems. Phosphorus concentrations demonstrated a strong longitudinal
gradient in West Point Lake. Upstream concentrations were extremely high with
soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations ranging from 46 to 324 /ig/1 and total
phosphorus concentrations ranging from 86 to 372 fig/1. Even though both plant
nutrients were abundant, the high concentrations of phosphorus in the upstream
areas resulted in nitrogen limitation of plant growth in those areas.
The obvious response to nutrient enrichment of West Point Lake was
excessive growth of plankton algae. Sixty-six algal taxa were identified during
the study. Phytoplankton communities were indicative of typical, nutrient
enriched, southeastern reservoirs. Corrected chlorophyll a concentrations in
West Point Lake ranged from a high of 39 Mg/1 i-n the New River embayment in June
of 1990 to a low of 0.0 ^g/1 at an upstream site in October and in the tailwaters
ii

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in November of 1990. Mean summer concentrations were generally highest and mean
winter concentrations were lowest. Except for the winter of 1991-92, seasonal
mean chlorophyll a concentrations were always highest at some mid-reservoir
location. During the summers, declining abiogenic turbidity coupled with
abundant plant nutrients and annual peaks in solar radiation resulted in optimum
conditions for phytoplankton growth in the transition zone of the lake. Mean
chlorophyll a concentrations during the growing season remained well above the
eutrophic threshold of 6.4 ng/1. Phytoplankton primary productivity, expressed
on an areal basis, was highest in the summer and lowest during winter. Maximum
mean productivity during the summer was 3,349 mg C/m2,day and during the winter
it was 512 mg C/m2-day both at downstream locations. Since 1981, summer season
production rates have remained well above the eutrophic threshold level (1,000
mg C/m2-day) and, at times (1985, 1986 and 1989), have reached extremely high
levels. The overall trend in phytoplankton primary productivity of West Point
Lake since the mid-1980's has been downward. Algal Growth Potential Tests
conducted during the growing seasons of 1990-1992 revealed a decline in algal
biomass supportable by West Point Lake waters from the 1990 levels to the 1991
and 1992 levels and a tendency for more of the lake to be phosphorus limited
during the same time period.
Periods of rainfall and runoff in the Atlanta metropolitan area resulted
in elevated densities of fecal coliform bacteria in the upstream reaches of West
Point Lake several days following the runoff event. At times, bacterial
concentrations exceeded the use designated criterion for lake areas tested. The
combined sewer overflow problem in the Atlanta area following rainfall events
results in some untreated domestic sewage as well as urban runoff entering the
iii

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Chattahoochee River. This is believed to be the primary source of fecal coliform
bacteria in West Point Lake.
Mercury was the only one of 115 toxic substances detected in West Point
Lake waters. It was found in seven of twenty water samples with a range of 0.18
ppb to 1.46 ppb. This concentration of mercury in water samples is in excess of
the Georgia water quality standard of 0.12 ppb. Substances documented at levels
greater than detection limits in sediments included As, Se, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu,
Pb, Zn, phthalates, pyrene, fluoranthene and benzopyrene. There are no Federal
or State standards for sediment concentrations. A total of 18 composites of six
fish of both carp and largemouth bass were collected and tested for 34 toxic
substances. As, Se, Hg, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, PCB, chlordane, PCA and DDT were
detected. PCB's (primarily 1260) were detected in fish filets below the FDA
action level but in excess of the EPA 10"* risk level. Chlordane was detected
in fish filets in excess of the FDA action level and EPA 10"'*, 10"5 and 10"6 risk
levels. Other substances detected were below Federal guideline levels where
guidelines are available. Additional studies of hybrid bass and black crappie
revealed detectable concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Tl, Zn, PCB, DDT, chlordane
and dieldrin. None of the substances exceeded FDA action levels. Organohalides
called trihalomethanes are known or suspected of being carcinogenic and/or
mutagenic agents. Eutrophication of lakes serving as water supplies has been
linked to increases in trihalomethane concentrations in finished drinking water.
Based on limited data, variations in algal biomass (chlorophyll a) in West Point
Lake apparently were not associated with changes in trihalomethanes in the
LaGrange, Georgia finished drinking water.
Fish health assessment, based on samples of carp and largemouth bass
collected in West Point Lake, revealed generally healthy fish. The method

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employed to determine fish health may not be sensitive enough for the relatively
low level pollution observed at West Point Lake. None of the gross lesions
observed appeared to be life-threatening or to be severely compromising the fish.
No ulceration, open sores, deformities, fin rot or emaciated fish were observed.
The only strong correlation between contaminant level and a measured response was
the positive correlation between PCB levels and liver/somatic index. This should
be further examined histologically to try to determine the reason.
The dominant macrophytes in West Point Lake, smartweeds and alligator weed,
are species that do not require inundation and therefore are not greatly affected
by the annual water level fluctuation of the Lake. At full pool in the upstream
riverine portion of the reservoir, waters flood overbank areas adjacent to the
old river channel creating shallow-water habitat conducive to marginal emergent
vegetation. The annual 3 m fall/winter drawdown and relatively high turbidity
of lake waters in this upstream area probably have prevented establishment of
submersed aquatic macrophytes. Further downstream, the drawdown exposes 2,900
ha of the littoral zone each year and eliminates all but the hardiest species of
marginal aquatic plants (grasses, rushes and sedges).
Sedimentation is being monitored in West Point Lake by the Corps of
Engineers. The initial survey was performed in 1978 with a resurvey in 1983.
From the results of the two surveys, the depletion was 0.042 during the 5 year
period. This depletion was considered minimal. A resurvey was scheduled for
1994, contingent upon available funding.
Sediment oxygen demand in West Point Lake ranged from a low of 0.75 to a
high of 1.49 g 02/m2-day, values similar to those reported for other southeastern
reservoirs.
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Feasibility Study.
The diagnostic study of West Point Lake revealed three basic problems;
cultural eutrophication, bacterial contamination and toxic contamination. All
three of the problems were heavily influenced by point and nonpoint sources of
pollution of the Chattahoochee River in the vicinity of the Atlanta, Georgia
metropolitan area.
The eutrophication of West Point Lake has resulted from the discharge of
over 240 MGD of treated municipal wastewater from the Atlanta area, urban
stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflow (CSO). The Atlanta area point
source dishcargers alone, were responsible for an estimated 66Z of the total
phosphorus loading of West Point lake. Actions taken to date (phosphate
detergent ban and initiation of a 0.75 mg/1 phosphorus limitation in treated
effluent) have resulted in a decline in phosphorus loading and in decreased total
phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations in the lake. The question now is how
much further reduction, if any, of effluent phosphorus is needed to offset the
effects of planned increases in discharge of treated wastewater (a total
permitted flow of 358 MGD by the year 2010) and anticipated reduced tributary
flows into West Point Lake caused by increased consumptive water use upstream.
While water quality models are being developed to help answer this question, West
Point Lake must be protected by the immediate establishment of lake water quality
standards as called for in Act Number 1274 approved by the Georgia General
Assembly in April 1990.
We recommend the following standards.
Chlorophyll a (corrected for phaeopigments). Mean, photic zone, chlorophyll a
concentrations measured near the LaGrange water intake structure during the
growing season should not exceed 27 pg/1. Maximum instantaneous photic zone

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chlorophyll a concentrations should never exceed 50 
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six CSO's the sewers are being separated. The other five are planning to screen
(> 1.0 cm) and disinfect the combined wastewater prior to its entry into the
Chattahoochee River. Intensive bacterial testing in the upstream portion of
West Point Lake is recommended to determine if these corrective measures will
result in compliance with existing bacterial standards.
Mercury, of unknown origin, was detected in seven of twenty water samples
at levels exceeding the Georgia water quality standard of 0.12 fig/1. PCB and
chlordane residues in fish tissue were found to exceed EPA or FDA action levels.
The industrial chemicals pyrene, fluoranthene and benzopyrene were found in
sediments. EPA banned the insecticide chlordane and the industrial chemical PCB
and their concentrations in the environment should decline with time. Yearly
monitoring of West Point Lake is recommended to insure that: a) chlordane and
PCB residue levels do decrease; b) levels of industrial chemicals do not increase
and c) mercury concentrations in water do not increase. Given the rapid growth
of the Atlanta metro area and increasing demands on the Chattahoochee River that
affect both its water quality and water quantity, the environmental quality of
West Point Lake should be continuously monitored into the future.
viii

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary	i
List of Tables	xi
List of Figures	xviii
List of Appendix Items	xxii
PART I. DIAGNOSTIC STUDY
1.0 Lake Identification	2
2.0 Basin Drainage and Geology	5
3.0 Public Access	7
4.0 Size and Economic Distribution of Potential User Population	8
5.0 History of Lake Uses	13
6.0 User Population Affected By Lake Degradation	14
7.0 Lake Use Comparison with Nearby Lakes	15
8.0 Point Source Pollution Inventory	16
9.0 Non-Point Source Pollution Inventory	36
10.0	West Point Lake Limnology	56
10.1	West Point Lake Limnological History	56
10.2	Current Limnological Condition	59
10.2.1	Lake Water Quality	59
10.2.2	Phytoplankton	106
10.2.3	Bacteria	135
10.2.4	Toxic Contaminants	144
10.2.5	Sediment Oxygen Demand	153
10.2.6	Trihalome thane	155
10.2.7	Macrophyte Survey	:	158
10.2.8	Fish Health Assessment	164
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11.0 Biological Resources	166
PART II. FEASIBILITY STUDY
Lake Restoration Alternatives	192
Phase 2 Monitoring Program	.210
Environmental Evaluation		213
Literature Cited	215
Appendix	221
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1.
Table 2-1.
Table 4-1.
Table 4-2.
Table 4-3.
Table 4-4.
Table 8-1.
Table 8-2.
Table 8-3.
Table 9-1.
Table 9-2.
Table 9-3.
Table 9-4.
Table 9-5.
Morphometric characteristics and dam specifications of West Point
Reservoir	4
Geological formations, soil series and their characteristics in
the drainage area of the Chattahoochee River and West Point
Lake	6
Total population and income characteristics of Alabama and Georgia
counties in the vicinity of West Point Lake	9
Number of business establishments of Georgia and Alabama counties
in the vicinity of West Point Lake	10
Number of employees of Georgia and Alabama counties in the
vicinity of West Point Lake	11
Agricutural production of Georgia and Alabama counties in the
vicinity of West Point Lake	12
Permitted municipal dischargers into West Point Lake during the
diagnostic study conducted November 1990 - October 1991	19
Permitted industrial dischargers into West Point Lake during the
diagnostic study conducted November 1990 - October 1991	22
Estimated loading rates using FLUX and estimated point source
loading entering the lake from above Franklin, Georgia during the
diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October
1991	31
Location of tributary sampling sites for nonpoint source pollution
assessment of West Point Lake watershed during the diagnostic
study, November 1990-October 1991	37
Landuse/landcover categories, description and acreage by state for
aerial photography analysis of West Point Lake watershed during
the diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991	41
Landuse/landcover area for major tributaries in West Point Lake
watershed during diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991...42
Livestock operation categories, description and number of sites by
state for aerial photography analysis of West Point Lake watershed
during diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991	44
Livestock operations for major tributaries in West Point Lake
watershed during diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991...45
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Table 9-6. Estimated total loading of TP, TN, TIN and TSS from point and
nonpoint sources in five tributary streams entering West Point
Lake during the diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991....46
Table 9-7. Estimated total loading, point source and nonpoint source loading
of tributary streams sampled during the diagnostic study of West
Point Lake, November 1990-October 1991	52
Table 9-8. Estimated nonpoint source total loading and loading from major
tributaries for total phosphorus and total suspended solids in
West Point Lake watershed during diagnostic study, November 1990-
October 1991	53
Table 9-9. Estimated total loading, total point source loading and total
nonpoint source loading for total phosphorus and total suspended
solids during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November
1990-October 1991	55
Table 10-1. Schedule of activities for the diagnostic study of West Point
Lake, June 1990 - October 1992	60
Table 10-2. Location of sampling stations for the diagnostic study of West
Point Lake, 1990-1992	61
Table 10-3. Analytical methods used in measuring water quality during the
diagnostic study of West Point Lake, 1990-1992	64
Table 10-4. Meteorological conditions and river and lake discharge measured
during the 29 month study of West Point Lake, 1990-1992	65
Table 10-5. Mean (range) summer water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and
specific conductance measured at a depth of 2 m at ten sampling
stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and 1992	75
Table 10-6. Mean (range) fall water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and
specific conductance measured at a depth of 2 m at ten sampling
stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and 1992	76
Table 10-7. Mean (range) winter water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and
specific conductance measured at a depth of 2 m at ten sampling
stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and 1992	77
Table 10-8. Mean (range) spring water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and
specific conductance measured at a depth of 2 m at ten sampling
stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and 1992	78
Table 10-9. Mean (range) summer Secchi disk visibility, IX incident light
depth, turbidity and total suspended solids measured at eleven
sampling stations during 1990, 1991 and 1992	81
xii

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Table 10-10.
Table 10-11.
Table 10-12,
Table 10-13,
Table 10-14.
Table 10-15.
Table 10-16.
Table 10-17.
Table 10-18.
Table 10-19,
Table 10-20.
Table 10-21.
Table 10-22.
Mean (range) fall Secchi disk visibility, IX incident light
depth, turbidity and total suspended solids measured at
eleven sampling stations during 1990, 1991 and 1992	82
Mean (range) winter Secchi disk visibility, IX incident light
depth, turbidity and total suspended solids measured at eleven
sampling stations during 1990, 1991 and 1992	83
Mean (range) spring Secchi disk visibility, IX incident light
depth, turbidity and total suspended solids measured at eleven
sampling stations during 1991 and 1992	84
Mean (range) summer total hardness and total alkalinity measured
at eleven sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991
and 1992	87
Mean (range) fall total hardness and total alkalinity measured
at eleven sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991
and 1992	88
Mean (range) winter total hardness and total alkalinity measured
at eleven sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991
and 1992	89
Mean (range) spring total hardness and total alkalinity measured
at eleven sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1991 and
1992	90
Mean (range) summer concentrations of N02-N, N03-N, NH3-N and
organic nitrogen at eleven sampling stations in West Point Lake
during 1990, 1991 and 1992	92
Mean (range) fall concentrations of N02-N, N03-N, NH3-N and
organic nitrogen at eleven sampling stations in West Point Lake
during 1990, 1991 and 1992	93
Mean (range) winter concentrations of N02-N, N03-N, NH3-N and
organic nitrogen at eleven sampling stations in West Point Lake
during 1990, 1991 and 1992	94
Mean (range) spring concentrations of N02-N, N03-N, NH3-N and
organic nitrogen at eleven sampling stations in West Point Lake
during 1991 and 1992	95
Mean (range) summer concentrations of PO^-P and TP at eleven
sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and
1992	98
Mean (range) fall concentrations of P04-P and TP at eleven
sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and
1992	99
xiii

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Table 10-23.
Table 10-24.
Table 10-25.
Table 10-26.
Table 10-27.
Table 10-28.
Table 10-29.
Table 10-30.
Table 10-31.
Table 10-32.
Table 10-33.
Table 10-34.
Mean (range) winter concentrations of P04-P and TP at eleven
sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and
1992	100
Mean (range) spring concentrations of P04-P and TP at eleven
sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1991 and 1992....101
Seasonal mean total nitrogen (pg/1 TN), total phosphorus (/ig/1
TP) and the ratio of TN to TP at select mainstem stations on
West Point Lake during the summer seasons of 1990, 1991 and
1992	104
Analytical methods used in measuring microbiological variables
during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, 1990-1992.... 107
Seasonal mean (range) total organic carbon concentrations,
chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton densities at
West Point Lake mainstem and embayment stations during the
summers of 1990, 1991 and 1992	-	109
Seasonal mean (range) total organic carbon concentrations,
chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton densities at
West Point Lake mainstem and embayment stations during the fall
of 1990, 1991 and 1992		110
Seasonal mean (range) total organic carbon concentrations,
chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton densities at
West Point Lake mainstem and embayment stations during the
winter of 1990, 1991 and 1992	Ill
Seasonal mean (range) total organic carbon concentrations,
chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton densities at
West Point Lake mainstem and embayment stations during the
spring of 1991 and 1992	112
Taxa list of plankton algae identified in West Point Lake from
June 1990 through October 1992	116
Dominant algal taxa encountered at representative mainstem
sampling stations on West Point Lake from June 1990 through
October 1992	117
Seasonal mean (range) phytoplankton primary productivity
(expressed on volume and areal basis) of West Point Lake at
representative mainstem and embayment stations during the
summers of 1990, 1991 and 1992	123
Seasonal mean (range) phytoplankton primary productivity
(expressed on volume and areal basis) of West Point Lake at
representative mainstem and embayment stations during the falls
of 1990, 1991 and 1992	124
xiv

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Table 10-35.
Seasonal mean (range) phytoplankton primary productivity
(expressed on volume and areal basis) of West Point Lake at
representative mainstem and embayment stations during the
winters of 1990, 1991 and 1992	125
Table 10-36.
Table 10-37.
Table 10-38.
Table 10-39.
Table 10-40.
Seasonal mean (range) phytoplankton primary productivity
(expressed on volume and areal basis) of West Point Lake at
representative mainstem and embayment stations during the
springs of 1991 and 1992	126
Mean maximum dry weight (mg/1) of Selenastrum capricornutum
cultured in West Point Lake waters. Values represent growing
season (April - October) means for 1990, 1991 and 1992.1	132
Temporal and spacial variation in nutrient limitation based on
results of Algal Growth Potential Tests conducted during the
growing seasons of 1990, 1991 and 1992	133
Fecal coliform bacterial densities (fecal coliform colonies per
100 ml) measured during monthly and biweekly sampling of West
Point Lake, 1990-1992	136
Rainfall amounts (inches) at three Atlanta, GA area weather
stations prior to commencing bacterial sampling of West Point
Lake in 1992	139
Table 10-41.
Table 10-42,
Table 10-43.
Table 10-44.
Table 10-45.
Mean fecal coliform bacterial densities (fecal coliform
colonies per 100 ml) measured in West Point Lake following
rainfall events in the Atlanta, Georgia area, June through
September, 1992	141
Lengths, weights, collection dates and locations of fish
species collected for toxic contamination analyses during the
diagnostic study of West Point Lake, 1990-1992	149
Concentrations of select toxic chemical compounds found in
edible portions of two fish taxa collected at three locations
in West Point Lake during October 1992	151
Concentrations of heavy metals found in edible portions of two
fish taxa collected at three locations in West Point Lake
during October 1992	152
Sediment oxygen demand rates, water column respiration and
bottom sediment characteristics for West Point Lake, 19-22
October 1992	154
Table 10-46.
Mean quarterly trihalomethane (THM) concentrations in LaGrange,
Georgia treated drinking water and concentrations of
chlorophyll a, total organic nitrogen and total organic carbon
in West Point Lake water near the LaGrange water intake
(station 5), all measured within a 15 day period	157
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Table 10-47. Vascular aquatic plants identified in survey conducted in
September 1992 on West Point Lake	160
Table 10-48. Estimated coverage of dominant aquatic macrophytes present on
West Point Lake in September, 1992	161
Table 11-1. Checklist of fishes of West Point Lake and immediate watershed.
	167
Table 11-2. Fishes collected in West Point Lake area, January 1972 - May
1977	169
Table 11-3. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations, West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 21 through November 22, 1988	171
Table 11-4. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 5 through November 6, (3 stations) and
from November 28 through November 29, 1988 (7 stations)	172
Table 11-5. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 19 through November 20, 1988	173
Table 11-6. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 30 through December 1, 1991	174
Table 11-7. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 9 through November 10, 1992	175
Table 11-8. Dominant fish species by number and weight captured during
gillnetting from 10 stations on West Point Lake, 1988 - 1992
	176
Table
11-9. Relative condition (kn) of
principal
species
collected
on
West

Point Lake, Georgia during
1988	



177
Table
11-10. Relative condition (kn) of
principal species
collected
on
West

Point Lake, Georgia during
1989	



178
Table
11-11. Relative condition (kn) of
principal
species
collected
on
West

Point Lake, Georgia during
1990	



179
Table
11-12. Relative condition (kn) of
principal
species
collected
on
West

Point Lake, Georgia during
1991	



180
Table
11-13. Relative condition (kn) of
principal
species
collected
on
West

Point Lake, Georgia during
1992	



	181
xv i

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Table 11-14. Bird species of the West Point Lake watershed	183
Table 11-15, Amphibians and reptiles of the middle Chattahoochee watershed
(above Columbus and below Atlanta) Georgia	188
Table 11-16. Special species tracked by Georgia Natural Heritage Program
known to occur in the middle Chattahoochee watershed (south of
Atlanta and north of Columbus) in Georgia	190
Table 12-1. Total phosphorus loading of West Point Lake	192
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1. Map of West Point Lake, Alabama and Georgia 	3
Figure 8-1. Location of partitioned areas of Chattahoochee River basin for
point source pollution inventory during diagnostic study of West
Point Lake, November 1990 - October 1991	18
Figure 8-2. Quantification of municipal (MUN) and industrial (IND) discharge
and loading of total phosphorus, total suspended solids, and
biochemical oxygen demand of four partitioned areas during
diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October
1991	25
Figure 8-3. Percentage of the total flow into West Point Lake (Franklin, GA)
that was from municipal and industrial facilities during the
diagnostic study, November 1990 - October 1991	27
Figure 8-4. Estimated annual total phosphorus loading from major Atlanta area
point sources to the Chattahoochee River (* - November 1990 -
October 1991)	28
Figure 8-5. Total phosphorus point source loading from municipal facilities
during diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 -
October 1991	30
Figure 8-6. Estimated monthly discharge (DIS) and total loading of total
phosphorus (TOT LOAD) and point source load (POINT) into West
Point Lake (Franklin, GA) during diagnostic study, November 1990 -
October 1991	33
Figure 8-7. Estimated monthly discharge (DIS) and total loading of total
suspended solids (TOT LOAD) and point source load (POINT) into
West Point Lake (Franklin, GA) during diagnostic study, November
1990 - October 1991	34
Figure 8-8. Estimated monthly discharge (DIS) and total loading of biochemical
oxygen demand (TOT LOAD) and point source load (POINT) into West
Point Lake (Franklin, GA) during diagnostic study, November 1990 
October 1991	35
Figure 9-1. Sampling locations of tributary streams on West Point Lake during
diagnostic study, November 1990 - October 1991	38
Figure 9-2. Node location of subwatersheds for aerial analysis of West Point
Lake during diagnostic study, November 1990 - October 1991	39
Figure 9-3. Estimated total loading per month of total phosphorus, total
suspended solids, total nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen and
point source loads for sampling location at New River during
diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October
1991	47
xviii

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Figure 9-4. Estimated total loading per month of total phosphorus, total
suspended solids, total nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen and
point source load for sampling location at Yellowjacket Creek
during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990-
October 1991	48
Figure 9-5. Estimated total loading per month of total phosphorus, total
suspended solids, total nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen and
point source load for sampling location at Wehadkee Creek during
the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October
1991	49
Figure 9-6. Estimated total loading per month of total phosphorus, total
suspended solids, total nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen and
point source load for sampling location at Veasey Creek during
the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October
1991	50
Figure 9-7. Estimated loading per month of total phosphorus, total suspended
solids, total nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen for sampling
location at Dixie Creek during the diagnostic study of West Point
Lake, November 1990 - October 1991	51
Figure 10-1. Map showing location of mainstem and embayment sampling
stations on West Point Lake during the diagnostic study, June
1990 - October 1992	63
Figure 10-2. Mean daily discharge of the Chattahoochee River at Whitesburg,
GA and at West Point Dam. Mean monthly rainfall at West Point
Dam during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June 1990
through October 1992	66
Figure 10-3. Depth-time diagram of isotherms (C) at station 10 (dam
forebay) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June
1990 through October 1992	68
Figure 10-4. Depth-time diagram of isotherms (C) at station 7 (mid-
reservoir) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June
1990 through October 1992	69
Figure 10-5. Depth-time diagram of isotherms (C) at station 4 (transition
zone) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June 1990
through October 1992	70
Figure 10-6. Depth-time diagrams of D.O. isopleths at station 10 (dam
forebay) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June
1990 through October 1992	 71
Figure 10-7. Depth-time diagrams of D.O. isopleths at station 7 (mid-
reservoir) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June
1990 through October 1992	72
xix

-------
Figure 10-8.
Figure 10-9.
Figure 10-10.
Figure 10-11.
Figure 10-12.
Figure 10-13.
Figure 10-14.
Figure 10-15.
Figure 10-16.
Figure 10-17.
Figure 10-18.
Depth-time diagrams of D.O. isopleths at station 4 (transition
zone) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June 1990
through October 1992	73
Near surface (1-3 m) specific conductance measured at all
mainstem sampling stations in West Point Lake during the
diagnostic study, 1990 - 1992	79
Seasonal mean total nitrogen and bioavailable nitrogen
concentrations at mainstem sampling stations (headwaters at
station 1 and dam at station 10) during the diagnostic study of
West Point Lake, June 1990 through October 1992	96
Seasonal mean total phosphorus and orthophosphate
concentrations at mainstem sampling stations (headwaters at
station 1 and dam at station 10) during the diagnostic study of
West Point Lake, June 1990 through October 1992	102
Seasonal mean phytoplankton densities at mainstem sampling
stations during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June
1990 through October 1992	113
Percent composition of phytoplankton communities by algal
Division during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake,
June 1990 through October 1992	114
Seasonal mean chlorophyll a concentrations at mainstem
reservoir stations during the diagnostic study of Vest Point
Lake, June 1990 through October 1992	120
Seasonal mean phytoplankton primary productivity at mainstem
reservoir stations during the diagnostic study of West Point
Lake, June 1990 through October 1992	128
Mean annual and summer-season primary productivity for West
Point Lake from June 1980 through October 1992 (upper graph).
Mean annual Chattahoochee River discharge (at Whitesburg, GA)
and mean growing season (April-October) chlorophyll a
(phaeophytin corrected) concentrations measured in lentic areas
(between stations 4 and 10) of West Point Lake sampling
years	129
Map of West Point Lake showing sampling locations for water,
sediment and fish collected and analyzed for toxic contaminants
by the University of Georgia	145
Concentrations of PCB's, chlordane and mercury in carp fillets
collected from various locations in West Point Lake during
1991	146
xx

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Figure 10-19. Concentrations of PCB's, chlordane and mercury in bass fillets
collected from various locations in West Point Lake during
1991	147
Figure 10-20. Location (darkened area) of significant stands of aquatic
macrophytes identified during the macrophyte survey of West
Point Lake	159
xx i

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LIST OF APPENDIX ITEMS
Appendix 1
Water quality criteria for the water use classification for Georgia and
Alabama portions of West Point Lake	223
Appendix 9
Documentation of aerial photography for West Point Lake watershed during
diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991	243
Node location summary for aerial photography analysis of West Point Lake
watershed during the diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991....245
Landuse/landcover acreage by class and node for aerial photography
analysis of West Point Lake watershed during the diagnostic study,
November 1990-October 1991	249
Appendix 10
U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level guidelines for chemical
contamination in fish tissue	260
Limiting nutrients and mean maximum standing crop (mg/1) of Selenastrum
capricornutum cultures in West Point Lake waters during 1990, 1991 and
1992	262
Definitive sampling station locations for the Vest Point Lake studies
conducted from June 1990 through October 1992	264
Approximate location of sampling sites for fecal coliform bacteria in West
Point Lake, June-September, 1992	266
Letter from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers regarding sedimentation data for
West Point Lake	268
Letters and documents related to report completion and recommended Lake
Water Quality Standards for West Point Lake	270
Toxic substances in water, sediment and fish and fish health assessment
(1990-1992)	'	288
xxii

-------
PART I. DIAGNOSTIC STUDY
1

-------
1.0 LAKE IDENTIFICATION
west Point Lake was impounded in 1974 by construction of hydroelectric
generating facilities on the Chattahoochee River, approximately 109 kilometers
downstream of the city of Atlanta, Georgia. The major portion of the reservoir
lies within Troup and Heard Counties in Georgia with smaller portions of the
reservoir in Chambers County, Alabama (Figure 1-1). The project was authorized
by the Flood Control Act of 1962 for flood control, power generation, recreation,
fish and wildlife enhancement and flow regulation for downstream navigation (EPD
1989a). The reservoir also serves as a water supply reservoir for the city of
LaGrange, Georgia.
Morphometric characteristics of West Point Lake appear in Table 1-1. The
reservoir is normally maintained at a full pool level of 194 m surface altitude
from mid-May through September and is lowered to 191 m from October to mid-May,
exposing 2,900 ha of littoral area.
Water-use classifications for the Georgia portion of the reservoir are as
follows:
a)	Franklin to New River: Fishing
b)	New River to West Point Dam: Recreation
Water-use classifications for the Alabama portion of the reservoir are as
follows:
a) West Point Dam to reservoir limits in Alabama:
Swimming/Fish and Wildlife
Water quality criteria for the classifications appears in Appendix 1.0.
2

-------
WEST POINT LAKE
US 27
WEHADKEE
CR.
CHATTAHOOCHEE
RIVER
NEW
RIVER
YELLOW
JACKET
CR.
Figure 1-1. Map of West Point Lake, Alabama and Georgia.
3

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Table 1-1. Morphometric characteristics and dam specifications of West Point
Lake.
Drainage area
Surface area
Shoreline length
Mean depth
Maximum depth
Normal pool elevation
Normal pool volume
Mean retention time
Type
Length
Height
Completion date
Hydraulic turbines
Electrical generation
Morphometric
Characteristics	
8,745 square kilometers
10,467 hectares
840 kilometers
7 meters
26 meters
194 meters
45,700,000 cubic meters
55 days
Dam Specifications
Gravity concrete
2,211 meters
29.6 meters
1977
4
108,375 kilowatts
4

-------
2.0 BASIN DRAINAGE AND GEOLOGY
The upper Chattahoochee River originates on the southern slopes of the Blue
Ridge Mountains in northeast Georgia and flows generally southwestward through
the Atlanta area to West Point Lake at the Alabama-Georgia state line. Runoff
from the upper third of the Chattahoochee River basin is controlled by Buford Dam
at Lake Sidney Lanier. The Chattahoochee River is the principal tributary to
West Point Lake and contributes 96X of the mean annual water loading. Minor
tributaries to the reservoir include Yellowjacket, Wehadkee, Whitewater, Potato
and Maple Creeks and the New River (Davies et al. 1979a).
The drainage area of the Chattahoochee River upstream of West Point Dam
lies entirely within the Piedmont physiographic province. In the vicinity of the
reservoir the province is a nearly level plateau whose generally smooth surface
lies 244 to 275 meters above sea level. Southwestward the plateau descends to
152 meters at the margin of the Coastal Plain. Except in the Pine Mountain area,
the plateau is almost unbroken by isolated ridges. It is not deeply dissected
except along the valley of the Chattahoochee River (Radtke et al. 1984).
Metamorphic and igneous rocks underlie the drainage area and generally
occupy broad belts. The comparatively uniform lithology is reflected in the
uniform topography. Parent materials of the soils have generally been derived
from sedimentary and igneous rocks. Geological formations, soil series and their
characteristics appear in Table 2-1 (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1977).
5

-------
Table 2-1. Geological formations, soils series and their characteristics in the
drainage area of the Chattahoochee River and Wast Point Lake.
Geological Formations
Ashland mica schist
Wedowee formation
Igneous schist and gneiss
Soils Series
Buncombe series
Louisa series
Altavista series
Cecil series
Characteristics
Consists of two types of sedimentary rocks;
garnetiferous biotite schist and a siliceous
muscovite schist.
Consists of slate, phyllite, quartzite and
schist.
Consists of hornblende gneiss, granite and
gneiss.
Deep, light-textured, well-drained to excessively
drained soils formed generally from alluvium.
Shallow to very shallow, gravelly, sandy loams,
well-drained, strongly acid upland soils.
Moderately deep, well-drained, sandy loam soils
which have developed on low stream terraces with
strong acid profiles.
Shallow to deep, well-drained, sandy loam soils
developed on the Piedmont uplands with strongly
acid subsoils.
6

-------
3.0 PUBLIC ACCESS
Public access areas are well distributed throughout the entire reservoir
area but are most numerous on the lower reaches. There are a total of 52
recreational parks around West Point Lake, 43 of which provide boat launching
areas. Thirty-five boat launching areas are operated by the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers. Two launching areas are operated by marinas while the city of
Franklin, Heard County, Troup County, and the Georgia Department of Natural
Resources each maintain one launching area (personal communication, Darren
Kelly). A survey conducted in 1982-1983 determined that the most frequently used
reservoir access area was Yellowjacket Creek followed by Highland Marina, Rocky
Point, Holiday Marina and Sunny Point (Davies et al. 1984).
For anglers without boats, bank and pier access is available at many Corps
recreational areas. Banks and slopes of highway bridge areas are also frequently
used by anglers as are shoreline areas of inundated roadways.
7

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4.0 SIZE AND ECONOMIC DISTRIBUTION OF POTENTIAL USER POPULATION
West Point Lake is surrounded by Chambers County, Alabama, Troup County,
Georgia and Heard County, Georgia. The area surrounding the reservoir is
historically agricultural and textile oriented though industry is increasingly
diversified.
The potential user population of West Point Lake is of considerable size
because of the reservoir's proximity to metropolitan areas and interstate
highways. The reservoir is within 15 km of interstates 85 and 185. Columbus,
Georgia, with a metropolitan statistical area population of 250,000 is 72 km from
the reservoir. Atlanta, Georgia, with a metropolitan statistical area population
of 2,700,000, is 100 km from the reservoir.
Surveys conducted in 1982-1983 determined that counties contributing the
greatest number of anglers to West Point Lake were, in descending order, Troup,
Fulton, Clayton, Douglas and Muscogee Counties of Georgia and Chambers and Lee
Counties of Alabama (Davies et al. 1984). Population and income data for each
of these counties appear in Table 4-1, business and employee data in Tables 4-2
and 4-3 and agricultural production data in Table 4-4 (U.S. Department of
Commerce, 1987, 1990).
8

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Table 4-1. Total population and income characteristics of Alabama and Georgia
counties in the vicinity of West Point Lake.
State	County	Population	Income	Poverty Level
Georgia
Clayton
182,052
$13,577
7.3

Douglas
71,120
14,096
4.9

Fulton
648,951
18,452
15.4

Muscogee
179,278
11,949
14.9

Troup
55,536
11,581
13.1
Alabama
Chambers
36,876
10,000
13.4

Lee
87,146
11,409
13.2
9

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Table 4-2. Number of business establishments of Georgia and Alabama counties in the vicinity of West Point
Lake.1
State
Countv
Total
Agricultural
Forestry
Fishing
Mining
Construction
Manufac-
turing
Transportation,
PubIic
UtiIi ties
Wholesale
Trade
RetaiI
Trade
F inance.
Insurance,
Real
Estate
1
Services
Unclassified
Establishments
Georgia
Clayton
3,768
29
3
365
163
205
313
1,083
268
1,190
133

Douglas
1,421
23
2
204
86
42
94
345
83
478
64

Fulton
24,476
163
17
1,222
1,152
894
2,585
5,038
2,847
9,424
1,134

Muscogee
4,301
48
4
405
172
144
268
1,205
462
1,395
198

Troup
1,305
11
1
122
100
46
95
379
117
375
59
Alabama
Chambers
531
7
--
45
55
23
23
453
24
178
23

Lee
1,611
30
--
169
85
65
92
456
147
488
79
Total

37,413
311
27
2,532
1,813
1,419
3,470
8,659
3,948
13,528
1,690
'Excludes most government employees, railroad employees and self-employed persons.

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Table 4-3. Number of employees of Georgia and Alabama counties In the vicinity of West Point Lake.1
State
Countv
Total
Agricultural
Forestry
Fishfno
Mining
Construct ion
Manufac-
turing
Transportation,
Public
UtiIities
r
Wholesale
Trade
Retail
Trade
Finance,
Insurance,
Real
Estate
Services
Unclassified
Establishments
Georgia
Clayton
53,662
214
B
3,273
5,286
7,206
5,574
17,637
1,800
12,413
C

Douglas
15,957
82
B
1,633
1,330
1,057
1,022
5,148
633
4,920
B

Fulton
535,485
1,341
284
19,354
59,030
77,390
46,179
90,234
57,884
181,940
1,849

Muscogee
71,067
287
B
4,945
17,507
2,578
2,928
17,165
5,766
19,615
C

Troup
26,405
B'
B
1,431
11,433
663
1,102
4,883
910
5,806
106
Alabama
Chambers
11,815
44
--
231
6,960
683
327
1,586
208
1,770
6

Lee
27,683
156
--
1,566
9,546
1,090
2,955
6,357
1,136
4,900
67
Total

742,074
--
--
32,433
111,002
90,667
60,087
143,010
68,337
230,914
--
'Excludes most government enployees, railroad employees and self-employed persons.
'Employment-size classes indicated as follows: A  0 to 19; B  20 to 99; C = 100 to 249; E = 250 to 499.

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Table 4-4. Agricultural production of Georgia and Alabama counties in the vicinity of West Point Lake.



Total
Total
Cattle
Hogs
Broilers
Corn
Wheat
Soybeans



Total
Farm
Cropland
Sold
Sold
Sold
Bushel8
Bushels
Bushels
Cotton
State
County
Farms
Acreage
Acreaae
x 1000
x 1000
x 1000
x 1000
x 1000
x 1000
Bales
Georgia
Clayton
73
8,028
3,242
0.9
D
--
D
D
--
--

Douglas
134
10,770
3,994
1.3
0.3
0
7.8
--
--
--

Fulton
344
32,832
12,471
2.3
1.3
1.4
15.6
D
11.4
D

Muscogee
49
5,304
1,856
0.4
D
--
D
D
--
--

Troup
281
52,513
21,425
5.7
0.4
0
2.1
D
D
D
Alabama
Chambers
365
102,153
32,905
9.4
D
D
8.3
2.9
D
D

Lee
402
79,836
33,628
6.3
5.4
D
18.9
2.1
1.9
2.6
Total

1,648
291,436
109,521
26.3
...
...
...
...
...
...
'D denotes withheld data.
-- unknown

-------
5.0 HISTORY OF LAKE USES
West Point Lake has been used for recreation, flood control, power
generation and the water supply for the city of LaGrange since its impoundment
in October 1974. Recreational use of the reservoir has increased consistently.
In 1976, visitor days numbered approximately 870,000. By 1989, recreational use
had increased to 8.2 million visitor days. Though the number of visitor days has
not been diminished by the degradation of the reservoir, awareness of the
pollution and of the contamination of fish has resulted in decreased utilization
of the facilities by swimmers, skiers, and anglers.
13

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6.0 USER POPULATION AFFECTED BY LAKE DEGRADATION
At the peak of its popularity, West Point Lake supported 25-30 fishing
guides, eleven active bait shops, one marina and several boat dealerships.
However, bait producers, convenience stores, restaurants and motels have
documented a reduction in business since 1988. Several bait shops in the area
were forced to close while several others experienced severe financial
difficulty. A sixty percent decrease in fishing reduced the number of active
guides to 10-12 during the normally busy spring and summer seasons. The number
of bass angler tournaments declined as did the number of crappie fishermen
visiting the reservoir. Several large real estate developments initiated before
the disclosure of the reservoir's degradation experienced a substantial reduction
in sales. A fish consumption advisory for West Point Lake issued by the Georgia
Department of Natural Resources in February 1991 is expected to further damage
business interests associated with the reservoir.
14

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? 0 LAKE USE COMPARISON WITH NEARBY LAKES
Lake Harding is a 2,267 ha reservoir located or. the T.-.acrahccchaa River,
immediately downstream of West Point Lake. Impounded ir. L?2S for r.vcroeiectric
power generation, Lake Harding is much smaller than West Point Lake and receives
only a fraction of the recreational use that West Point Lake receives.
15

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S 0 POINT SOURCE POLLUTION INVENTORY
A one year, point source pollution inventory was compiled -isir.s discharge
monitoring reports (DMR) furnished by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources
and the Alabama Department of Environmental Management. The Chattahoochee River
Sasin Water Quality Management Plan (EPD 1992) was used as a guide to identify
the major point sources from West Point Dam to Buford Dam for November 1990
through October 1991. Efforts were made to include all permitted dischargers but
some minor dischargers were not included. Minor dischargers were defined as:
1)	Municipal and privately-owned facilities discharging less than 10,000
gallons/day; and
2)	Industrial facilities with no discharge system, discharge consisted of
uncontaminated cooling water, groundwater, and/or rainfall runoff, or
c. i s c ficir Z'B vi r. r.o 3.1	.sss cr.sn z.z -.zs zz	"sr
day) cr cheiaical ccnzaniir.ancs.
Flows for the Georgia Power Company fossil fuel plants, Yates. Vamsley and
McDonough-Atkinson, were obtained from the 1990 and 1991 flow monitoring and
characterization studies. A 2.5 mg/1 total phosphorus concentration for
municipal effluent was assumed when municipal facilities were not required to
monitor total phosphorus in their effluent (personal communication, D. Kamps,
Georgia EPD, 1992).
Estimated total loading (point and nonpoint) for total phosphorus (TP),
total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN) ana biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD) were determined by using FLUX (Walker 1986). FLUX is a computer program
designed to estimate nutrient loadings from grab-sample concentration data and
16

-------
continuous flow records using various calculation methods ar.c stratification
schemes which permit quantification of potential errors.
Estimates of annual point source flow and annual point source loads of BOD,
TP, TSS, orthophosphate and ammonia-nitrogen were calculated using the daily-
average for the month and extrapolating to a monthly load. Monthly loads were
summed to obtain an annual load. Some dischargers did not report data for all
months; values for the missing months were assumed to be the average from the
months that were reported.
The river basin was partitioned into the following four areas (Figure 8-1) :
1)	Buford Dam to Gwinnett County water intake;
2)	Gwinnett County water intake to Fairburn, Georgia;
3)	Fairburn, Georgia to Franklin, Georgia; and
4)	Franklin. Georgia to West Point Dam.
? = rziitt3d nur.iciral dr.c industrial dischargers fcr sacr. cf	four arsas
ers listed in Tables 3-1 ana 3-2 along with discharge cara. iubtotais are shown
fcr each area and ara summed to obtain a total load.
Point source flow and loading estimates of TP, TSS ana 3CD are compared for
the partitioned areas in Figure 8-2. Municipals comprised 88% and industrials
12% of the total wastewater effluent of 100.04 billion gallons of water per year.
The area from the Gwinnett County water intake to Fairburn, Georgia (greater
metropolitan Atlanta area) contributed about 88% of the total wastewater
discharged. Municipal facilities comprised 98% of that value. The area from
Fairburn to Franklin comprised 112 of the total wastewater effluent with 89% of
that flow being from industrial sources. The two major industrial dischargers
were Georgia Power Company Plants Yates and Wamsley. The area from Franklin to
West Point Dam only accounted for 1% of the total wastewater effluent with 50%
17

-------
Figure 8-1. Location of partitioned areas in Chattahoochee River basin for point source pollution
inventory during diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
le 8-1. Permitted municipal dischargers into Uost ut: Lake during the diagnostic study conducted Nove ' <-.r
1990 - October 1991.
Foe11i tv
NPDES
Number
Receiving
Stream
Perini lied
Flow
(MGD)
ACtllul
Flou
(MGD)
Total
F low
(HG)
BOD
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
TSS
Loading
Clbs/yr)
TP
Loading
(kg/yr)
HH,-M
Loading
(kn/yr)


Gwinnett County Water Intake
to Fairburn,
Georgia



Swanee Eton Schoot
GA0035866
Cheatham Creek
0.025
O.UIM
0.47
89
153
4'
*
Cumming UPCP
GA0032115
Big Creek
0.70
U. iS'f
123.83
12,337
15,124
1,172'
1,359
Sweetwater UPCP
GA0027171
Town Branch
0.52
U. Jill
76.65
1,589
4,550
726'
171
Doug. Month UPCP
GA0030350
Gothard's Creek
0.60
0. 51),',
111.60
4,502
9,755
1,056'
403
Doug. Sweetwater
GA0047201
Town Branch
3. U
tl .cc, 1
241.20
14,502
25,043
509
2, 767
MSouth Cobb UPCP
GA0026158
Chattahoochee R.
28.0
20-UVil
7,333.46
143,015
428,430
"20,994
39,818
^i-Camp. Creek UPCP
GA0025381
Chattahoochee R.
13.0
11 .c,i
4,244.95
192,606
328,156
"21,856
106,483
St. John Cr. UPCP
GA003068&
Chattahoochee R.
5.0
4 . c.
1,733.75
40,258
143,858
5,845
2,333
Crooked Cr. UPCP
GA0026433
Chattahoochee R.
6.5
5 . Int
1,885.83
15,825
33,722
1,618
801
\jSouth River UP CP
GA0024040
Chattahoochee R.
41.0
yj 1/:.
14,444.88
1,001,739
1,280,184
^ 74,144
56,642
\iBig Creek UPCP
GA0024333
Chattahoochee R.
11.0
10.56/
3,856.83
190,819
610,742
V17,425
58,460
~ R.L. Sutton UPCP
GA0026140
Chattahoochee R.
28.5
2U.VHU
10,551.54
187,810
422,954
si60,521
37, c.46
v R.H. Clayton UPCP
GA0021482
Chattahoochee R.
101.0
aw
30,915.50
2,031,099
5,846,443
v246,870
403,282
xUtoy Cr. UPCP
GA0021458
Chattahoochee R.
37.0
27. 3;l
9,997.68
399,153
1,120,693
v 42,114
104,369
C.V. of Lake Lanier
GA0030201
Suwannee Creek
0.125
(l.litu
29.89
5,121
3,343
283'

Uestside UPCP
GA0023175
Richland Creek
0.25
0. 1 Si
55.30
5,789
4,193
523'
864
DOT SRA #75
GA0023663
Suwannee Creek
0.035
0. Oil'.
1.52
89
402
14'
A
DOT SRA #76
GA0023604
Ivy Creek
0.015
0.II1IJ
3.51
164
990
33'
-
Lanier Hid. School
GA0035068
Suwannee Creek
0.01 1
li.OUJ
0.67
18
62
6'
-
B. Southsido UPCP
GA0025167
Suuunneo Creek
\.f
u. nu
2H5.22
31,933
34,344
1,675
5,'vSy
Chattahoochee HHP
GA0050041
Strickland Springs
0.06
0.053
11.95
1,136
1,386
113'
A
Countryside Villa
GA0030180
Cooper Creek
0.07
0.060
21.72
2,772
3,467
206'
A
Union City UPCP'
GA0023094
Deep Creek
0.25
0.213
77.56
9,700
9,700
734'
*
Chatt. Health1
*
Deep Creek
0.006
0.003
1.23
220
346
12'
*
Subtotal

278.367
235.63/'
86,006.74
4,292,285
10,328,040
498,453
821,337

-------
Table 8-1. (Cont)
FaciIi tv
NPDES
Nmtber
Receiving
Stream
Permit ted
Flow
C HOD)
Actuul
Flow
(HOD)
Total
F low
(MG>
BOO
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
TSS
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
TP
Loading
(kg/yr)
Nllj-ll
1oading
(kq/yr)



Fai rhiirn.
Georgia to
Franklin. Georgia




Brookwood HHP
GA0031521
Little Anneewakee
Cr
0.021
0.014
5.08
1,015
1,672
48'

Palmetto UPCP
GA0025542
Little Bear Creek
0.60
0.536
195.70
9,746
6,249
1,851'
A
Pine Lake HHP
GA0035271
Bear Creek
0.05
II.Oi 1
11.42
695
1,836
108'
A
Bill Arp School
GA0034622
Bear Creek
0.004
D.Oil'.
1.47
158
137
14'
-
Rebel TraiIs WPCP
GA0049786
Anneewakee Creek
0.04
0.01.1
4.50
312
411
42'
-
Beaver Est. WPCP
GA0031402
Crooked Creek
0.08
o.o.-.;.
24.18
1,520
1,540
229'
Till
Arnuall UPCP
GA0000299
Uahoo Creek
0.06
ll.O'./,
16.67
1,620
10,204
158'
-
Arnco UPCP
GA0000311
Wahoo Creek
0.10
0.0/3
26.52
1,775
4,465
251'

Wfihoo Creek WPCP
GA0031721
Wahoo Creek
0.75
O.flil!
316.76
13,694
20,046
2,998'
5,374
Snake Creek WPCP
GA0021431
Snake Creek
0.40

108.07
15,170
18,530
1,024'
"
L. Bear Cr WPCP
GA0047104
Li ttle Bear Creek
0.10
0.00;',
2.25
95
99
21'
6
D. Southside WPCP
GA0030341
Anneewakee Creek
3.25
1.5U
553.86
39,356
61,801
861

Fai rplay Hid Sch
GA0035963
Hurricane Creek
0.01
II
0
0
0
0
(J
Cedar Hgts HHP
GA0024856
Whooping Creek
0.033
O.OIIb
1.83
204
160
17'
L
Garden Terrace
GA0033782
Bear Creek
0.034
0. O? (
9.76
1,870
2.388
92
*
Subtotal


5.532
i.'jll 1
1,2/8.07
87,430
129,538
7,714
b.Yll V
Grontville #1
Holiday Inn
Mineral Springs
Grantville #2
Subtotal
GA0033197
GA0022632
GA0021423
GA0033201
Hew River
New River
Mew River
New River
Frunkl in,	(i^oiiiic. i.j lJm;f Point Dam
0.05	0.0.'S	8.43	1,455
0.03	u.II l -S	4-/2 .	608
0.7b	0.'.I i	171.73	5,680
JLM_	Jl.L'i!	7.76	1.245
0.8/	0.VIS	192.64	8,988
2,382
612
13,729
1.938
18,661
79'
155
1,624'
	7V
1,932
4 V
720
~ruj

-------
l	8-1.	(Com).
Fac i (i ty
NPDES
Nimber
Receiving
Stream
Penni tted
Flow
(MGD)
Actuul
Flou
(MGD)
Total
F low
(MG)
BOO
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
TSS
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
TP
Loading
(kg/yr)
Nll.-N
Loudiny
(kg/yr)



Frank 1in.
fieorq i u to
Wobt Point Dam




HogansviIle UPCP
GA0032379
Yellowjacket Creek
0.50
0.542
197.71
4,263
9,704
1,873'
k
GrantviIle #3
GA0033219
Yellowjacket Creek
0.05
0
0
0
0
0
0
Grantvi1le #4
GA0033227
Yellowjacket Creek
0.03
II
0
0
0
0
0
Subtotal


0.58
ni ri-i
0.542
:~l 1) 1M llnl 
-------
Table 8-2. Permitted industrial dischargers into Wo.-.t I'oint Lake during the diagnostic study conducted
November 1990 - October 1991.
ho
ro
f nci1ity
Trout Hatchery
Subtotal
Tyson Foods
Blue Ci rcle
Blue Circle
Wt 11 ianis Bros.
General Motors
Lockheed
Cargi(I
C.U. Matthews
C.U. Matthews
T iI ford Yard
Chem-Central
Williams Bros.
Willi ains Bros.
PI nut lit t on P11io
Austell Box
Austell Box
Austell Box
Austell Box
NPDES
Number
Receiving
Stream
Perini tted
Flow
(HGO)
Act In, I
Flou
(HfiD)
Total
Flou
BOO
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
Buford Dam to Guinnett County Water Intake
GA0026174 Chattahoochee R.
GA0001074
GA0046850-
DSN001
GA0046850-
DSN002
GA0043601
GA0001767
GA0001198
GA0000361
GA0048356-
DSN001
GA0048356-
DSN002
GA0001007
GA0001597
GA0046906
GA0047597
GA00309S3
GA0001911 -
DSN004
GA0001911 -
DSN006
GA0001911 -
DSN007
GA0001911 -
DSN008
1.58	121
Gwinnett County Uater Intuke to Fairhnrn. Georgia
Dors Creek
Oaves Creek
Oaves Creek
*
Nancy Creek
Poorhouse Creek
Proctor Creek
Proctor Creek
Proctor Creek
Proctor Creek
Nancy Creek
North Fork
Peachtree Creek
Proctor Creek
Nuncy CreL'k
Sweetwater Creek
Sweetwater Creek
Sweetwater Creek
Sweetwater Creek
0.004
0.004
1.58
121
0.6'>.',
0.mi
O.iiu.:
1
O.Uu_'
u.dii
0.1 /v
O.ll'.H
0.1f.d
o.nv;
238.59
0.00
0.73
0.55
0.03
0.00
*
65.36
17.50
60.52
21.50
12,729
571.35	18,
92
1,362
1,561
2,147
701
TSS
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
TP
Loading
(kg/vr)
245
245
15,999
40
5,300
1,362
636
5,499
448
1.0
6'
Ml,-II
Loadi rvj
Ckn/yr)
905

-------
8-2.	(Cont).
r-o
Fari1i tv
AustelI Box
Colonial Pipe
A jay Chemicals
Willi ains Bros.
Vulcan Hat.
Ui11iams Bros.
Thomas Concrete
Wi11iams Bros.
Plant McDon-Atk
Plant HcDon-Atk
Nat. Starch
Ccxibustion Eng.
Subtotal
NPDES
Nimil>er
Receiving
St ream
Permi tted
Flow
(HGD)	
Actudl
F low
(MHO)
Total
Flow
BOO
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
TSS
Loading
(Ibs/yr)
TP
Loading
(kg/yr)
Mil,-11
Loading
(>:a/Yr)
Gwinnett County Water Intake to Foirlmrn. Georgia (Cont.)
GA0001911 -
DSM013
GA0048429
GA0048283
GA0025913
GA000799
GA001627
GA0046078
GA0048640
GA0001431-
DSN003
GA0001431-
DSN01, 02,
03A, 03B,
03C, 03D,
03E, 03F
GA0003352
GA0031142
Sweetwater Creek
Olley Creek
Hoses Creek
Moses Creek
Beaver Run Creek
Chattahoochee R.
Chattahoochee R.
0.073
n.fum
U.UOOi
U.UuU
0.(1
O.li
2.162
Itil.Vj
26.66
2.92
0.13
2.92
0.0
0.0
1,015.31
139,922.75
5. V
2,024.07'
1,183
37,775
555
195
24
361
46,849
77,269
1056
90S
Young Refining
Blue Circle
Blue Circle
Vulcan Hat.
Plant Warns ley
GA0001902 Crocker Creek
GA0030899- Mobley Creek
DSN001
GA00J0B99- Hobley Creek
DSN002
GA0032433
GA0026778-
0SN002
Crawfish Creek
Chattahoochee R.
Fairhurn.	fiuoi'tii,i to Fi .hiM in. Georgia
(l (i."j	8.94	3,543
U.Cul	0.06
8.6/.	3,153.60
13
183.393
392

-------
Table 8-2.
CCont).



Permi tted
Actual Total BOD
TSS
TP
NH.-M

NPDES
Receiving
Flow
Flow Flow Loading
Loading
Loading
Loading
Fac i I i tv
Nimber
Stream
(HGO)
(HGD) (MG) (Ibs/vr)
(Ibs/yr)
(kfl/yr)
(kg/yr


Fairburn, Geoniia to Franklin. Georgia (Cont.)



Plant Vamsley
GA0026778-
Chattahoochee R.
*
5.93 1,265.47 *
*
*
ail

DSN01A,







01B, 01C






Plant Yates
GA0001473-
Chattahoochee R.
*
6,700.79 *
183,454
*
A

DSN01B






Plant Yates
GA0001473-
Chattahoochee R.
ik
iil/.V. X21.752 *
*
*
A

DSN01






Subtotal


*
it. 02-',  V, 863.39' 3,543
366,863
*
V/V



Frank I in
ficor.ii.i in West Point Dam



Hoover Alurn
GA0000922
Hi Ilabatchee Creek
*
0.09H 32.71 *
8,822
16
-
Win. Bonnell
GA0000507
Mew River
*
0.482 175.96 *
13,416
95
*
Uehadkee Yarn
AL00057959
Uehadkee Creek
*
(1.6.-M 227.55 35.281
37.141
*
5,684
Subtotal


*
1.195 436.22 35,281
59,379
111
3,684
Total


*
33.77V' 12,325.26''' 76,720
503,756
1167
4,981
'Does not include Plant HcDonough-Atkinson's Discharge Numbers 01, 02, 03A, iUli, 03C, 030, 03E and 03F.
'Reported as ortho-phosphorus.
'Does not include Plant Uamsley's discharge nuiiiwr DSN01A, 01b ami 01C uiU I'luiit Yule's discharge number DSM01.
* = Information not available.

-------
JO
Ui
CO
SO
c

O

15

O
60
o

CO
JO
C
O

o5

IMUN ~ IND
Discharge
Buford Gwinnett Fairburn Franklin
to	to	to	to
Gwinnett Fairburn Franklin Dam
CO
c

Q)
5
>.
-------
beina from municipal and 50% from industrial sources. Ac this tiiae. municipals
vere discharging 84% of the permitted flow of 273.367 million gallons,day \MGD).
The point source TP load was 511.S68 kg with the area from the Gwinnett
County water intake to Fairburn contributing about 98% of the T? load (Figure 8-
2). Municipals discharged over 99% of the point source phosphorus load. Only
three industrial dischargers were required to monitor phosphorus in their
effluent.
TSS point source load was 5,000 metric tons with municipals responsible for
95% of the total (Figure 8-2). The area from the Gwinnett County water intake
to Fairburn comprised 94% of the TSS load with municipals responsible for over
99% of the load in that area. Five percent of the TSS load was from Fairburn to
Franklin. Industrials were responsible for 74% of that load. The two major
industrial contributors vere Plants Yates and 'warnsley.
The toint scurce 3CD load was 2,035 netric cons, '.lur.ioipals discharged 9SZ
of the total load. The area from the Gwinnett County water intake to Fairburn
contributed about 97% of the total point source BCD load vith municipals
responsible for over 99% of the load within that area.
In summary, municipals were responsible for 88% of the total wastewater
discharged and at least 95% of the TSS, TP and BOD load. The area from the
Gwinnett County water intake to Fairburn contributed 88% of the total wastewater
effluent and greater than 95% of the TP, TSS and BOD loads. About 10% of the
estimated 1 trillion gallons of water that entered West Point Lake during the
study year was point source flow (Figure 8-3).
Point source TP loading from the Atlanta area has been declining since 1988
(Figure 8-4). Data from 1986 through 1990 were from Georgia Department of
Natural Resources (EPD 1990). For study year 1991, an estimated 495,518
26

-------
ro
Estimated
Total Flow
into West Point Lake
1 Trillion Gallons
Treated
Wastewater Flow
From Permitted
Dischargers
99.172 Billion Gallons
10%
Figure 8-3. Percentage of the total flow into West Point Lake (Franklin, GA) that was from
municipal and industrial facilities during the diagnostic study, November 1990 - October 1991

-------
1 .A
Figure 8-4. Estimated annual total phosphoius loading from major Atlanta area point sources to thu
Chattahoochee River (* - November 1990 - October 1991.)

-------
kilograms of TP was discharged by municipal and industrial sources from the
Atlanta area. The point source TP lead has decreased .-.oout 52^ sir.ee 13S6 (ZPD
1989) . This decrease can be attributed to improved wastewater treatment by major
dischargers in response to a 0.75 mg/1 TP concentration limit imposed on major
dischargers by EPD. This limit was to have been in effect by the end of 1991,
but some dischargers were provided more time (1996) by the Georgia General
Assembly to meet this phosphorus limit. Also contributing to the phosphorus
decline was a statewide ban on the sale of high phosphate detergents enacted by
the Georgia General Assembly in 1990.
The major municipal discharger of TP was the R. M. Clayton water pollution
control plant (WPCP) contributing an estimated 246,870 kilograms of TP during the
study year which was 48% of the total point source phosphorus load (Figure 8-5).
Two other facilities. R. L. Sutton WPCP and South River W?C? discharged an
estimated 12% (50,521 kilograms) and 15X	kilograms reste:tiv=lv. the
T? point source load. Jcrty-or.e ether rur.icipal -lar.ts aiscr.arzsc -nr. estimated
129,156 kilograms which was about 2i"o of tr.e total pcir.t source thosthorus load.
The mean, flow-weighted, TP concentration for municipal wastewater effluent was
1.50 mg/1 during the study year. The three largest municipal facilities, R. M.
Clayton WPCP, R. L. Sutton WPCP and South River WPCP had a mean TP concentration
during the study year of 2.11, 1.51 and 1.35 mg/1, respectively.
A crude estimate of the annual loading of TP, TSS, BOD and TN was
calculated using FLUX and the water quality data gathered at Franklin from
November 1990 through October 1991 (Table 8-3). The nonpoint source load was
estmated by subtracting the known point source load from the estimated total
load. Most of the point source load originates about 110 km upstream near
Atlanta and under low to normal flow conditions some of those materials,

-------
o
R.M. Clayton WPCP
246,870 kg
48%
R.L. Sutton WPCP
60,521 kg
12%
South River WPCP
74,144 kg
15%
41 other facilitie:
129,166 kg
25%
Figure 8-5. Total phosphorus point source loading from municipal facilities during diagnostic
study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
[able 3-3. Estimated loading rates using FLUX and estimated point source
loading entering the lake from above Franklin, Georgia curing the
diagnostic stuav of west Point Lake, November 1990 - Cctober 1991.
Variable
Total
Load
Point-source
	Load
Non-point
Source Lead
Total Phosphorus
(kg/yr)
Total Suspended
Solids (Metric
tons/yr)
Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (Metric
tons/yr)
Total Nitrogen
(kg/yr)
726,376
189,987
5,680
5,531,844
507,223
4,955
2,010
219,153
185,032
3,670
* = Information not available.
31

-------
particularly TP and TSS, would be temporarily stored in stream organisms or
stream sediment (Gaaan et nl. 19S6) . Stream retanticr. of phosphorus is
important from the aspect of timing of phosphorus availability to lakes. EPD
(1989) estimated TP reduction of about one-third between Atlanta and Franklin due
to instream processes occurring under low-flow conditions. Under elevated flows,
however, materials are moved swiftly downstream into the lake and any sediment
or nutrient accumulation occurring under low-flow would be delivered to the lake.
Permanent losses of nutrient or sediment can occur if streams overflow their
banks and deposit materials on the floodplain (Garman et al. 1986); however, the
Chattahoochee River did not flood during the study year but did maintain flows
about six percent above normal.
Point sources accounted for 70% of the phosphorus entering the lake (Table
3-3). Point source BOD accounted for 35% of the total loading and point source
TSS ^omtrisac cnl" 3'4 of che zonal loading. Ar. eszinarac 3.331.3-^ kilograms of
721 antarad the lake curing the s^ucy year. lischargers ira r.c t racuirac zz
monitor TN, so no comparison of poir.t source load to total loading could be
determined for TN.
Variations in estimated monthly total loading of TP, TSS and BOD were
related to changes in Chattahoochee River discharge (Figures 8-6, 3-7 and 8-8).
Total loading for all three variables were highest in May and closely correlated
with discharge. Point source loading of TP was relatively constant, about 42,000
kilograms per month (Figure 8-6). The TP loading appeared to be point source
dominated for 4 months. Point source BOD loading was lower in the summer months
probably because some dischargers reduced BOD effluent concentrations during the
warmer summer months (Figure 8-8). The TSS point source load was low compared
to overall loading. Point source load accounted for about 3X of the total load
32

-------
Ihousands	Millions
Figure 0-6. Estimated monthly (Iil,i.Imkjo (DIS) and total loading of total
phosphorus (TOT LOAD) and point source load (POINT) into West Point Lake
(Franklin, GA) during diagnostic: .-tiidy, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
Thousands
Millions
November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
Millions
1,200
,000
800
600
400
200
700
600
500
300
200
100
c
o
E
400 co.
(D
cn
i	
cd
JC
o
to
Q
N D J F M A M J J A S O
Figure 8-8. Estimated monthly discharge (DIS) and total loading of biochemical oxygen demand
(TOT LOAD) and point source load (POINT) into West Point Lake (Franklin, GA) during diagnostic
study, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
9.0 NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION INVENTORY.
i
Five tributary streams (Table 9-1 and Figure 9-1'! vers sampled tver.tv-or.e
times from November 1990 through October 1991. Streams were sampled twice
monthly from December through May, and once monthly from June through October.
In addition, samples were collected after three significant rainfall events.
Replicate water samples were collected with a van Dorn water sampler and placed
in Nalgene bottles for transport to laboratory facilities at Auburn University.
Water samples used to estimate total suspended solids concentrations were
collected with a depth-integrated, suspended-sediment sampler using methods
described by Edwards and Glysson (1988). Water samples were analyzed for total
phosphorus (TP), orthophosphate, nitrate-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, total
ammonia nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), alkalinity, specific conductance
and total suspended solids (TSS) utilizing methods described in Table 10-3.
Stream discharge, temperature and dissolved oxygen vers measured in situ at each
stream on all sampling dates. Temperature ana dissolved oxygen vera measured
using a Yellow Springs Instrument model 513 dissolved oxygen meter ar.d current
velocity was determined using a Marsh-McBirney model 201D flowmeter. Discharge
for ungaged streams was calculated by summing the average velocity times the
depth for each transect across the stream.
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Remote Sensing Unit, Maps and Surveys
Department, determined landuse/landcover and livestock operations for the Vest
Point Lake drainage area from U.S. Highway 27 bridge at Franklin, Georgia to the
West Point Dam. TVA used 1988 low altitude color infrared aerial photography
(nominal scale of 1:24,000) (Appendix 9). The watershed was divided into
subwatersheds (nodes) based on tributary drainage patterns (Figure 9-2 and
Appendix 9).
36

-------
Table 9-1. Location of tributary sampling sites for nonpoint source pollution
assessment of West Point Lake watershed during the diagnostic studv.
November 1990-October 1991.
Stream
Station
Description
New River
14
Georgia Highway 100 Bridge
Yellowjacket Creek
13
Hammett Road Bridge
Dixie Creek
12
Georgia Route 219 Bridge
Veasey Creek
16
Alabama Highway 263 Bridge
Wehadkee Creek
15
Bridge off Alabama Highway 16
37

-------
LO
CO
Veasey Creek
West Point
Lake Dcjiii
Figure 9-1. Sampling locations (|) of tributary streams on West Point Lake during
diagnostic study, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
LO
vO
Figure 9-2. Node location of subwateisheds for aerial anaylsis of West Point Lake
during diagnostic study, November 1000 October 1991.

-------
Total loading (point ana nonpoint) of five tributary streams for T?. IN,
total inorganic nitrogen (TIM) and TSS were determined using FLUX C-'al'.car 19S6) .
FLUX is a computer program designed to estimate nutrient loadings frcm grab-
sample concentration data and continuous flow records using various calculation
methods and stratification schemes which permit quantifications of potential
errors. To estimate a continuous flow (mean daily discharge) for an ungaged
stream, discharge from the ungaged stream was regressed against discharge from
a gaged stream for all sampling dates to determine the discharge relationship
between the two streams. The mean daily discharges from the gaged stream were
then placed into the regression formula to estimate a mean daily discharge for
the ungaged stream.
A linear regression model using landuse/landcover and estimated nonpoint
source loading for five tributary streams was used to estimate the nonpoint
source T? and TSS loaair.z. The tvelve landuse/landcover categories (Table 9-2}
vers consolidated into five categories: urban (1 and 1225;, leacov [1. 730. 731,
751 and 762), pastura (21), forest (4 ar.d 45; and agricultur5 -210) for the
analysis. The nonpoint source loadings for each of the five tributary streams
were determined by subtracting the point source load from the estimated total
load (from FLUX).
Forest land comprised 143,766 hectares (73X) of the total watershed area
of 196,678 hectares (Table 9-2). Eleven percent (20,796 hectares) of the landuse
was meadow and 3% (6,523 hectares) was pasture. Water accounted for 11,193
hectares (6X) of which 10,200 hectares was the lake. Major tributary watershed
area varied from 1,009 hectares in Dixie Creek to 39,909 hectares in New River
(Table 9-3). About 83% of the watershed area was in Georgia and 17Z was in
Alabama.
40

-------
Table 9-2. Landuse/landcover categories, description and acreage by state for
aerial photography analysis of Vest Point Lake watershed during the
diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991.
landuse
Class
Cateqory
Landuse
Class
Description
Alabama
Area
(Hectares)
Georgia
Area
(Hectares)
Total
Area
(Hectares)
1
Urban and built-up
375
5,364
5,739
1235
Water pollution control plant
0
2
2
2
Meadow
5,740
15,056
20,796
21
Pasture
1,215
5,308
6,523
210
Agriculture
29
143
177
4
Forest
25,109
118,657
143,766
45
Clear-cut forest
580
7,591
8,171
5
Water
1,144
10,049
11,193
750
Barren land-active
3
19
22
751
Barren I and-abandoned
13
214
227
761
Disturbed area, little or no cover, non-
agricultural area w/o sediment control
0
19
19
762
Disturbed area, little or no cover, ncn-
6
37
43

agricjltural area with sediment control





14,214
'. c-
'.96,573
41

-------
Table 9-3. Landuse/landcover area for major trilmtari
November 1990-October 1991.
Tributary
Urban
(Ha)
Meadow
(Ha)
Pasture
(Ha)
Agriculture
(Ha)
Forest
(Ha)
Veasey Cr
4
610
200
1
3,594
Wehadkee Cr
448
4,479
773
24
19,611(1
Stroud Cr
36
887
209
2
3,94 j
Uhitewater Cr
16
298
0
0
7,0ou
Brush Cr
1
417
113
0
4,diV
Hillabatchce Cr
39
2,440
391
6
1 f.U'CJ
New River
1,594
3,805
1,707
52
28,8.'-'.
Yellowjacket Cr
1,337
3,828
1,423
54
20,7v^
Potato Cr
0
504
130
0
3,2J'j
Beech Cr
161
1,215
768
18
12,625
Shoal Cr
710
4B5
90
0
3,344
Dixie Cr
463
50
30
0
4 Mi
u in West Point Lake watershed during diagnostic ytudy,
:lear-cut
Forest
(Ha)
Water
(Ha)
Barren
Land
(active)
(Ha)
Barren
Land
(abandoned)
(Ha)
Disturbed
Land
(Ha)
T otal
(Ha)
5
366
0
0
0
4,780
417
1,189
3
13
4
27,230
46
330
0
0
0
5,452
478
373
19
0
0
8,252
427
93
20
0
0
5,753
429
90
194
0
2
20,620
3,206
653
0
0
28
59,909
1,232
1,278
0
0
0
29,944
679
76
0
0
0
4,614
608
333
0
0
0
15,726
71
41
19
0
0
4,760
1
25
0
0
0
1,009

-------
A total of 227 livestock operations (752 located in Georgia) vers
identified (Table 9-4). Nor.-dairy cattle sites vera most numerous, 135. followed
by horse and poultrv operations with 17 and 19 sites, respectively. Cver 30 non-
dairy cattle sites were located on each of three watersheds, New River,
Yellowjacket Creek and Wehadkee Creek (Table 9-5). New River had the most
livestock operation sites with 53 sites.
New River had the highest loading of TP, TN and TIN of the five tributary
streams sampled (Table 9-6). TSS loading varied from 11 metric tons for Dixie
Creek to 2,119 metric tons for Yellowjacket Creek. The ratio of TN to TP loading
varied from about 10:1 for New River, Yellowjacket Creek and Wehadkee Creek to
41:1 for Dixie Creek. The percentage of TIN to TN varied from 37X for New River
and Wehadkee Creek to 83% for Dixie Creek.
Estimated monthly loading of T?, TSS. TN and TIN was highest Lr. Mav for all
five tributary straams (7izur= r-i	i ar.c r-7';. boacir.i v=s closely
correlated with scrsaa ciscr.ar;; I? ~_;adir.z appeared to be tcir.t source
dominated for 5 of the 12 months Lr. Nsv River anc Yellowjacket Creek ''Figure 9-3
ana 9-4) . TSS loading from point sources accounted for less than 2X of the total
load in New River, Yellowjacket Creek and Wehadkee Creek (Table 9-7). Point
sources accounted for 36% and 46X of the TP load in New River ana Yellowjacket
Creek, respectively.
Forest land area in the five tributary stream watersheds accounted for most
of the variation (R2 = .99) in nonpoint source TP loading. The formula,
TP (kg/yr) - area of forest land (hectares ) x 0.123
was used to estimate nonpoint source TP loading of the lake from the watershed.
Estimated nonpoint source TP loading from the watershed was 19,402 kg
(Table 9-8). An estimated 21% of the nonpoint source TP loading was from the New

-------
Table 9-U. Livestock operation categories, doscripi. i <>n 
-------
Table 9-5. Livestock operations for
watershed during diagnosti
maj or
c stuav
tributaries i
. November 199
n West
O-Qccobe
Point Lake
r 1991.
Tributary
Area
(Hectares)
Non-dai ry
Cattle
Si tes
Dai ry
Sites
Horse
Si tes
Poultry
Sites
Nur.ber of
Poultry
Houses
Veasey Creek
4,780
8
0
0
0
0
Uehadkee Creek
27,230
34
0
0
1
2
Stroud Creek
5,452
4
0
0
1
1
Whitewater Creek
8,252
0
0
0
0
0
Brush Creek
5,753
3
0
1
0
0
Hillabatchee Creek
20,620
17
0
0
4
a .
New River
39,909
38
2
13
0
0
Yellowjacket Creek
29,944
36
1
2
1
2
Potato Creek
4,614
2
0
0
4
6
Beech Creek
15,726
15
0
0
4
6
Shoal Creek
4,760
3
0
1
0
0
Dixie Creek
1,009
1
0
0
0
0
45

-------
Table 9-6. Estimated total loading of TP, TN, TIN and TSS from point and
nonpoint sources in five tributary streams entering west Point Lake
during the diagnostic studv, November 1990-October 1991.
Stream
Average
Flew
(cfs)
Total
Phosphorus

-------
Milh. -i i
2,000
1,500
1.000
1 OTAL LOAD
DISCHARGE
+ POINT LOAD
11 iQLi'ouniJb
Milliui i
(.00
N I) J h M A M J J A
TOTAL NlIROCEN
O
O
n
r
O
()
n
c>
("i
TOTAL INORGANIC NITROGEN
Figure 9-3. Estimated total loading per month of total phosphorus, total suspended solids, total
nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen and point source loads for sampling location at New River
during diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
Milliwtii,
4>
CO
N O J * M A M J
U ) I .'VI. J'llOSIMIOfUJS
I noub.ilHlS
n
<
o

M \) J I M -\ M J .1 A
IOIAI HllMUULN
OOO
Ihousands
*" TOTAL LOAD
DISCI IARGE
*+" POINT LOAD
Millions
(M	f)
100
(>	t )
N D J I M A M J J A
I O I AL. tiUI.PH JDLiD SOLIDS
Thousands	Millions
II I) J I M A M .1 .1 A
ioial jQf-iOArjig iiiihGglu
Figure 9-4. Estimated total loading per month of total phosphorus, total suspended solids, total
nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen and point source load for sampling location at Yellowjacket
Creek during diagnostic study of West Point l.alce, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
N I > J \ MAM
lorAi mm nor,en
Thousands
lOIAl l HM)
DISCI imigl
POINT LOAD
Millioni.
N O
J F M A M J J
TOTAL iJJSPENDEiD SOLIDS
N I) J F M A M J J
TOTAL INOHGANIO NITROGEN
Figure 9-5. Estimated total loading per month of total phosphorus, total suspended solids, total
nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen and point source load for sampling location at Wehadkee
Creek during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
I huu:,,i[ i<
Thousands
Thousands
M O J I- M A M J J
1 (DIAL PHOSPHORUS
500
J00
,*00
00
100
* TOTAL LOAD

-" DISCHARGE
a

/J\




r

I
i ,-ioo
1 ,L'00
I .( MM)
(UK)
!>()()
. 100
.'DO
n .1 I MA M J J A
TOTAL NITROGEN
I-J (.)
I- M A M J J
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS
 100
100
U I) J I- M A M J .1 A
TOTAL INORGANIC NITROGEN
Figure 9-6. Estimated loading per month for total phosphorus, total suspended solids, total
nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen for sampling location at Veasey Creek during diagnostic
study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
1 hoi liitu k I
N I )
M A M J J A
TOTAL Nl fROGEN
Thousands

1,600
I ,(K)0
N D J F M A M J J A
total suspended solids
.'(JO
II I') J I' M A M J J A
TOTAL INORGANIC NllROGEN
S O
Figure 9-7. Estimated total loading per month of total phosphorus, total suspended solids, total
nitrogen and total inorganic nitrogen for sampling location at Dixie Creek during diagnostic
study of West Point Lake, November 1990 - October 1991.

-------
able 9-
r-ibutarv
Estimatea total loading, point source and nonpoint source loading of triixtarv streams saroled
during the diagnostic sti^oy of Vest Point Lake, Scveiroer 1990-Cctcoer l^1.
Total Loading
Point Source
Pollution Loading
'Jcn-ooirt Scurce
aol'.Jti:n .caaing
New River
Yellowjacket Creelc
Total Phosphorus (kg)
5,589	2,027
4,093	1,873
3,562
2,220
Total Suspended Solids (Metric tons)
Neu River 1,829	15	1,314
Yellowjacket Creek 2,119	4	2,115
Wehadkee Creek 560	17	543
52

-------
Table 9-S. Estimated nonpoint source total loading and loading from major
tributaries for total phosphorus ana total suspended solids in West
Point Lake watershed during diagnostic study. November 1990-October
1991.
T ributary
Area
(Hectares) 
Total Phosphorus
(kq)
Total Suspended Solids
(Metric tons)
Veasey Creek
4,780
457
38
Wehadkee Creek
27,230
2,592
358
Stroud Creek
5,452
509
75
Whitewater Creek
3,252
964
0
Brush Creek
5,753
652
146'
Hillabatchee Creek
20,620
2,229
224
Neu River
39,909
4,095
1,945
Yelloujacket Creek
29,944
2,812
2,020
Potato Creek
4,614
498
163'
Seech Creek
15,726
1,690
673
Shoal Creek
4,760
436
' '
Dixie Creek
:, cc9
;o
3-
Total Loading
'96,673

: zl-
'3ased en alternate regression formula.
53

-------
River subvaters'ned. Vehaakee Creek and Yellowjacket Creek accounted for 13% and
141, respectively, of the total load. Ail nonpoint sources accounted for 32 of
the TP entering West Point Lake (Table 9-9) .
The amount of agricultural land in the five tributary basins accounted for
most of the variation (R2 = .99) in nonpoint source TSS loading. The formula,
TSS (metric tons/yr) = area of agriculture land (hectares) x 37.41
was used to estimated nonpoint source TSS loading to the lake from the adjoining
watershed. Estimated nonpoint source TSS loading from the watershed was 6,621
metric tons (Table 9-8). Loading from Yellowjacket Creek and New River was 2,020
metric tons and 1,945 metric tons, respectively. On tributary watersheds where
no agricultural land was present, an alternate formula,
TSS (metric tons.yr) = acreage of pasture (hectares) 1.29
was used to estimate TSS load far those tributaries. This ecuatior. accounted for
95X (R2 - 0.95) of the variation in TSS.
Nonpoint sources accounted for 97% of the TSS lead entering west Point
Lake. Sedimentation within the lake is being monitored bv the Corps of
Engineers, Mobile District. The initial survey was performed in 1978 with a
resurvey in 1983. From the results of the two surveys, the depletion was 0.042
during the 5 year period. This depletion was considered minimal. A resurvey was
scheduled for 1994, contingent upon available funding (personal communication,
Benton Odom, Jr., Corps of Engineers).
54

-------
Table 9-9. Estimated total loading, total point source loading and total
nonpoint source loading for total phosphorus ar.a total suspended
solids during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, November
1990-October 1991.
Tributary
Total Loading
Point Source
Pollution Loading
Non-point Source
Pollution Loading
From Franklin, GA to
headwaters
West Point Lake
watershed
Total
726,376
24.047
750,423
Total Phosphorus (kg)
507,223
4.645
511,868 (68%)
219,153
19.402
238,555 (32%)
From Franklin, GA to
headuaters
West Point
watershed
Lake
Total Suspended Solids (Metric tons)
189,987	4,955
6.666
45
185,032
5 621
Tstai
196,653
5,COO (3%)
'91.:;3 (94%)
55

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10.0 WEST POINT LAKE LIMNOLOGY
10.1 WEST POINT LAKE LIMNOLOGICAL HISTORY
The planning of an impoundment on the Chattahoochee River at Vest Point,
Georgia, 170 river km downstream from metropolitan Atlanta, attracted the
attention of resource managers and scientists alike. Two preimpoundment studies
were conducted independently, one by the Georgia Water Quality Control Board
(Georgia Water Quality Control Board 1971) and the other by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (Schneider et al. 1972). Results of both studies
revealed water quality problems associated with the effects of Atlanta-area
pollution of the Chattahoochee River. Schneider et al. (1972) warned of
accelerated eutrophication, bacterial contamination and problems associated with
thermal and chemical stratification. They recommended a postimpcur.cment study
'conducted.
A postimpoundment study, conducted in 1975, confirmed z'r.az r.utrient
enrichment was a serious problem in West Point Lake (Vick et al. l?~o). Algal
growth potential test results ranked West Point Lake among the aore highly
productive lakes in the nation. Predictive models using phosphorus loading
indicated that the lake would become highly eutrophic. Elevated iron and
manganese concentrations in the tailwaters had created problems for downstream
water users. Bacterial quality of the lake and tailwaters was good ana pesticide
and toxic metals were not considered a major problem at that time.
From 1976 through 1984, the Department of Fisheries and Allied
Aquacultures, Auburn University (AU) under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers (COE) conducted fisheries and limnological studies of West Point Lake.
Results of these studies were submitted to the COE in the form of seven final
reports (Davies et al. 1979a, Davies et al. 1979b, Shelton et al. 1931. Lawrence
56

-------
et al. 1932. 3avr.e e: al. 1933. Davies et al. I9S4 and Bayne ac al. 1935' . Much
of the lininological information gathered as a result of those studies appears in
two publications, Bayne et al. (1983) and Bayne et al. (1990). Based on
phytoplankton primary productivity, the lake, as a whole, remained mesotrophic
(<1,000 mgC/m2day) from 1976 through 1981 although areas of the lake during the
growing seasons would far exceed eutrophic conditions at times. From 1982
through 1985 the entire lake increased in primary productivity, far exceeding the
eutrophic threshold. Since 1985, studies conducted by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental
Protection Division (EPD) and AU have revealed accelerated eutrophication of West
Point Lake (Raschke 1987, EPA-EPD 1987 and 1988, EPD 1989a and EPD 1989b).
On 1? July, 1988, a fish-kill occurred downstream from west Point Dam.
About that sase rime, taste ar.c ;cor problems developed ir. mr./.ir.z vater
supplies taker, frorn the Chattahoochee .\iv = r rovr.straam zrzu r.~.= raa. Both
problems apparently resulted irsm anaeroDic conditions existing ir. the lake
hypolimnion at the time. EPD and AU personnel documented varer quality
conditions in the lake near the dam after the fish kill. Penstock openings draw
water from a depth of greater than 17m. There was no dissolved oxygen in the
water column below a depth of 4 m on 21 July 1988. These events and others
focused much public and news media attention on the condition of West Point Lake.
In November 1988, Congressman Richard Ray, 3rd District Georgia, called a public
meeting for the purpose of presenting information, from many sources, on the con-
dition of West Point Lake. Congressman Ray later formed a West Point Lake Task
Force to deal with the issues related to West Point Lake on a continuing basis.
Using various models several efforts have been made to predict the
magnitude of nutrient loading reduction necessary to halt the eutrophication of
57

-------
Vest Point Lake ana improve va:er quality (Raschks 1937 . EPD 1939b and Gaugus'n
1989). As a result, EPD has recommended a phosphorus effluent limitation of 0.75
nig/1 at major wastewater treatment facilities upstream of West Point Lake. This
is expected to. result in a maximum mean chlorophyll a concentration of 27 ;xg/l
at the LaGrange, GA water intake under low-flow conditions similar to those
experienced in 1987 and 1988 (EPD 1989b). Using a different model, Gaugush
(1989) predicted that an 80% reduction in phosphorus loads (under 1987
conditions) would be required just to shift the system into phosphorus
limitation.
Studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey also revealed elevated
plant nutrient concentrations and signs of advancing eutrophication (Stamer et
al. 1978 and Radtke et al. 1984). In a rather intensive study of West Point Lake
conducted from April 1973-December 1979, Radtke ec al. (193-'; also reportac
relatively high concentrations of chlordane ar.c ?C3's ^clychlorir.aiac biphenyls'
in sediment samples as veil as in young bullhead catfish anc larzemoutn bass.
Studies conducted by EPD in 1950 revealed that west Point Lake fish consistently
contained concentrations of chlordane, PCB's and DDE (DNR News Release 1991).
Concentrations of chlordane in fish edible portions exceeded the rood and Drug
Administration standards for that compound and a fish consumption advisory was
issued recommending that people not eat certain species of fish taken from the
Chattahoochee River south of Atlanta. On 3 March 1991, Alabama, citing the
Georgia data, extended the consumption advisory to the Alabama portion of West
Point Lake and downstream through Lake Harding (Alabama Department of Public
Health, News Release, 3 March, 1991).
In 1989, EPD published a comprehensive action plan to address the problems
encountered in the reach of the Chattahoochee River between Buford Dam (Lake
58

-------
Lanier) and West Point Dam (EPD 1939c). Problem areas discussed included: point
source pollution, non-point source pollution, combined sewer overflows, toxic
substances, meeting existing water quality standards and future water supply-
demands .
10.2. CURRENT LIMNOLOGICAL CONDITION
From June 1990 through October 1992, West Point Lake was sampled and
monitored to provide data on the current limnological condition of the Lake.
Auburn University (AU) conducted independent research from June through October
1990. From November 1990 through October 1991 a Phase I, Clean Lakes,
Diagnostic/Feasibility Study was conducted by AU, LaGrange College and the
University of Georgia (UGA) under contract with the Georgia Department of Natural
Resources (GDNR) . A second Phase I Stuciv was carried out frcra November 1991
through October 1992 by AU under contract with tr.a Alabama department of
Environmental Management (ADEM). The Callaway Foundation of LaGransa, Georgia
provided matching funds for both of the Phase I studies. Others providing data
used in this lake assessment included the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), GDNR-Environmental Protection Division (EPD), 'ADEM, U.S. Corps of
Engineers (COE), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the LaGrange, Georgia
Water Department.
10.2.1 LAKE WATER QUALITY
West Point Lake was visited at least monthly (biweekly during the growing
season) from June 1990 through October 1992 (Table 10-1). During the 1990
growing season (April - October) EPD sajupled West Point Lake monthly at six
locations between Franklin, GA and West Point Dam (Table 10-2). Their findings
59

-------
Table 10-1. Schedule of activities for the diagnostic: bituiy of West Point Lake, June 1990 - October 1992.
	Year	
	1990			J991	 	1992	
Variable	J J A S 0 H D	JFHAHJJASOND	JFHAHJJASO
Water Quality	x x x x x x x x x x xx xx xx xx xx xx xx x x x x x xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
Phytoplankton	xxxxxxx	xxxxxxxxxxxx	xxxxxxxxxx
Chlorophyll e	xxxxxxx x x x xx xx xx xx xx xx xx x x x x x xx xx xx xx xx xx xx
Algal Growth	xxx	xxxxx
Potent i al
Primary	xxxxxxx xxxxxxx ,;xxxx xxxxxxxxxx
Productivity
Fecal coliform	xx	xxxxxxxxxx
Sediment Oxygen	x
Demand
Tributary	x xx xx xx xx xx x* xx  x x x x
Sampling
Macrophyte Survey x
Land Use/Cover			 - 				
Trihalontethane	xx	x	x	*	x	xx	x
Toxics	x
Fish Health

-------
Table 10-2. Location of samDling stations for the diagnostic study cf ">est Point
Lake, 1990-1992.
Sampling
Station 	Description	
1*	Chattahoochee River at U.S. Highway 27, Franklin, Georgia - River
kilometer 378.0
2	Chattahoochee River just downstream of the confluence with New River
- River kilometer 368.1
3	New River embayment
4*	West Point Lake downstream of Georgia Highway 219 bridge - River
kilometer 355.0
5*	West Point Lake at City of LaGrange water intake - River kilometer
346.8
6	Yellowjacket Creek embayment
7*	West Point Lake just upstream of Georgia Highway 109 - River
kilometer 339.1
2	Vahacksa Creek esbayraent
9*	Vast Point Lake near buoy 22 (off Rocky Point)
10*	West Point Lake in the dam forsbay - River kilometer ~2-.l
11	Chattahoochee River below West Point Dam - River kilometer 323.9
* Stations sampled monthly by EPD during the periods April through October of
1991 and 1992.
61

-------
were oresented in ar. agency report (E?D 1990). 7ron Jur.e through October L990,
AU also conducted monthly studies at 11 sampling sites throughout the lake (Table
10-2, Figure 10-1, Appendix 1, Table 10-1). Those data are reported in this
document. From November 1990 through October 1992 all limnological data gathered
by EPD and AU were included in this document. EPD continued to sample six
locations monthly from April through October during 1991 and 1992 (Table 10-2).
AU sampled 11 locations monthly during that time as well as sampling stations 1,
2, 3, 6, 8 and 11 (stations not sampled by EPD) coincident with EPD sampling
trips during the 1991 growing season.
EPD and AU sampling and analytical methods were similar, although some
differences will be noted. Methods used to measure water quality variables
appear in Table 10-2.
At each sanroiirg station - except tailvatar station 11, ir. situ measurements
jf temperaturs, z'r., dissolved ;:-;yger.	ar.c specific ccr.cuctar.ce vera mace
throughout the vat = r column with a Hydro lab- Surveyor II (Table 10-3). Sampling
was usually conducted from mid-morning to mid-afternoon. Secchi disk visibility
was measured and the 1% incident light depth was determined with a submarine
photometer (EPD used a radiometer). At station 11 surface'water temperature, pH,
DO and specific conductance were measured next to the river bank.
Previous studies of West Point Lake have revealed marked seasonal changes
in water quality caused by seasonal variations in temperature, precipitation and
solar radiation (Bavne et al. 1983 and Bavne et al. 1990). Monthly variations
in meteorological conditions and discharge from June 1990 through October 1992
are summarized in Table 10-4 and Figure 10-2. During the 29 month study, the
weather was warmer (monthly mean +0.58 C) and drier (monthly mean -1.40 cm) than
normal although monthly and seasonal exceptions to this pattern were common. To

-------
WEST POINT LAKE
US 27
CHATTAHOOCHEE
RIVER
NEW
RIVER
YELLOW
JACKET
/ CR.
Figure 10-1. Map showing location of mainstem and embayment sampling stations
on West Point Lake during the diagnostic study, June 1990 - October 1992.
63

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Table 10-3. Analytical methods usee in measuring water quality curir.s the
diagnostic study of West Point Lake, 1990-1992.
Variable
Method
Reference
In Situ
Temperature
Dissolved oxygen
pH
Specific conductance
Visibility
Euphotic zone determination
Laboratory Analyses
Total suspended solids
Turbidity
Alkalinity
Total ammonia (NH3-N)
Nitrite (N02-N)
Nitrate (N03-N)
Total phosphorus
Total organic carbon
Organic r.itroger.
.-"arcr.es s
thermistor
membrane electrode
glass electrode
conductivity cell
Secchi disk
submarine photometer
APHA,	1989
APHA,	1989
APHA,	1989
APHA,	1989
Lind,	1985
Lind, 1985
vacuum filtration	APHA, 1989
HACH turbidimeter	APHA, 1989
potentiometric titration	APHA, 1989
phenate method	APHA, 1989
diazotizing method	APHA, 1989
cadmium reduction	APHA, 1989
persulfate digestion,	ascorbic
acid	APHA, 1989
persulfate digestion,	with
Cohrman DC-30	APHA, 1989
^acro Kjelda'nl	APHA, 1989
ascorbic acid	APHA. 1989
^TA tirrimetnt	3c--d. 19"r
64

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Table 10-4. Meteorological conditions and river and lake discharge measured
during the 29 month study of West Point Lake. 1990-1992/
Year
Month
Temp'
CC)
DFN2
CC)
RainfallJ
(cm)
DFN2
(cm)
Mean Dai ly
Solar
Radiation4
(lanqlevs)
h11 sst*jrg
Mean Daily
D i scharge5
(CFS)
.est Point Dam
Mean Daily
D i scharge
(CFS)
1990
June
26.1
+ 1.05
3.3
-5.2
539
2,828
3,899

July
26.7
+0.33
9.3
-5.7
497
3,076
4,154

Aug
27.3
+ 1.16
10.0
+ 1.6
445
3,675
4,206

Sept
25.1
+ 1.21
2.1
-5.9
430
3,208
3,436

Oct
19.2
+ 1.32
7.7
+0.6
338
3,604
3,769

Nov
14.3
+ 1.98
5.3
-4.0
286
2,600
4,104

Dec
10.3
+ 1.93
9.8
-3.5
166
2,890
3,315
1991
Jan
7.;
+0.44
15.7
+3.4
153
3,326
3,440

Feb
9.4
+0.99
4.2
-9.4
264
3,733
4,417

March
13.7
+ 1.21
13.4
-1.1
353
4,253
4,561

Apri I
19.6
+2.26
9.2
-3.4
365
3,645
3,791

May
22.9
+ 1.43
5.3
-4.2
389
7,823
10,088

jLr.e
24.2
-9.33
20.3
-11.3
-69
-,319
3,563

Jul V
25.3
-0.1'
'i.:

33
-, 33c
:, 275


1;.:
-:.1"


..;3
','22
*

Sect
.3
+0.30
3.2
j. I _ 3

4,392
6,083

Cc:
33.3
-0.94
0.4
-6.7
3c3
-,610
5,503

Nov
11.4
-0.94
14.9
+5.5
264
3,405
3,397

Dec
10.1
+ 1.65
7.0
-6.4
197
2,843
4,744
1992
Jan
6.4
-0.55
15.5
+3.2
189
3,875
4,468

Feb
10.8
+2.26
14.5
+0.9
287
4,553
5,901

March
23.2
+0.50
9.0
-5.5
402
4,500
4,999

Apri I
16.3
-0.94
5.1
-7.5
498
3,878
4,333

May
20.7
-0.33
7.7
-1.7
552
3,264
3,483

jLne
24.4
-0.66
19.9
+ 10.9
514
2,676
2,904

July
27.3
+0.94
11.5
-3.5
518
4,202
4,538

Aug
25.5
-0.72
8.0
-0.4
467
3,712
3,735

Sept
24.8
+0.28
4.3
-3.7
397
3,186
4,266

Oct
13.1
+0.33
6.1
-0.9
358
3,713
4,565
1	- Air temperature measured at Auburn, AL.	4 - Auburn, AL
2	- DFN = deviation from normal.	5 - Chattahoochee River at Uhitesburg, GA.
3	- West Point Dam
65

-------
Whitesburg
8 9 lO 1 1 1 2 1
90	|
5 6 7
91
S 9 TO 11 12 1 2 3
5 0 7
92
S 7 3 9 10 11 12 1 2 3	5  7 S 9 10 11". 21
|	90	J	91	J
23A56 73010
92	I
E
o
-2
c
"cc
cr
Figure 10-2. Mean daily discharge of the Chattahoochee River at
Whitesburg, GA and at West Point Dam. Mean monthly rainfall and actual
rainfall at West Point Dam during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake,
June 1990 through October 1992.
66

-------
minimize water quality variations caused by seasonal changes ir. meteorological
conditions, water quality cata were grouped and examined by season. The seasons
were defined as follows: summer (June, July and August); fall (September, October
and November); winter (December, January and February) and spring (March, April
and May). The fall 1992 quarter consisted of only two months since the study
ended in October 1992.
West Point Lake is a warm monomictic reservoir that thermally stratifies
in the lacustrine zone from about late April to early September during most years
(Figures 10-3, 10-4 and 10-5). Stratification was rather weak, seldom involving
thermocline temperature gradients in excess of 3 C and water column temperature
gradients in the deeper areas rarely exceeding 10 "C. High flows during the
summer of 1989 completely disrupted thermal stratification in upstream lentic
areas of the lake (ZPD 1989a) . Above average rainfall ir. June ar.d July 1991 and
in June 1992 (Figure 10-2^ increased flows ir.co the lake (Table 1"--, that caused
some mixing and displacement of the thermal layers. Thermal stratification began
to develop sooner ana disappeared later at downstream locations, therefore,
stratified conditions persisted longer at downstream, station 10 (Figure 10-3)
than at upstream station 4 (Figure 10-5). Greater water' movement and possibly
density currents in the upstream areas likely affected thermal stratification.
Chemical stratification always accompanied thermal stratification in West
Point Lake as is evidenced by the depth-time diagrams of D.O. isopleths (Figures
10-6, 10-7 and 10-8). Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lacustrine zone
(stations 10 and 7) declined to < 1.0 mg/1 by June of each year ana persisted for
varying time periods, frequently until fall overturn. At station 10, D.O.
concentrations <1.0 mg/1 were encountered at depths as shallow as 5 to 9 meters
during the summer months (Figure 10-6). Farther upstream in the transition zone

-------
o
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
10
20
22
24
1 2 3 4 S 6 I t> u 10 11 12
1990	1991
gure 10-3. Depth-lime diagram of isotherms (C) at station 10 (dam forebay) during the diagnostic
udy of West Point Lake, June 1990 through October 1992.

-------
o
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
10
20
1234567 80
1992
h-time diagram of isotherms f'C) at station 7 (mid-reservoir) during the diagnostic
int Lake, June 1990 through October 1992.

-------
Figure 10-5. Depth-time diagram of isotherms (C) at station A (transition zone) during the diagnostvc.
study of West Point Lake, June 1990 through October 1003.

-------
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
10
20
22 -
24
O
2
\
ti
b
1 0
12
1-1
16
Hi
2o
22
2 4
7 8 0 10 1112
1990
jure 10-6. Depth-time diagram of D.O. isopletlis at station 10 (dam forebay) during the diagnostic
Jdy of West Point Lake, June 1990 through October \0C.)2.

-------
Figure 10-7. Depth-time diagram of D.O. isopleths at station 7 (mid-reservoir) during the diagnostic
study of West Point Lake, June 1990 through October 1992.

-------
Figure 10-8. Depth-time diagram of D.O. isopleths at. station 4 (transition zone) during
the diagnostic study of West I'oint: Lake, June 1990 through October 1992.

-------
(station 4) chemical stratification was less obvious aichough D.O. concentrations
declined with depth, but rarely reached levels < 1.0 mg/1 (Figure 10-8).
Specific conductance measured throughout the water column showed no consistent
increase with depth during periods of thermal stratification (Appendix 10) . This
indicates the lack of accumulation of decomposition products in the hypolimnion
during the study.
Water temperature measured at 2 m depth varied from a low of 4 'C in the
winter of 1992 to a high of 30 C in the summer of 1990 (Tables 10-5, 10-6, 10-7
and 10-8) . D.O. concentrations measured at the 1 m and 2 m depths ranged between
4 and 13 mg/1 and seasonally varied inversely with water temperature. Highest
mean D.O. concentrations occurred during the winter and lowest during the summer.
Specific conductance, a measure of the ior.ic content of water ranged from
a low of 47 ^mhos/era to a hi sr. of 125 uiahos/cn at a depth ;f I ~ Table 13-3, 10-
5, 10-7 and 10-3' . Specific conductance is a crude _r.cioa.t;r of natural
fertility since increases in ionic content are usually accompanied by increases
of plant nutrients. Mainstream Alabama reservoirs were found to have specific
conductance values ranging from 27 ^tmhos/cm to 200 ^imhos/cm (Bayne et al. 1989).
West Point Lake would rank in the lower half of this Alabama range indicating
only moderate natural fertility. Upstream (station 1) conductance was usually
higher than downstream values, which reflects the expected longitudinal gradient
(upstream to downstream) in mineral and nutrient concentration (Figure 10-9).
Bayne et al. (1983) noted generally higher specific conductance at upstream
locations in West Point Lake during studies conducted from 1976 through 1979.
Mean specific conductance for the lake as a whole increased from 66.3 /xmhos/cm
in 1976 to 97.8 ^mhos/cm in 1985 paralleling a rise in lake fertility during that
time span (Bayne et al. 1990).
74

-------
Table 10-5. Mean (range) summer water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and specific conductance measured d(.
a depth of 2 in at ten sampling stations in Uei;t Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and 1992.
Temperature	Dissolved Oxygen	pH	Specific Conductance


C*


mq/l





(umhos/cm)

Mainstem

Year


Year


Year


Year

Stations
1990
1991
1992
1990
1991
1972
1990
1991
1992
1990
1991
1992
1
27.6
25.9
24.3
6.3
6.8
7.0
6.8
6.9
6.9
102.9
97.7
88.3

(27-28)
(25-27)
(24-25)
(6-6)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(95-111)
(89-113)
(75-107)
2
28.5
25.9
25.1
7.3
6.6
7.11
f. i)
6.8
6.8
114.6
84.0
85.0

(28-29)
(24-28)
(24-26)
(6-9)
(6-7)
< 6- U)
(i- n
(7-7)
(7-7)
(108-126)
(70-95)
(66-113)
4
26.6
28.1
26.5
10.6
9.6
9.0
V.I
8.3
7.2
95.5
86.5
83.5

(28-29)
(27-30)
(23-29)
(10-12)
(8-11)
(6-11)
IV V)
(8-9)
(6-9)
(B4-105)
(69-96)
(56-106)
5
29.2
28.6
27.6
10.6
9.1
9.0
V.4
8.6
8.3
99.1
87.3
94.9

(29-30)
(27-30)
(25-30)
(9-13)
(9-9)
(7 -11))
(9 10)
(8-9)
(8-9)
(92-112)
(79-95)
(86-112)
7
29.1
28.9
27.9
8.5
9.0
0.8
u.u
8.7
8.9
92.5
83.3
91.8

(29-30)
(28-29)
(26-30)
(6-11)
(9-10)
(8-10)
(9 9)
(9-9)
(8-9)
(90-95)
(74-92)
(87-103)
9
29.0
28.7
27.8
8.0
8.8
8.6
u.r
8.6
8.4
87.7
79.6
90.a

(29-30)
(27-30)
(25-30)
(6-11)
(8-10)
(7-10)
(8-9)
(8-9)
(8-10)
(B7-89)
(69-87)
(84-101)
10
29.0
28.6
27.6
8.1
8.9
B.l
U.J
8.7
8.3
82.7
78.7
88.7

(29-29)
(27-30)
(24-30)
(5-10)
(9-9)
(7- 1(J)

-------
10-6. Mean (range) fall water temperature, dissolved oxy^i:n, pll and specific conductance measured at: a
depth of 2 in at ten sampling stations In Ue^i I'olnt l.ake during 1990, 1991 and 1992.


Temperature


Dissolved Oxygen

pH

Specific Conductance


C*


mg/l





(umhos/cm)

Huinbtcni

Year


Year


Year


Year

Stat ions
1990
1991
1992
1990
1991
1992
1990
1991
1992
1990
1991
1992
1
17.5
20.8
18.3
8.6
7.8
8.0
7.1
7.1
7.2
114.3
98.6
105.8

(16-19)
(21-21)
(15-21)
(8-9)
(8-8)
(7-9)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(102-126)
(99-99)
(103-109)
2
16.8
18.8
18.5
8.8
8.3
1.5
f.O
7.0
7.1
98.5
96.4
103.1

(15-20)
(17-23)
(16-21)
(8-9)
(8-9)
(7-8)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(91-103)
(71-125)
(88-119)
4
18.4
19.1
20.5
8.1
8.7
6.8
6.9
7.2
7.2
106.8
80.3
84.0

(16-24)
(16-25)
(17-25)
(7-9)
(8-10)
(6-8)
(7-7)
(7-8)
(7-8)
(96-118)
(70-96)
(67-105)
5
19.0
19.9
21.6
7.7
8.8
6.6
6.9
7.3
7.1
95.9
87.1
98.8

(16-25)
(15-27)
(18-26)
(7-9)
(8-10)
(5-8)
(7-7)
(7-9)
(7-9)
(74-115)
(72-101)
(91-109)
7
19.3
20.3
22.7
7.2
8.9
7.4
7.1
7.4
7.2
86.0
86.0
92.2

(15-25)
(15-28)
(19-27)
(6-8)
(7-10)
(5-9)
(7-7)
(7-9)
(7-9)
(84-88)
(78-92)
(86-10(1)
9
19.7
20.9
23.2
7.5
8.7
f .2
7.1
7.5
7.2
87.5
80.5
90.0

(16-25)
(16-28)
(20-28)
(6-10)
(7-10)
(5-10)
(7-8)
(7-9)
(7-9)
(87-88)
(79-86)
(84-94)
10
19.8
20.9
23.6
6.6
7.7
7.5
/.0
7.0
7.3
88.9
81.1
- 87.2

(16-26)
(15-28)
(20-29)
(5-7)
(7-9)
(6-11)
(7-7)
(7-9)
(7-9)
(88-89)
(78-84)
(83-91)
Enhayment












Stations












3
16.2
17.4
18.9
7.9
7.6
r. 4
7.0
6.9
7.1
106.9
97.4
98.4

(12-21)
(15-23)
(17-21)
(7-9)
(6-9)
(/-H)
(/-/)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(103-110)
(70-132)
(91-106)
6
19.5
20.1
21.3
6.4
0.2
6.1
c..V
7.1
7.0
83.0
75.5
80..>

(15-25)
(15-27)
(19-24)
(5-8)
(6-10)
(VM)

-------
Table 10-7. Mean (range) winter water temperature, diuso1 veil oxygen, pH and specific conductance measured at
a depth of 2 m at ten sampling stations in	L'oint Lake during 1990, 1991 and 1992.
Temperature	Dissolved Oxygen	pH	Specific Conductance
	CJ	mg/1	(uinh os/cm)	
Mainstem	Year	Year	Year	Year
Stations
1990-91
1991-92
1990-91
1991-92
1990-91
1991-92
1990-91
1991-92
1
11.7*
9.9
9.5*
10.2
6.8*
7.0
106.8*
108.6

(8-15)
(10-10)
(8-11)
(10-10)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(89-125)
(109-109)
2
15.2
8.7
9.1
10,1
6.8
6.8
85.0
89.7

(15-15)
(6-11)
(9-9)
(9-11)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(85-85)
(61-107)
4
11.1
8.9
9.8
10.1
7.0
6.9
94.1
86.4

(8-15)
(6-11)
(9-10)
(9-11)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(77-103)
(67-96)
5
10.7
9.9
9.5
9.3
7.0
6.9
100.8
90.9

(8-K)
(6-12)
(9-10)
(9-10)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(87-120)
(67-106)
7
10.7
10.3
9.7
9.3
7.1
7.0
100.1
89.9

(8-13)
(B-12)
(9-10)
(9-10)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(94-107)
(87-93)
9
10.8
10.1
9.7
9. }
7.1
7.0
91.7
84.7

(9-13)
(8-12)
(9-10)
((1-1(1)
tf-7)
(7-7)
(82-97)
(81-90)
10
10.7
10.5
9.1
9.1)
6.9
6.9
93.8
81.5

(9-13)
(9-12)
(7-10)
(-!())
(7-7)
(7-7)
(91-96)
(73-91)
Embayment








Stations








3
10.6
6.7
10.2
10./
6.9
6.8
81.2
64.2

(5-14)
(4-11)
(9-12)
(10-12)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(63-92)
(47-79)
6
10.7
10.1
9.2
9.3
7.0
7.0
75.1
64.9

(9-13)
(7-12)
(9-10)
(9-10)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(64-84)
(57-72)
8
11.0
10.3
9.8
9.9
7.0
7.1
83.5
68.8

(10-13)
(8-12)
(9-10)
(8-11)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(72-90)
(67-70)
*Values from 1 ni depth.

-------
Table 10-8. Mean (range) spring water temperature, disuuLvud oxygen, pH and specific conductance measured at
a depth of 2 m at ten sampling stations In llest Point Lake during 1990, 1991 and 1992.
Temperature	Dissolved Oxygen	pH	Specific Conductance
		mq/l		(mrhos/cm)	
Hainstem	Year	Year	Year	Year
Stations
1991
1992
1991
1992
1991
1992
1991
1992
1
18.1
18.5
8.0
8.0
6.7
7.0
97.1
102.9

(17-19)
(12-23)
(6-8)
(7-10)
(7-7)
(7-7)
(76-122)
(99-105)
2
18.6
18.6
7.4
8.2
a. 6
7.0
81.4
93.1

(18-20)
(12-23)
(6-8)
(7-10)
(6-7)
(7-7)
(51-108)
(81-101)
4
19.9
17.8
7.7
9.0
6.8
7.3
90.6
87.9

(19-21)
(12-23)
(6-9)
(7-10)
(7-8)
(7-9)
(60-117)
(82-93)
5
19.8
18.4
8.1
10.5
6.9
7.5
86.0
85.8

(19-21)
(14-24)
(5-11)
< 9 -1 -1 >
(7-8)
(7-10)
(61-109)
(75-94)
7
19.7
18.5
8.9
9.9
6.9
7.5
81.4
77.9

(18-22)
(14-25)
(7-11)
(9-11)
(/-B)
(7-9)
(62-89)
(68-89)
9
19.5
18.3
8.9
9.9
!. 1
7.6
77.2
75.4

(17-22)
(14-25)
(7-11)
(10-11)
(f-9)
(7-9)
(64-90)
(68-85)
10
19.1
18.2
8.8
10.0
7.1
7.7
77.7
70.6

(15-24)
(14-25)
(7-10)
(9-11)
(7 )
(7-9)
(70-87)
(65-79)
Embayment








Stations








3
18.5
18.1
7.3
8.3
6.6
7.0
62.4
75.8

(18-20)
(11-23)
(6-9)
(7-10)
(6-7)
(7-7)
(36-75)
(68-83)
6
20.4
20.5
9.6
10.1
7.5
7.8
73.8
70.7

(18-22)
(14-25)
(8-12)
(9-11)
(7-8)
(7-9)
(50-87)
(57-80)
8
20.0
20.1
9.4
10.2
7.6
7.8
74.6
66.8

(18-23)
(14-25)
(8-11)
(9-12)
(7-9)
(7-9)
(68-79)
(61-78)

-------
150	
1 25
100
75
50
25
E
o
T
JZ
o

3
O
o
c
a
*>
o
3
T3 1 so
C
o
O 125
o
O 100
0)
O-
a) 75
50
25
Summer
1990 1991
1992
124570 10 124579 10 12457# 10
Winter
1990-91 1991-92
ICQ
75
SO
25
124570 10 124570 10 124570 10
IOO
1992
Figure 10-9: Near surface (1-3m) specific conductance measured at all mainstem sampling stations
in West Point Lake during the diagnostic study, 1990-1992.

-------
Secchi disk visibility and light penetration varied seasonally* and along
the longitudinal gradient within each season (Tables 10-9. 10-10, 1D-11 and 10-
12). Riverine stations 1 and 2 had relatively low Secchi visibility and light
penetration depths caused primarily by high abiogenic turbidity. Visibility and
light penetration were usually highest each season at the downstream lacustrine
stations 7, 9 and 10. Light penetration in this zone is influenced more by
biogenic (phytoplankton) turbidity than by abiogenic turbidity. Transition zone
stations 4 and 5 were influenced by both biogenic and abiogenic turbidity
depending on seasonal conditions and flows. Secchi visibility and light
penetration was often lower at these stations than at the upstream locations.
As the fertile waters of the Chattahoochee River reach the more lentic transition
zone, abiogenic turbidity declines (particles settle) and as light penetration
increases biogenic turbidity ''phytoplankton'; increases ir. response to the more
zaVcrois	cor.c2.3i.cT.3 , ^1r.z trr.cztlon	~n*5 -T3r.sz.~i.cr. zor.s 1.3
controlled by the interaction of oictic and abiotic variables. ,-
-------
Table 10-9. Mean (range) summer Secchi disk visibility, \X Incident light depth, turbidity and total suspended
solids measured at eleven sampling s, L.i 11 on-; during 1990, 1991 and 1992.
Ma ins tern
Stat i ons
1990
Secchi
(cm)
Year
1991
IX Incident Lujlit
	(cm)
1992
1990
Year
1991
59.0
(53-68)
52.0
(39-73)
57.0
(34-79)
1992
177.0 165.0
(154-207) (133-206)
158.0
(81-200)
Turbidi ty
(MTU)
1990
Year
1991
1992
27.3
(24-31)
23.0
(9-41)
41.2
(20-89)
Total Suspended Solids
 (mq/l)	
1990
Year
1991
35.6
(33-39)
21.5
(12-30)
1992
40.7
(19-73)
75.0
(66-79)
56.0
(41-70)
60.0
(38-98)
216.0 162.0	1bU.ll
(209-230) (115-192) (94-236)
26.2 29.6 37.8
(14-43) (18-49) (16-68)
22.0
(19-25)
20.6
(13-29)
21.3
(11-30)
94.0
(87-100)
113.0
(100-137)
88.0
(35-116)
237.0 317.0	193.0.
(214-257) (259-397) (94-24U)
7.7
(7-9)
9.1 20.4
(4-20) (4-80)
8.2
(7-10)
6.9
(4-13)
10.0
(4-25)
110.0
(102-122)
130.0
(114-147)
120.0
(94-154)
338.0 402.0 355.0
(258-384) (344-439) (311-305;
5.1
(5-6)
4.0
(2-6)
5.6
(3-13)
5.7
(6-6)
3.7
(3-5)
5.1
(3-9)
129.0 162.0 153.0
(118-138) (135-199) (112-210)
375.0 470.0 453.0
(305-413) (439-505) (397-4!liy
4.7
(4-5)
2.5
(1-4)
3.2
(2-4)
4.1
(4-4)
3.0
(2-4)
3.2
(2-4)
9	162.0	175.0	169.0
(160-165) (154-205) (107-209)
507.0 531.0 53l.li
(483-551) (488-55U) (500-56?)
4.3
(4-5)
2.2
(1-3)
2.8
(2-4)
3.9
(3-5)
2.6
(2-3)
3.4
(2-6)
10	203.0	194.0	193.0
(178-215) (177-207) (124-243)
660.0 508.0 598.0
(634-703) (435-576) (479-?<;6>
3.4
(2-5)
2.0
(1-3)
2.8
(2-4)
3.9
(4-4)
2.6
(2-3)
3.6
(2-6)
11
Eiiibuyinent
Stat ions
3	75.0
(58-93)
79.0
(59-105)
70.0
(53-99)
144.0 107.0	164.ii
(117-180) (150-210) (115-20/)
5.0
(3-6)
4.8
(3-6)
5.2
(4-6)
24.9 21.4 38.0
(18-36) (15-30) (20-63)
3.7
(3-4)
22.7
(19-26)
2.6
(1-3)
14.3
(10-20)
4.1
(3-6)
19.6
(13-20
129.11	1V.U	14 /".0
(115-143) (123-174) (112-173)
419.0 473.U	3/1).IP
(402-430) (412-542) (322-44',)
<7
(4-5)
3.7
(3-5)
4.7
(4-7)
5.2
(5-5)
3.2
(3-4)
4 .1
(11)
178.0	197.0	177.0
(164-207) (180-210) (153-199)
545.0 566.0 570.0
(503-608) (511-614) (t>00-644)
4.5
(3-6)
2.6
(2-4)
3.2
(3-3)
3.3
(2-5)
2.6
(2-3)
3.3
(3-4)

-------
Table 10-10. Mean (range) fall Secchi disk visibility, I'x. incident light depth, turbidity and total suspended
solids measured at eleven sampling stations during 1990, 1991 and 1992.
Mainstem
Stations
Secchi
(c"i>
IX Incident Light
		
1990
Year
1991
1992
1990
Year
1991
92.0
(80-105)
110.0
(77-149)
75.0
(34-115)
121.0
(1-240)
1992
84.0
(84-84)
Turbidi ty
(MTU)
1990
13.0
(10-16)
Year
1991
Total Suspended Solids
	Cmg/t)	
1992
11.8
(5-18)
56.8
(11-96)
1990
Year
1991
13.4
(10-18)
12.0
(4-34)
1992
59.0
(11-85)
89.0
(58-108)
84.0
(60-116)
57.0
(49-64)
241.0 220.0	173.U
(162-286) (170-284) (141-20',)
1U.4 20.8 25.9
(14-26) (16-26) (18-34)
17.6
(10-23)
17.9
(12-31)
19.7
(15-24)
65.0
(61-73)
69.0
(52-89)
49.0
(33-76)
180.0 218.0	205.0
(111-229) (107-336) (172-25U)
16.2 16.2
(14-20) (11-24)
34.3
(15-52)
12.0
(9-15)
11.5
(7-15)
17.4
(9-29)
83.0 100.0	88.0	246.0 339.0 283.0	14.3 9.6 9.0	9.1	6.1	6.V
(51-99) (81-137) (72-116) (152-320) (278-407) (276-299)	(9-25) (4-15) (6-12)	(8-11) (3-8)	(5-8)
99.0	138.0 132.0
(84-109) (100-174) (105-151)
374.0 404.0
(295-444) (306-458)
366.li
(522-41H)
8.6
(7-11)
4.8
(2-7)
5.0
(4-7)
8.0
(7-9)
4.0
(3-5)
4.6
(3-6)
9	130.0	179.0	159.0
(129-131) (154-215) (117-202)
489.0 516.0 459.0
(376-591) (465-588) (384-534)
5.3
(4-7)
3.1
(2-4)
3.6
(2-5)
5.3
(4-7)
2.9
(2-3)
4.2
(3-5)
10
148.0	192.0 201.0
(143-159) (174-216) (148-266)
549.0 571.0	515.0
(430-612) (535-589) (397-63i)
4.0
(3-5)
3.6
(1-6)
3.1
(2-4)
3.6
(3-5)
2.8
(2-4)
3.1
(3-4)
11
Enboywcnt
Stat ions
3
52.0	76.0	62.0	146.0 188.0	191.u
(47-56) (57-97) (60-64) (133-158) (185-197) (178-2inj
4.3
(4-6)
6.5
(3-11)
3.4
(3-4)
22.1 21.7 18.5
(12-36) (19-25) (19-19)
4.2
(3-7)
19.2
(7-33)
4.9
(3-8)
14.6
(11-20)
i.r
(3-4)
14.5
(14-15)
97.0
(73-131)
147.0
(140-151)
129.0
(122-135)
231.0 314.0	354.11
(164-299) (172-444) (331-3f/i
9.5
(5-14)
6.6
(5-8)
5.6
(5-6)
8.2
(4-11)
5.0
(3-6)
6.0
(5-7)
150.0 178.0 207.0	467.0 474.0 405.1)	5.5 3.8 2.9
(129-168) (145-195) (176-238)	(395-547) (348-545) (320-490)	(4-B) (2-5) (2-3)
4.7
(3-6)
3.4
(3-4)
3.1
(3-4)
Insufficient water depth

-------
Table 10-11. Mean (range) winter Secchi disk visibility, Incident light depth, turbidity and total suspended
'solids measured at eleven sampling stations during 1990, 1991 and 1992.
Mainstem
Stat ions
Secchi
tci")
Year
1990-91	1991-92
84.0
(58-100
89.0
(24-130)
1X Incident Light
	(cm)	
Year
1990-91	 1991-92
170.0
(170-170)
66.0
(66-66)
Turbidi ty
(WTU)
Year
1990-91 1991-92
18.9
(12-31)
42.6
(12-103)
Total Suspended Solids
	(mg/O	
Year
1990-91
17.1
(11-29)
1991-92
32.9
(7-83)
80.0
(63-90)
91.0
(28-147)
239.0
(173-278)
273.0
(87-43-'.)
20.5
(17-28)
37.9
(11-85)
21.3
(16-29)
26.5
(7-56)
4	67.0
(48-79)
60.0
(30-94)
253.0
(227-268)
2/2.0
(200-343)
1U.3
(16-20)
37.8
(14-77)
12.6
(9-16)
21.5
(7-41)
67.0
(56-87)
67.0
(36-101)
263.0
(222-294)
277.0
(198-355)
17.9
(14-21)
30.3
(13-55)
10.0
(8-12)
15.2
(5-27)
86.0
(74-98)
80.0
(60-90)
310.0
(266-397)
228.0
(187-268)
14.7	18.0
(11-19)	(14-25)
8.6
(8-9)
11.1
(8-16)
96.0
(73-131)
99.0
(91-109)
307.0
(262-386)
248.0
(210-268)
13.0
(5-18)
13.1
(11-15)
6.2
(5-7)
7.2
(6-9)
10	127.0
(114-148)
126.0
(95-170)
366.0
(320-430)
305.0
(233-437)
8.8
(6-12)
10.9
(7-15)
5.2
(5-6)
6.3
(4-8)
11
Einbaymont
Stations
3
47.0
(41-57)
94.0
(40-127)
194.0
(184-211)
120.0
(120-120)
10.8
(7-18)
9.7
(6-15)
23.7	27.3
(22-25)	(13-49)
16.5
(14-20)
12.2
(5-19)
76.0
(69-84)
77.0
(52-101)
226.0
(198-258)
248.0
(214-282)
13.8
(10-16)
17.6
(13-25)
8.8
(8-10)
10.9
(7-14)
111.0
(84-133)
133.0
(116-158)
388.0
(248-496)
290.0
(203-419)
9.6
(5-15)
8.0
(7-10)
7.2
(6-9)
6.1
(5-7)

-------
Table 10-12. Mean (range) spring Secchl disk visibility, IX incident light depth, turbidity and total suspended
solids measured at eleven sampling stations during 1991 and 1992.
Mu ins t cin
Stations
Secchi
Cm)
Yeor
1991
64.0
(43-102)
1992
112.0
(78-161)
1X Incident Light
(cm)	
Yeor
1991
119.0
(113-124)
1992
167.0
(167-167)
Turbid)ty
CTU)
Year
1991
48.8
(8-174)
1992
16.6
(9-26)
Total Suspended Solids
	C"3/t)	
Year
1991
64.0
(14-238)
1992
20.7
(9-33)
63.0
(28-94)
92.0
(75-126)
180.0
(78-261)
291.0
(237-341)
39.2
(12-114)
17.4
(15-21)
27.5
(15-60)
13.6
(10-16)
62.0
(22-83)
83.0
(62-116)
195.0
(112-251)
246.0
(238-261)
34.7
(9-100)
14.1
(9-19)
20.4
(9-52)
10.0
(7-13)
80.0
(23-133)
102.0
(74-142)
237.0
(113-342)
348.0
(241-426)
24.4
(6-64)
10.6
(4-19)
15.4
(5-44)
7.6
(3-11)
120.0
(78-161)
132.0
(82-199)
354.0
(325-400)
445.0
(228-591)
7.8
(5-13)
8.7
(3-17)
6.1
(4-8)
6.6
(3-11)
142.0
(110-178)
136.0
(91-185)
388.0
(368-408)
487.(1
(245-655)
6.4
(4-8)
7.3
(3-13)
5.0
(4-6)
5.0
(3-8)
10
175.0
(141-239)
172.0
(112-280)
425.0
(389-480)
538.0
CiW-(M)
5.7
(3-9)
5.8
(2-11)
3.6
(1-6)
3.9
(2-6)
11
Enbayment
Stations
3
54.0
(25 - 73)
118.0
(87-148)
157.0
(71-175)
244.0
(226-259)
7.7
(5-10)
34.3
(22-86)
6.9
(4-13)
14.9
(13-18)
4.0
(3-5)
18.6
(9-33)
3.9
(2-7)
10.5
(10-12)
127.0
(96-172)
143.0
(99-201)
354.0
(276-436)
423.0
(237-5U0)
7.0
(5-11)
7.5
(5-13)
5.8
(5-8)
5.0
(3-8)
181.0
(125-274)
179.0
(98-223)
476.0
(404-558)
b61.0
(275-/U4)
5.4
(3-6)
5.7
(3-11)
4.0
(2-6)
3.9
(2-7)

-------
sample. In order to maintain consistency with previous AU research vork cn Vest
Point Lake. AU defined the photic zone depth as four times the Secchi disk
visibility (Taylor 1971). This depth usually exceeded the 11 incident light
depth. A submersible electric pump and hose apparatus was raised and lowered
throughout the photic zone and the water was collected in a plastic container on
board boat. Aliquots from this composite sample were poured into Nalgene
containers and stored, on ice, prior to transport to laboratory facilities.
Samples to be held for later analysis (total phosphorus and Kjelda'nl nitrogen)
were preserved in the field (APHA et al. 1989). All analyses were conducted
within the recommended holding times (APHA et al. 1989). Monthly (biweekly
during the growing seasons) samples were collected during the study period (Table
10-1). Water qualitv variables analyzed and methods used appear in Table 10-3.
Composite va:ar sample turbidity, an indirect measure zz suspended
"D S.r"C I- C _ 5 S , and	3U.SO<5T"lC6C 3G.lI.C3 j. ^^TcLVLSSdrL. C IHc-3.3U.1T5 - I 3 uSCcHCcd
particles, both illustrate the effects of longitudinal changes ir. vacar aualitv
from headwaters downstream to the dam (Tables 10-9, 10-10, 10-11 ana 10-12).
During each season concentrations of suspended particles were higher in the
riverine zone (stations 1 and 2) than in the transition zone (stations 4 and 5)
and lowest concentrations were found in the lacustrine zone (stations 7, 9 and
10) . Seasonal variations in suspended particle concentrations were evident.
Winter and spring concentrations were generally higher than summer and fall
concentrations because of higher rainfall and runoff that occurs during the
winter/spring months (Figure 10-2). Turbidity and suspended solids
concentrations at station 1 were higher during summer, fall and winter of 1992
than in 1990 and 1991, however, in the spring, higher values occurred during
1991. This may have occurred as a result of unusually high Chattahoochee River

-------
discharge (at VThitesburg) during May 1991 (Figure 10-2 and Table 10-4) . N'ev
River embayment (station 3'. had suspended particle concentrations consistently
higher than the embayments of Yellowjacket Creek (station 6) and Wehadkee Creek
(station 8) although New River concentrations were similar to those of the
nearest mainstem sampling location, station 2.
Total alkalinity, the concentration of bases in water (expressed as mg/1
CaC03) , primarily composed of bicarbonate (HC03~) and carbonate (C03") ions,
usually increases as basin soil fertility increases. Total hardness (expressed
as mg/1 CaC03) is a measure of the divalent, alkaline earth metal content of
water. Calcium (Ca-H-) and magnesium (Mg++) are normally the most abundant metals
in soils of the eastern United States and they are generally associated with the
carbonate minerals responsible for the alkalinity of water. Therefore, total
alkalinity and total hardness zrs usually similar anc tar.c to vary together. It.
Z r3C2Tl- 3 CMC*' , I 0 C3. -L	CZ ZZ Z ~ 723.Z TL3 uZTciirfl ZZ'.'Z C Ur.CSS T. Z 5 ZZ A - 2.2 c.Zl 2.
varied from a low of 7 me/1 to a high of 57 mg/1 (Bayne et al. 1SS9) . Total
alkalinity of_Vest Point Lake varied from a low of 9 mg/1 to a high of 32 mg/1
(Tables 10-13, 10-14, 10-15 and 10-16). Total hardness ranged from a low of 11
mg/1 to a high of 49 mg/1 (tailwater sample). As in. the case of specific
conductance, total alkalinity of West Point Lake waters falls in the lower half
of the range expected for Alabama lakes indicating limited fertility of basin
soils. Since carbonate minerals function as a natural chemical buffer, waters
of low alkalinity are subject to greater fluctuations in pH than more alkaline
systems. Both total alkalinity and hardness were lower during winter and spring
than during summer and fall apparently because of higher flow and greater
dilution that normally occurs during periods of higher rainfall and surface
86

-------
Tibia 10-13.
Mean
at s
and
(range) sumraer
leven sampling
1992.
total hardness and total
stations ir. west Point la
d|sa 1 i_n
ke curir.
ity jieasured
z 1390. 1991


Total Alkalinity
(mq/l as CaCO.)

Total
(mq/l
Hardness
as CaCO,)

Hainstem
Stations
1990
Year
1991
1992
1990
Year
1991
1992
1
19.8
(17-21)
20.6
(17-23)
18.3
(14-21)
27.6
(25-30)
25.8
(24-29)
23.4
(21-28)
2
23.1
(20-26)
22.8
(18-28)
19.2
(14-23)
27.7
(22-33)
23.6
(20-28)
22.1
(18-28)
4
22.7
(18-29)
20.2
(18-23)
17.6
(13-21)
23.2
(18-29)
21.9
(21-23)
20.6
(16-24)
5
25.1
(21-29)
21.3
(18-24)
19.6
(18-22)
22.8
(18-28)
21.2
(19-23)
21.8
(21-22)
7
22.8
(22-24)
22.8
(19-29)
19.9
(18-21)
28.0
(20-34)
21.6
(21-22)
22.2
(21-23)
9
21.8
(21-22)
20.3
(17-25)
20.3
(17-24)
21.5
(20-23)
20.2
^9-211
21.3
(20-22)
' -
21.0
(29-23)
7 1 .1
(17-25)
I?.3
- ~
- *-
20. ?
1
22.9
(22-25)
21.3
(.7-25)
21.3
:'9-25)
21.1
(17-24)
20.2
(13-23)
31.5
,'22-49)
Emcayment
Stations
3
25.6
(24-29)
22.9
(20-25)
17.7
(14-23)
' 25.3
(22-28)
23.7
(21-27)
21.4
(17-26)
6
25.0
(24-28)
21.9
(17-25)
20.3
(18-23)
22.1
(21-23)
20.9
(18-25)
21.9
(22-22)
3
23.3
(22-25)
22.4
(18-28)
21.3
(21-21)
21.1
(19-23)
19.6
(18-22)
20.8
(20-21)
87

-------
Table 10-14.
Mean (range) fall
eleven samDlinz s;
1992.
coral hardness
nations in '."est
and total aikalir.i:
Point Lake curing I
:y measured at
.990. 1991 ar.d


Total Alkalinity
(mq/l as CaCO,)

Total
(mq/l
Hardness
as CaCO,)

Hainstem
Stations
1990
Year
1991
1992
1990
Year
1991
1992
1
22.0
(19-25)
20.7
(16-28)
19.1
(17-24)
28.8
(27-31)
27.4
(24-34)
26.2
(25-28)
2
23.2
(22-24)
20.7
(16-26)
23.4
(20-27)
24.6
(22-26)
25.1
(19-31)
24.5
(21-28)
4
22.8
(19-26)
19.3
(13-25)
18.4
(13-25)
28.6
(26-32)
20.2
(17-23)
23.5
(21-26)
5
18.7
(18-20)
20.1
(15-24) .
21.0
(18-26)
24.4
(19-31)
21.2
(18-23)
24.8
(22-27)
7
20.5
(19-24)
20.3
(16-23)
21.1
(17-26)
24.5
(21-31)
22.0
(20-24)
23.1
(21-25)
5
20.4
(19-22)
21.0
(19-23)
20.9
(19-25)
23.5
(21-25)
20.1
:'9-22:
23.7

20.9
(19-23)

r. .3
C9 -24)
.3
' '-n;
:ii-22:

21 .1
(20-22)
22.0
(20-24)
21.3
(20-24)
22. i
(22-23)
:o.3
,20-22)
(21-22)
Emba yment
Stations
3
24.5
(23-29)
24.8
(18-31)
25.4
(21-30)
27.1
(25-29)
26.1
(20-35)
25.3
(22-29)
6
24.8
(22-28)
22.6
(19-24)
23.1
(21-25)
23.6
(22-27)
20.2
(19-22)
20.6
(20-22)
3
22.4
(20-24)
22.3
(21-25)
23.4
(23-24)
21.5
(21-23)
20.3
(19-22)
20.7
(20-21)
38

-------
Mean (range) winter total hardness and total alkal
at eleven sampling stations in west Point Lake our
ana 1992.

Total Alkalinity
(mq/l as CaCO,)

Total Hardness
(mq/l as CaCO,)

Hainstem
Stations
Year
1990-91
1991-92
Year
1990-91
1991-92
1
22.0
(19-21)
19.3
(16-22)
26.5
(23-29)
26.8
(18-31)
2
21.5
(19-25)
19.4
(16-21)
27.1
(25-29)
25.6
(18-30)
4
19.4
(14-24)
21.0
(17-24)
24.4
(21-28)
24.1
(19-27)
5
21.0
(19-23)
21.7
(16-26)
26.4
(21-31)
24.8
(19-28)
7
22.1
(18-29)
23.4
(19-28)
22.6
(19-26)
24.4
(23-25)
0
20.9
' *3-26)
20.3
(20-22)
21.4
(19-24)
23.8
(22-26)

10.6
r-3-25)
",9.7
>17-24}
23. o
23.3

20.9
("9-25)
20.4
(16-24)
22.5
(20-25)
21.3
19-24)
Embaymem
S t a tions
3
22.2
(17-32)
18.7
(11-23)
20.9
(17-26)
19.2
(13-24)
6
21.5
(19-27)
20.9
(19-25)
21.0
(17-26)
19.3
(19-20)
3
19.6
(16-25)
19.8
(18-21)
18.3
(15-23)
19.2
(19-20)
89

-------
Tab ie 10 -16.
Mean (range) spring total hardness ana total alkalinity measured
at eleven sampling stations in Vest Point Lake during 1991 and
1992.

Total Alkalinity
(mq/l as CaCO,)

Total Hardness
(mq/l as CaCO,)

Hainstem
Stations
Year
1991
1992
Year
1991
1992
1
19.8
(11-25)
18.9
(13-22)
25.0
(20-30)
27.7
(26-29)
2
18.5
(11-24)
19.4
(18-20)
22.1
(13-27)
23.2
(21-26)
4
19.2
(12-24)
20.3
(15-25)
24.4
(21-28)
23.7
(22-27)
5
18.3
(13-22)
20.0
(16-24)
21.6
(15-26)
22.4
(21-26)
7
17.9
(15-22)
18.7
(14-22)
20.2
(16-22)
20.8
(20-22)

17.5
(16-21)
18.0
(16-21)
18.6
(16-20)
19.0
13-21)
;
(15-20)
!5.3
1 5  2C)
'9.2
('3-2')

".1
17.5
(16-19)
' / . ;
(15-20)
13.6
(17-20)
19.1
i13-20)
Embayment
Stations
3
17.8
(9-23)
23.6
(20-26)
16.7
(11-21)
22.3
(21-26)
6
18.0
(16-19)
19.2
(17-21)
18.7
(15-20)
21.2
(20-23)
3
19.2
(17-20)
18.3
(16-20)
18.2
(17-20)
18.1
(16-19)
90

-------
runoff. In general. total alkalinity and hardness declined from headwaters
toward the dam as vas the case with specific conductar.ee.
Nitrogen and phosphorus are plant nutrients that are required in relatively
high concentrations to support plant growth. Nitrogen concentrations normally
exceed phosphorus concentrations by an order of magnitude or more (Wetzel 1983).
Of the macronutrients, phosphorus is usually in shortest supply and therefore is
the element most often limiting to plant growth in freshwater ecosystems. In
some cases, phosphorus concentrations, relative to nitrogen, are high and
nitrogen availability becomes limiting. This usually occurs at total nitrogen
to total phosphorus ratios < 16:1 (Porcella et al. 1981).
Nitrogen is available to plants as nitrates (N03=) or as the ammonium ion
NH^. 3ioavailable nitrogen was abundant in West Point Lake with seasonal mean
concentrations in the r.eaawaters usually exceeding 1.0 mg/1 and lacustrine con-
centrations varying from about 0.2 - C.t mg/1 (Tables 10-17. 1 j-li	10-20
and Figure 10-10). Nitrogen concentrations in West Point Lake were excessive.
For example, 3ovd (15~9) reported that in ponds being used for intensive fish
culture (fish being fed daily), bioavailable nitrogen reached levels of 0.75 mg/1
(0.5 mg/1 NH3-N and 0.25 mg/1 N03-N). Such concentrations, were common in the mid
to upper reaches of Vest Point Lake and extended on occasion all the way to the
dam. Ammonia and nitrite concentrations in the photic zone remained well below
levels known to have direct adverse affects on aquatic organisms (EPA 1986).
Phosphorus in vater is routinely reported as total phosphorus (all forms
of phosphorus expressed as P) and soluble reactive phosphorus which is an esti-
mate of orthophosphate (P0(,~ expressed as P) , the most important and abundant
form of phosphorus directly available to plants. Both forms demonstrated a
strong longitudinal gradient in West Point Lake with higher concentrations

-------
Table 10-17.
Moan (range) summer concentrations o I NO.,-
st:iitlons In West: I'olnt: Lake during I'J'JO,
W, N()j-N, Nll3-N and organic nitrogen at. eleven sampling
I'I'JI ami 1992.
Hainstem
Stations
1990
NO,
(/ig/l)
1991
1992
1990
NO,
(^g/l)
1991
1992
1990*
NH,
(/ig/D
1991
1992
Total
1990
Organic Nitrogen
(Mg/l)
1991 1992
1
21
(10-31)
5
(3-6)
7
(4-12)
1244
(912-1456)
1140
(952-1505)
994
(721-13/0)
(>30-70)
37
(6-63)
77
(60-90)
443
(410-480)
343
(285-414)
432
(306-643)
2
24
(11-44)
7
(5-12)
8
(4-15)
1582
(1286-1932)
832
(515-1195)
845
(551-1355)
- -
88
(13-164)
67
(33-91)
429
(322-644)
407
(306-507)
451
(408-514)
4
13
(8-15)
10
(8-11)
10
(6-14)
463
(141-647)
553
(409-693)
533
(385-792)
ii
( -30-40)
45
(14-68)
106
(36-163)
780
(644-995)
500
(466-553)
454
(317-665)
5
12
(11-14)
11
(11-12)
13
(10-16)
337
(233-471)
512
(395-699)
546
(343-704)
( OD-30)
47
(35-62)
54
(8-85)
671
(568-843)
493
(379-582)
575
(568-505)
7
16
(13-21)
15
(12-21)
19
(16-24)
324
(266-366)
453
(410-511)
452
(406-543)
i-iO-30)
45
(34-52)
42
(6-67)
6 77
(497-1030)
370
(332-422)
4/3
(448-514)
9
12
(7-17)
11
(8-16)
16
(13-19)
262
(154-360)
304
(281-327)
390
(344-419)
-3(1
63
(40-80)
32
(24-41)
464
(334-644)
394
(364-422)
430
(406-457)
10
8
(7-9)
6
(4-8)
7
(3-9)
244
(199-282)
157
(119-232)
221
(149-306)
<30
48
(20-87)
30
(16-54)
566
(281-1042)
406
(381-446)
378
(348-414)
11
12
(10-13)
7
(3-16)
7
(4-9)
363
(265-475)
426
(241-545)
2o9
(1U1-36U)

140
(67-208)
156
(103-227)
624
(263-1170)
256
(201-320)
307
(2B6-320)
Enixiyriient
Stations
3
9
(7-11)
7
(5-10)
6
(5-9)
348
(262-432)
1
498
(287-627)
509
(366 -692)

179
(18-838)
83
(74-91)
624
(398-925)
400
(265-515)
299
(188-400)
ft
4
(3-6)
r
(3-11)
11
(5-14)
175
(57-348)
262
(169-387)
JMI
(200-4otl)
-
58
(7-149)
46
(35-54)
644
(468-995)
413
(268-524)
461
(388-500)
8
a
(7-9)
8
(1-14)
13
(11-15)
112
(0-289)
268
(205-340)
288
(194-349)

61
(41-92)
32
(21-47)
443
(304-702)
367
(309-457)
350
(303-386)
Data from EPD (1990)

-------
Table 10-18. Mean (range) fall concentrations oi. N02-1
stations in West Point Lake during 1990,
NO,	HOj
Mainstem	(^g/l)	(/Jg/l)
Stations 1990 1991	1992	1990	1991	1992
1	12	5	6	1385	1189	1306
(6-17) (2-10) (5-6) (1152-1639) (818-1759) (1301-1311)
10	7	11	970	1010	1109
(9-12) (2-13) (8-13)	(958-993) (539-1510) (921-1296)
14	8	12	1158	527	924
(13-15) (4-11) (10-14) (1126-1196) (110-886) (683-1165)
16	10	22	944	796	962
(11-24) (4-15) (9-34)	(740-1303) (634-1100) (959-964)
19	13	28	669	872	596
(17-23) (7-24) (13-42) (329-857) (499-1515) (506-609)
21	10	22	438	536	543
(16-30) (7-12) (18-26) (215-708) (295-894) (430-655)
10	16	10	5	520	391	388
(11-23) (6-16) (4-5)	(213-705) (187-626) (257-539)
11 14	12	6	514	517	410
(10-19)	(6-18)	(5-7)	(197-734)	(321-725)	(236-583)
Embayment
Stations
3 4	3	8	291	394	lib
(2-8)	(1-6)	(f-b)	(92-477)	(123-716)	(566-UU5)
6	19	11	13	343	481	321
(14-24) (7-17) (10-16) (255-411) (270-654) (100-541)
8	16	8	5	333	301	182
(11-25) (5-9) (2-S> (227-447) (82-428) (56-308)
"Data from EPD (1990) for months of September and October.
NOj-N, N1I3-N and organic nitrogen at eleven sampling
I 991 and 1992.
NH,
1)19/1)
1990*	1991	1992
313	149
(<30-40) (24-841)	(140-158)
330	100
(38-823)	(81-118)
388	152
(on-160) (41-931)	(86-218)
326	199
(-5U 100) (30-821)	(89-308)
/0 241	132
(4U-100) (10-679)	(42-221)
95 211	144
(30-160) (4-569)	(63-224)
90 213	88
(60-120) (0-592)	(31-145)
292	85
(12-706)	(36-134)
348	96
(58-822) (60-131)
290	172
(59-708)	(48-295)
261	146
(0-642)	(56-235)
Total Organic Mitrogen
0*9/1)
1990	1991	1992
277	296	468
(257-298)	(213-414)	(250-685)
240	314	281
(181-357)	(233-387)	(233-328)
281	370	289
(181-439)	(245-524)	(271-306)
308	334	315
(240-433)	(210-414)	(297-333)
265	382	3H
(193-345)	(306-437)	(520-42!:)
339	382	313
(304-375)	(373-393)	(271-355)
263	316	3UU
(193-304)	(277-364)	(354-405)
226	271	267
(181-298)	(248-291)	(274-300)
275	317	2U2
(129-503)	(204-364)	(25^-306)
359	382	2/f
(275-445)	(329-483)	(237-31O
238	366	254
(187-287)	(294-422)	(248-260)

-------
Table 10-19. Mean (range) winter concentrations of: N02-N, NOa-N, NH3-N and organic nitrogen at eleven sampling
stations in West Point Lake daring 1990, 1991 and 1992.
wo,
Hamstem	(jig/l)
Stations 1990-91	1991-92
39
(23-56)
22
(10-39)
1990-91
NO,
(MG/l)
1283
(1128-1503)
1W1 - 9^
1231
(564-1601)
NH,
C^g/l)
1990-91* 1991-92
119
(61-186)
Total Organic Nitrogen
-9l()
120
(74-166)
249	224
(181-291) (218-233)
Eni>ayment
Stat i onb
3
3
(2-4)
2
(2-3)
440	261
(295-525)	(209-322)
86
(70-113)
202	215
(116-326) (125-329)
11
(8-18)
8
(3-17)
517
(293-635)
36U
(218-612)
155
(140-182)
274
(227-344)
364
(320-405)
13
(10-16)
13
(9-16)
512
(59-841)
437
(133-509)
68
(41-115)
276	314
(210-328)	(277-367)
* Data not available.

-------
Table 10-20. Mean (range) spring concentrations ol" N02
stations in West Point Lake during 1991
NO,
Mainstein	(^9/1)
Stations 1991	1992
NO,
(/ig/l)
1991	 1992
1
26
(10-47)
15
(5-27)
951
1233
(849-1124) (1142-1367)
14
(5-19)
15
(10-23)
686	1015
(278-866) (909-1069)
4	21
(9-33)
15
(13-16)
804	932
(621-973) (1)82-1029)
21
(9-34)
15
(14-17)
797	tii7
(575-949)	(/bO-919)
16
(6-23)
15
(10-24)
626	629
(446-729)	(449 -79'.)
12
(6-17)
11
(8-15)
490
(381-577)
510
(399-706)
10	11
(7-16)
10
(8-11)
465
(328-548)
468
(429-542)
11	10
(7-12)
8
(7-9)
522	538
(417-613)	(464-61))
Embayment
Stations
3
3
(1-10)
4
(1-5)
175	.102
(67-561)	(224-361))
13
(3-19)
11
(6-15)
364	501
(181-450)	(335-684)
11
(4-15)
10
(7-13)
385
(164-478)
433
(397-467)
EPD data for months of April and May 1991.
, N03-N, NH3-N and organic nitrogen at eleven sampling
id 1992.
NH, Total Organic Nitrogen
(^g/l) (M9/0
1991*	1992	1991	1992
5 5	74	380	394
(40-70) (40-102)	(373-387) (271-568)
90	379	319
(76-106)	(332-565)	(271-355)
99	350	294
(<30-80) (66-131)	(317-379)	(208-364)
80	51	348	377
(60-100)	(36-59)	(280-472) (323-437)
35	110	327	329
(30-40) (59-188)	(253-396) (286-351)
40	97	377	377
(30-50) (57-117)	(355-414) (357-394)
46	293	335
<30	(29-65)	(250-355) (262-374)
90	248	256
(68-111)	(227-262)	(218-200)
111	334	277
(44-201)	(233-507)	(214-376)
67	427	341
(28-135)	(347-524) (306-386)
60	344	315
(24-82)	(207-419) (243-408)

-------
J.DOO
2.000
cn
s
C 1.500
o
CO
L_
**
c
a>
o
c
o
O
I .000
sno
Summer
1992
124670 10 124679 10 124579 10
1 2 4 6 7 9 10 1 2 4 6 7 9 10 124S79 10
J.hOO
cr>

Winter
1990-91

-------
occurring at upstream locations (Tables 10-21. -0-22, 10-23 and iQ-_- and Figure
12-11/. Concentrations of orthophosphate (.POj-?) at station 1 7r = r.klin, GA)
ranged from 46 to 324 fig/1 and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations at station
1 ranged from 86 to 372 pg/1. These concentrations are extremely high. TP
concentrations > 100 ng/l are indicative of highly eutrophic waters (Wetzel
1983). TP concentrations > 100 /ig/1 were found, on occasion, as far downstream
as station 5 (LaGrange water intake) during the growing season. I?A (1986)
suggested a limit of 50 /ig/1 TP at the point where a stream enters a lake or
reservoir in order to prevent excessive loading.
At station 1, the ratio of PO4-P to TP was usually > 0.5, whereas in the
tributary embayments the ratio was usually < 0.25. Chattahoochee River water
entering west Point Lake had a large proportion of bioavailable P compared to the
7? concentration (Figure 10-11). This is likely the result of the relatively
iarze volune of treatec tiunicioal vastavater sr.tarir.g tr.e river -tstrssni of
Franklin, GA (Raschke and Schultz 1987).
Phosphorus tends to adsorb onto surfaces of suspended inorganic particles,
ana therefore, increases in abiogenic turbidity are frequently accompanied by
increased phosphorus concentration. That is one explanation for the elevated
phosphorus concentrations at upstream locations, where greater water movement
maintains particles in suspension. Further downstream, water movenent subsides
and particles settle to the bottom removing much of the incoming sediment and
associated phosphorus. This phosphorus is deposited in bottom sediments and may
remain there indefinitely. Mainstream reservoirs are known to trap large
quantities of incoming phosphorus. Lawrence (1970) reported phosphorus losses
of 612 and 75% in lakes Seminole and Eufaula, respectively, two lakes located on
the Chattahoochee River downstream from West Point Lake. Under certain
97

-------
Table 10-
21. Mean
sampl
(range)
ing sea
summer concer.tr
Cions in West ?o
acions of ?Q
int Lake dur
4-P and T?
ins 1990, ]
3.Z eleven
.991 and 1992.
Hainstem
Stations
Orthophosphate
(jig/l)
1990 1991 1992
Total Phosphorus
(U9/1)
1990 1991
1992
1
231
(183-324)
63
(49-86)
55
(39-70)
311
(275-372)
135
(115-162)
144
(92-193)
2
255
(193-320)
33
(13-45)
32
(16-54)
302
(240-383)
124
(110-145)
122
(98-138)
4
18
(8-26)
3
(1-4)
6
(0-15)
119
(111-130)
77
(69-85)
94
(69-140)
5
4
(4-5)
4
(3-6)
2
(0-3)
75
(73-78)
55
(52-61)
60
(49-76)
7
3
(0-4)
2
(1-4)
2
(0-3)
52
(46-58)
38
(37-38)
41
(36-47)
9
(0-4) '
3
(1-4)
1
(0-3)
32
(31-35)
29
(26-31)
28
(26-32)
'0
' 2 - 3)
1
(0-3;
'fl.7*
22
CO-25)
c. ~
(22-29)
22
: 19-26)
4 A
1 1
(0-4)
3
(1-9)
(3-7)
30
(23-34)
23
(23-32)
33
(23-43)
Emoayment
Stations
3
3
(5-9)
3
(5-13)
9
(6-14)
1C6
(87-126)
37
(62-96)
99
(33-120)
6
13
(0-40)
2
(0-3)
1
(0-3)
43
(38-50)
34
" (32-37)
42
(37-48)
8
8
(0-23)
1
(0-3)
1
(0-3)
30
(25-36)
24
(15-31)
24
(22-25)
98

-------
Table 10-
22. Mean
S t3 u
(range) fall concentrati
ior.s in West Point Lake
ons of P04-P and T? at e
curing 1990, 1991 ,= r.d
leven sampling
19 JC
Hainstein
S t a t i ons
Crthoonosphate
(jig/1)
1990 1991 1992
T otal
1990
Fhospnorus
Oig/L>
1991
1992
1
118
(92-160)
91 35
(53-165) (56-113)
158
(127-206)
133
(86-202)
219
(105-333)
2
100
(79-129)
62 50
(21-121) (47-52)
152
(121-179)
127
(33-166)
121
(113-128)
4
86
(69-103)
33 43
(6-67) (45-50)
143
(126-167)
98
(69-134)
105
(102-108)
5
53
(35-86)
36 27
(8-85) (24-30)
100
(71-136)
83
(55-129)
73
(62-83)
7
26
(0-43)
9 7
(2-21) (3-10)
72
(43-86)
58
(44-70)
43
(47-49)
9
10
(0-22)
0.3 2
(0-1) (2-2)
45
(27-56)
33
(28-37)
33
(33-33)
' 0
<2-7)

23
::;-34)

24
;23-IS)
:i
0
(0-16)
co- io) >2:
23
(13-43)
26
: 19-53)
75
:22~-27)
Emfcayment
Stations
3
9
(7-13)
'0 ;9
(2-14) (10-23)
70
(30-103)
sa
(49-93)
32
(55-99)
6
7
(0-18)
5 1.5
(0-13) (1-2)
46
(24-64)
44
" (29-55)
37
(32-42)
8
3
(0-8)
0.5 0.5
(0-2) (0-1)
27
(13-35)
25
(18-31)
19
(15-23)
99

-------
Tab'
Mains
Stati
1
2
4
5
7
9
10
E.Tcai
3tat
3
6
8
Mean (range) winter concentrations of FOi-P and T? at eleven
sampling stations in Vest Point Lake during i?9C, 1991 and 1992.
Total 'hcscror-Ls
US/1)
1990-91	1991-92
177
(128-245)
217
(191-250)
154
(123-183)
165
(136-200)
122
(111-137)
144
(128-167)
137
(130-148)
128
(119-136)
97	98
(78-124)	(88-113)
71
(55-91)
75
(64-82)
53
(45-74)
51
-7-;;)
:;9-65)
43
(45-51)
(22-20)
62
(50-78)
67
(39-105)
47
(38-55)
37
(29-49)
Orthophospnate
(A9/D
1990-91	1991-92
91
(78-107)
117
(71-145)
66
(50-82)
75
(67-88)
56
(49-60)
58
(55-62)
63
(60-68)
60
(51-72)
41
(26-66)
49
(30-82)
29
(7-65)
38
(18-65)
24
:",;-40)
13
(10-16)
(17-33)
15
(1-39)
(1-9)
9
(4-18)
17
(1-43)
9
(0-17)
3
(0-7)
100

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Tabl
Ha ins
Static
1
2
4
5
7
9
'0
Emcay
Stati
3
6
8
Mean (range) spring concentrations of P04-P and T? at eleven
sampling stations in West Point Lake during 1991 and 1992.
Orthoptics phate
0*9/I>
1991	1992
Total Phospnorus
Ug/U
1991	1992
93
(46-160)
74
(63-88)
203
(169-238)
147
(104-190)
40
(10-73)
32
(10-44)
142
(106-190)
115
(108-127)
35
(22-51)
27
(14-39)
126
(97-144)
90
(75-112)
27
(25-29)
12
(3-22)
99
(79-121)
70
(51-97)
9
(6-14)
5
(0-16)
57
(55-61)
49
(31-77)
4
(0-8)
3
(0-7)
46
(43-50)
39
(26-62)
(3-11)
.3-3)
35
(28-43)
12
(2'.-47)
15
(7-29)
(2-3)
-J
(35-49)
9
(1-25)
(0-2)
32
(68-112)
47 
(3?-53>
4
(0-8)
1
(0-2)
47
(36-65) -
42
(36-48)
2
(1-3)
3
(0-5)
39
(26-51)
31
(22-48)
101

-------
o
ro

J50

.JOO
o>

3
250
e

o
200


CO


1 50

c

0)
1 oo
o
c

o
50
o

o

J50
,	


.UK)
O)

3
250
c

o
200


a




1 SO
c

a>

o
1 OO
c

o

O
bO

O
fe/i M
124579 10 124579 10 124579 10
Winter
1990-91 m 1991 -92
.S5<"
124579 10 124579 10 124579 10
Figure 10-11. Seasonal mean total phosphorus and orlhophosphate concentrations at mainstem
sampling stations (headwaters at station 1 and dam at station 10) during the diagnostic study of
West Point Lake, June 1990 through October 1992.

-------
circumstances some of the accumulated phosphorus can reenter the water column and
reach the photic zcr.e. a process known as internal loading of phosphorus. Lakes
with anaerobic hypolimnia are more prone to internal loading sir.ce reducing
conditions mobilize phosphorus in the sediments and release soluble phosphorus
to the overlying water column.
A comparison of P04-P and TP concentrations among years at the mainstem
lake stations revealed a notable decline in both species from 1990 to 1991
(Figure 10-11) . This comparison was possible only for the summer and fall
quarters since sampling started in June 1990. The decline was more obvious
upstream than downstream, in fact, near the dam (station 10) there was no change
in mean summer phosphorus concentrations among years (Table 10-25) . There were
no consistent differences between 1991 and 1992 mean phosphorus concentrations
during any quarter. The phosphorus decrease from 1990 to 1991 was a continuation
ci a decline that began in the drought year of 1983 (I?D I99C . luring that
year, mean growing season TP measured at Franklin, GA exceeded C .; ~z/~L (EPA-EPD
1988).
Factors other than variation in stream flow have influenced phosphorus
content of West Point Lake. By the end of 1989, several Atlanta area counties
had banned use of high phosphate laundry detergents and a statewide ban enacted
by the Georgia General Assembly went into effect 1 January 1991 (EPD 1990). In
addition, EPD has imposed a 0.75 mg/1 phosphorus limit on major dischargers into
the Chattahoochee River between Franklin, GA and Buford Dam. Most major
dischargers were expected to comply by the end of 1991 while others will not meet
the final 0.75 mg/1 limit until 1993 or 1996 (EPD 1990). These actions resulted
in an estimated 50% reduction in phosphorus loading by major Atlanta area point
sources between 1988 and 1990 (EPA 1990). The decline in inlake phosphorus
103

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Table 10-25. Seasonal mean total nitrogen (pg/1 TN), total phosphorus (ng/1 IP)
and the ratio of TN to TP at select mainstem stations on West Point
Lake during the summer seasons of 1990, 1S91 and 1992.
Mainstem

1990


1991


1992

Station
TN
TP
TN:TP
TN
TP
TN:TP
TN
TP
TN:TP
1
1,750
311
5.6
1,525
135
11.3
1,510
144
10.5
4
1,289
119
10.8
1,108
77
14.4
1,103
94
11.7
5
1,043
75
13.9
1,063
55
19.3
1,188
60
19.8
7
1,040
52
20.0
883
38
23.2
868
41
21.2
9
753
32
23.5
772
29
26.6
868
28
31.0
10
833
22
37.9
617
24
25.7
636
22
28.9
104

-------
concentrations from 1990 levels to those encountered in 1991 and 1992 vas
probably caused, in oart, by reduced levels of incoming phosphorus. However,
reduced flows during summer and fall 1990 caused by below average rainfall
(Figure 10-2) resulted in higher phosphorus concentrations than expected under
more normal flow conditions (Table 10-4). In contrast, rainfall and discharge
during summer and fall 1991 were above normal.
During the summer seasons, the ratio of TN to TP at least doubled from the
headwaters (station 1) to the dam (station 10) each of the three years (Table 10-
25). The relatively large quantity of phosphorus upstream depressed the TN:TP
and as waters moved downstream TP diminished at a faster rate than TN resulting
in a higher TN:TP (Table 10-25) . Settling of particulate matter and its
associate P is the main cause of the TP decline. Waters that receive treated
municipal affluent often have relatively low (2-5) TN:TP (Raschke and Schultz
1 ?37) . wurir.g the summer of i?9C the upstream TN:I? vas 5.5 'ar.c the cam it
vas 37.9. Optimum TN:TP for phytoplankton growth is ir. the range of 11 to 16
(Porcella et al. 1574) and therefore upstream areas of Vesc ?oir.~ Lake in the
summer of 1990 were clearly nitrogen limited. In the summers of 1991 and 1992,
upstream (station 1) TN:TP values were 11.3 and 10.5, respectively, and
downstream (station 10) values were 25.0 and 28.9, respectively. The decline in
P that occurred from 1990 to 1991-92 (Tables 10-21, 10-22, 10-23 and 10-24) was
accompanied by a shift in the TN:TP indicating that the lake was becoming
phosphorus limited further upstream. Results of algal growth potential tests
were used to further define nutrient limitation in West Point Lake (Section
10.2.2).
105

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10.2.2 PHYTOPLANKTON
The photic zone composite water sample collected at each sampling station
(Table 10-2) was the source of water used for analysis of phytoplankton related
variables. Aliquots of the composite sample were separated for total organic
carbon (TOC) analyses (Table 10-3), phytoplankton identification and enumeration,
chlorophyll a analyses and the Algal Growth Potential Test (AGPT) (Table 10-26).
Phytoplankton counts and TOC analyses were conducted monthly and the AGPT was
done at intervals during the growing seasons (April - October) of 1991 and 1992
(Table 10-1). Chlorophyll a analyses were done biweekly during the growing
seasons and monthly at other times (Table 10-1). Phytoplankton primary
productivity was measured monthly (Table 10-1) at stations 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9 and
10 using the carbon-14 method (Table 10-26). Duplicate light and dark bottles
were incubated for 3 h at midday at each of three depths within the euphotic
zone: the lower limit zz the aupr.otic zcr.e. midway between the Irver limit and
the surface and about 0.3 a below the water surface. The lover limit of the
euuhotic zone was determined by multiplying the Seccni disk visibility by a
factor of four (Taylor 1971). Productivity measured during the 3-h exposure was
expanded to total daily productivity (mgC/m2-day) using solar radiation data
obtained during the exposure period and for the entire day (Boyd 1979). The
productivity value for each station was then adjusted to a monthly estimate based
on total solar radiation measured during that month. Finally, each station was
mathematically weighted to reflect the area of the reservoir that it represented
and a mean annual estimate for the entire reservoir was obtained. Continuous
solar radiation was measured at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Station, Auburn, Alabama (Table 10-4).
106

-------
Table 10-26.
Analytical methods used in measuring microbiological variables
during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake. 1990-1992.
Variable	Method	Reference
Chlorophyll a
Spectrophotometric
APHA et al. 1989
Phytoplankton Enuneration
Sedimentation chamber
APNA et al. 1989
Algal Growth Potential Test
U.S.E.P.A. Methodology
Athens, GA Lab.
Phytoplankton Primary
Productivi ty
Carbon 14 Method
APHA et al. 1989
Fecal Coliforms
Membrane Filter Procedure
APHA et al. 1989
107

-------
Phytoplankton density ranged from a low of 454 organisms/ml at station 3in
December of 1991 to a high of 9.120 organisms/ml at station 8 in June of 1992
(Tables 10-27, 10-28, 10-29 ana 10-30). Highest densities occurred during the
summer and fall and lowest densities during the winter and spring (Figure 10-12).
Riverine areas (stations 1 and 2) generally supported lower phytoplankton numbers
than downstream areas. During the summer and fall lacustrine areas (stations 7,
9 and 10) usually produced highest densities. During a 10-year study of West
Point. Lake, Bayne et al. (1990) reported mean cool season (November-April)
phytoplankton densities of 843 organisms/ml and mean warm season (May-October)
densities of 3,916 organisms/ml. Embayment station phytoplankton densities were
usually similar to the nearest mainstem station densities (Tables 10-27, 10-28,
10-29 and 10-30). New River embayment (station 3) located upstream in the
riverine zone of the lake frequently had lower phytoplankton densities than the
dovnstrean YailovjCrsek ^station 6) and Vehatikee Cr^ek 'station 3)
embavments.
Green algae (Division Chlorophyta) vera dominant on most sampling occasions
in the lentic areas (stations 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10) of West Point Lake (Figure 10-
3) . Diatoms (Division Chrysophyta) usually ranked first or second in numerical
abundance in lentic areas, but were clearly dominant at upstream, riverine
locations (e.g., station 1) (Figure 10-13). Diatoms become more competitive in
areas where water movement is sufficient to prevent their sinking beneath the
photic zone because of their relatively dense cell walls (Wetzel 1983). Diatoms
and green algae alternated in seasonal abundance with diatoms relatively more
abundant in winter-spring months and green algae more abundant in summer-fall
months (Figure 10-13). The euglenoids (Division Euglenophyta) were the third
most abundant group followed by dinoflagellates (Division Pyrrhophyta) and blue-
green algae (Division Cyanobacteria) (Figure 10-13). From 1976 through 1985
108

-------
Table 10-27. Seasonal mean (range) total organic carbon concentrations, chlorophyll a concentrations anu
phytoplankton densities at West Point Lake mainstern and embayment stations during the summers of
1990, 1991 and 1992.
Total Organic Carbon
Hainsteni	(mg/l)
Stations	1990	1991	1992
4.08
(3-6)
3.41
(3-4)
3.82
(3-5)
1990
4.9
(3-7)
Chloru|Jiy(l u
(^g/l)
	1991	1992
2.0
(2-3)
2.6
(2-3)
Phytoplankton Density
(organisms/ml)
1990	1991	1992
1071	868	1365
(913-1303) (678-1163) (1148-1622)
2.83
(3-3)
4.00
(3-6)
3.91
(3-5)
12.2
(5-23)
10. U
(fi-15)
8.5
(4-14)
1270	1120	1886
(959-1622) (105B-1171) (1775-1991)
4.35
(4-5)
4.40
(4-5)
4.11
(3-5)
36.0
(34-38)
IV.3
(Uii)
22.6
(6-34)
1812	1654	2248
(1630-1986) (1314-2000) (1909-2676)
4.48
(4-5)
3.83
(4-4)
4.73
(4-6)
25.7
(21-31)
)/./
(10
19.3
(14-29)
2380	2072	2596
(2143-2726) (1625-2563) (1619-3268)
4.08
(4-4)
4.05
(4-5)
3.87
(4-4)
21.5
(21-22)
I5JI
(in jii)
15.6
(9-24)
2591	1471	2478
(2092-3257) (1101-2001) (2334-2675)
3.84
(3-5)
3.70
(4-4)
4.21
(4-5)
13.4
(12-15)
1. /
(11 JU)
14.0
(9-22)
2246	1750	3819
(1705-2519) (1432-2337) (1838-6613)
10
3.48
(3-4)
4.05
(4-4)
3.94
(4-4)
8.9
(6-11)
1.1. ii
(II - U.)
10.6
(3-19)
3059	2153	3781
(1385-5655) (1356-3225). (2654-5819)
11
4.67
(3-7)
3.88
(3-5)
3.48
(3-4)
3.4
(2-5)
/..IN
>)
7.3
(4-11)
1491	1733	2510
(1095-1719) (812-2818) (1713-2885)
Enibuyment
Stat ions
3
4.03
(4-5)
4.25
(4-5)
4.35
(4-5)
25.9
(14-39)
\t. 1
(V
11.7
(0-15)
1721	1343	1886
(1029-2169) (1133-1498) (1459-2157)
4.36
(4-5)
4.20
(4-4)
4.14
(4-5)
19.4	14.(	14.7	1745	1931	2979
(13-23) (12-11)) (13-17)	(1660-1867) (1108-2670) (2561-3311)
8	3.45	4.01	3.78	11.8	11.U	11.9	2206	2358	5267
(3-4)	(4-4)	(3-4)	(11-12) (8-15)	(9-14)	(1947-2460) (1986-2753) (2242-9120)

-------
Table 10-28. Seasonal mean (range) total organic carlum concentrations, chlorophyll a concentrations and
phytoplankton densities at West Point Ldlu: mainstem and embayment stations during the fall of
1990, 1991 and 1992.
Mainstem
Stations
1990
Total Organic Carbon
(mg/l)
1991 1992*
1990
Chlorophyll a
(M9/D
1991
1992*
1990
Phytoplankton Density
(organisms/ml)
1991 1992*
1
2.72
3.62
3.75
2.6
2.3
1.34
937
807
1212

(2-3)
(3-5)
(3-4)
(2-4)
(1-4)
(1-1)
(611-1448)
(663-892)
(1204-1220)
2
2.41
2.64
 3.21
0.5
4.1
5.8
1062
1163
1487

(2-3)
(3-3)
(3-4)
(0-1)
(2-U)
(6-6)
(675-1592)
(837-1441)
(1372-1601)
4
2.94
3.06
3.69
7.5
V.t
1J.1
1201
1528
1717

(3-3)
(3-4)
(3-4)
(0-10)
(l-.'s)
(5-20)
(931-1573)
(791-2272)
(1691-1743)
5
3.53
2.72
3.54
11.1

21.7
1344
1665
1480

(3-4)
(2-3)
(3-4)
(7-19)

(6-35)
(786-1629)
(860-2525)
(1441-1518)
7
3.37
2.93
3.51
14.4
U.n
16.6
1234
1B64
2135

(3-3)
(2-3)
(3-3)
(10-21)
(12-iJ.)
(9-23)
(820-1867)
(1028-2867)
(1789-2480)
9
3.23
3.01
3.59
13.0
Ii.1
14.8
1466
1767
2573

(3-3)
(3-3)
(3-4)
(10-16)
(8-1U)
(7-22)
(1086-2053)
(1272-2586)
(2152-2993)
10
3.81
2.99
3.58
9.0
7.4
13.9
1283
1855
3023

(3-5)
(3-4)
(3-4)
(4-12)
-K>
(4-21)
(1105-1425)
(1011-2494)
(1675-4371)
11
2.86
3.19
3.64
4.0
6. 1
6.2
1288
1610
2541

(3-3)
(3-3)
(3-4)
(0-9)
(411)
(6-6)
(880-1982)
(1279-1861)
(1627-3454)
Ent>ayiiient









Stations









3
3.76
2.88
3.76
6.4
V-O
7.8
1185
1347
1891

(3-4)
(3-3)
(3-4)
(1-18)
(O Iw)
(8-8)
(735-2062)
(1076-1557)
(1774-2008)
6
3.82
3.86
3.77
12.5
v.. S
8.9
1552
1683
2923

(3-5)
(3-5)
(4-4)
(8-20)
(V  1'>)
(9-9)
(1412-1803)
(948-2156)
(1780-4066)
8
2.94
3.55
3.50
6.8
13. i
6.0
1089
2182
2845

(3-3)
(3-4)
(3-4)
(6-8)
(12-15)
(6-6)
(993-1253)
(1198-3315)
(1663-4027)
*Data available for September and October only.

-------
Table 10-29. Seasonal mean (range) total organic carbon concentrations, chlorophyll a concentrations ana
phytoplankton densities at West Point Lake mainstem and einbayment stations during the winter of
1990, 1991 and 1992.
Total Organic Carbon
Hainstem	(mg/l)
Stations	1990-91	1991-92
Chlorophyl I a
(cg/l)
1990-91	1991-92
Phytoplankton Density
(organisms/ml)
1990-91	1991-92
2.92
(3-3)
3.68
(3-4)
1.3
(1-2)
2.2
(2-4)
708
(582-898)
939
(630-1127)
2.64
(3-3)
3.24
(3-4)
1.3
(1-2)
2.5
(1-4)
701
(666-734)
1002
(755-1324)
2.67
(3-3)
3.30
(3-4)
1.9
(1-2)
2.U
(1-2)
2103
(620-4571)
897
(717-1235)
3.29
(2-4)
3.74
(3-5)
3.9
(2-7)
2.U
(2-4)
881
(729-996)
1075
(955-1158)
3.32
(3-4)
2.81
(2-3)
8.8
(3-16)
b.6
( 5 - / >
955
(794-1221)
1199
(1032-1396)
2.69
(2-3)
2.79
(2-3)
7.6
(4-14)
7.1
(5-9)
1299
(1136-1599)
1362
(1234-1511)
10
3.56
(3-5)
2.97
(3-3)
4.6
(2-6)
V. u
(7-13)
1201
(1098-1289)
1492
(1095-1312)
11
2.89
(3-3)
3.82
(3-6)
2.2
(2-2)
4.6
(4-5)
899
(746-986)
1151
(948-1312)
Entoayinent
Stations
3
2.44
(2-3)
3.08
(3-4)
1.6
(2-2)
I.ii
(1-1)
742
(623-964)
569
(454-691)
2.82
(3-3)
3.02
(3-4)
9.4
(7-11)
llJ.il
(8-14)
1519
(817-2028)
2631
(1574-4313)
2.88
(3-3)
2.87
(3-3)
10.7
(7-16)
16..d
(13-22)
1565
(1451-1786)
1645
(1565-1715)

-------
Table 10-30. Seasonal mean (range) total organic carhoi
phytoplankton densities at West Point Laku
1991 and 1992.
Total Organic Carbon
Mainstem	(mg/l)
Stations	 	1991	1992
Chlorophyll a
(M9/D
1991	1992
4.7 4
(4-5)
11.33
(3-27)
2.8
(2-4)
1.9
(1-3)
4.65
(4-6)
2.63
(2-3)
4.5
(2-7)
4.0
(2-6)
4.20
(4-5)
2.78
(2-3)
11.3
(2-16)
11.2
(3-34)
4.49
(4-5)
3.01
(3-4)
12.9
(3-23)
12.6
(7-30)
3.85
(4-4)
2.86
(3-3)
12.8
(8-17)
10.2
(4-1b)
4.61
(4-6)
3.20
(3-4)
13.1
(8-16)
11.6
(6-16)
10
4.68
(4-6)
3.29
(3-3)
9.1
(6-15)
11.0
(5-21)
11
3.73
(4-4)
2.93
(3-3)
4.2
(3-5)
5.3
(J-H)
Entoayment
Stat ions
3
4.83
(4-6)
2.63
(2-3)
5.5
(4-6)
6. >
a -v)
4.06
(4-4)
2.90
(3-3)
17.3
(11-24)
li.ii
(4 ' I-')
3.64
(3-4)
3.06
(3-4)
10.3
(4-15)
tt.O
(3-16)
concentrations, chlorophyll a concentrations and
mainstem and embayment stations during the spring of
Phytoplankton Density
(organisms/ml)
1991	1992
1167
(1041-1266)
1305
(1169-1543)
1392
(978-1604)
1305
(808-1606)
1331
(750-1711)
1876
(1578-2344)
1621
(671-2418)
1629
(1212-1840)
1493
(1146-1957)
1559
(1398-1700)
1450
(1383-1547)
1466
(1216-1855 >
973
(888-1129)
1399
(1059-1659)
946
(674-1121)
1378
(999-1674)
1350	1956
(1119-1637)	(1065-3483)
1762	1 470
(1177-2496)	(1344-1605)
1441
(1105-1694)
1332
(1044-1596)

-------
A .OOO
<.ooo
1 2 4 5 7 9 10 1 2 4 B 7 6 10 1 2 4 5 7 9 10
4.QOO
E
1f) 3.GOO
E
cn
o> -
>
~ 1,000
co
c
Q)
Q
o
Winter
1990-91 1991-92
If.OOO
.OOO
4.000
1.000
Figure 10-12. Seasonal mean phytoplankton densities at mainstem sampling stations (headwaters
at station 1 and dam at station 10) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June 1990
through October 1992.

-------
100
O)
o
d)
OL
100
c:
a>
o
a>
Q_
o
jSiaiionZI
SFWSpS FWSpS l; S F W Sp S FWSpS F


station m
S F WSpS F WSpS I- S F WSpS F WSpS F
1990
1991
1 992
1 990
1991
1 992
HZl Chlorophyll ED CJwyuophy Ui I _] Cy.u i< .I i.n.lui ui E3 Euglonophyta Hi Pyrrhophytu
Figure 10-13. Percent composition of phytoplankton communities by algal Division during the
diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June 1990 through October 1992.

-------
diatoms and green algae were usually most abundant followed by blue-green algae
(3avne ec al. 1990). During those years of increasing lake trophic status, blue-
green algae were dominant on 11 of the sampling occasions (station-date) and
green algae increased in abundance. In contrast, from June 1990 through October
1992 blue-green algae were dominant on only one occasion (December 1991 at
station 6) and diatoms appeared to be increasing in relative abundance (Figure
10-13). This shift in community structure might be a response to changes in
water quality, most notably the increase in TN:TP ratio in the lentic areas of
the lake.
Sixty-six algal taxa were identified during the study (Table 10-31).
Virtually all of the organisms have been previously reported from Georgia
reservoirs (Morris et al. 1977). Chlorophyta (green algae) taxa were most
numerous followed by Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and Chrysophyza (primarily
diatoms).
Pennate diatoms were common ana abundant throughout the reservoir and, in
aggregate, were numerically dominant on most sampling occasions (Table 10-32).
The most commonly encountered pennate diatoms that could be identified without
special preparation were Tabellaria spp., Svnedra spp. , and Asterior.ella formosa.
The centric diatoms, Melosira distans and M^_ granulata were abundant and
frequently ranked among the top three dominant organisms. Dominant green algae
included Chlamvdomonas spp. , Ankistrodesmus convolutus. Scenedesmus quadricauda.
Oocvstis sp. and Scenedesmus sp. In the division Euglenophyta (euglenoids)
Trachelomonas spp. and Euglena spp. were occasionally among the dominant taxa
(Table 10-32). Bluegreen algae were rarely among the dominant organisms
encountered. Dominant blue-greens were Oscillatoria spp. and Chroococcus spp.
115

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Table 10-31. Taxa list of plankton algae identified in West Point Lake from June
1990 through October 1992.
Actinastrim sp.
Anki strodesmus convotutus
Ankistrodesmus falcatus
Ankistrodesmus nannoselene
Arthrodeses sp.
Ch 1 antvdomonas sp.
Chodatella sp.
Closteriun sp.
Coelastrim sp.
Cosmariun sp.
Cruciqenia apiculata
Cruciqenia sp.
Desmidiim sp.
Pictvosohaerilti sp.
Elakatothrix sp.
Euastrum sp.
Eudorina sp.
Franceia sp.
Gtoeocystis sp.
Golenkinia sp.
Ki rchneriella sp.
Micrasterias sp.
CHLOROPHYTA
Oocystis sp.
Pachvcladon unbrinus
Pachycladon sp.
Pandorina sp.
Pediastrun sp.
Scenedesmus abundans
Scenedesmus acininatus
Scenedesmus armatus
Scenedesmus denticulatus
Scenedesmus quadricauda
Scenedesmus sp.
Schroederia sp.
Selenastrun sp.
Sphaerocystis sp.
Staurastum sp.
Tetraedron caudatun
Tetraedron gracile
Tetraedron mininn-in
Tetraedron trigonun
Tetraedron sp.
Tetrastrun sp.
Treubaria sp.
Green Filament
Asterionella sp.
Dinobryon sp.
Metosi'ra distans
^elosira granulata
Centric diatoms
Pennate diatoms
Anabaena sp.
Chroococcus sp.
Coelosphaerium sp.
Gtoeocapsa sp.
Gorohosphaeria sp.
Lyngbva sp.
CYANOBACTERIA
Herismopedia sp.
Microcystis scp.
Osci Uatoria sp.
Raphidioosis sp.
Spi rulina sp.
B-G Filament
EUGLEMOPHYTA
Eug1ena sp.	Trachelomonas sp.
Phacus sp.
PYRRHOPHYTA
Ceratiun sp.	Peridinium sp.
116

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Table 10-32. Dominant algal taxa encountered at representative mainstera sampling
stations on Vest Point Lake from June 1990 through October 1992.
	Station	
Season	1	ft	Z	IS.
Sunmer
1990
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Chlamvdomonas sp.
3.	Helosira distans
3. Trachetomonas sp.
1.	Perr>ate diatom
2.	Chtamvdomonas sp.
3.	Scenedesmus sp.
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Chtamvdomonas sp.
3.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
1.	Pemate diatoms
2.	Chtamydomonas sp.
3.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
Fall
1990
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Chtamydomonas sp.
3.	Helosira distans
1.	Pemate diatom
1.	Chtamvdomonas sp.
2.	Oocyst is sp.
3.	Scenedesmus sp.
1.	Chlamvdomonas sp.
2.	Pemate diatom
3.	Trachelomonas sp.
1.	Pemate diatoa
2.	Chtamydomonas sp.
3.	Scenedesmus
quadricauda
Winter
1990-91
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Helosira qranutata
3.	Chlamvdomonas sp.
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Chtamydomonas sp.
3.	HeIosira qranutata
1.	Chtamvdomonas sp.
2.	Pennate diatom
3.	Trachelomonas sp.
1.	Chlamvdomonas sp.
2.	Pemate diatom
3.	He Iosi ra distans
Spring
1991
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Trachetomonas sp.
3.	Chtamvdomonas sp.
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Chlamvdomonas sp.
3.	Trachelomonas sp.
1.	Pennate diatom
1.	Chiamydomonas sp.
2.	Trachelomonas sp.
3.	Helosira distans
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	ChIamydomonas sp.
3.	Helosira distans
Sumter
1591
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Trachelomonas so.
3.	E'jglena sp.
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Chtamydomonas sp.
3.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
1.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
2.	Pemate diatom
3.	Chtamydomonas sc.
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
3.	Cht amydomonas sp.
Fait
1991
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Helosi ra qranutata
3.	Chtamydomonas so.
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	ChIamydomonas sp.
3.	Metosira distans
1.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
2.	Pennate diarcm
3.	Melosira distars
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
3.	Chtamydomonas sp.
Winter
1991-92
1.	Permate diatom
2.	Trachelomonas sp.
3.	Metosira distans
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Trachelomonas sp.
3.	Chtamvdomonas sp.
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Helosi ra di stans
3.	Trachetomonas sp.
1.	Helosi ra distans
2.	Pennate diatom
3.	Helosira qranutata
Spring
1992
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Chlamvdomonas sp.
3.	Oocyst is sp.
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	ChIamydomonas sp.
3.	Trachetomonas sp.
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Trachelomonas sp.
3.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
1.	Helosira distans
2.	Helosi ra qranutata
3.	ChIamydomonas sp.
3.	Pemate diatom
Sumter
1992
Fall
1992
(2 mo.)
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Chtamydomonas sp.
3.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Chtamydomonas sp.
3.	Helosi ra distans
3.	Trachelomonas sp.
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
3.	ChIamydomonas sp.
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Trachetomonas sp.
3.	ChIamydomonas sp.
1.	Pemate diatom
2.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
3.	ChIamydomonas sp.
1.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
2.	Pemate diatom
3.	ChIamydomonas sp.
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Ankistrodesmus
convolutus
3.	Ch t amydomonas sp.
1.	Pennate diatom
2.	Anki strodesmus
convolutus
3.	Chiamydomonas sp.
117

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Some changes in dominant: organisms have occurred since the 1976-1985 study
(3ayne et al. 1990). Cvclotalla spp. and Melosira variar.s vers among the
dominant centric diatoms in the earlier study, but were not dominant in this
study. Among green algae, Oocvstis spp. emerged as a dominant on occasion but
was not dominant in the earlier study. The blue-green, Oscillatoria spp., was
a dominant in both studies, but Chroococcus spp. replaced Spirulina laxa as
dominant blue-green organisms in this study.
Among the dominant phytoplankton genera, all occur with great frequency in
reservoirs of the southeastern United States (Taylor et al. 1979). Palmer (1969)
listed Ankistrodesmus. Chlamvdomonas. Euglena. Melosira and Scenedesmus as genera
of algae tolerant of organic pollution. In addition, each of the dominant genera
listed in Table 10-32 were found to occur most frequently at mean total
phosphorus concentrations ranging from 100 to 200 jug/1 and mean N02" + N03*
concentrations of from 350 to 700 /ig/1 (Lambou et al. 1981}. Tr.e phytoplankton
community composition of West Point Lake is indicative of a typical, nutrient
enriched sout'neastarn reservoir.
Phaeophytin-corrected, chlorophyll a concentration is an indicator of
phytoplankton biomass and is a variable often used to determine the trophic
status of lakes in the absence of macrophytes (Carlson 1977, EPA 1990). It is
a variable that integrates the physical, chemical and biological environmental
components into one expression of biotic response and is, therefore, superior to
simple physical (water transparency) or chemical (nutrients) variables used to
characterize trophic status (Hern et al. 1981). Corrected chlorophyll a
concentrations from about 6.4 to 56.0 /ig/1 are indicative of eutrop'nic waters
(Carlson 1977). Waters having concentrations >56.0 /ig/1 are considered
hypereutrophic. Raschke (1987) reported a maximum chlorophyll a concentration
of 147 /ig/1 in West Point Lake during summer of 1986.
118

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Chlorophyll a concentrations in West Point Lake ranged from a high of 39
nz/1 in the New River embayment in June of 1990 to a low of 0.0 l:z/1 at station
2 in October and station 11 in November of 1990 (Tables 10-27, 10-23, 10-29 and
10-30). Mean summer concentrations were generally highest and mean winter
concentrations were lowest (Figure 10-14). Spring and fall concentrations were
similar.
Except for the winter of 1991-92, seasonal mean chlorophyll a
concentrations were always highest at some mid-reservoir location (Figure 10-14).
During the summer, chlorophyll a concentrations were highest at station 4 each
year (Table 10-27). Station 4 is in the transition zone of the reservoir between
the upstream riverine area (station 1 and 2) and the downstream lacustrine zone
(stations 7, 9 and 10). During those summers, declining abiogenic turbidity
(Table 10-9) coupled with abundant plant nutrients (Tables 10-17 and 10-21) and
annual peaks in solar radiation (Table 10--i) resulted in ooti;au3 conditions for
p'nytoplankton growth. During the fall, winter and spring the most favorable
growing conditions for phytoplankton shifted further downstream usually in the
vicinity of stations 5 and 7. In the winter of 1991-52, chlorophyll a
concentrations increased from the headwaters all the way to the dam (Figure 10-
14).
During the summer, mean chlorophyll a concentrations at upstream locations
(station 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) were higher in 1990 than in 1991 and 1992 (Table
10-27 and Figure 10-14). At downstream locations (stations 8, 9, 10 and 11) 1991
and 1992 concentrations were higher than 1990 concentrations. During the summer
of 1990 rainfall averaged 9.4 cm below normal and mean daily discharge at
Vhitesburg was 3,187 cfs (Table 10-4). The summers of 1991 and 1992 were similar
119

-------
-4 O
ro
o
CD
C
o
'M

k.
-4->
C
a>
o
c
o
O
20
1 O
1992
1 2457 B 10 1 24 579 10 124579 10
-l 0
o>
3 30
c
o
4-*
ro 20
*-
c.
a>
o
C io
o
O
Winter
1990-91 1991-92
	mbIII mbhBIB .
I 2 4 5 7 U 10 1 2457910 12457910
Station
124 57910 12457910 12457910
1991
1992
u
124570 10 124579 10 124579 10
Station
Figure 10-14. Seasonal mean chlorophyll a concentrations at mainstem sampling stations (headwaters
at station 1 and dam at station 10) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake, June 1990
through October 1992.

-------
in that June rainfall was well above normal (+11.3 cm in 1991 and +10.9 cm in
1992) each year resulting in a seasonal mean rainfall surplus of 10.2 cm in 1991
and 7.0 cm in 1992. Mean daily discharge at Whitesburg averaged 4,326 cfs in
1991	and 3,530 cfs in 1992. Reduced flows in 1990 may have resulted in lower
abiogenic turbidity in the upstream portions of the lake and algal biomass
(chlorophyll a) responded with an increase. In 1991 and 1992 increased flows
caused higher abiogenic turbidities in the upstream areas and moved nutrients
more quickly downstream where they were utilized by lacustrine phytoplankton
communities. Light related data (Table 10-9) only partially support this
hypothesis, however. Mean summer chlorophyll a concentrations in 1991 and 1992
were similar. Some of the decline in chlorophyll a from 1990 levels to 1991 and
1992	levels was probably attributable to higher nutrient concentrations entering
the lake in 1990 (Tables 10-17 and 10-21).
Seasonal mean chlorophyll a :oncantra;ior.s fcr fall vers similar amor.z
years (Table 10-23 and Figure 10-14). Data for fail of 1392 included only two
months, September ana October, because the study was completed in October 1992.
Falls of both 1990 and 1991 were drier than normal (-9.3 and -3.0 cm,
respectively) and this was reflected in the mean daily discharge into the lake
(3,137 and 4,302 cfs, respectively) as measured at Whitesburg (Table 10-4 and
Figure 10-2).
Seasonal mean chlorophyll a concentrations were also similar among years
for both the winter and spring seasons (Tables 10-29 and 10-30 and Figure 10-14).
Below average rainfall occurred at West Point Dam in the winter (-8.8 and -2.3
cm for 1990-91 and 1991-92, respectively) and spring (-8.8 and -14.8 cm for 1991
and 1992, respectively) although heavy rainfall in the upper Chattahoochee River
basin during May 1991 resulted in extremely high discharge during that month at

-------
both Vhitesburg and West Point Dam (Table 10-4 and Figure 10-2) . The effects of
this rather unusual hycirological even; vas not readily detectable in either the
monthly (Appendix 10) or seasonal chlorophyll a data (Table 10-30). Springtime
phytoplankton assemblages are apparently resilient and well adjusted to
conditions apt to develop during this period of high rainfall and watershed
runoff.
Phytoplankton primary productivity is the rate of formation of organic
matter over a specified time period (Wetzel 1983). The C-14 method of measuring
productivity approximates net productivity, which is the gross accumulation of
new organic matter minus any losses (e.g. respiration) that occur during the
specified time interval. Phytoplankton biomass is an important variable
influencing primary productivity although the efficiency with which a unit of
phytoplankton biomass produces a unit of organic natter Cphotosynthetic
efficiency' is quite variable	 Ifficier.cy :=r. be affected by such
physicochemicai variables as light, temperature, degree of turbulence and
nutrients. Species composition, size structure of the plankton algae and
predation are examples of biotic influences on efficiency. Bavne et al. (1990)
reported photosynthetic efficiencies (mgC fixed per mg chlorophyll a  hour) of
West Point Lake phytoplankton communities ranging from 0.2 to 4.9. Phytoplankton
primary productivity integrates a number of environmental variables in addition
to algal biomass into an expression of system productivity. Productivity rates
have also been used to trophically categorize lakes. Lakes with productivities
ranging from 250-1000 mgC/m2,day are considered mesotrophic and values >1000
mgC/m2-day are eutrophic (Wetzel 1983).
Primary productivity, expressed on an areal basis, was highest in the
summer (Table 10-33) and lowest during winter (Table 10-35). Spring and fall
productivities (Tables 10-36 and 10-34) were similar. During the winter and the
122

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Table 10-33. Seasonal mean (range) phytoplankton primary productivity
(expressed on volume ana areal bases) of West Point Lake at
representative mainstem and embayraent stations during the summers
of"1990, 1991 and 1992.
Mainstem
Stations
1990
Primary Productivity
(mgC/nf'hr)
1991 1992
Primary Productivity
(mgC/m^day)
1990 1991 1992
1
23.9
4.7
6.8
513
53
153

(11-38)
(3-6)
(2-13)
(170-968)
(39-65)
(17-333)
2
86.4
34.6
45.4
1630
419
1157

(40-155)
(30-42)
(8-93)
(587-3221)
(285-650)
(78-2653)
4
140.1
81.5
87.3
2968
1952
2086

(121-168)
(62-93)
(38-150)
(2383-3646)
(777-2836)
(155-3856)
9
53.3
28.7
53.3
2137
1201
3349

(41-66)
(22-36)
(28-80)
(1453-2820)
(1056-1383)
(1667-5542)
10
31.6
24.7
39.9
1262
1091
2124

(30-35)
(18-30)
(16-77)
(950-1699)
(981-1202)
(1218-3709)
Embayment






Stations






6
53.7
42.5
35.3
2204
1345
2043

(23-104)
(36-51)
(33-38)
<600-i510:
(1058-1645)
(1521-2517)
2
45.2
:o.3


997
'962

;25-63)
:' 5 - 22)
, 'l-* \;
; '3C0-1358)
(761-1144)
"29-3051)
123

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Table 10-34. Seasonal mean (range) phytoplankton primary productivity (expressed
on volume and areal bases) of West Point Lake at representative
raainstem and embayment stations during the falls of 1?9C. 1991 and
1992.
Hainstem
Stations
1990
Primary Productivity
(mgC/nr1hr)
1991 1992*
1990
Primary Productivity
(mgC/irf'day)
1991 1992*
1
2.6
(2-3)
2.4
(1-4)
1.5
(1-2)
93
(30-209)
37
(23-61)
31
(21-41)
2
5.0
(1-12)
9.3
(3-22)
9.2
(9-10)
91
(48-159)
175
(41-411)
169
(126-212)
4
27.9
(9-60)
16.3
(8-31)
27.1
(23-32)
454
(197-903)
353
(91-804)
592
(563-620)
9
38.3
(24-56)
17.9
(15-21)
20.0
(18-22)
1399
(604-1984)
932
(629-1259)
970
(712-1229)
10
15.3
(10-23)
18.8
(15-25)
22.6
(13-33)
708
(356-994)
806
(558-1273)
904
(688-1120)
Embayment
Stations
6
27.7
(12-49)
20.6
(19-22)
19.1
(13-21;.
638
<315-1239)
737
(560-385)
912
;9C6-918)
3
19.1
(3-29)
* . /
;io-i?:>
Q-%)
sTS
;-22-10cG>
i3
 i10-101;)
3 19
:;1i-625)
'Data availaDle for SeDtencer ard Cctccer cniy.
124

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Table 10-35. Seasonal mean (range) phytoplankton primary productivity (expressed
on volume and areal bases) of Vest Point Lake at representative
mainstem and embayment stations during the winters of 1990, 1991
and 1992.
Primary Productivity
(mgC/mf'day)
1990-91		1991-92
38
(16-57)
14
(8-21)
37
(19-70)
25
(22-29)
106
(24-250)
39
(35-42)
394
(83-928)
291
(111-586)
512
(147-819)
475
(263-810)
402
(155-694)
339
'234-444)
;334-452;
'I. r-76;)
Mainstem
Stations
Primary Productivity
(mgC/m3hr)
1990-91	1991-92
1.9
(1-3)
1.4
(1-2)
1.2
(1-2)
1.4
(1-2)
4.5
(1-9)
2.8
(2-3)
14.4
(5-31)
9.3
(5-14)
10
13.5
(7-22)
16.9
(7-30)
Embayment
Stations
6
18.1
(9-29)
14.8
(11-20)
13.0
(12-14)
11.*
(3-'.4)
125

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Table 10-36. Seasonal mean (range) phytoplankton primary productivity (expressed
on volume and areal bases) of West Point Lake at representative
mainstem and embayment stations during the springs of 1991 and
1992.
Mainstem
Stations
Primary Productivity
(mgC/nr'*hr)
1991	1992
5.2
(1-10)
4.6
(3-6)
7.8
(4-10)
40.3
(27-54)
30.2
(2-47)
40.1
(17-57)
29.1
(14-40)
28.4
(26-32)
10
16.6
(9-24)
16.9
(12-25)
Embayment
Stations
5
30.2
(13-47)
34.2
(13-47)
10.7
(7-17)
.J"-2 )
Primary Productivity
(mgC/mIday)
1991 	1992
109
(16-270)
93
(14-139)
142
(54-249)
1002
(576-1429)
530
(18-877)
977
(256-1738)
944
(782-1143)
1547
(532-2444)
1048
(328-2012)
883
(747-1050)
840
(531-1117)
1250
(335-1987)
576
(256-360)
' ' 'iJ- '* Up
27C9)
126

-------
soring of 1991 there was a progressive increase in productivity from headwaters
;o the dam forebay (Figure 10-15). In the summer, fail and spring of 1992.
highest productivity occurred at some midlake location, usually station 9 (Table
10-33, 10-34 and 10-35).
Under relatively low flow conditions that existed during the summer of
1990, (Figure 10-2) primary productivity was higher at the upstream stations 1,
2, 4 and 6 than 1991 and 1992 rates at those same locations (Figure 10-15).
However, at downstream stations 8, 9 and 10 highest productivities occurred in
1992. Productivity in the Yellowjacket Creek embayment was consistently higher
than in Wehadkee Creek.
During the fall (Table 10-34), differences in primary productivity among
years were not clear. Highest productivity varied among years from one station
to the next (Figure 10-15). In the winter (Table 10-25), production rates
measured ir. 1990-91 vers somewhat higher than 1991-92 rates at =11 but one
sampling location. However, spring production rates were considerably higher at
most locations in 1992 than in 1991 (Table 10-36). Embayment differences were
not as obvious during the fall, winter and spring seasons as they were during the
summer.
From 1976 through 1979, Bayne et al. (1983) using methods similar to those
used in this study, measured mean annual primary productivity of West Point Lake.
They reported values ranging from a low of 550 mgC/m2-day in 1976 to a high of
763 mgC/m2-day in 1979. During the past 12 years (1980-81 through 1991-92) mean
annual primary productivity has varied between 504 mgC/m2-day in 1980-81 and
1,767 mgC/m2*day in 1985-86 (Figure 10-16). Some of the data presented in Figure
10-16 appeared in a publication describing the cultural eutrophication of West
127

-------
4.000
O 4,000
3
T3
O
L_
3.000
>
1
CJ
 2,000
a.
1 .ooo
Winter
"I .ooo
3,OOO
2.OOO
1.000
1249 10 1 2 4 9 10 1249 10
1990-91 1991-92
	aU
J.OOO
;s.ooo
1.1)00
I 2 4 U 10 124910 I 2 'I 9 10
Station
Fall
1990 1991	1992
ill -Jl	-!!
1249 10 1249 10	1249 10
Spring
1991	1992
dl h
1 2 4 O to 1 2 4 9 to	1249 10
Station
Figure 10-15. Seasonal mean phytoplankton primary productivity at mainstem reservoir stations
(headwaters at station 1 and dam at station 10) during the diagnostic study of West Point Lake,
June 1990 through October 1992.

-------
3,SCO
Annual Productivity
~!~ Summer Productivity
5,000

O)
CO
r~
u
CO
4,000
3,000
I .
2,000
1 ,000


3
CO!
30 
>
20
10
P
O
_0
SI
o
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92
~ Discharge ~i~~ Chlorophyll a
Figure 10-16. Mean annua! and summer-season primary productivity for West
Point Lake from June 1980 through October 1992 (upper graph). Mean annual
Chattahoochee River discharge (at Whitesburg, GA) and mean growing
season (April-October) chlorophyll a (phaeophytin corrected) concentrations
measured in lentic areas (between stations 4 and 10) of West Point Lake
sampling years.
129

-------
Point Lake during a 10 year period from 1976 through 1985 (Bayne et al. 1990).
A surge in primary productivity of the lake was documented for the period 1981
through 1985. This move from mesotrophic to highly eutrophic status was
attributed to a rise in volume of wastewater entering the Chattahoochee River
from urban centers, primarily the Atlanta metropolitan area. Since that time,
annual productivity for the lake has oscillated between a record high of 1,767
mgC/m2-day in 1986 and lows of near 700 mgC/m2-day in 1987 and 1991 (Figure 10-
16). The variation in primary productivity was not well correlated with water
discharge (hydraulic retention time) or phytoplankton chlorophyll a
concentrations (estimated algal biomass). Highest productivity occurred during
a drought year with abundant chlorophyll a (1986), however, the following year
was also a drought year with abundant chlorophyll a and productivity declined to
a cyclical low. Second highest productivity occurred during a year (1989) of
relatively high discharge and moderate chlorophyll a concentrations (Figure 10-
16). Those oscillations in productivity may be related to complex interactions
among phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish (primarily shad) that are controlled
by cyclical variations in fish density (Bayne 1991).
Since 1981, summer season production rates have remained well above the
eutrophic threshold level and, at times (1985, 1986 and 1989), have reached
extremely high levels (Figure 10-16). It is apparent that summer productivity
has a controlling influence on annual productivity of the lake. The overall
trend in phytoplankton primary productivity of West Point Lake since the mid-
1980' s has been downward.
The Algal Growth Potential Test (AGPT) determines the total quantity of
algal biomass supportable by the test waters and provides a reliable estimate of
the bioavailable and limiting nutrients (Raschke and Schultz 1987) . Algal growth
potential was much higher at the upstream riverine station (station 1) than at
130

-------
downstream locations (Table 10-37 and Appendix 10). Station 1 concentrations
were about an order of magnitude higher than dam forebay (station 10)
concentrations each year. This was obviously an effect of the high nutrient
concentrations existing at the upstream locations (Figures 10-10 and 10-11).
West Point Lake waters were capable of supporting higher algal biomass (mg
dry weight/1) during the 1990 growing season than during the growing seasons of
1991 and 1992 (Table 10-37 and Appendix 10). There were no consistent
differences between 1991 and 1992. During 1990, mean algal biomass (dry weight)
estimates at all mainstem, inlake stations exceeded 5 mg/1, a threshold
concentration thought to afford protection from nuisance algal blooms and fish-
kills in southeastern lakes, excluding Florida (Raschke and Schultz 1987).
Concentrations exceeding 10 mg/1 are indicative of eutrophic conditions likely
to result in nuisance algal blooms. All but one station (station 10) had
concentrations exceeding 10 mg/1 in 1990 (Table 10-37). In 1991 and 1992, mean
growing season concentrations at the two downstream stations (9 and 10) were ^5
mg/1. The decline in algal biomass supportable by West Point Lake waters from
the 1990 level to the 1991-92 level is encouraging although the upstream half of
the lake from Georgia Highway 109 (station 7) to Franklin (station 1) was still
capable of supporting excessive algal concentrations (> 10 mg/1).
In most freshwater lakes, phosphorus is the essential plant nutrient that
limits growth and productivity of plankton algae (Wetzel 1983). Nitrogen usually
becomes the limiting nutrient when bioavailable phosphorus increases relative to
nitrogen, as in the case of waters receiving quantities of treated municipal
waste (Raschke and Schultz 1987). The AGPT is helpful in identifying these
common growth limiting nutrients. In West Point Lake, the upstream locations
(stations 1 and 4) were usually nitrogen limited or nitrogen and phosphorus co-
limited (Table 10-38). Lacustrine stations 7, 9 and 10 were usually phosphorus
131

-------
Table 10-37. Mean maximum dry weight (mg/1) of Selenastrum capricomutum
cultured in West Point Lake waters. Values represent growing
season (April - October) means for 1990, 1991 and 1992.1
Mean Maximun Drv Ueioht Cma/l)
Mainstem

Year

Stations
19902
1991
1992
1
63
33
39
4
37
24
28
5
30
18
21
7
20
13
9
9
11
4
5
10
7
1
2
'Results of Algal Growth Potential Tests conducted by the Ecological Support Branch, U.S.E.P.A. Region IV and
Field Operations, of the Alabama Department of Environmental Management.
'From EPD 1990.
132

-------
Table 10-38.
Temporal and spacial variation in nutrient limitation based on
results of Algal Growth Potential Tests conducted during the
growing seasons of 1990, 1991 and 1992.
Limiting Nutrient
Hainstem Station
Date
1
U
5
7
- 9
10
1990'






June
N*
N
N
N+P
P
P
July
N
N
N
N+P
P
P
Aug
N+P1
N+P
N+P
P
N+P

Sept
N+P
N+P
N+P
P
P
P
Oct
N+P

N+P
N+P
P
P
1991






Apr
N
P
P
P
P
P
Jirte
M+P

P
P
N+P
P
Aug
N
N+P
P
P
P
P
Oct
N+P
N+P
P
P
P
P
1992






Apr
N+P
_ P
P
P
P
P
June
N+P
N+P
P
P
P
P
July
N+P
P
P
P
P
P
Aug
N+P
N
N+P
P
P
P
Oct
N
N
N
P
P
P
'From EPD (1990).
!N = Nitrogen
3P = Phosphorus
133

-------
limited or co-limited. The upstream nitrogen limitation was caused by the
relative abundance of phosphorus upstream (Figure 10-11) that shifted the TN:TP
below 15 (Table 10-25). Nitrogen limitation does not mean that nitrogen was in
short supply only that phosphorus was relatively more abundant than nitrogen.
The decline in phosphorus from 1990 levels to 1991-1992 levels has resulted in
more of West Point Lake being phosphorus limited (Table 10-38). This is desirable
since phosphorus can be more readily manipulated than nitrogen to affect changes
in the trophic condition of lakes.
Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations are composed of dissolved and
particulate fractions and the ratio of dissolved to particulate ranges from 6:1
to 10:1 inmost unpolluted lakes (Wetzel 1983). Most of the particulate fraction
is composed of dead organic matter with living plankton contributing a small
amount to the total (Wetzel 1983). The overwhelming influence of dissolved or-
ganic carbon, most of which is contributed from the watershed, tends to stabilize
TOC concentrations and prevents wide fluctuations in concentration both spatially
and temporally (Tables 10-27, 10-28, 10-29 and 10-30). With one exception
(station 1 in the spring of 1992), individual sample TOC concentrations ranged
from 2 to 7 mg/1 and seasonal means from 2.4 to 4.8 mg/1. Bayne et al. (1990)
reported similar TOC concentrations for West Point Lake for the period 1976 to
1985. The unusually high value measured at station 1 in May of 1992 likely was
caused by a relatively large, carbon-rich particle included in the sample. High-
est TOC concentrations occurred during the summer (Table 10-27) and lowest con-
centrations during the winter (Table 10-29). Embayment TOC concentrations were
similar to mainstem concentrations and varied seasonally in a similar manner.
134

-------
10.2.3 BACTERIA
The coliform group of bacteria are found in the gut and feces of warm-
blooded animals. This group of bacteria is used as an indicator of suitability
of water for various uses (APHA et al. 1989). Coliform density is widely
accepted as a criterion of the degree of pollution and sanitary quality of
surface waters.
From November 1990 through October 1991, AU collected water samples,
monthly, from all eleven sampling stations (Table 10-2) on West Point Lake for
fecal coliform bacteria analysis. From April through October 1991, AU and EPD
combined efforts to sample all stations a second time each month (Table 10-1).
AU collected samples at stations 2, 3, 6, 8 and 11 and EPD collected samples at
stations 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10 usually within a time span of 1 or 2 days. From
April through October 1992, EPD sampled stations 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10, monthly.
Samples were taken just under the water surface using a sterilized container.
The container was then placed on ice and transported to the laboratory for
analysis. Fecal coliform densities were measured by AU using the membrane filter
procedure and EPD used the multiple tube procedure (APHA et al. 1989).
Fecal coliform densities were higher at the upstream sampling stations and
declined downstream toward the dam (Table 10-39). At station 1 near Franklin,
GA, concentrations exceeded 200 fecal coliform colonies per 100 ml on 13 of the
26 sampling dates. The highest counts (4,900 colonies/100 ml) were recorded at
this station. At station 2, just downstream of the mouth of New River, fecal
coliform counts exceeded 200 colonies/100 ml on four of 18 sampling dates. Fecal
coliform concentrations in excess of 200 colonies/100 ml were encountered further
downstream on only two of the 29 sampling dates, 7 and 8 May 1991 and 7 October
1992 (Table 10-39). The May 1991 samples were taken during a high flow period
(Table 10-4 and Figure 10-2) that moved water downstream rapidly and resulted in
135

-------
Table 10-39. Fecal coliform bacterial densities (fecal coliforra colonies per 100 ml) measured during monthly
and biweekly sampling of West Point Lake, 1990-1992.
Fecal Coliform Colonics per 100 ml

1990






1991





Date
11/27
12/18
1/24
2/20
3/27
4/10
A/23
5/7-B
5/23
6/4-5
6/18
7/9-10
7/23
Station
1
95
20
60
160
AO
170
75
4,900
500
790
60
640
1,110
2
65
40
55
50
*
--
*
1,125
245
50
*
55
420
3
60
140
55
85
*
--
20
920
70
1

*
*
50
4
25
75
125
*
*
20
*
490
110
*
*
*
*
5
*
35
150
20
*
*
*
895
75
*
*
*
*
6
*
*
25
*
*
--
*
*
*
*
*
*
20
7
*
*
25
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
a
*
*
*
*
*
--
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
9
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
20
*

10
*
*
*
*
*
#
*
*
*
*
#
*
110
11
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
155
20
40
*
190
* = < 20 colonies/100 ml.
-- = No sample was taken.

-------
Table 10-39. (Cont.)
	Fecal CoUform Cotonfes per 100 ml	
1991	 	1992
Date	8/7	8/21 9/10-12 9/24 10/6-8 10/22	HI	lilh.	6/9	&8	g/12	211	10//
Station
1
230
45
330
100
110
50
230
170
3,300
700
1,700
2,300
1,300
2
35
*
85
150
675
*
--
--
--
--
--
--
-
3
*
*
*
*
125
*
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
4
*
*
*
*
65
*
170
*
*
*
*
170
1,100
5
*
*
*
*
20
*
*
*
1
*
35
*
*
20
6
*
#
*
*
35
*
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
7
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
20
*
*
8
*
*
*
*
*
*
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
9
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
170
*
*
*
10
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
11
40
*
*
*
25
*
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
* = < 20 colonies/100 ml.
-- = No sample was taken.

-------
fecal coliform counts of 895 colonies/100 ml near the LaGrange, GA water intake
(station 5). However, on most occasions station 5 and all downstream stations
to the dam (7, 9 and 10) had fecal coliform levels of < 20 colonies/100 ml. New
River embayment (station 3) was the only tributary stream to exceed 200
colonies/100 ml and that occurred during the high flows of 7 and 8 May 1991
(Table 10-39). The fecal coliform criterion for fisheries and recreational
waters is a geometric mean of 200 colonies/100 ml based on a series of samples,
usually five, taken during a 30 day period (EPA 1986). Data reported in Table
10-39 represent single bacteriological samples and therefore should not be
interpreted in terms of this criterion.
In 1992, AU bacteriological sampling was conducted following periods of
rainfall in the Atlanta metropolitan area that would be expected to cause
combined sewer overflows resulting from storm-water runoff. The sampling was
conducted during the months of June, July, August and September when user
recreational and water contact activities were normally at a peak. Calculated
flow time for the Chattahoochee River between Atlanta and Franklin, GA is about
4 days (personal communication, David Kamps, Georgia EPD). Beginning 2 to 4 days
after an Atlanta rain event, West Point Lake was sampled at 1.6 km (1 mile)
intervals from station 1 (Franklin, GA) to station 4 (Highway 219 bridge) and at
3.2 km (2 mile) intervals from station 4 to station 10 (dam forebay). Appendix
10 gives the approximate location of each of the 22 sample sites. Rainfall
amounts measured at three Atlanta metropolitan area weather stations prior to
each sampling effort appear in Table 10-40.
Rainfall in the Atlanta area during June through September 1992 was
above normal. The DeKalb/Peachtree weather station reported a deviation from
138

-------
Table 10-40. Rainfall amounts (inches) at three Atlanta, GA area weather
stations prior to commencing bacterial sampling of West Point Lake
in 1992.
Weather Station
Date

Hartsfield
Airuort
DeKalb/Peachtree
Atlanta/Bolton
June
4
2.34
1.60

0.99

7
0.00
0.00

0.00

8
0.00
0.00

0.00

9
0.67
1.80

0.24

10
0.01
0.10

0.35

11
Sampling began
Sampling
began
Sampling began
July
16
0.01
0.10

1.26

17
1.15
M

0.01

18
0.01
0.40

0.82

19
0.08.
0.10

0.16

20
Sampling began
Sampling
began
Sampling began
August 13
0.72
0.50

1.25

14
0.82
M

0.72

15
0.00
0.00

0.00

16
0.36
0.60

0.20

17
Sampling began
Sampling
began
Sampling began
August 27
0.13
0.10

0.05

28
1.10
0.90

1.01

29
0.00
0.00

0.00

30
0.00
0.00

0.00

31
Sampling began
Sampling
began
Sampling began
M - Missing data.
139

-------
normal (DFN) of +6.92 inches for the period and the Atlanta/Bolton station
reported a DFN of +8.25 inches.
Following summer rain storms in the Atlanta area, fecal coliform
concentrations in West Point Lake usually increased in the upstream one-third of
the lake (Table 10-41). The June 1992 samples had the highest concentrations
encountered, with levels exceeding 200 colonies/100 ml for 10 miles (16 km)
downstream from Franklin, GA. In August 1992 a single sample collected 9 miles
(14.4 km) downstream from Franklin exceeded 200 colonies/100 ml. From a point
11 miles (17.6 km) downstream from Franklin to the dam, 32 miles (51.2 km)
downstream, fecal coliform densities did not exceed 200 colonies/100 ml and were
usually < 20 colonies/100 ml (Table 10-41).
Abundant and scattered rainfall during the summer of 1992 made it difficult
to time the sampling based on discrete rainfall events in the Atlanta area. For
example, the June sample timing appeared to be good, but in July the sampling was
begun one day too soon to fully characterize a four day event (Table 10-41). The
highest fecal coliform densities reported for the summer of 1992 (3,300
colonies/100 ml) occurred 9 June 1992 following a 1 to 2 inch rainfall (Table 10-
40) in the Atlanta area 5 days earlier (Table 10-39). This sample was collected
by EPD during their monthly sampling. The remnants of that unusual event
appeared at several downstream locations on 11 June 1992 (Table 10-41).
The use classification of West Point Lake between Franklin and the mouth
of New River (about 8 miles downstream) was designated as fishing. The Georgia
water quality criterion for fecal coliform bacteria in fishing waters is a
geometric mean of 200 colonies/100 ml (at least four samples during a 30 day
period) (EPD 1990). This criterion was exceeded in a 7 mile portion of West
140

-------
Table 10-41. Mean fecal coliform bacterial densities (.fecal coliform colonies per 100 ml) measured in t
Point Lake following rainfall events in the Atlanta, Georgia area, June through September, 1992.
Mean Fecal Coliform Colonies per 100 ml
Month/Day
Honth/day
6/11
6/12
6/13
6/14
7/20
7/21
7/22
7/23
8/17
8/18
8/18
8/20
8/31
9/1
9/2
9/3
Hi les
0
950
960
660
470
30
340
60
640
40
230
270
220
150
170
280
210
1
1300
1520
840
100
*
230
30
350
110
220
110
190
320
200
190
110
2
320
450
560
360
30
270
110
190
230
350
350
260
160
90
100
120
3
*
310
100
200
20
70
30
300
70
80
170
200
110
70
70
80
4
540
440
400
290
50
130
100
1,2 0
340
300
340
80
190
20
100
130
5
310
320
310
140
*
100
30
400
110
30
70
110
60
170
110
90
6
450
210
220
170
40
160
40
140
310
270
60
90
170
90
140
70
7
290
600
160
110
20
120
30
20
80
70
60
80
90
40
50
*
8
370
300
120
*
*
100
40
110
90
320
90
*
100

20
*
9
330
70
*
*

120
*
150
20
270
70
20
100

*
*
10
320
260
20
50
*
90
30
*
70
90

*
70
*
#
*
11
140
120
40
30
*
70
*
30
*
*
40
*
20
*
*
*
12
20
*
60
100
*
*
*
30
40
70
*
*
*
*
*
*
13
*
20
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
0
*
*
*
*
*
*
14
40
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
20
40
*
*
*
*
*

16
80
#
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

18
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
20
*
*
*
*
*
*
 *
*

*

*
*
*
*

22
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
24
*
*
*
*

#
*
*

*
*
*

*


26
20
#
*
*
#
*
*
*

*

*
*
*
*
*
26
50
*
*
*
*
*
*
-*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*
30
80
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*


*
32
T:	:
*
*

*

*

*
*
#
~
*
*
*
*
*
'Distance downstream from Franklin, Georgia.
* = < 20 colonies per 100 ml.

-------
Point Lake extending from Franklin downstream to a point about 1 mile upstream
from the mouth of New River during the June 1992 sampling period (Table 10-41)
In addition, from 17-20 August 1992, fecal coliform densities exceeded the
criterion at miles 2 and 4 downstream from Franklin. Elevated fecal coliform
densities in the upper reaches of West Point Lake have been previously reported
(Radtke et al 1984, EPD 1989 and EPD 1990) . The criterion for fishing waters was
exceeded at Franklin during the period 10 July through 7 August 1990 (EPD 1990).
Periods of high rainfall and runoff in the Atlanta metropolitan area
resulted in elevated densities of fecal coliform bacteria in the upstream reaches
of West Point Lake seve_ral days following the runoff event. At times, bacterial
concentrations exceeded the use designated criterion for lake areas tested. The
combined sewer overflow problem in the Atlanta area following rainfall events
results ir. soie ur.treated domestic sewage as well as urban runoff entering the
Chattahoochee	. Tr.is is believed zz be tne crimarv source cf fecal coiiforir
bacreria ir. Vest Pcir.c Lake.
From May into September of 19S1 and 1992 the Corps of Engineers collected
water samples for fecal coliform analysis from four swimming beaches on West
Point Lake; Earl Cook Beach, Rocky Point Beach, State Line Beach and Yellowjacket
Beach. In some cases, samples were collected frequently enough that geometric
means could be calculated for at least four samples taken within a 30 day period.
The bacterial analyses were conducted by the City of LaGrange, GA, Water
Department.
Fecal coliform densities on most sampling dates were < 20 colonies/100 ml
(Appendix 10). Highest individual sample densities were encountered at the most
upstream location, Yellowjacket Beach, during 1991. Densities of 568, 388 and
240 colonies/100 u.l were reported for individual samples collected at that site
142

-------
in August, September and July, respectively. However, 4-day geometric means that
included those higher values did not exceed 50 colonies/100 ml. The standard for
water contact recreation is 200 colonies/100 ml.

-------
10.2.4 TOXIC CONTAMINANTS.
Water, sediment and fish samples were collected during the Fail 1990,
Spring 1991 and Fall 1991 (Figure 10-17). Fish samples collected during the Fall
of 1990 for toxics were lost in a freezer outage. Water samples collected during
the three sampling periods were found to be free of volatile organic compounds
(VOA's), base/neutral/acid semi-volatiles (BNA's), metals and pesticides.
Occasional water samples collected during the spring of 1991 were found to
contain detectable levels of mercury (range <0.4 to 1.46 ppb). Mercury values
were: (1) less than the 2 ppb drinking water standard; (2) higher in the Spring
than in the Fall; (3) did not appear to accumulate in the sediment or fish
tissues (Figures 10-18 and 10-19).
Sediment samples collected during the Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and Fall 1991
were generally found to be free cf VOA's and BNA's. The exception being
sediments fron V.J. Highway 27 bridge and New F.iver which contained detectable
levels of polynuclear aromatic compounds (PNA) indicative of possible industrial
activity. The most common PNA's found were pyrene, fluoranthene and benzopyrene.
Sediment heavy metal levels were:
West Point Lake Lake Lanier
	mean		mean
As 0.93 ppm	1.6 ppm
Se 0.6 ppm	0.5 ppm
Hg 0.06 ppm	<0.01 ppm
Cd 2.1 ppm	N.A.
Cr	17.6 ppm	12.2 ppm
Ni 7.5 ppm	6.2 ppm
Cu	13.0 ppm	13.3 ppm
Pb	32.5 ppm	38.2 ppm
Zn	37.9 ppm	32.3 ppm
Lake Lanier metal levels are presented for comparative purposes. There was
no indication of mercurv build-up in the sediment. Pesticide residue levels in
sediment were generallv low or nondetectable.
144

-------
MAP OF STATIONS
1
U.S. HWY 27
WEST POINT LAKE
SCAI.E
K-M
STATIONS
1=U.S. HWY 27 (Franklin)
2=New River Embaymcnt
3=GAHWY219 Bridge
4= Yellow Jacket Creek
5=LaG range Intake
6=GAHWY 109 Bridge
7=WchadkceCreci
8=Dam
Figure 10-17. Map of West Point Lake showing sampling locations for
water, sediment and fish collected and analyzed for toxic contaminants
by tr,s University of Georgia.
145

-------
WEST POINT RESERVOIR
Carp Filol Analysis
PCB'3
Chlordane

Mercury

L_J U.S. HWY 27 Bridge
New River
1 1 Yellow Jacket Creek
LaGrange Intake
I 1 Wehadkee Creek
I I Dam
EiH FDA Standards
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
(In parts per million)
2.5-
Ohart r*pr*flta oomblnat rtault* for
8prlno Fill
Figure 10-18. Concentrations of PCB's, chlordane and mercury in carp fillets collected from
various locations in West Point Lake during 1991.

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WEST POINT RESERVOIR
Bass Filol Analysis
c-
-J
PCD's
Chlordano
Mercury
{In parts por million)
Oharl r*prants oontblnad raulta for
OprIno and Pall.
2.G
fin U.S. HWY 27 Bridge
011^] New River
( 1 Yellow Jacket Crook
LaGrange Intake
I 1 Wehadkee Creek
f 1 Dam
FDA Standards
Figure 10-19. Concentrations of PCB's, ehlordane and mercury in bass fillets collected
from various locations in West Point Lake during 1991.

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Residues of PCB, chlordane, pentachloroariizole and DDT metabolites were
detected in fish fillets and whole fish. Notable observations include: (1) PCB's
(primarily Arachlor 1260) was detected at concentrations ranging from <0.03 to
1.57 ppm (Figures 10-18 and 10-19). All PCB levels were below the 2.0 ppm FDA
action level. (2) Chlordane was detected in carp fillets and whole fish at
levels ranging from <0.03 to 0.89 ppm while all bass chlordane residue levels
were below the 0.3 ppm action level (Figures 10-18 and 10-19). (3) Whole fish
PCB and chlordane residue levels were generally higher than fillet residues. (4)
PCB and chlordane residues in fish tissues decrease in progression from head
water to the dam. (5)_ PCB and chlordane levels were generally higher in fall
than in spring. (6) PCB and chlordane residues were higher in carp than in bass.
(7) Hg concentrations tended to be higher in spring than in fall. (8) No
indication of accumulation of Hg in the edible fish tissue.
These studies vere conducted the j-ivers:_Z" cf Georgia's Extension
Pesticide Residue Laboratory under the directior. of Dr. rarshaii E. Bush. His
fir.al report, in its entirety, is appended to this document.
To supplement existing data (DNR News Release 1991) on toxic contamination
of West Point Lake fishes, AU collected and had analyzed a sportfish species that
had not been previously examined. Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) were
collected near station 4 and near station 7 during October 1992 (Table 10-42)
using gillnets and electrofishing gear. In addition, hybrid striped bass (Morone
saxatilis x Morone chrvsops) were collected near station 10 (Table 10-42) during
October 1992 using gillnets. All fish were placed on ice in the field and sample
preparation followed the EPD 1992 Field Procedures For Preparing Fish Samples For
Toxic Analyses. At each location three replicates, consisting of the filets of
five fish, vere prepared anc the frozen samples were shipped to Triangle
US

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Table 10-42. Lengths, weights, collection dates and locations of fish species
collected for toxic contamination analyses during the diagnostic
study of Vest Point Lake, 1990-1992.
Length	Weight
Date

Species
Location
(mm)

8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
203
117
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
204
119
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
204
125
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
205
116
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
207
130
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
215
154
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Huy 219 Bridge
215
159
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
222
174
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
225
170
8 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
267
296
9 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
216
152
9 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
233
195
15 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
225
181
15 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
247
244
15 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
271
336
15 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
281
381
15 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
285
373
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
234
232
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
23S
221
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
242
206
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
24E
258
1c Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
2:3
267
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge

28S
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
hwy 109 Bridge
259
281
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
265
265
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
267
314
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
270
299
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
270
312
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
271
343
16 Octobe
1992
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
275
336
27 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Horone chrvsops
Dam
435
1241
27 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrvsoDS
Dam
467
1440
27 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Horone chrysops
Dam
472
1470
27 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrvsoDS
Dam
490
1655
27 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrvsops
Dam
490
1789
27 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Mororie chrvsops
Dam
526
2001
27 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrvsoDS
Dam
575
2768
30 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrvsoDS
Dam
485
1512
30 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrvsops
Dam
491
1556
30 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrvsops
Dam
514
1999
30 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops
Dam
515
1847
30 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Horone chrysops
Dam
516
1866
30 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrvsops
Dam
525
2086
30 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops
Dam
526
1945
30 Octobe
1992
Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops
Dam
531
2361
149

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Laboratories of RTP, Inc., Durham, North Carolina for analyses. Metals and
organic chemicals tested and detection limits for each appear in Appendix 10.
Methods and procedures used by Triangle Laboratories also appear in Appendix 10.
None of the toxic chemical compounds occurred in concentrations that
exceeded U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for edible portions
of fish (Appendix 10) . Concentrations of some of the organic chemical compounds
that had been previously reported in West Point Lake fish (Radtke 1984, DNR News
Release 1991) varied greatly among the two taxa, with hybrid bass having levels
an order of magnitude higher than black crappie (Table 10-43). This was
presumably a trophic level effect since the bass are principally piscivores and
crappie primarily insectivores although larger crappie do consume some small fish
(Pflieger 1975). The two taxa, although quite different in size (Table 10-42)
were likely similar in age, 2-4 years (personal communication, Mike Maciena, AU
Fisheries', , Ir.lcriane concentrations in hybrid bass were approaching 0.3 mg/kg,
the FDA standard for that compound. Action levels for the other chemicals, 5.0
mg/kg for DDT (no level has been set for DDD or DDE) , 0.3 mg/kg for dieldrin, and
2.0 mg/kg for PCB (Aroclor 1260), far exceeded concentrations found in West Point
Lake black crappie and hybrid bass.
Most of the heavy metals tested were not detectable in the fish flesh
(Table 10-44). Only cadmium, chromium, nickel, selenium, thallium and zinc were
found above detection limits in at least one replicate and only zinc was
consistently found in every sample. The FDA standard for mercury in edible fish
tissue is 1.0 mg/kg, however, no mercury was detected in West Point Lake black
crappie and hybrid bass.
150

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'I'.ililf! 10-A3. Concentrations of select toxic cheinlc.i
collected at three locations in West I\
ChLordane
(technical) 4,4'-DDD
Spec i es
Location
Rpd
(tfq/kq)
(eg/kg)
Porooxi s
ni qrcxnocul Qtus
llwy 219 Bridge
(Station 4)
A
65

Pomox i r,
ni qroinncul ntus
llwy 219 Bridge
(Station 4)
B
61
1
Tomox i s
ni qromoculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
(Station 4)
C
52
1
Pomox i s
ni qrotnacul ntus
Hwy 109 Bridge
(Station 7)
A
46
?
Pomox i s
niqromoculntus
Hwy 109 Bridge
(Station 7)
B
47

Pomox i s
niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
(Station 7)
C
53
2
Horono chrysops
X
Horono saxat iI is
Dam
(Station 10)
A
204
?n
Moronc chrysops
X
Moronc saxnt iI is
Dam
(Station 10)
B
230
??_
Horone chrvsoDS
x
Moronc soxntilis
Dam
(Station 10)
C
272
25
-(impounds found in edible portions of two fish taxa
it I nko during October 1992.
Aroclor	Aroclor	Aroclor
4,41-DOE Dieldrin 1248	1254	1260
.. (cn/J1 28 410	376	309
<-Y 27 390	416	347

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IO-/4/1. Concentrations of heavy' metals found in ediM^ portions of two fish taxn collected at three
locations in West Point Lake during Octnlin \9V/..
Spec i cs
Locat i on
Rep
Ag
As
Bo
Cd
Cr
Cu
Hq
Ni
Pb
Sb
Se
Tl
Zn
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
(Station A)
A
nd
ixl
nd
.v.?
nd
iy\
ixi
nd
rxl
rxi
rxi
nd
9.22
Porno/ is ni qt omacul at us
Hwy 219 Bridge
(Station 4)
B
nd
r vi
nd
i i
tvi
ixi
rxi
nd
nd
nd
.755
nd
7.12
Pomoxis niqromoculatus
Hwy 219 Bridge
(Station 4)
C
nd
r k.I
rf I
.
IV. 1
nd
r*i
nd
nd
nd
nd
nd
5.00
Pofnoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
(Station 7)
A
nd
rxl
iyI
n I
nd
nd
nd
nd
rxi
nd
1.10
.377
7.24
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
(Station 7)
B
nd
r>d
nd
rd
nd
rxi
rxi
rxi
nd
nd
.402
nd
6.37
Pomoxis niqromaculatus
Hwy 109 Bridge
(Stat ion 7)
C
nd
nd
ltd
i-l
TkI
nd
rxd
nd
nd
nd
.374
nd
7.56
Horonc chrysops x Morone
saxat iIi s
Dam
(Station 10)
A
nd
nd
rxi
p'l
2),6
nd
rxJ
8.35
nd
r>d
.684
nd
6.82
Morone chrysops x Morone
saxat iIi s
Dam
(Station 10)
B
nd
rxi
nd
i 1
1.26
nd
rxJ
nd
nd
nd
.581
nd
5.92
Morone chrysops x Morone
saxat iIi s
Dam
(Station 10)
C
nd
rxi
nd
fl
ltd
r>d
nd
nd
nd
nd
.437
nd
5.59
;>d - not detectnble.
Detection limits were: 1 mg/kg for Ag, Be, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sb, Tl, nixl Zn; 0.02 mg/kg for Ar nnd Se;
0.03 mg/kg for Pb;	0.01 mg/kg for Cd and Hg.

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10.2 5 SEPIKENT OXYGEN DEMAND
Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is an expression of the rate at which lake
sediments consume dissolved oxygen from the overlying water column (Hatcher
1986). Two processes, respiration of living organisms and decomposition of
organic matter in the sediment, account for most of the oxygen consumption. SOD
is an important component of water quality models that attempt to account for
variations in dissolved oxygen of water bodies. During the week of 19-22 October
1992, personnel from the U.S.E.P.A., Region IV, and ADEM conducted field mea-
surements of SOD using SOD chambers placed on the lake bottom (Murphy and Hicks
1986). Mean water temperature ranged between 17.0 and 19.8C and initial cham-
ber dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 4.3 to 8.7 mg/1. The studies
were conducted at seven locations near water quality sampling stations 2, 4, 5,
:	 and 10. The results are summarized in Table 10-45 and the report cor.-
Scft zEuc. ir. lacustrine areas cf the Lake stations i.  anc 10) had the
highest SOD rates (Table 10-i.f). The Vellovj scke t Creek (station 6) and Wehadkee
Creek (station 8) embayments had very similar SOD rate. Firm mud bottoms in the
lacustrine zone (stations 5 and 7) as well as soft mud bottoms in the riverine
(station 2) and transition (station 4) zones seemed'to have had a lower demand
for dissolved oxygen. Murphy and Hicks (1986) reported mean SOD rates detected
with the EPA in-situ method ranging between 0.89 g 02/m2'day and 3.91 g 02/m2-day
in several TVA reservoirs. The range of SOD values for West Point Lake, 0.75-
1.49 g Oz/m2*day, was similar to values reported for Jackson Lake, an impoundment
of the Upper Ocmulgee River in Georgia (0.8-1.5 g 02/m2#day) (EPD, In Review).
Weiss Lake on the Coosa River in Alabama had a range of SOD values (0.52-1.02
g O-znT'dav) somewhat lower thar. the- West Point Lake range (Bayne et al. In
- ^

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Table 10-5. Sediment oxygen demand rates, water column respiration and bottom
sediment characteristics for West Point Lake, 19-22 October 1992.
Hainsterc
Sampling
Mean S00

water Colum
ResDi ration
Bottom Sediment
Stations
q 0,/m^hr
q 0,/iirday
liq/l -min

2' <5);
0.0376
(0.033-0.045)
0.90
(0.79-1.15)
1.06
Soft mud, some organic
debris
4 (6)
0.0518
(0.049-0.055)
1.24
(1.18-1.33)
0.06
Soft mud
5 (7)
0.0313
(0.027-0.037)
0.75
(0.90-0.63)
0.36
F i rrr mud
7 (10)
0.0496
(0.033-0.081)
1.19
(0.78-1.95)
0.31
Soft mud, fi nn mud
sandy-si It
1C (13)
0.0615
(0.050-0.074)
1.48
(1.21-1.78)
0.25
Soft mud
Embayment
Stations




6 (8)
0.0620
(0.055-0.067)
1.49
(1.33-1.62)
0.77
Soft mud
 (11)
0.0610
C.034-0.072)
1.46
(1.28-1.74)
C.25
Soft mud
'Searest wste-
;E='-ADEt' ctif
3ja;ity sansmn? ctttio-..
'o- oes i giar i e~..




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10.2.6 TRIKALOMETHANE
Eutrophication leads to increased organic matter content in surface waters.
This can cause problems in potable water supply lakes because chlorination of the
water during the treatment process forms organohalides called trihalomethanes
(THM's) that threaten human health (Cooke et al. 1986). Four organic compounds
comprise	THMs: trichloromethane (chloroform),	bromodicnloromethane,
dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane (bromoform). These compounds are known
or suspected of being carcinogenic and/or mutagenic agents and the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency has established a maximum contaminant level of
100 /ig/1 in finished drinking water (Vogt and Regli 1981). Increasing THM levels
in drinking water supplies across the country have raised concern about sources
and control of organic THM precursor molecules entering treatment plants (EPA
1?S0) . Although watershed sources, like marshes, are known to be important
icurces cf crcar.i: rrecurscrs . vit'r.in lake production of organic natter by algae
and higher plants also contributes. raimstron: et al. (1S5) demonstrated that
30~ of the precursors entering a treatment plant withdrawing water from an Ohio,
water supply reservoir was generated within the lake, primarily by algae.
The source of water for the City of LaGrange, Georgia is West Point Lake.
The water is withdrawn through an intake located mid-reservoir near sampling
station 5. The LaGrange Water System monitors THM concentrations in the treated
drinking water. Once each quarter, water samples were collected at the same four
locations within the distribution system and these samples are submitted to a
commercial laboratory for analysis. The results are reported directly to the
Georgia EPD.
Using these data for THM, an effort was made to determine if changes in
orcar.ic mattsr content of West Point Lake water at station 5 were related to

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changes in THM concentrations in finished drinking water. The estimated
retention time for water in the municipal supply system was < 3 days (personal
communication, Keith Hester, LaGrange Vater System). Three estimates of lake
water, organic matter content (chlorophyll a, total organic nitrogen and total
organic carbon) measured on a date nearest the quarterly THM analysis, were
matched with the nine quarterly THM values (Table 10-46). The analyses (THM and
organic matter) seldom occurred on the same day, but were always measured within
15 days. Simple product moment correlation analyses were used to explore
relationships between THM and organic matter content of lake water.
THM concentrations were significantly correlated with TOC (r - 0.73; P <
0.05), but not with chlorophyll a or TON. TOC was not significantly (P > 0.05)
related to TON or chlorophyll a, although TON and chlorophyll a were highly
rcrrelarec r=C.6: P < 0.002). Based on these limited data, it appears that THM
supplied primarily fron; allochthonous sources cf organic carter. Morrow and
Minear (1987; reported a linear relationship between TOC and THM formation.
Palmstrom ec ai. (1988) suggested rainfall induced watershed runoff as an
important source of THM precursors, particularly noticeable during periods of the
year when biological activity within the lake was naturally low. Variations in
algal biomass (chlorophyll a) in West Point Lake apparently were not associated
with changes in THM concentrations in finished drinking water although additional
data are needed to verify this finding.

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Table 10-46. Mean quarterly trihalomethane (THM) concentrations in LaGrange,
Georgia treated drinking water and concentrations of chlorophyll
a, total organic nitrogen and total organic carbon in West Point
Lake water near the LaGrange water intake (station 5) , all measured
within a 15 day period.
Date
THM
CM/1>
Chlorophyll a
(q/l)
Total
Organic Nitrogen
(M/l)
Total
Organic Carbon
("9/I)
25 July 1990
43
30.7
603
4,628
29 Oct 1990
48
6.9
252
3,315
4 Feb 1991
44
2.7
233
3,242
 May 1991
56
2.8
280
5,296
6 Aug 1991
35
18.4
518
3,989
1 Nov 1991
13
7.8
210
2,336
31 Mar 1992
29
9.6
323
2,656
15 May 1992
24
29.5
437
2,931
9 Or: 1992
u
10.S
333
3,230

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10.2.7 HACROPHYTE SURVEY
A macrophyte survey of West Point Lake was conducted late in the growing
season of 1992. The survey was conducted from shallow draft boats and was
limited to the main body of the lake and larger tributary embayments. Initial
reconnaissance revealed the only significant concentrations of macrophytes were
in the upstream reach of the lake from about the mouth of Potato Creek upstream
to the Glover's Creek Waterfowl Area (Figure 10-20). However, scattered stands
of emergent macrophytes were present from Franklin, GA downstream to Grayson's
Landing (10 miles downstream from Franklin). On 4 September 1992 aquatic plants
were collected and identified. Coverage of the dominant species was estimated
by plotting their distribution on aerial photographs and measuring the area with
planimetry.
A list of macrophytes identified during the survey appears ir. Table 10-47.
Ixcert for Le~" s; . '.a floating plar.r .11 of the tlar.ts v=:e classified as
n.arcinal emereer.ts , usually confined to relatively shallow water. Some of the
dominant species, however, form hollow stems when growing in deeper water ana can
produce floating mats of vegetation (Alternanthera philoxeroiaes. Polygonum
pensvlvanicum and P^_ lapathifolium). Filamentous algae were the only submersed
aquatics encountered and were present in small, scattered stands.
Two species of smartweed (_,_ pensvlvanicum and P^. lapathifolium) growing
together in mixed stands with other smartweed species (Table 10-47) were the
dominant plants based on areal coverage (Table 10-48) . The mat forming habit of
these two smartweed species produced floating stands along the shore up to 15 m
wide. Small islands (0.09 to 3.19 ha) were completely covered with the plant.
Smartweed is considered an excellent food plant for waterfowl (Fassett 1966) and
considering that it was concentrated in the reservoir adjacent to the Georgia

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WEST POINT LAKE
Aquc::c Mccrophytes
CHATTAHOOCHEt
RIVER
NEW
RIVER
YELLOW
JACKET
CR."
1c'jre "C-2C. _ocation (darkened area) of significant aquatic macrophytes
! = e:i:iec curing tne macrophyte survey of West Point Lake.

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Cable 10-^7. Vascular aquatic plants identified in survey conducted in
	September 1992 on West Point Lake.	
Species
Common Name
Salix nigra
Betula nigra
Carva aqua:ica
Acer rubrun
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Hibiscus militaris
Polygonum pensvlvanicum
?. lapathifolium
P. sagittacur:
?. censiflcruic
r . T.unctf-L~
- -nr.us ezz-S'-z
Hvcrocnioa

c. C " c
Ludwigia peploides
Sacciolepis striata
Arundanaria gjgantea
Tvp'na latifolia
Mikania scandens
Scirpus cvperinus
Echinocloa crusgall1
Irr.patiens capensis
Lobelia cardinalis
Lerrr.a sp .
black willow-
river birch
water hickory-
red maple
buttonbush
halberd-leaved marsh mallow
pinkweed (smartweed)
smartweed
tear thumb (smartweed)
smartweed
s ma rtwe e c
soft rush
southern watergrass
water primrose
grass
cane
cattail
hemp vine
wood grass
barnyard grass
j ewel-weed
cardinal flower
duckweed

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Table 10-48. Estimated coverage of dominant aquatic macrophytes present on West
Point Lake in September, 1992.
Species	Common Name	Coverage (ha)
Pnlvpnniim pensvlvanicum	pinkweed (smartrweed)	7.4
Polygonum lapathifolium	smartweed	7.4
Alternanthera philoxeroides	alligator weed	3.8
Juncus effusus	soft rush	< 1.0

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Wildlife Management Area, the plant likely provides major benefits to waterfowl
populations.
In terms of surface area coverage, alligator-weed (A^. philoxeroides)
followed the co-dominant smartweed species (Table 10-48) . Alligator-weed, an
aggressive exotic weed species, also forms floating mats that have the potential
to cover large surface areas. In West Point Lake, shoreline stands of the plant
up to about 30 m vide were observed, although most stands were 1 to 3 m wide and
growing along the lakeward edge of the more abundant smartweed mats. This
suggests that the smartweeds established early and limited alligator-weed
colonization of shallow water habitat in this case. Alligator-weed is not a
beneficial plant but does not appear to be causing significant problems in the
lake at this time.
Scft rtsh. uncus effusus. was the fourth most dominant macrophyte (Table
-- - ; usua.	" ir j.t.t "rcvir.r *_r. S-.".ai-Ov areas anc i"cur."_v assoctatec with
alligatcr-v-ec  Scft rush roois ir. the bottom soil ana grows up and out of the
water. Ir does not form floating mats and consequently has a more disjunct
distribution. Soft rush is of limited value to wildlife, but does help stabilize
shoreline areas and reduce erosion.
The dominant macrophytes are all species that do not require inundation and
therefore are not greatly affected by the annual water level fluctuation of West
Point Lake. At full pool in this portion of the reservoir, waters flood overbank
areas adjacent to the old river channel creating shallow water habitat conducive
to marginal emergent vegetation. The annual 3 m drawdown and relatively high
turbidity of lake waters in this upstream area probably have prevented
establishment of submersed aquatic macrophytes. Further downstream, the
cravco.T, exposes 2.900 ha of the littoral tone each year and eliminates ail but
trie r.artiest species of marginal aquatic plants (grasses, rushes and sedges).
162

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The Corps of Engineers has had a tree planting program around the shoreline
and shallow vater areas of West Point Lake for several years (Eddie Sosebee,
Corps of Engineers). The purpose of the planting was to enhance fish habitat and
to mark or delineate shoal areas. More recently, the Georgia Came and Fish
Division working with various bass fishing clubs in the area conducted tree
planting around the lake to improve fish habitat. Tree planting has been limited
to cypress (Taxodium) and "bankers willow" (Salix).


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10.2.8 FISH HEALTH ASSESSMENT
Common carp and largemouth bass were collected from six sites in Spring and
Fall 1991 for determination of a fish health assessment index. In general, the
fish appeared fairly healthy. No fish were grossly deformed, had ulcerated or
open lesions, fin rot or appeared emaciated. Lipomas (benign tumors) were found
in the spleen of some bass. These benign tumors have never been correlated with
environmental pollution and did not appear to cause much damage to the fish. Any
lesions observed on the fish were attributable to parasites which do not
constitute a human health hazard.
The following summarize the fish health assessment index findings: (1) non
significant differences were found among the sites in the overall health
assessment index in Spring for bass or carp. (2) Bass collected from the Dam
site had a significantly higher index (or were in worse shape) than those froc
ether sites. The maicr ;cr.tributior. tr the oDseiT?: Lr.de:: f:r bass vas parasite
load. (3; lart health assessment incicss vers consistently lower in Spring
compared tc Fall. This difference is primarily due to abnormal gills and kidneys
in Fall. () None of the gross lesions observed appeared to be life - threatening
or to be severely compromising to the fish. (5) The only strong correlation
between contaminant level and a measure response was the positive correlation
between PCB levels and liver/somatic index. (6) The method used for determining
fish health is somewhat crude and may not be sensitive enough for the relatively
low level .pollution observed at West Point Lake. (7) Further research is
necessary to identify the parasites observed and determine their life cycles and
factors that influence their prevalence. Once identified, an attempt could be
made to determine if immunosuppression caused by chronic levels of environmental
con-aminancs mav increase tneir prevalence in fish.

-------
The fish health studies were conducted by Dr. Vickie Blazer who was with
the School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia. Dr. Blazer is now a
Fisheries Biologist with the National Fish Health Lab, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Keameysville, West Virginia. Her final report in its entirety is
appended to this document.

-------
11.0 BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES
Fish Populations.
Pre impoundment studies of fish populations in the West Point basin produced
fifty-three species of fish. Some species known to be common to the area were
not collected initially. Table 11-1 lists fish present in West Point Lake and
the surrounding watershed. Since impoundment some new species have appeared
while others have totally disappeared. Table 11-2 documents the change in
species composition (Timmons et al. 1977). These changes in species composition
were expected as the flowing water habitats became more lentic. Gizzard shad
quickly became the dominant forage species. Largemouth bass, bluegill, black
crappie anc channel catfish were identified as the important game species
(Timmons et al. 197"",.
The	I'-oartmer.t cf :at"-Lral resources	has maintained a
sz&ziz*zcLzsz i-.ir rs.r.p'_ir.E pvorra- sir.;; rr.i 19SC '  . ZLfcJier.z results (1988-1992)
the tillnesegment cf this sampling is presented in Tables 11-3 through
11-7. Dominant species by number and weight are summarized in Table 11-8.
Relative condition of principal species from both gillnetting and electrofis'ning
is presented in Tables 11-9 through 11-13. Hybrid bass (striped bass x white
bass) have increased in importance in the fishery since stocking in 1978. Public
pressure resulted in the stocking of striped bass in 1989 in West Point Lake.
However, the impact from this stocking is not yet known.
-CO

-------
Table 11-1. Checklist of fishes of West Point Lake and immediate watershed.
Scientific

Fami
lv and Name
Common Name
Petromyzonidae

1.
Ichthvomvzon papei
Southern brook lampre
Lepisosteidae

2.
Lepisosteus osseus
Longnose gar
Amiidae

3.
Araia calva
Bowfin
Clupeidae

4.
Dorosoma cepedianum
Gizzard shad
5.
D. Detenense
Threadfin shad
Esocidae

6.
Esox americanus
Redfin pickerel
7.
Esox nieer
Chain pickerel
Cyprinidae

S.
Cv-Drir.us carpic
Carp
9 _
Carassius auratus
Goldfish
" r\
CamDosto~a ar.omalun:
Stoneroller
_i .
Notroriis buccatus
Silver jaw niinnow
- rs
Notroois vinchelli
Clear chub
13 .
Nocomis leotoceDhalus
Blueheaa chub
14.
Notomigonus crvsoleucas
Golden shiner
15.
Lvthrurus atrapiculus
Blacktip shiner
16.
Cvnrinella callitaenia
Bluestripe shiner
17.
NotroDis hvpsileuis
Highscale shiner
18.
N. longirostris
Longnose shiner
19
Cvorinella lutrensis
Red shiner
20,
Notronis texanus
Weed shiner
21.
CvDrinella venusta
Blacktail shiner
22
Luxilus zonistius
Bandfin shiner
23
Semotilus atromaculatus
Creek chub
24
Pimephales uromelas
Fathead minnow
Castostomidae

25
Camiodes cvprinus
Quillback sucker
26
Erimvzon oblongus
Creek chubsucker
27
E. sucetta
Lake chubsucker
28
.. Hvoenteliuni etowanura
Alabama hogsucker
29
Minvtrena melanops
Spotted sucker
30
Moxostona sp. cf. M. poecilurum
undescribed redhorse
31
M. lachneri
Greater jumprock
167

-------
Table 11-1. (Cont.)
Family and
Scientific Name
Common Name
Ictaluridae
32. Ameiurus catus
Ameiurus brunneus
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
Ameiurus natalis
Ameiurus nebulosus
Ictalurus punctatus
Ameiurus melas
Noturus leptacanthus
White catfish
Snail bullhead
Yellow bullhead
Brown bullhead
Channel catfish
Black bullhead
Speckled madtom
Cyprinodontidae
39. Fundulus stellifer
Southern studfish
Poeciliidae
40.	Gambusia affinis
Atherinidae
41.	Labidesthes sicculus
Mosquitofish
Brook silverside
^ottidae
42. Cottus carolir.ae
Banded sculp in
^er.trarchidae
- ;.	Lepomis margir.ar.ig
-4.	Centrarchus n-acrcptsru.-
^5.	Lepomis pulosus
46.	L. auritus
47.	L. cvanellus
4S.	L. macrochirus
49.	L. microlophus
50.	L. punctatus
51.	Micropterus coosae
52.	M. sp. cf. M. coosae
53.	M. punctulatus
54.	M. salmoides
55.	Pomoxis nigromaculatus
joi.ar sunns."
Flier
warmouth sunfish
Redbreast sunfish
Green sunfish
Bluegill sunfish
Redear sunfish
Spotted sunfish
Redeye bass
Shoal bass
Spotted bass
Largemouth bass
Black crappie
Percidae
56.	Perca flavescens
57.	Percina nigrofasciata
58.	Etheostoma fusiforme
59.	Stizoscedion vitreum
Yellow perch
Blackbanded darter
Swamp darter
Walleve
Percicthyidae
60. Morone saxatilis X
Morone chrvsops
Striped X white bass hybrid
16S

-------
Table 11-2. Fishes collected in West Point Lake area, January 1972-May 1977.
Both Before and Two Years After Impoundment
Common Name
Scientific Name
Longnose gar
Lepisosteus osseus
Bowfin
Amia calva
Gizzard shad
Dorosoma cepedianum
Threadfin shad
D. petenense
Chain pickerel
Esox niger
Clear chub
Notropis winchelli
Golden shiner
Notemigonus crvsoleucas
Blacktip shiner
Lvthrurus atrapiculus
Bluestripe shiner
Cvprinella callitaenia
Longnose shiner
Notropis loneirostris
Red shiner
Cvprinella lutrensis
Weed shiner
Notropis texanus
Blacktail shiner
Cyprinella venusta
Quillback
Carpiodes cvprinus
Creek chubsucker
Erimvson oblonpus
Spotted sucker
Minvtrema melanops
Greater jumprock
Moxostoma lachneri
Undescribed sucker
M. sp. cf. M. poecilurum
Snail bullhead
Ameiurus brunneus
Black bullhead
A. melas
Yellow bullhead
A. natalis
Brown bullhead
A. nebulosus
Channel catfish
Ictalurus punctatus
Mosquitofish
Gambusia affinis
Brook silverside
Labidesthes sicculus
Flier
Centrarchus macrooterus
Redbreast sunfish
Lepomis auritus
Green sunfish
L. cyanellus
Warmouth
L. gulosus
Bluegill
L. macrochirus
Redear sunfish
L. microlophus
Spotted sunfish
L. punctatus
Spotted bass
Micropterus punctulatus
Largemouth bass
M. salmoides
Undescribed bass
M. sp. cf. M. coosae
Black crappie
Pomoxis ni^romaculatus
Yellow perch
Perca flavescens
Bluehead chub
Highscale shiner
Bandfin shiner
Fathead minnow
Creek chub
Lake chubsucker
Alabama hogsucker
Before Impoundment Only
Nocomis leptocephalus
Notropis hypsilepis
Luxilus zonistius
Pimephales promelas
Semotilus atromaculatus
Erimvzon sucetta
Hvpentelium etowanum
169

-------
Table 11-2. (Cont.)
Before Impoundment Only (cont).
flninnirm Namp	Scient't fr* Namp.	
Speckled madtom	Noturus leptacanthus
Southern studfish	Fundulus stellifer
Redeye bass	Micropterus coosae
Banded sculpin	Cottus carolinae
Before and After Impoundment but Disappearing After One Year
Southern brook lamprey	Ichthvomvzon gagei
Redfin pickerel	Esox americanus
Stoneroller	Campostoma anamalum
Silverjaw minnow	Ericvmba buccata
Blackbanded darter	Percina nigrofasciata
After Impoundment Only
Goldfish	Carassius auratus
Carp	Cvprinus carpio
White catfish	Ameiurus catus
Dollar sunfish	Lepomis mareinatus
Swamp darter	Etheostoma fusiforme
Walleye	Stizostedion vitreum
Timmons, T. J., W. L. Shelton, and W. D. Davies. 1978. Initial fish population
changes following impoundment of West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia.
Proc. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agencies 31(1977):312-317.
170

-------
Table 11-3. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations, on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 21 through November 22, 1988.
Catch Per Net-Night
Suedes
(n)
Number
Percent
of Total
Number
Weight
(Kz)
Percent
of Total
Weieht
Bowfin
1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.3
Gizzard Shad
176
17.6
29.6
1.2
4.2
Carp
8
0.8
1.3
1.9
6.7
Golden Shiner
1
0.1
0.2
t*
t
Spotted Sucker
4
0.4
0.7
1.1
3.9
White Catfish
11
1.1
1.9
1.1
3.9
Brown Bullhead
1
0.1
0.2
t
t
Flat Bullhead
1
0.1
0.2
t
t
Channel Catfish
132
13.2
22.2
5.5
19.4
White Bass
33
3.3
5.5
3.5
12.4
SB x WB Hybrid
107
10.7
18.0
9.2
32.5
Redbreast sunfish
1
0.1
0.2
t
t
Warmouth
8
0.8
1.3
0.1
0.4
Bluegill Sunfish
20
2.0
3.4
0.1
0.4
Spotted Bass
14
1.4
2.4
1.0
3.5
Largemouth Bass
20
2.0
3.4
1.5
5.3
Black Crappie
55
5.5
9.3
2.0
7.1
Yellow Perch
1
0.1
0.2
t
t
All species
594
59.4
100.2
28.3
100.0
*t - <0.1 kg.
Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program 1988.
171

-------
Table 11-4. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations, on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 5 through November 6, (3 stations) and from
November 28 through November 29, 1989 (7 stations).
Catch Per Net-Night
Percent	Percent
of Total	Weight of Total
SDecies
(n)
Number
Number
fKe)
Weight
Gizzard Shad
57
5.7
17.2
0.5
2.6
Threadfin Shad
1
0.1
0.3
t*
0.1
Carp
17
1.7
5.1
2.2
9.9
Golden Shiner
1
0.1
0.3
t
t
White Catfish
28
2.8
8.4
0.7
3.4
Channel Catfish
53
5.3
16.0
1.5
7.0
White Bass
11
1.1
3.3
0.9
4.1
SB x WB Hybrid
74
7.4
22.3
11.6
54.1
Warmouth
4
0.4
1.2
t
0.1
Bluegill
2
0.2
0.6
t
t
Redear
1
0.1
0.3
t
t
Spotted Bass
17
1.7
5.1
0.9
4.1
Largemouth Bass
17
1.7
5.1
1.7
7.9
Black Crappie
49
4.9
14.8
1.4
6.6
All species
332
33.2
100.0
21.4
99.9
*t - <0.1 kg.
Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program 1989.
172

-------
Table 11-5. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations, on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 19 through November 20, 1990.
Catch Per Net-Night
Soecies
(n)
Number
Percent
of Total
Number
Weight
(Kz)
Percent
of Total
Ueipht
Gizzard Shad
90
9.0
15.9
0.7
3.1
Carp
32
3.2
5.7
4.2
18.6
Golden Shiner
2
0.2
0.4
t*
T**
Lake Chubsucker
2
0.2
0.4
t
0.2
Spotted Sucker
1
0.1
0.2
t
0.4
Snail Bullhead
1
0.1
0.2
t
T
White Catfish
29
2.9
5.1
0.7
3.1
Brown Bullhead
2
0.2
0.4
t
0.3
Channel Catfish
142
14.2
25.1
5.1
22.6
White Bass
129
12.9
22.8
3.5
15.5
Striped Bass
1
0.1
0.2
t
0.1
SB x WB Hybrid
52
5.2
9.2
5.8
25.7
Redbreast
5
0.5
0.9
t
T
Warmouth
7
0.7
1.2
t
0.3
Bluegill
8
0.8
1.4
t
0.1
Redear
1
0.1
0.2
t
T
Spotted Bass
11
1.1
1.9
0.3
1.3
Largemouth Bass
19
1.9
3.4
0.8
3.5
Black Crappie
31
3.1
5.5
1.1
4.9
All species
565
56.5
100.1
22.2
99.7
*t - <0.1 kg.
**T - < 0.1Z
Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program 1990.
173

-------
Table 11-6. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations, on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 30 through December 1, 1991.
Catch Per Net-Night
SDecies
(n)
Number
Percent
of Total
Number
Weight
tKe)
Percent
of Total
Weight
Longnose Gar
1
0.1
0.1
T*
0.1
Bowfin
2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.8
Gizzard Shad
143
14.3
19.9
1.0
4.5
Carp
13
1.3
1.8
2.1
9.6
Golden Shiner
1
0.1
0.1
T
t**
White Catfish
35
3.5
4.9
1.0
4.6
Brown Bullhead
3
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.3
Channel Catfish
284
28.4
39.6
7.5
34.7
White Bass
37
3.7
5.2
1.8
8.1
Hybrid Striped Bass
40
4.0
5.6
3.6
16.7
Redbreast Sunfish
1
0.1
0.1
T
t
Warmouth
2
0.2
0.3
T
t
Bluegill
11
1.1
1.5
T
0.1
Redear Bass
1
0.1
0.1
T
t
Spotted Bass
25
2.5
3.5
0.8
3.5
Largemouth Bass
30
3.0
4.2
1.8
8.6
Black Crappie
87
8.7
12.1
1.8
8.2
Yellow Perch
1
0.1
0.1
T
t
All species
717
71.7
100.0
21.7
99.8
*T - Trace (<0.1 kg)
**t - Trace (< 0.1%)
Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program 1991.
174

-------
Table 11-7. Catch per unit effort and the relative abundance of species
collected during gillnetting at 10 stations, on West Point Lake,
Georgia from November 9 through November 10, 1992.


Catch
Per Net-Night
Percent
of Total
Weight
Percent
of Total
Soecies
(n)
Number
Number
(Ke)
Weight
Longnose Gar
1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.7
Gizzard Shad
106
10.6
22.7
0.8
4.6
Threadfin Shad
6
0.6
1.3
x*

Carp
14
1.4
3.0
1.8
9.8
Golden Shiner
1
0.1
0.2
T
t
Spotted Sucker
13
1.3
2.8
1.2
6.7
Snail Bullhead
1
0.1
0.2
T
t
White Catfish
11
1.1
2.4
0.2
1.0
Brown Bullhead
2
0.2
0.4
T
t
Channel Catfish
84
8.4
18.0
3.0
16.7
White Bass
85
8.5
18.2
3.9
21.6
Striped Bass
3
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.4
Hybrid Striped Bass
36
3.6
7.7
4.3
23.5
Redbreast Sunfish
1
0.1
0.2
T
t
Bluegill
6
0.6
1.3
T
t
Spotted Bass
12
1.2
2.6
0.5
2.8
Largemouth Bass
12
1.2
2.6
0 . 7
4.0
Black Crappie
68
6.8
14.6
1.3
7.4
Yellow Perch
4
0.4
0.9
T
t
All species
466
46.6
100.0
18.2
99.3
*T - Trace (<0.1 kg)
**t - Trace (< 0.1%)
Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program 1992.
175

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Table 11-8. Dominant fish species by number and weight captured during
gillnetting from 10 stations on West Point Lake 1988-1992.


1988

Number


Weight
1. Gizzard Shad


Striped Bass x White Bass
2. Channel Catfish


Channel Catfish
3. Striped Bass x White
Bass

White Bass
4. Black Crappie


Black Crappie
5. White Bass


Carp


1989

1. Striped Bass x White
Bass

Striped Bass x White Bass
2. Gizzard Shad


Carp
3. Channel Catfish


Largemouth Bass
4. Black Crappie


Channel Catfish
5. White Catfish


Black Crappie


1990

1. Channel Catfish


Striped Bass x White Bass
2. White Bass


Channel Catfish
3. Gizzard Shad


Carp
4. Striped Bass x White
Bass

White Bass
5. Carp


Black Crappie


1991

1. Channel Catfish


Channel Catfish
2. Gizzard Shad


Striped Bass x White Bass
3. Black Crappie


Carp
4. Striped Bass x White
Bass

White Bass, Largemouth Bass,
5. White Bass


Black Crappie


1992

1. Gizzard Shad


Striped Bass x White Bass
2. White Bass


White Bass
3. Channel Catfish


Channel _Catfish
4. Black Crappie


Carp
5. Carp


Black Crappie
Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program, 1988-1992.
176

-------
Table 11-9. Relative condition (Kn) of principal species collected on West Point Lake, Georgia during 1988.
Soeci es
(n) 40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Relative Condition
(Kn)
20mm Size Groups
180 200 220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
>380
Fall Electrofishinq


















Threadfin Shad
293 1.67
1.32
0.92
1.03
0.91













Redbreast Sunfish
10.4


1.02
0.93
0.84
0.84
0.76
0.81









Bluegill Sunfish
176 1 .AO
1.71
1.17
1.10
1.01
1.00
0.98
0.79










Spotted Bass
17


0.75
0.90
1.07
0.92
1.07
0.98 0.98









Largemouth Bass
158
1.41
0.98
1.11
0.98
0.98
0.94
0.97
0.94 0.93
0.97
0.99
0.98
1.01
1.03
1.00
1.03
1.04
1.03
Fall Gil I netting


















Gizzard Shad
176



1.15
0.82
0.77
0.86
0.79 0.86
0.87
0.98
0.97
0.97
0.94

0.91


Channel Catfish
132




0.60

0.96
0.74 0.76
0.73
0.74
0.71
0.71
0.71
0.80
0.76
0.73
0.8a
White Bass
33












1.10
1.11
1.11
1.12
1.19
SB x UB Hybrid
107







1.11
1.24
1.26
1.20
1.28
1.30
1.20
1.16
1.13
1.14
Black Crappie
55



0.89
0.72
0.72
0.87
1.05
1.26
1.29
1.25
1.32
1.37
1.37



Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program 1988.

-------
Table 11-10. Relative condition (Kn) of principal species collected on West Point Lake, Georgia during 1989.
Relative Condition
(Kn)
20mm Size Groups
Species
(")
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340 360
380
>380
Fall Electrofishinq
















Gizzard Shad
190

0.80
0.75
0.82
0.94
0.98
0.94
0.98
1.05
0.98
1.01
1.14
1.12


Redbreast Sunfish
143
1.13
1.03
1.00
0.91
0.84










Bluegi11
147
1.12
1.06
1.01
1.00
1.05










Redear
27


0.91
1.02
1.03
1.03
1.12

0.93






Spotted Bass
K
0.90
1.01
1.12

0.95

1.34

1.35
1.32


1.15


Largemouth Bass
155
1.04
0.99
0.97
0.96
1.02
0.93
1.03
1.04
0.99
0.98
1.00
1.03
1.06 1.08
1.11
1.11
Fall GiUnettinq
















Gizzard Shad
57


0.81
0.78
0.83
0.81
0.80

0.95
0.93
0.94
0.94



Channel Catfish
53















White Bass
11


0.95








1.03

1.16
1.00
SB x UB Hybrid
74


1.29





1.27
1.21
1.37
1.18
1.26
1.10
1.08
Black Crappie
49



0.88
0.88
1.01
1.18
1.18
1.23
1.34
1.41
1.34



Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program, 1989.

-------
Table 11-11. Relative condition (Kn) of principal species collected on West Point Lake, Georgia during 1990.
Species
(n)
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
Relative Condition
(Kn)
20mm Size Groups
240 260 280
300
320
340
360
380
>380
Fall Electrofishing
















Gizzard Shad
113
1.76
0.99
0.76
0.81
0.83
0.87
0.94
1.02
1.00 1.03
1.10
1.05
1.11
1.12


Redbreast
117
0.98
0.90
0.84
0.77
0.79
0.74
0.87








BIuegi11
K1
0.96
0.90
0.92
0.91
0.89










Redear
32




0.99
0.96
0.92
1.05







Spotted Bass
61
0.93
1.09
0.94
1.05
1.02
1.16
1.04
i.oa
1.07
1.18
1.21



1.14
Largemouth Bass
231
0.82
0.83
0.91
0.90
0.91
0.94
0.92
0.92
0.96 0.94
0.95
0.91
0.97
0.97
1.00
1.02
Fall Gillnettinq
















Gizzard Shad
90


0.85
0.90
0.84
0.84
0.89

1.04 0.96
1.09
0.75




Channel Catfish
142



0.79
0.78
0.76
0.77
0.74
0.75 0.74
0.75
0.79
0.74
0.76
0.76
0.91
White Bass
129




0.99
1.10
1.04
1.10
1.10 1.10
1.16

1.10
1.04

0.91
Striped Bass
1









1.07





SB X UB Hybrid
52




1.27



1.10

1.21

1.13

1.05
Black Crappie
31




1.01
0.99
1.11
1.08
1.33 1.25
1.25
1.36
1.39
1.34

1.14
I
Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program, 1990.

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Table 11-12. Relative condition (Kn) of principal species collected on West Point Lake, Georgia during 1991.
Species

60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Relative Condition
(Kn)
20mm Size Groups
200 220 240
260
280
300
320
340 360
380 >380
Fall Electrofishinq

















Gizzard Shad
K7

1.75
1.08
0.93
0.97
0.93
0.97
0.92
1.00
0.92
1.04
1.05
1.03
1.05
1.04

Threadfin Shad
118
















Redbreast
104


1.07
0.99
0.91
0.89
0.87
0.86








BIuegi11
131
1.76
1.49
1.31
1.06
0.98
0.96
1.05









Redear
60




0.96
1.05
1.01
0.95
1.01
1.11
1.05





Spotted Bass
49

1.41
1.52
1.00
1.13
1.12
1.04
0.95
0.99
1.04
0.92

0.98

1.01

largemouth Bass
191
0.61
1.26
1.28
0.97
0.89
1.01
0.88
0.99
1.27
1.02
0.91
0.90
0.90
0.93
0.97 0.92
1.02
Fall Gillnettinq

















Gizzard Shad
14




0.94
0.93
0.89
0.86
0.91
1.05
1.06
0.91
1.03
1.14

0.95
White Catfish
4






0.74
0.89
0.84
0.91
1.00
0.88
1.01
1.06
1.01
1.21
Channel Catfish
28





1.02
1.25
0.93
0.92
0.98
0.96
0.93
0.98
0.87
0.91 0.88
1.04
White Bass
4









1.22
1.20
0.90
1.01
1.05
1.07 1.06

SB x WB Bass
4




1.22

1.31
1.36

1.31
1.18
.15
1.20
1.14
1.13
0.97
Black Crappie
9



0.72
0l93
0.95
0.96
1.22
1.15
1.18
1.25
1.18
1.29
0.99
1.33

Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program, 1991.

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Table 11-13. Relative condition (Kn) of principal species collected on West Point Lake, Georgia during 1992.
Relative Condition
(Kn)
20mm Size Groups
Species
380
Fall Electrofishinq


















Gizzard Shad
107





0.88
0.77
0.94
0.89
0.91
0.92
0.93
0.96
0.83



Threadfin Shad
8
1.18 1.17
















Redbreast
58

0.80
1.06
0.97
0.93
0.89
0.81
0.81









BIuegi11
113
1.39
0.99
1.05
0.91
1.05
1.01
1.04
1.17









Redear
28

0.65


0.97
0.92
1.05
0.98









Spotted Bass
39
1.04
0.98
0.95
0.97

1.06
1.01

1.08


1.03
1.15
1.05
1.23
0.97

Largemouth Bass
121
0.86
1.15

1.0

1.03
0.95

0.98
0.93
0.86
1.00
0.94
0.96
0.93
0.94
1 .05
Fall Gillnettinq


















Gizzard Shad
11




0.87
0.79
0.86
0.81
0.82
0.75
0.94
0.88
0.87
1.20
0.64

0.60
White Catfish
1





0.80


0.74
0.80
0.68
0.79
0.77
0.90



Channel Catfish
8






0.88

0.78
0.82
0.92
0.76
0.78
0.78
0.79
0.91
0.95
White Bass
9






1.00
1.03
0.84
1.07
1.10
0.89
1.05
1.03
1.07
1.07
0.92
Striped Bass
1











1.02
0.99




SB x WB Hybrid
4













1.13


1.03
Black Crappie
7



0.87
0.82
0.90
0.90
1.17
1.16
1.17
1.26
1.28
1.32
1.35
1.22


Georgia DNR, Game and Fish, Standardized fish sampling program, 1992.

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Wildlife.
A wildlife management area for primarily recreational purposes was created
when West Point Lake was formed as partial mitigation for lost habitat caused by
creation of the lake. The management area is approximately 3,642 ha in size and
provides habitat for deer, quail, dove and various waterfowl. The Chattahoochee
River corridor (including West Point Lake) is an important migratory route for
many birds. These birds often stop within the management area during their
travel north or south. Habitat enhancements (nesting boxes, food plots and
ponds) have been added to accommodate those species stopping over as well as
year-round residents. A list of common and transient birds is presented in Table
11-14. The management area holds several hunts available to the public during
the different hunting seasons.
The bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocenhalus. an endangered species, was seen
on several occasions during sampling on West Point Lake. During the summer and
fall of 1992, several bald eagles were observed in the area from Buoy 126 (about
3 miles downstream of Franklin, GA bridge) to Yellowjacket Creek. Five eagles
were sited in one day during one sampling trip through this area. Single birds
were also sited in this area on different sampling dates. On the lower end of
the reservoir near Rocky Point an eagle was sited during winter sampling. Eagles
are nesting in Georgia and it is not known whether those sited were birds living
around the lake or migratory individuals. Both immature and adult birds were
present.
182

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Table 11-14. Bird species of the West Point Lake watershed.
Common Name	
Common loon
Pied-billed grebe
Double-crested cormorant
American anhinga
Great blue heron
Green heron
Great egret
Black-crowned night heron*
Yellow-crowned night heron*
Least bittern
American bittern*
Canada goose
Mallard
American black duck
Gadwall
Common pintail
Green-winged teal
Blue-winged teal
American wigeon
Wood duck
Ring-necked duck
Lesser scaup
Bufflehead
Ruddy duck
Hooded merganser
Turkey vulture
Black vulture
Mississippi kite
Sharp-shinned hawk
Cooper's hawk
Red-tailed hawk
Red-shouldered hawk
Broad-winged hawk
Bald eagle
Northern harrier
Osprey*
Merlin
American kestrel
Common bobwhite
Wild turkey
King rail
Common gallinule
American coot
Wilson's plover*
Killdeer
Piping plover*
Greater yellowlegs
American woodcock
Scient j f i r. Name	
Cavi a 1 innipr
Podilvmbus podiceps
Phalacrocorax auritus
Anhinga anhinga
Ardea herodias
Butorides striatus
Casmerodius albus
Nvcticorax nvcticorax
Nvctanassa violacea
Ixobrvchus exilis
Botaurus lentiginosus
Branta canadensis
Anas platvrhvnchos
Anas rubripes
Anas strepera
Anas acuta
Anas crecca
Anas discors
Anas americana
Aix sponsa
Avthva collaris
Avthva affinis
Bucephala albeola
Oxvura iamaicensis
Lophodvtes cucullatus
Cathartes aura
Coragyps atratus
Ictlnia misslssippiensis
Accipiter striatus
Accipiter cooperii
Buteo jamaiVPTHiic
Buteo lineatus.
Buteo platvoterus
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Circus cvaneus
Pandion haliaetus
Falco columbarius
Falco sparverius
Colinus vir^inianus
Melea^ris pallopavo
Rallus eleeans
Gallinula chloropus
Fulic? ampr-t nana
Charadrius wllsonia
Charadrius vociferus
Charadrius melodus
Tri'nga melanoleuca
Phllohela minor
183

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Table 11-14. (Cont.)
Common Name		
Common snipe
Least sandpiper
Herring gull
Laughing gull
Little tern*
Mourning dove
Yellow-billed cuckoo
Barn owl
Common screech owl
Great horned owl
Barred owl
Long-eared owl
Short-eared owl
Chuck-will's widow
Common nighthawk
Chimmney swift
Ruby-throated hummingbird
Belted kingfisher
Common flicker
Pileated woodpecker
Red-billed woodpecker
Red headed woodpecker
Yellow bellied sapsucker
Hairy woodpecker
Downey woodpecker
Eastern kingbird
Great crested flycatcher
Eastern phoebe
Acadian flycatcher
Eastern pewee
Rough-winged shallow
Bam swallow
Purple martin
Blue jay
American crow
Fish crow
Carolina chickadee
Tufted titmouse
White breasted nuthatch
Red breasted nuthatch
Brown creeper
House wren
Winter wren*
Bewick's wren*
Carolina wren
Marsh wren
Sedge wren
Northern mockingbird
Scientific Name	
Capella gallinago
Calidris minutilla
Larus areentatus
Larus atricilla
Sterna albifrons
Zenaida macroura
Cop_r-y?:ii8 americanus
Tvto alba
Otus asio
Bubo virpinianus
Strix varia
Asio otus
Asin f 1 fluinpiis
Caprimulpus carolinensis
Chordeiles minor
Chaetura vauxi
Archllochus colubris
Megacervle alcvon
Caloptes auratus
Drvocopus pileatus
Melaneraes carolinus
Melaneroes ervthrocephalus
Sphvrapicus varius
Picoides villosus
Picoides pubescens
Tvrannus tvrannus
Mviarchus crinitus
Savornis phoebe
Empidonax virescens
Contopus virens
Stelgidoptervx ruficollis
Hirundo rustlea
Progne subis
Cvanocitta cristata
Corvus brachvrhvnchos
Corvus ossifragus
Parus carolinensis
Parus bicolor
Sitta carolinensis
Sitta canadensis
Certhia familiaris
Troglodytes aedon
Troglodytes troglodytes
Thrvomanes bewickii
Thrvothorus ludovicianus
Cistothorus palustris
Cistothorus platensis
Mimus polyglottos
184

-------
Table 11-14. (Cont.)
Common Name
Scientific Name
Gray catbird
Dumetella carolinensis
Brown thrasher
Toxostoma rufum
American robin
Turdus migratorius
Wood thrush
Hvlocichla mustelina
Hermit thrush
Catharus guttatus
Eastern bluebird
Sialia sialis
Blue-gray gnatcatcher
Polioptila caerulea
Golden-crowned kinglet
Regulus satrapa
Ruby-crowned kinglet
Regulus calendula
Water pipet
Anthus spinoletta
Cedar waxwing
Bombvcilla cedrorum
Loggerhead shrike
Lanius ludovicianus
European starling
Stumus vulgaris
White-eyed vireo
Vireo griseus
Yellow-throated vireo
Vireo flavifrons
Solitary vireo
Vireo solitarius
Red-eyed vireo
Vireo olivaceus
Prothonotary warbler
Protonotaria citrea
Swainson's warbler
Limnothlvpis swainsonii
Worm-eating warbler
Helmitheros vermivorus
Orange crowned warbler
Vermivora celata
Northern parula warbler
Parula americana
Yellow warbler
Dendroica petechia
Yellow-rumped warbler
Dendroica coronata
Yellow-throated warbler
Dendroica dominica
Pine warbler
Dendroica pinus
Prairie warbler
Dendroica discolor
Palm warbler
Dendroica palmarum
Louisiana waterthrush
Seiurus motacilla
Kentucky warbler
Onorornis formosus
Common yellowthroat
Geothlvois trichas
Yellow breasted chat
Icteria virens.
Hooded warbler
Wilsonia citrina
American redstart
Setophaga ruticilla
House sparrow
Passer domesticus
Eastern meadowlark
Sturnella magna
Orchard oriole
Icterus spurius
Redwing blackbird
Agelaius phoeniceus
Rusty blackbird
Euchagus carolinus
Brewers blackbird
EuDhagus cvanocechalus
Common grackle
Ouiscalus auiscula
Brownheaded cowbird
Molothrus ater
Summer tanager
Piranga rubra
Northern cardinal
Cardinalis cardinalis
Blue grosbeak
Guiraca caerulea
Indigo bunting
Passerina cvanea
Dickcissel
Spiza americana
Purple finch
Carpodacus Duruureus
185

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Table 11-14. (Cont.)
Common Name
Scientific Name
Pine siskin
Carduelis pinus
American goldfinch
Carduelis tristis
Rufous-sided towhee
Pipilo ervthrophthalmus
Savannah sparrow*
Passerculus sandwichensis-
Grasshopper sparrow
Armnodramus savannarum
Henslow's sparrow
Ammodramus henslowii
LeConte's sparrow
Ammospiza leconteii
Vesper sparrow
Pooecetes gramineus
Bachman's sparrow*
Aimonhila aestivalis
Northern junco
Junco hyemalis
Chipping sparrow
Spizella passerina
Field sparrow
Soizella pusilla
White-crowned sparrow
Zonotrichia leucophrys
White throated sparrow
Zonotrichia albicollis
Fox sparrow
Passerella iliaca
Swamp sparrow
Melospiza georgiana
Song sparrow
Melosoiza melodia
Petersen, R. T., 1980'. A field guide to the birds of Easter and Central North
America. Fourth edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, HA. 384 pp.
* Indicates special birds of Georgia
186

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Other Species.
Amphibians, reptiles and mammals also expected to occur in this watershed
are listed in Table 11-15.
A list of species of special concern, (plants and animals), are presented
in Table 11-16. These animals are tracked by the Georgia Natural Heritage
program due to their limited numbers and/or threatened habitat.
187

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Table 11-15. Amphibians and reptiles of the middle Chattahoochee watershed
(above Columbus and below Atlanta) Georgia.
AMPHIBIANS
Northern cricket frog
Southern cricket frog
Spotted salamander
Marbled salamander
American toad
Woodhouse's toad
Dusky salamander
Seal salamander
Two-lined salamander
Three-lined salamander
Eastern narrowmouth toad
Four-toed salamander
Cope's gray treefrog
Spring peeper
Squirrel treefrog
Alabama waterdog
Eastern newt
Slimy salamander
Southern redback salamander
Webster's salamander
Mud salamander
Red salamander
Bullfrog
Green frog
Pickerel frog
Southern leopard frog
Eastern spadefoot
REPTILES
Copperhead
Cottonmouth
American alligator
Green anole
Spiny softshell
Worm snake
Scarlet snake
Snapping turtle
Painted turtle
Six-lined racerunner
Racer
Timber rattlesnake
Ringneck snake
Corn snake
Rat snake
Five-lined skink
Southeastern five-lined skink
' Broadhead skink
Acris crepitans
Acris grvllus
Ambvstoma mariilat-inn
Ambvstoma opariim
Rufo americanua
Bufo woohousii
Desmognathus fuscus
Desmofnathus monticola
Eurvcea cirri^era
Eurvcea guttolineata
Gastrophrvne carolinensis
Hemidactvl gcutatum
Hvla chrvsoscelis
Hvla crucifer
Hvla sauirella
Necturus alahampncis
Notophthalmus viridescens
Plethodon glutinosus
Plethodon serratus
Plethodon websteri
Psuedotriton montanus
Pseudotriton ruber
Rana catesbeinana
Rana i-lamft-ans
Rana palustris
Rana sphenocephala
Scaphiopus holbrookii
Aekistrodon contortrix
Agkistrodon piscivorus
Alligator mississippiensis
Anolis carolinensis
Apalone spinifera
Carphophis anmp.nns
Cemophora coccinea
Chelvdra serpentina
Chrvsemvs picata
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus
Coluber constrictor
Crotalus horridus
Diadophls punctatus
Elaphe guttata
Elaphe obsoleta
Eumeces fasciatus
Eumeces inexpectatus
Eumeces latlceps
188

-------
Table 11-15. (Cont.)
RF.PTTLFS (cont.")
Mud snake
Eastern hognose snake
Eastern mud turtle
Prairie kingsnake
Common kingsnake
Milk snake
Alligator snapping turtle
Coachwhip
Plainbelly water snake
Northern water snake
Brown water snake
Rough green snake
Slender grass lizard
Eastern glass lizard
River cooter
Queen snake
Eastern fence lizard
Ground skink
Pigmy rattlesnake
Loggerhead musk turtle
Stinkpot
Brown snake
Redbelly snake
Southeastern crowned snake
Eastern box turtle
Eastern ribbon snake
Common garter snake
Slider
Rough earth snake
Smooth earth snake
Farancia abacura
Heterodon platirhinos
Kinosternon stihruhnun
T-am-prnpeltis calligaster
T-arnprnpeltis petula
T-ainprnpeltis triangulum
Macroclemvs temminckii
Masticophis flagellum
Nerodia ervthrogaster
Nerodia sipedon
Nerodia taxispilota
Opheidrvs aestivus
Qphisaurus attenuatus
Qphisaurus ventralis
Pseudemvs concinna
Regina septemvittata
Sceloporus undulatus
Scincella lateralis
Sistrurus miliarius
Sternotherus minor
Stemotherus odoratus
Storeria dekavi
Storeria occipitomaculata
Tantilla coronata
Terrapene Carolina
TViamnnphis sauritus
Thamnnphis sirtalis
Trachemvs scriuta
Virginia striatula
Virginia valeriae
189

-------
Table 11-16. Special species tracked by Georgia Natural Heritage Program known
to occur in the middle Chattahoochee watershed (south of Atlanta
and north of Columbus) in Georgia.
flnmmnn Nanip.	
BIRDS
Bachman's sparrow
FISH
Bluestripe shiner
Southern brook lamprey
Highscale shiner
Scientific Name
Aimophila aestivalis
Cvurinella callitaenia
Ichthvomvzon ga^ei
Notropis hvpsilepis
PLANTS
Pool sprite, snorkelwort
Georgia rockcress
Harper dodder
Large yellow ladyslipper
Crested wood fern
Longleaf sunflower
Shoals spiderlily
Black-spored quillwort
Southern twayblade
American ginseng
Monkey-face
Mountain-mint
Plumleaf azalea
Bay starvine
Nevius stonecrop
Dwarf granite stonecrop
Silky camellia
Piedmont barren strawberry
Northern prickly ash
Amnhianthus puslllus
Arabis georeiana
Cuscuta harperi
Cvpripeium calceolus car pubescens
Drvopteris cristata
Helianthus loneifolius
Hvmenocallis coronaria
Isoetes melanospora
Listera australis
Panax ouinauefolius
Platanthera integrilabia
Pvcnanthemum curvipes
Rhododendron prunifolium
Schisandra glabra
Sedum nevii
Sedum pusillum
Stewartia malacodendron
Waldsteinia lobata
Zanthoxvlum americanum
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
Wildlife Resources Division
Georgia Natural Heritage Program
2117 US Highway 278, SE
Social Circle, Georgia 30279
190

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PART II. FEASIBILITY STUDY
191

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LAKE RESTORATION ALTERNATIVES
PROBLEM: Cultural Eutrophication.
PRIMARY CAUSES:
Atlanta metropolitan area point source dischargers
Urban storm runoff
Combined sewer overflow in Atlanta area
This study, as well as others, has documented the cultural eutrophication
of West Point Lake that has occurred as a result of excessive nutrient enrichment
of lake waters. From November 1990 through October 1991, permitted dischargers
in the Atlanta metropolitan area contributed about 882 (241 MGD) of the total
point source wastewater volume entering West Point Lake. Municipal wastewater
treatment plants (WPCP) were responsible for 982 of that total. About 702 of the
total phosphorus entering the lake via the Chattahoochee River resulted from
point sources, although under low-flow conditions some of the point and nonpoint
source phosphorus may temporarily settle to the river bottom or be taken up by
filamentous algae. Atlanta area dischargers contributed about 98% (498,453
kg/yr) of the total phosphorus load (511,868 kg/yr) entering West Point Lake from
all point sources (Table 12-1).
Table 12-1.
Total phos
phorus loading
(kg/yr) of West Point Lake.



Point Source

Nonpoint
Source


Atlanta
Municipals
Other
Municipals
All
Industrials
Chatta-
hoochee
River
All
Others
TOTAL
Total
Phosphorus
498,453
12,248
1,167
219,153
19,402
750,423
Nonpoint source loading of total phosphorus into West Point Lake was
estimated to be 238,555 kg/yr (Table 12-1). Of that amount, 922 entered the lake
192

-------
via the Chattahoochee River. A large but unquantified portion of this loading
resulted from urban storm runoff and combined sewer overflows occurring in the
Atlanta metropolitan area. Nonpoint source phosphorus loading of the lake from
that portion of the basin between the West Point Dam and Franklin, Georgia was
19,402 kg/yr. Clearly, the Atlanta area point source dischargers were
responsible for most (66X) of the phosphorus loading of West Point Lake. In
addition, treated municipal wastewater is known to have a relatively high
proportion of the TP present in a bioavailable form. Total phosphorus loading
of the lake was an estimated 7.2 g P/m2  year. The annual mean TP concentration
in the Chattahoochee Riverswhere it entered West Point Lake (Franklin, Georgia)
was over three times the concentration (0.050 mg/1) recommended by EPA to prevent
excessive lake eutrophication (EPA 1986).
As recently as 1987, Algal Growth Potential Tests revealed that West Point
Lake was nitrogen limited at all mainstem locations during the growing season
except in the dam forebay (EPA-EPD 1987). Since manipulation of nitrogen is
generally considered impractical in combatting eutrophication (EPA 1990a),
efforts are underway to reduce phosphorus loading of the lake to levels that will
slow algal growth to more acceptable rates (EPD 1990a) . Actions (phosphate
detergent ban and 0.75 mg/1 effluent limitations) taken to date have resulted in
a decline in phosphorus loading (Figure 8-4) and a decline in mean TP
concentration at most mainstem stations (Table 10-25). More of the lake was
phosphorus limited during the 1991 and 1992 growing seasons than during the 1990
growing season (Table 10-38). Further phosphorus reduction will be necessary to
bring the entire lake into phosphorus limitation.
An increase in plankton algae biomass has been the prominent biological
manifestation of nutrient enrichment of West Point Lake. Raschke (1987) reported
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corrected chlorophyll a concentrations of 147 Mg/1 during the 1986 growing
season. Growing season mean (April-October) chlorophyll a concentration at a
mid-reservoir location (LaGrange water intake) in 1987 was 43.4 pg/1 (EPA and EPD
1987) and in 1988 it was 44.9 jxg/1 (EPA and EPD 1988). Such high levels of algal
growth and accumulation do not enhance any of the designated uses of West Point
Lake. In fact, in 1988 the discharge of hypolimnial waters through the dam
during hydroelectric generation caused fish kills in the tailwaters and taste and
odor problems in the potable water supplies taken from the tailwaters. These
were both indirect effects of the proliferation of the plankton algae in lake
waters. Such eutrophic lakes usually have Secchi disk visibilities of less than
1.0 m (Carlson 1977).
West Point Lake is use-classified as recreation and fishing in Georgia and
swimming and fish and wildlife in Alabama. Recreational users, particularly
skiers and swimmers, prefer clearer waters for aesthetic and safety reasons. A
Secchi disk visibility of 1.2 m (4 feet) or greater is recommended for swimming
waters to allow sufficient visibility for rescue of a submerged drowning victim
(National Academy of Sciences 1973). During the growing season, an increase in
water clarity would require a decrease in plankton algae abundance. These algae
_ are the primary producers of food for other aquatic organisms living in the lake
and some anglers believe the more food available to the fish the better the
fishing. Fishery scientists have expressed concern that improvements in lake
water quality (i.e., reduced phosphorus, reduced algae and increased water
clarity) will result in an unacceptable decline in the quality of the sport and
commercial fisheries (Yurk and Ney 1989). While it is clear that oligotrophic
lakes will not support as large a fish biomass as eutrophic lakes, recent studies
conducted at Auburn University suggest that increases in algal biomass beyond
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certain limits does not enhance sport fishing (Bayne et al. 1994). Their study
of four mainstream reservoirs spanning the trophic range of Alabama lakes
revealed that increases in phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations in excess
of 10 to 15 /ig/1 did not improve sportfish (primarily black bass and crappie)
growth and abundance or the quality of the fishery. It appears, therefore, that
improvement of water quality from near hypereutrophic condition to a moderately
eutrophic state would not adversely affect the sport fishery in West Point Lake.
West Point Lake serves as a potable water supply for the city of LaGrange,
Georgia. The water supply intake structure is located about 2.2 km upstream of
the mouth of Yellowjacket Creek in the more highly productive transition zone of
the lake. Other municipalities utilize West Point Lake tailwaters as potable
water sources. Aside from taste and odor problems associated with algal by-
products or decomposition products, excessive algal growth in water supplies can
increase the potential for the formation of the carcinogenic trihalomethanes.
Although our study failed to reveal a relationship between phytoplankton biomass
and THM's in LaGrange water, Palmstrom et al. (1988) reported as much as 30X of
the THM precursors in an Ohio lake was generated within the lake primarily by
plankton algae. An upper limit on algal biomass near the LaGrange water intake
(station 5) might prevent THM production in the water supply in the future.
Two approaches have been used in trying to determine the extent to which
total phosphorus must be reduced in the effluent of Atlanta-area municipal waste
treatment facilities to improve the water quality of West Point Lake. In
February 1989, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division released a document
entitled "Phosphorus Loading Reduction To West Point Reservoir" in which it was
\
reported that an effluent limitation of 0.75 mg/1 total phosphorus would result
in a mean summertime chlorophyll a concentration of 27 pg/1 at the LaGrange water
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intake and 25 /ig/1 lakewide (EPD 1989b). In August 1990 a report was released
by EPA (1990) based, in large part, on results of a water quality model applied
by the Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station (Gaugush 1989), under
contract with EPA. The West Point Lake model (BATHTUB) predicted that in order
to reduce mean summertime chlorophyll a concentrations at the LaGrange water
intake to 27 /ig/1, an effluent total phosphorus concentration of no more than 0.2
mg/1 must be maintained. It was further predicted that this phosphorus level
would result in mean growing season chlorophyll a concentrations of 15-20 /ig/1
lakewide under both average and 10-year low-flow conditions and that maximum
instantaneous chlorophyll a concentrations would not exceed 40 /ig/1 under average
flows or 50 ;ug/L under 10-year low-flow conditions. Estimates by both agencies
j
were based on a maximum effluent flow of 358 MGD, the committed expansion flow
through the year 2010. This flow is 94.5 MGD higher than the permitted flow that
existed in 1989. DNR has informed local Atlanta governments that no effluent
flows to the Chattahoochee River beyond the committed 358 MGD will be allowed
(EPD 1989c).
RECOMMENDATIONS
The following steps are recommended to assure that cultural eutrophication
of West Point Lake is halted and that lake waters will be safe and suitable for
fishing, swimming and as a public water supply.
1).Chlorophyll a (corrected for phaeopigments)
Under 10-year low-flow conditions (2,100 cfs at Whitesburg, Georgia) mean
(based on samples collected at about 15 day intervals) photic zone chlorophyll
a concentrations measured near the LaGrange water intake structure during the
growing season (April through October) should not exceed 27 /ig/1. Mean photic
zone chlorophyll a concentration should not exceed 50 /ig/1 at any time, anywhere
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in West Point Lake. Lakewide, the growing season average should range between
15 to 20 /ig/1. Lakewide photic zone chlorophyll a means will be based on samples
collected at about 15 day intervals at no less than four mainstem (along
Chattahoochee River channel) locations distributed about equidistance between
West Point Dam and the mouth of New River.
If future water withdrawal within the Chattahoochee River Basin upstream
of West Point Lake exceeds current (1993) levels and results in Chattahoochee
River flows of less than 2,100 cfs (at Whitesburg, Georgia), the chlorophyll a
standards for the 10-year, low-flow condition (as stated above) will apply until
such time as river flows exceed 2,100 cfs.
Under average flow conditions (3,925 cfs at Whitesburg) mean photic zone
chlorophyll a concentrations measured near the LaGrange water intake structure
during the summer (June through August) should not exceed 27 /ig/1. Mean photic
zone chlorophyll a concentration should not exceed 40 /ig/1 at any time, anywhere
in West Point Lake. Lake-wide, the growing season average should range between
15 and 20 /ig/1. Lake-wide photic zone chlorophyll a means will be based on
samples collected at about 15 day intervals at not less than four mainstem (along
Chattahoochee River channel) locations distributed about equidistance between
West Point Dam and the mouth of New River.
Note. These chlorophyll a limitations are based, in large part, on
information provided by both EPD (1989b) and EPA (1990b). The critical level of
27 /ig/1 chlorophyll a at the midreservoir location near the LaGrange water supply
intake was supported by both agencies. Limiting mean growing season chlorophyll
a concentrations to 27 /ig/1 in the lake transition zone is predicted to result
in mean lake-wide chlorophyll a levels of 15-20 /ig/1 during the growing season
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(EPA 1990b). The following water quality improvements should result:
-	greater water clarity;
-	reduced oxygen demand caused by overproliferation and decomposition of
organic matter (plankton algae);
-	higher minimum and lower maximum pH;
-	reduced probability that trihalomethane precursors will result from
excessive phytoplankton blooms and
-	reduced probability of taste and odor problems developing in potable
water supplies taken from the lake.
Chlorophyll a concentrations of 15-20 ^g/1 during the growing season should
be more than adequate to support a productive lake fishery.
2) Total Phosphorus
Total phosphorus loading of the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries
upstream of West Point Lake by point source dischargers must be reduced to levels
that will ensure maintenance of the chlorophyll a concentrations as stated above.
Note. About two-thirds of the phosphorus entering West Point Lake in 1991
came from Atlanta-area WPCP. This source of phosphorus is known to have a
relatively high proportion of bioavailable phosphorus (Raschke and Schultz 1987) .
About one-half of the TP in Chattahoochee River water at Franklin, Georgia was
in a form that was readily usuable by algae and other aquatic plants (Figure 10-
11) . Control of these point sources of phosphorus will have a greater impact on
lake water quality than a comparable amount of effort aimed at nonpoint source
phosphorus control. However, as lake phosphorus concentrations decline as a
result of point source TP control efforts, nonpoint sources of phosphorus will
become increasingly important. Urban storm runoff and combined sewer overflow
problems in the Atlanta-area are obvious significant sources of phosphorus to
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West Point Lake. Actions taken to date (phosphate detergent ban and initiation
of a 0.75 mg/1 effluent limitation) have resulted in a decline in phosphorus
loading and in total phosphorus concentrations of lake waters. However, during
the 1992 growing season, there was still enough excess phosphorus present as far
downstream as the LaGrange water intake (station 5) to cause nitrogen limitation
or co-limitations during the latter portion of the growing season (August and
October) (Table 10-38). Further phosphorus reduction is needed just to bring the
most productive area of the lake (stations 4 and 5) into phosphorus limitation.
Reductions in effluent total phosphorus to maintain the recommended chlorophyll
a concentrations must be sufficient to offset increased discharge of treated
wastewater (a total of 358 MGD by 2010) and anticipated reduced tributary flows
into West Point Lake caused by increased consumptive water use upstream. Any
reasonable course of action to address this problem will likely involve a
cooperative effort among the three government agencies (EPD, ADEM and EPA)
charged with the responsibility for maintaining quality of this important
resource.
3)	Total Nitrogen
Since the lake will be phosphorus limited in terms of algal growth,
nitrogen concentrations can vary as long as concentrations of toxic species (e.g.
NH3 and N02") remain at safe levels (EPA 1986).
4)	eH
Lake water pH should not decline below pH 6.5 nor rise above pH 9.5.
Note. Total alkalinity of West Point Lake waters is generally low (13-29
mg/1 as CaC03) and therefore the chemical buffering capacity of the lake is
reduced. Normal variation in C02 of lake waters caused by algal photosynthesis
and respiration can cause wide diel fluctuations in pH of poorly buffered systems
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(Wetzel 1983). pH values within the range of 6.5 to 9.0 are generally considered
adequate for protection of fish and other aquatic life (Boyd 1979, Alabaster and
Lloyd 1980 and EPA 1986). During the growing season of 1992, with relatively low
chlorophyll a concentrations (<25.8 Mg/1) . afternoon pH values in the photic zone
of the lake frequently exceeded 9.0 but were usually below 9.5. It may be
unreasonable to expect a poorly buffered, eutrophic lake to always maintain pH
values between 6.5 and 9.0. Boyd (1976 and 1990) reported good fish production
in ponds with low alkalinity even though afternoon pH values typically rose above
9.0.
5) Dissolved OxvEen
Under isothermal conditions (change in water column temperature of 1.0 C
or less) the dissolved oxygen concentration of the photic zone (that portion of
the upper water column receiving at least 1.0 X of the surface incident light)
should maintain a dissolved oxygen concentration of 5.0 mg/1 or higher at all
times. When a thermocline (change in water column temperature of greater than
1.0 C) exists, dissolved oxygen concentration in the upper 5.0 m of the water
column should remain at 5.0 mg/1 or higher at all times.
Note. Eutrophication usually promotes plant growth (plankton algae in West
Point Lake) in lakes resulting in increased rates of organic matter
decomposition. Organisms responsible for the decomposition utilize dissolved
oxygen in the water and therefore eutrophication can cause an oxygen shortage
among competing aerobic organisms. Warmwater species of fish and invertebrates
usually thrive as long as minimum oxygen concentrations remain > 5.0 mg/1
(Alabaster and Lloyd 1980, EPA 1986 and Boyd 1990). Eutrophic lakes of the
southeastern U.S. that thermally stratify usually have hypolimnial (deep water)
oxygen deficiencies and West Point Lake is no exception. However, the upper,
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lighted portion of the water column (photic zone), where lgil photosynthesis and
surface diffusion supply oxygen to the water, should maintain dissolved oxygen
concentrations > 5.0 mg/1 at all times. This will assure a voluminous, well
oxygenated life zone for support of most warmwater organisms. One notable
exception, however, is the striped bass, Morone saxatilis. that was routinely
stocked into many southeastern reservoirs including West Point Lake as an
additional piscivorous sportfish. These anadromous fish that ascended streams
to spawn in times past, prior to wide-spread river impoundment, require a cool
water (20 - 24 C) refuge in addition to adequate dissolved oxygen (Coutant and
Carroll 1980). There is no guarantee that our recommendations will ensure
adequate areas of cool, well oxygenated water to support any future stocking of
striped bass into West Point Lake.
These recommendations should be included as part of the West Point Lake
Water Quality Standards to be established by the Georgia Board of Natural
Resources as called for in Act Number 1274 approved by the Georgia General
Assembly in April 1990. The cost associated with implementing these
recommendations will depend largely on the level of phosphorus reduction in
wastewater effluent necessary to meet the recommended lake water quality
standards. EPA (1990b) estimated the cost of meeting the 0.75 mg/1 limit at
$75,000 per year per MGD and the 0.2 mg/1 limit at $100,000 per year per MGD of
wastewater. Calculated at the future 358 MGD wastewater design flow, total cost
of the 0.75 mg/1 limit would be $26.9 million and total cost of the 0.2 mg/1
limit would be $35.8 million.
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PROBLEM: Bacterial Contamination.
PRIMARY CAUSES:
Urban storm runoff
Combined sewer overflow in Atlanta area
Studies designed to detect fecal coliform contamination of West Point Lake
during 1991 and 1992 revealed incidences of elevated bacterial counts (> 200
colonies/100 ml) confined to the upstream one-half of the lake. On most
occasions, waters tested between the LaGrange water intake (station 5) and the
dam (station 10) had fecal coliform levels of < 20 colonies/100 ml. However,
upstream areas of the lake, primarily a 13-km reach between Franklin, Georgia and
the mouth of New River, frequently exceeded the use designated criterion (a
geometric mean of 200 colonies/100 ml based on at least four samples collected
within a 30 day period). Intensive sampling of the lake following periods of
high rainfall and runoff in the Atlanta metropolitan area resulted in elevated
bacterial counts in the upstream reaches of the lake several days following the
rain event. Rainfall in the Atlanta area increases fecal coliform densities in
the Chattahoochee River in at least two ways. Untreated stormwater runoff from
city streets, parking lots and homes is a major source of bacteria often
containing fecal coliforni densities as high as 105 colonies/100 ml (Novotny and
Chesters 1981). The other source of bacteria following rainfall events in the
Atlanta area results from combined sewer overflow (CSO). A 26 square mile area
of the City of Atlanta is served by a system of combined sewers (EPD 1989c) .
Rainfall in this area of the city results in untreated domestic sewage as well
as urban runoff entering the Chattahoochee River from six Atlanta area CSO's.
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CSO's contribute more bacteria (106 colonies/100 ml) and a higher proportion of
bacteria derived from humans as opposed to other warn blooded animals (Novotny
and Chesters 1981).
RECOMMENDATIONS
The following water quality standard must be strictly enforced:
Fecal Coliform Bacteria.
The geometric mean fecal coliform density based on four samples collected
during a 30 day period should not exceed 200 colonies/100 ml in lake water. At
least 24 hours should elapse between samples.
Note. Urban storm runoff and CSO's are contributing buoyant solids,
settable solids, nutrients, bacteria and toxics to the Chattahoochee River and
West Point Lake. It appears that these sources are the primary cause of elevated
fecal coliform densities in the upstream portions of West Point Lake.
Improvements in the quality of storm runoff water and CSO's are essential if the
fecal coliform standard is to be met. Actions are underway that could result in
substantial reductions of solids and bacteria in Atlanta area stormwater and
CSO's.
Sediment control has been strengthened through more active enforcement of
the Erosion and Sedimentation Act (the Act) of 1975 as amended through 1989. The
Act provided for counties and municipalities to become certified issuing
authorities for permits involving land disturbing (mainly construction)
activities. An amendment to the Act gave EPD the authority to review actions and
progress of certified counties and municipalities. In addition, EPD assumed
responsibility for issuing and enforcing permits for those cities and counties
which were not certified and had failed to adopt a local ordinance. All cities
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and counties in the Atlanta metropolitan area now have ordinances that attempt
to assure "sound conservation and engineering practices to prevent and minimize
erosion and resultant sedimentations".
Metropolitan Atlanta also has a storm water management program. EPD is in
the process of issuing NPDES Area-Wide Permits to the municipalities in the metro
Atlanta area. The permit requires that the permittee not create a condition of
nuisance, cause interference with the legitimate water use of the State of
Georgia as set forth in Section 391-3-6-.03 of the Rules and Regulations for
Water Quality Control or cause the following conditions:
-	Foam or floating, suspended or deposited macroscopic particulate matter;
-	Bottom deposits or aquatic growths;
-	Alteration of temperature, turbidity or apparent color beyond present
background levels;
-	Visible, floating, suspended, or deposited oil, grease or any products
of petroleum origin; and
-	Toxic or deleterious substances to be present in concentrations or
quantities which will cause harmful effects on aquatic biota,
wildlife, or waterfowl or which render any of these unfit for human
consumption either at levels created in the receiving waters or as a
result of biological concentration.
The permit requires that the permittee institute best management practices
to control the quality of the storm water discharged to the waters of the State
(personal communication, Jim Sommerville, EPD).
Neither nutrients nor bacteria are specifically mentioned among permit
requirements but perhaps they would be considered "deleterious substances"
introduced to receiving waters that interfere with legitimate water use. If that
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is the case, vigorous enforcement of this stormwater program could be very
effective in controlling sedimentation, bacterial and toxic contamination and
nutrient enrichment (cultural eutrophication) of West Point Lake. If nutrients
and bacteria are not considered "deleterious substances" in this context, then
they should be added to the permit requirements. EPD must provide the
leadership, guidance and impetus to fully implement this program.
The initial efforts to address the CSO problem in the City of Atlanta are
underway. EPD has issued NPDES permits to the six CSO's that discharge to waters
tributary to the Chattahoochee River. The permits require that the CSO must not
cause violations of the Georgia Water Quality Control Standards. In addition,
the CSO's must be controlled to prevent the following conditions for waters
downstream of the CSO:
-	materials which would settle to form sludge deposits that become
putrescent, unsightly or interfere with legitimate water uses;
-	oil, scum and floating debris in amounts sufficient to be unsightly or
to interfere with legitimate water uses;
-	materials which produce turbidity, color, odor or other objectionable
conditions which interfere with legitimate water uses;
-	toxic, corrosive, acidic and caustic substances in amounts,
concentrations or combinations which are harmful to humans, animals or
aquatic life.
Concurrently with the NPDES Permits, the EPD issued Administrative Orders
for those CSO's that were deemed to be unable to meet the requirements of the
permit (a total of six orders were issued). The Orders required that the CSO's
meet their permits requirements by January 1, 1994.
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To meet the requirements of the permit, the City is building the following
facilities at the CSO's:
-	effluent flow measurement;
-	coarse screening;
-	fine screening;
-	disinfection.
The construction of the above facilities is scheduled to be completed by
December 31, 1993 at four of the six CSO's. One of the remaining CSO's will be
eliminated by separating the sewers, while the construction of the control
facilities at the other CSO has been delayed due to a change in the location of
the control facilities.
To address the City's failure to initiate construction at two of the CSO's
by the date specified in the Order, the EPD entered into a Consent Order with the
City of Atlanta. The Order requires the City pay a stipulated penalty of $1,000
per day per CSO for each month or portion of month beyond the date specified in
the Order that the City fails to initiate construction of the CSO's. In
addition, the City will pay an escalating stipulated penalty (1,000-$4,000 per
day per CSO) for each month or portion of month beyond January 1, 1994 that the
City fails to complete construction of the CSO control facilities (personal
communication, Jim Sommerville, EPD).
Completion of construction on all six of these CSO's could require an
additional year or more although some are scheduled to begin operation early in
1994. The separation of stormwater and domestic waste sewers is the surest way
to reduce nutrient and bacterial contamination of receiving waters. CSO's
typically have higher bacterial densities and nutrient concentrations than
stormwater (Novotny and Chesters 1981). The fact that some stormwater flows to
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wastewater treatment plants during light precipitation events does not offset the
negative effects of untreated domestic sewage discharged into surface waters
following moderate to heavy rainfall. Sewer separation would assure thorough
treatment of all domestic wastewater that would remove most of the solids,
nutrients and pathogens while stormwater would be dealt with under the new
stormwater management program. Problems related to stormwater runoff could be
more easily identified without the complication of having domestic wastewater
mixed with stormwater. The potential benefits and problems associated with sewer
separation are discussed in the context of other CSO control alternatives in a
recent manual published by EPA (EPA 1993).
The planned screening and disinfection of CSO's at five of the six CSO
sites in Atlanta will remove larger solids (>1.0 cm) and will reduce bacterial
densities in the receiving waters. There will be virtually no reduction in
suspended solids (turbidity), toxic substances or nutrients. There will be no
incentive to improve stormwater management since it will be virtually impossible
to demonstrate need because of the mixing of stormwater and domestic wastewater.
Disinfection will be accomplished by diffusing a 10% solution of sodium
hypochlorite (NaClO) into the outflow of the CSO to achieve a concentration of
10 mg/1. Residual chlorine in receiving waters will be monitored to assure that
concentrations do not rise above the designated standard of 11.0 /ig/1. It is
expected that this level of chlorination will be sufficient to reduce bacterial
densities in receiving waters to levels that meet water quality standards
(personal communication, Jim Sommerville, EPD). If so, incidences of episodic
bacterial contamination in the upstream portions of West Point Lake might be
reduced or eliminated. If chlorination controls bacteria in the CSO's but fecal
coliform densities remain high in upstream West Point Lake, other sources of
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bacterial contamination, most notably Atlanta stormwater runoff, must be verified
and controlled. If chlorination does not control bacteria in CSO's, sewer
separation or further treatment of CSO waters will be necessary to meet the fecal
coliform standard recommended for West Point Lake.
PROBLEM: Toxic Contaminants
PRIMARY CAUSES:
Atlanta metropolitan area municipal waste treatment dischargers
Urban storm runoff
The monitoring of West Point Lake water, sediment and fish during the Fall
of 1990 and Spring of 1991 for toxics revealed the following:
(1)	No volatile organic, acid/base/neutral extractable semivolatiles or
pesticides were detected in any water samples. Occasional detectable quantities
of mercury were the only heavy metal residues found in water samples. Mercury
was detected in seven of twenty water samples (0.18 ppb to 1.46 ppb) which
exceeds the Georgia water quality standard of 0.12 ppb.
(2)	Sediments contained detectable quantities of As, Se, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni,
Cu, Pb, Zn, phthalates, pyrene, PNA's, fluoranthene and benzopyrene. Nitrogen
was detected at levels ranging from 134 - 569 ppm. Phosphorus levels ranged from
20 - 868 ppm with a mean value of 309 ppm which falls within the mean total
phosphorus level (300 - 400) found in most Georgia Piedmont lakes. There are no
Federal or State standards for sediment concentrations.
(3)	Filet samples of carp and largemouth bass contained detectable
quantities of As, Se, Hg, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, PCB, chlordane, PCA and DDT.
Concentrations of these substances were compared to FDA action levels and EPA
guidance levels for fish filets to assess human consumption risks. Only PCB and
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chlordane residue levels were found to approach or exceed EPA or FDA action
levels. PCB's (primarily 1260) were detected in fish filets and concentrations
were below the FDA action level but in excess of the EPA 1CTA risk level.
Chlordane was detected in fish filets in excess of the FDA action level and EPA
10~\ 10~5, and 10~6 risk levels. Residue levels of chlordane and PCB decreased
as sampling proceeded from Franklin toward the dam.
Hybrid striped bass and black crappie filet samples contained detectable
levels of chlordane, DDT, dieldrin and PCB but all concentrations were below FDA
action levels. Chlordane concentrations in hybrid bass were approaching 0.3
mg/kg, the FDA standard for that compound.
Prior to the 1980's, chlordane was used as a household termite treatment
and was readily available to homeowners. Since the federal EPA banned the use
of chlordane and the industrial chemical PCB, future discharges of these
materials should decrease. Monitoring of municipal waste treatment plant
discharges has revealed trace quantities from residual home and industrial usage.
In addition, effective erosion control will help to mitigate pesticides
containing surface runoff from home owners, homes treated with termiticides, and
PCBs from industrial sites.
It is anticipated that PCB and chlordance levels should decrease in the
future. Levels of pyrene, fluoranthene and benzopyrene in the sediments result
from industrial activity. With increasing upstream activity, these residues
might be expected to increase. The source of mercury in the water column is
unknown.
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PHASE 2 MONITORING PROGRAM
Specific actions have been initiated in Georgia to reduce nutrient
(primarily phosphorus) loading resulting from point sources of pollution. The
debate between EPD and EPA over the effluent phosphorus limit necessary to assure
maintenance or recommended chlorophyll a standards is continuing. Until this
issue has been settled and for, at least, 2 years following completion of all
actions to reduce nutrient loading of West Point Lake, monitoring of the lake
during the growing season (April through October) should be continued. Sampling
should be conducted twice monthly at seven mainstream locations (Franklin,
confluence of New River, 219 bridge, LaGrange water intake, 109 bridge, off Rocky
Point and dam forebay) and three embayments (New River, Yellowjacket Creek and
Wehadkee Creek) (Table 10-2). At each location, water column profile
measurements of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity should be made
and in situ measurements of visibility and light penetration done using methods
described in Table 10-3. A photic zone composite sample should be collected at
each location and the following variables measured: total suspended solids,
turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, organic
nitrogen, total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus and total organic carbon
using methods listed in Table 10-3. The composite samples should be further
analyzed for chlorophyll a (phaeophytin corrected) and phytoplankton
identification and enumeration (Table 10-26). At least four times (every other
month), composite water samples from the mainstem sampling locations should be
submitted for Algal Growth Potential Test (Table 10-26).
Actions are underway to improve the quality of stormwater runoff and CSO's
in the Atlanta area. Since construction on CSO facilities will be completed in
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stages during the next year or so, monitoring of fecal coliform bacteria in the
upstream 13-km reach (Franklin to the mouth of New River) of Vest Point Lake
should be conducted each growing season (April through October) until it is
determined if control of nonpoint sources of bacterial pollution in the Atlanta
area has been successful. Sampling should be conducted on a delayed basis
following at least three significant (> 2.54 cm) rainfall events in the Atlanta
metro area, preferably early growing season, mid-growing season and late growing
season. Starting 2 days following an Atlanta rainfall event, fecal coliform
samples should be collected and analyzed daily for 6 consecutive days at no less
than seven sampling locations spaced equidistance between Franklin and the mouth
of New River. The results can be compared to the 1992 data gathered in this
study (Section 10.2.3) prior to completion of CSO facilities. If West Point Lake
headwaters are not meeting the recommended fecal coliform water quality standard,
the public must be notified in a manner similar to the advisories issued for
toxic contaminants. Such studies should be repeated annually until it has been
demonstrated that West Point Lake headwaters have met recommended fecal coliform
criteria for 2 consecutive years.
A limited toxics monitoring program should be conducted yearly to insure
that: a) chlordane and PCB residue levels are actually decreasing; b) levels of
industrial chemicals (polynuclear aromatic compounds) are not increasing and c)
new industrial chemicals are not being discharged into the lake. Monitoring
should consist of annual sediment and fish sample collection from the eight
sampling stations on West Point Lake used by Bush and Blazer (1992) in the
appended report. Sampling and analysis should consist of the following: a)
filets of carp, largemouth bass and hybrid striped bass analyzed for heavy
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metals, pesticides and industrial chemicals; sediment analyzed for heavy metals,
pesticides and industrial chemicals and c) water sampled for the heavy metal
mercury.
Given the rapid expansion of the Atlanta metropolitan area and the
increasing demands being placed on the Chattahoochee River that affect both its
water quality and quantity, plans should be made to monitor West Point Lake
indefinitely. This long term monitoring effort should be designed to assure
compliance with the lake water quality standards to be established for West Point
Lake in the near future. This program should include, at least, monthly sampling
during the growing season (April through October) at five mainstem locations
(Franklin, Highway 219, LaGrange water intake, Highway 109 and the dam forebay)
and three embayment locations (New River, Wehadkee and Yellowjacket). All
variables related to West Point Lake water quality standards should be routinely
monitored.
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ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION
The following questions and answers pertain to restoration activities
currently underway to address water quality problems identified in the Phase I
Diagnostic/Feasibility Study of West Point Lake.
1.	Will the proposed projects displace any people? No
2.	Will the proposed projects deface existing residences or residential
areas? No
3.	Will the proposed projects be likely to lead to a change in
established land use patterns such as increased development pressure
near the lake? No
4.	Will the proposed projects adversely affect a significant amount of
prime agricultural land or agricultural operations on such land? No
5.	Will the proposed projects results in a significant adverse effect on
parkland, other public land or lands of recognized scenic value? Yes
6.	Will the proposed projects result in a significant adverse effect on
lands or structures of historic, architectural, archaeological or
cultural value? No
7.	Will the proposed projects lead to a significant long-range increase
in energy demands? No
8.	Will the proposed projects result in significant and long range
adverse changes in ambient air quality or noise levels? No
9.	Do the proposed projects involve use of in-lake chemical treatment?
No
10. Will the proposed projects involve construction of structures in a
floodplain? Yes
213

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11.	Will dredging be employed as part of the restoration procedures, and
if so, where will the dredge material be deposited? No
12.	Will the proposed projects have a significant adverse effect on fish
and wildlife, or on wetlands or any other wildlife habitat, especially
those of endangered species? No
13.	Are there additional feasible alternatives to the proposed restoration
projects, and why were they not chosen? Restoration activities on
West Point Lake were begun prior to completion of this Phase I study.
Should the current restoration projects fail to produce desired
results, other feasible alternatives have been identified in this
s tudy.
14.	Are there additional adverse environmental impacts from the proposed
restoration projects that were not addressed in the previous
questions? No
214

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LITERATURE CITED
Alabaster, J. S. and R. Lloyd. 1980. Water quality criteria for freshwater
fish. Buttervorths, Boston, Massachusetts. 297 pp.
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water
Pollution Control Federation. 1989. Standard methods for the examination
of water and wastewater. 17th ed. Washington, D.C. 1268 pp.
Bayne, D. R., J. M. Lawrence and J. A. McGuire. 1983. Primary productivity
studies during early years of West Point Reservoir, Alabama - Georgia.
Freshwater Biology 13:477-489.
Bayne, D. R., W. D. Davies, S. P. Malvestuto, J. M. Lawrence and W. L. Shelton.
1983. Fisheries and limnological studies on West Point Lake, Alabama -
Georgia. Final Report. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District,
Mobile, Alabama. 157 pp.
Bayne, D. R. , W. D. Davies, S. P. Malvestuto and E. C. Webber. 1986. Fisheries
and limnological studies on West Point Lake, Alabama - Georgia. Final
Report. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Mobile, Alabama.
68 pp.
Bayne, D. R. , W. C. Seesock and L. D. Benefield. 1989. Water quality assessment
Alabama public lakes 1989. Alabama Department of Environmental
Management. Montgomery, Alabama. 178 pp.
Bayne, D. R., W. C. Seesock, C. E. Webber and J. A. McGuire. 1990. Cultural
eutrophication of West Point Lake - a 10-year study. Hydrobiologia
199:143-156.
Bayne, D. R. 1991. Factors related to trophic upsurge of West Point Lake.
Proceedings of the 1991 Georgia Water Resources Conference, University of
Georgia, Athens, Georgia.
Bayne, D. R. , W. C. Seesock, P. P. Emmerth, E. Reutebuch and F. Leslie. In
Review. Weiss Lake Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility Study. Draft Report.
Auburn University Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station. Auburn,
Alabama.
Bayne, D. R. , M. J. Maceina and W. C. Reeves. 1994. Zooplankton, fish and
sport fishing quality among four Alabama and Georgia reservoirs of varying
trophic status. Lake and Reservoir Management 8(2):153-163.
Bush, P. B. and V. Blazer. 1992. Toxic substances in water, sediments and fish
and fish health assessment (1990-1992). West Point Lake: Phase I -
Diagnostic/Feasibility Study.
Boyd, C. E. 1979. Water quality in warmwater fish ponds. Auburn University
Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. 359 pp.
215

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Boyd, C. E. 1990. Water quality in ponds for aquaculture. Auburn University
Agricultural Experiment Station. Auburn, Alabama. 482 pp.
Carlson, R. E. 1977. A trophic state index. Limnology and Oceanography
22(2):361-369.
Cooke, G. D., E. B. Welch, S. A. Peterson and P. R. Newroth. 1986. Lake and
reservoir restoration. Butterworths, Boston, Massachusetts. 392 pp.
Coutant, C. C. and D. S. Carroll. 1980. Temperature occupied by ten ultrasonic-
tagged striped bass in freshwater lakes. Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society 109(2):195-202.
Davies, W. D., W. L. Shelton, D. R. Bayne and J. M. Lawrence. 1979a. Fisheries
and llmnological studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama - Georgia.
Technical Report EL-79-4. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station. Vicksburg, Mississippi. 266 pp.
Davies, W. D. , W. L. Shelton, D. R. Bayne and J. M. Lawrence. 1979b. Fisheries
and limnological studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama - Georgia.
Final Report. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Mobile,
Alabama. 238 pp.
Davies, W. D., D. R. Bayne, S. P. Malvestuto, J. M. Lawrence and E. C. Webber.
1984. Fisheries and limnological studies on West Point Lake, Alabama -
Georgia. Final Report. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Mobile District,
Alabama. 106 pp.
Edwards, T. K. and G. D. Glysson. 1988. Field methods for measurements of
fluvial sediment. U.S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 86-531.
Reston, Virginia.
EPA. 1986. Quality criteria for water 1986. Office of Water Regulations and
Standards. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C.
EPA. 1990a. The lake and reservoir restoration guidance manual, 2nd edition.
EPA-440/4-90-006. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water,
Washington, D. C. 326 pp.
EPA. 1990b. West Point Lake predictive chlorophyll a modeling report. Water
Quality Management Division, U. S. Environmental Protection Division.
Region IV. Atlanta, Georgia. 12 pp.
EPA. 1993. Manual-Combined Sewer Overflow Control. EPA/625/R-93/007. Office
of Research and Development. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Washington D. C. 95 pp.
EPA-EPD. 1987. Water quality investigation of West Point Lake 1987. U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency and Georgia Department of Natural
Resources, Environmental Protection Division. Atlanta, Georgia. 84 pp.
216

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EPA-EPD. 1988. Water quality investigation of West Point Lake 1988. U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency and Georgia Department of Natural
Resources, Environmental Protection Division. Atlanta, Georgia. 26 pp.
EPD. 1989a. Water quality investigation of West Point Lake 1989. Georgia
Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division.
Atlanta, Georgia. 74 pp.
EPD. 1989b. Phosphorus loading reduction to West Point Reservoir. Georgia
Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division.
Atlanta, Georgia. 11 pp.
EPD. 1989c. Clean water action plan. Chattahoochee River-Buford Dam to and
including West Point Reservoir. Georgia Department of Natural Resources
Environmental Protection Division. Atlanta, Georgia. 21 pp.
EPD. 1990. Water quality investigation of West Point Lake 1990. Georgia
Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division.
Atlanta, Georgia. 78 pp.
EPD. 1992. Chattahoochee River Basin Water Quality Management Plan. Georgia
Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division.
Atlanta, Georgia.
EPD. In Review. Jackson Lake Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility Study. Draft
Report. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection
Division. Atlanta, Georgia. 339 pp.
Fassett, N. C. 1966. A manual of aquatic plants. University of Wisconsin
Press. Madison, Wisconsin. 405 pp.
FDA. 1987. Action levels for poisonous or deleterious substances in human food
and animal feed. U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D. C.
Fogg, G. E. 1965. Algal cultures and phytoplankton ecology. University of
Wisconsin Press. Madison, Wisconsin. 126 pp.
Garman, G. D., G. B. Good and L. M. Hinsman. 1986. Phosphorus: A summary of
information regarding lake water quality. Illinois Environmental
Protection Agency. Springfield, Illinois. 69 pp.
Gaugush, R. F. 1989. Water quality in West Point Lake in response to reduced
nutrient loads. An application of the Empirical Reservoir Model, BATHTUB.
Miscellaneous paper EL-89, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Georgia Water Quality Control Board. 1971. Chattahoochee River basin study.
Georgia Water Quality Control Board. Atlanta, Georgia. 206 pp.
217

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Hatcher, K. J. 1986. Sediment oxygen demand processes. Pages 3-8 in K. J.
Hatcher, (ed.). Sediment oxygen demand, processes, modeling and
measurement. Institute of Natural Resources, University of Georgia.
Athens, Georgia.
Hern, S. C., V. W. Lambou, L. R. Williams and W. D. Taylor. 1981. Modifications
of models predicting trophic state of lakes. Project summary. EPA-600/3-
81-001. Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, U. S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Lambou, V. W. , W. D. Taylor, L. R. Williams and S. C. Hern. 1981. Relationship
of common phytoplankton genera to nutrients in eastern and southeastern
lakes. Pages 328-364 in M. W. Lorenzen, (ed.). Phytoplankton-
environmental interactions in reservoirs. Technical Report E-81-13.
Office, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, Washington, D.C.
Lawrence, J. M. 1970. Fertility and aquatic biomass in southeastern
impoundments. Pages 115-126 in W. G. Weist and P. E. Greeson (eds.).
Hydrobiology: Bioresources of shallow water environments. American Water
Resources Association, Urbana, Illinois.
Lawrence, J. M. , S. P. Malvestuto, W. D. Davies, D. R. Bayne and W. L. Shelton.
1982. Fisheries and limnological studies of West Point Lake, Alabama -
Georgia. Final Report. Mobile District, Alabama. 214 pp.
Lind, 0. T. 1985. Handbook of common methods in limnology. 2nd Ed.
Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co. Dubuque, Iowa. 199 pp.
Morris, F. A., R. W. Thomas, M. K. Morris, L. R. Williams, W. D. Taylor, F. A.
Hiatt, S. C. Hern, J. W. Hilgert and V. W. Lambou. 1977. Distribution of
phytoplankton in Georgia lakes. Working Paper No. 680. Office of
Research and Development. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Washington, D. C. 63 pp.
Morrow, C. M. and R. A. Minear. 1987. Use of regression models to link raw
water characteristics to trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water.
Water Research 21(l):41-48.
Murphy, P. J. and D. B. Hicks. 1986. In-situ method for measuring sediment
oxygen demand. Pages 307-330 in K. J. Hatcher, (ed.). Sediment oxygen
demand, processes, modeling and measurement. Institute of Natural
Resources, University of Georgia. Athens, Georgia.
National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering. 1973. Water
quality criteria. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Novotny, V. and G. Chesters. 1981. Handbook of nonpoint pollution sources and
management. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York, 555 pp.
Palmer, C. M. 1969. A composite rating of algae tolerating organic pollution.
Journal of Phycology 5:78-82.
218

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Palmstrom, N. S., R. E. Carlson and G. D. Cooke. 1988. Potential links between
eutrophication and the formation of carcinogens in drinking water. Lake
and Reservoir Management 4(2):1-15.
Petersen, R. T., 1980. A field guide to the birds of Easter and Central North
America. Fourth edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA. 384 pp.
Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of
Conservation. Jefferson City, Missouri. 343 pp.
Porcella, D. B and M. L. Cleave. 1981. The use of bioassay approaches for
assessing phytoplankton growth in lakes and reservoirs. Pages 276-314 in
M. W. Lorenzen, ed. Phytoplankton-environmental interactions in
reservoirs. Technical report E-81-13. Office, Chief of Engineers, U. S.
Army, Washington, D. C.
Radtke, D. B., G. R. Buell and H. A. Perlman. 1984. Water quality management
studies, West Point Lake/Chattahoochee River, Alabama-Georgia. April 1978
- December 1979. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Alabama.
523 pp.
Raschke, R. L. 1987. A water quality evaluation of West Point Reservoir,
Georgia under low flow conditions summer 1986. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Environmental Services Division, Athens, Georgia. 46
PP-
Raschke, R. L. and D. A. Schultz. 1987. The use of the algal growth potential
test for data assessment. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation
59(4):222-227.
Schneider, R. F., D. W. Hill, M. R. Welson and R. E. Gentry. 1972.
Preimpoundment study of West Point Lake, Georgia (TS03-71-208-001.2).
U.S. EPA Region IV, Surveillance and Analysis Division, Athens, Georgia.
88 pp.
Shelton, W. L. , J. M. Lawrence, W. D. Davies and D. R. Bayne. 1981. Fisheries
and limnological studies on West Point Lake, Alabama - Georgia. Job
completion Report. U. S. Army Engineer District, Mobile District, Mobile,
Alabama. 159 pp.
Stamer, J. K. , R. N. Cherry, R. E. Faye and R. L. Kleckner. 1978. Magnitudes,
nature, and effects of point and non-point discharges in the Chattahoochee
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Taylor, M. P. 1971. Norris Reservoir fertilizer study. II. Effects of thermal
stratification and nutrient availability on the productivity of reservoir
phytoplankton. Journal of Tennessee Academy of Science 46:90-97.
219

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Taylor, W. D., S. C. Hern, L. R. Williams, V. W. Lambou, M. K. Morris and F. A.
Morris. 1979. Phytoplankton water quality relationships in U. S. Lakes
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lakes. Working paper No. 710. Office of Research and Development. U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D. C. 81 pp.
Timmons, T. J., W. L. Shelton, and W. D. Davies. 1978. Initial fish population
changes following impoundment of West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia.
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R. E. Gentry. 1976. West Point Lake postimpoundment study. U.S. EPA
Region IV, Surveillance and Analysis Division, Athens, Georgia. 89 pp.
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disinfection. Journal American Water Works Association 73(1):33-40.
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impoundments; Report 4, .Phase III: Applications manual. Technical Report
E-81-9 prepared by William W. Walker, Jr., Environmental engineer,
Concord, Mass., for the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station,
Vicksburg, Miss.
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Georgia. Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, U. S. Department of
Health, Education and Welfare. Cincinnati, Ohio. 38 pp.
Wetzel, R. G. 1983. Limnology. 2nd edition. Saunders College Publishing,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 858 pp.
Yurk, J. J. and J. J. Ney. 1989. Phosphorus - fish community biomass
relationships in southern Appalachian Reservoirs: can lakes be too clean?
Lake and Reservoir Management. 5:83-90.
220

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Appendix
30 September 1994
221

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List Of Appendix Items
Appendix 1
Water quality criteria for the water use classification for Georgia and
Alabama portions of West Point Lake	223
Appendix 9
Documentation of aerial photography for West Point Lake watershed during
diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991	243
Node location summary for aerial photography analysis of West Point Lake
watershed during the diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991....245
Landuse/landcover acreage by class and node for aerial photography
analysis of West Point Lake watershed during the diagnostic study,
November 1990-October 1991	249
Appendix 10
U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level guidelines for chemical
contamination in fish tissue	260
Limiting nutrients and mean maximum standing crop (mg/1) of Selenastrum
capricomutum cultures in West Point Lake waters during 1990, 1991 and
1992	262
Definitive sampling station locations for the West Point Lake studies
conducted from June 1990 through October 1992	264
Approximate location of sampling sites for fecal coliform bacteria in West
Point Lake, June-September, 1992	266
Letter from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers regarding sedimentation data for
West Point Lake	268
Letters and documents related to report completion and recommended Lake
Water Quality Standards for West Point Lake	270
Toxic Substances in water, sediment and fish and fish health assessment
(1990-1992)	288
222

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Appendix 1
Water quality criteria for the water use classification for Georgia and
Alabama portions of West Point Lake.
223

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ALABAMA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Water Division - Water Quality Program
Chapter 335-6-10
Water Quality Criteria
Table of Contents
335-6-10-.01	Purpose
335-6-10-.02	Definitions
335-6-10-.03	Water Use Classifications
335-6-10-.04	Antldegradatlon Policy
335-6-10-.05	General Conditions Applicable to All Water Quality Criteria
335-6-10-.06	Minimum Conditions Applicable to All State Waters
335-6-10-.07	Toxic Pollutant Criteria Applicable to State Waters
335-6-10-.08	Waste Treatment Requirements
335-6-10-.09	Specific Water Quality Criteria
335-6-10-.10	Special Designations
335-6-10-.01 Purpose.
(1)	Title 22, Section 22-22-1 et seq., Code of Alabama 1975, includes
as Its purpose "... to conserve the waters of the State and to protect,
maintain and Improve the quality thereof for public water supplies, for the
propagation of wildlife, fish and aquatic life and for domestic,
agricultural, industrial, recreational and other legitimate beneficial
uses; to provide for the prevention, abatement and control of new or
existing water pollution; and to cooperate with other agencies of the
State, agencies of other states and the federal government in carrying out
these objectives."
(2)	Water quality criteria, covering all legitimate water uses,
provide the tools and means for determining the manner 1n which waters of
the State may be best utilized, provide a guide for determining waste
treatment requirements, and provide the basis for standards of quality for
State waters and portions thereof. Water quality criteria are not Intended
to freeze present uses of water, nor to exclude other uses not now
possible. They are not a device to Insure the lowest common denominator of
water quality, but to encourage prudent use of the State's water resources
and to enhance their quality and productivity commensurate with the stated
purpose of Title 22, Section 22-22-1 et seq.. Code of Alabama 1975.
(3)	Water quality criteria herein set forth have been developed by the
Commission for those uses of surface waters known and expected to exist
over the State. They are based on present scientific knowledge, experience
and judgment. Characteristics or parameters Included 1n the criteria are
those of fundamental significance to a determination of water quality and
are those which are and can be routinely monitored and compared to data
that are generally available. It 1s the Intent that these criteria will be
applied only after reasonable opportunity for mixture of wastes with
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224

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335-6-10-.02
receiving waters has been afforded. The reasonableness of he opportunity
for mixture of wastes and receiving waters shall be judged on the basis of
the physical characteristics of the receiving waters and approval by the
Department of the method 1n which the discharge 1s physically made.
Author: James E. Mclndoe
Statutory Authority: Code of Alabama 1975, 22-22-9, 22-22A-5, 22-22A-6,
22-22A-8.
History: Originally Adopted: May 5, 1967; Amended: June 19, 1967;
Amended: July 17, 1972; Amended: February 26, 1973; Amended: May 30,
1977; Amended: December 19, 1977; Amended: February 4, 1981; Amended:
Adopted January 24, 1990, Filed January 26, 1990, Effective: March 2,
1990; Amended: Adopted February 20, 1991, Filed February 27, 1991,
Effective: April 3, 1991.
335-6-10-.02 Definitions.
(1)	"Commission" means the Environmental Management Commission,
established by the Environmental Management Act, Code of Alabama 1975,
2222A1 to 22-22A-16.
(2)	"Department" means the Alabama Department of Environmental
Management, established by the Alabama Environmental Management Act, Code
of Alabama 1975, 22-22A-l to 22-22A-16.
(3)	"existing uses" means those legitimate beneficial uses of a water
body attained 1n fact on or after November 28, 1975, whether or not they
are Included as classified uses 1n ADEM Administrative Code Rule
335-6-11-.02.
(4)	"Industrial waste" means liquid or other wastes resulting from any
process of Industry, manufacture, trade or business or from the development
of natural resources.
(5)	"NPDES" means National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.
(6)	"other wastes" means all other substances, whether liquid, gaseous
or solid, from all other sources Including, but not limited to, any
vessels, or other conveyances traveling or using the waters of this State,
except Industrial wastes or sewage, which may cause pollution of any waters
of the State.
(7)	"pollutant" Includes but 1s not limited to dredged spoil, solid
waste, incinerator residue, filter backwash, sewage, garbage, sewage
sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive
materials, heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt
and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged Into water.
Pollutant does not mean (a) sewage from vessels; or (b) water, gas, or
other material which Is Injected Into a well to facilitate production of
oil or gas, or water derived In association with oil or gas production and
disposed of 1n a well, If the well used either to facilitate production or
for disposal purposes 1s apprpved by authority of the State, and 1f the
Department determines that such Injection or disposal will not result 1n
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335610.03
the degradation of ground or surface water resources.
(8)	"pollution" means the discharge of a pollutant or combination of
pollutants.
(9)	"sewage" means water-carried human wastes from residences,
buildings, Industrial establishments or other places Including, but not
limited to, any vessels, or other conveyances traveling or using the waters
of this State, together with such ground, surface, storm or other waters as
may be present.
(10)	"State waters" or "waters of the State" means all waters of any
river, stream, watercourse, pond, lake, coastal, or surface water, wholly
or partially within the State, natural or artlclflclal. This does not
Include waters which are entirely confined and retained completely upon the
property of a single Individual, partnership or corporation unless such
waters are used in Interstate commerce.
Author: James E. Mclndoe
Statutory Authority: Code of Alabama 1975, 22-22-9, 22-22A-5, 22-22A-6,
22-22A-8.
History: Originally Adopted: May 5, 1967; Amended: June 19, 1967;
Amended: July 17, 1972; Amended: February 26, 1973; Amended: May 30,
1977; Amended: December 19, 1977; Amended: February 4, 1981; Amended:
Adopted January 24, 1990, Filed January 26, 1990, Effective: March 2,
1990; Amended: Adopted February 20, 1991, Filed February 27, 1991,
Effective: April 3, 1991.
335-6-10-.03 Water Use Classifications.
(1)
Publ1c Water Supply
(2)
Swimming and Other Whole Body Water-Contact Sports
(3)
Shellfish Harvesting
(4)
Fish and Wildlife
(5)
Agricultural and Industrial Water Supply
(6)
Industrial Operations
(7)
Navigation
(8)
Outstanding Alabama Water
Author:
James E. Mclndoe
Statutory Authority: Code of Alabama 1975, 22-22-9, 22-22A-5,	22-22A-6,
22-22A-8.
History: Originally Adopted: May 5, 1967; Amended: June	19, 1967;
Amended: July 17, 1972; Amended: February 26, 1973; Amended:	May 30,
1977; Amended: December 19, 1977; Amended: February 4, 1981; Amended:
Adopted November 24, 1992, Filed November 25, 1992, Effective:	December
30, 1992.
226
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335-6-10-.08
335-6-10-.08 Waste Treatment Requirements. The following treatment
requirements apply to all Industrial waste discharges, sewage treatment
plants, and combined waste treatment plants:
(a)	As a minimum, secondary treatment or "equivalent to secondary
treatment" as provided for in rules and regulations promulgated by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency at 40 CFR Part 133 (1990), shall be applied
to all waste discharges. The term "secondary treatment" 1s applied to
biologically degradable waste and 1s Interpreted to mean a facility which
at design flow Is capable of removing substantially all floating and
settleable solids and to achieve a minimum removal of 85 percent of both
the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids which, 1n the case
of municipal wastes, Is generally considered to produce an effluent quality
containing a BODc concentration of 30 mg/1 and a suspended sol Ids
concentration of 30 mg/1. Disinfection, where necessary, will also be
required. Waste treatment requirements also Include those established
under the provisions of Sections 301, 304, 306, and 307 of the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA). In addition, the Department may
require secondary treatment of biologically degradable industrial
wastewaters when the application of guidelines published under federal law
do not produce a similar reduction In the parameters of concern. In the
application of this requirement, consideration will be given to
efficiencies achieved through In-process Improvements.
(b)	In all cases an analysis of water use and flow characteristics for
the receiving stream shall be provided to determine the degree of treatment
required. Where Indicated by the analysis, a higher degree of treatment
may be required.
(c)	The minimum 7-day low flow that occurs once 1n 10 years shall be
the basis for design criteria.
Author: Games E. Mclndoe
Statutory Authority: Code of Alabama 1975, 22-22-9, 22-22A-5, 22-22A-6,
22-22A-8.
History: Originally Adopted: May 5, 1967; Amended: June 19, 1967;
Amended: July 17, 1972; Amended: February 26, 1973; Amended: May 30,
1977; Amended: December 19, 1977; Amended: February 4, 1981; Amended:
Adopted January 24, 1990, Filed January 26, 1990, Effective: March 2,
1990; Amended: Adopted February 20, 1991, Filed February 27, 1991,
Effective: Apr11 3, 1991.
335-6-10-.09 Specific Water Quality Criteria.
(1) PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY
(a) Best usage of waters:
Source of water supply for drinking or food-processing purposes.*
*N0TE: In determining the safety or suitability of waters for use as
sources of water supply for drinking or food-processing purposes after
approved treatment, the Commission will be guided by the physical and
chemical standards specified by the Department.
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335-6-10-.09
(b)	Conditions related to best usage:
The waters, 1f subjected to treatment approved by the Department equal
to coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, with additional
treatment 1f necessary to remove naturally present Impurities, and which
meet the requirements of the Department, will be considered safe for
drinking or food-processing purposes.
(c)	Other usage of waters:
It is recognized that the waters may be used for incidental water
contact and recreation during June through September, except that water
contact 1s strongly discouraged 1n the vicinity of discharges or other
conditions beyond the control of the Department or the Alabama Department
of Publ1c Health.
(d)	Conditions related to other usage:
The waters, under proper sanitary supervision by the controlling health
authorities, will meet accepted standards of water quality for outdoor
swimming places and will be considered satisfactory for swimming and other
whole body water-contact sports.

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335610.09
(1v) The maximum 1n-stream temperature rise above ^ambient water
temperature due to the addition of artificial heat by a discharger shall
not exceed 4F In coastal or estuarlne waters during the period October
through May, nor shall the rise exceed 1.5F during the period June through
September.
(v) In lakes and reservoirs there shall be no withdrawal from, nor
discharge of heated waters to, the hypollmnlon unless 1t can be shown that
such discharge or withdrawal will be beneficial to water quality.

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335-6-10-.09
(1v> In the application of dissolved oxygen crlterl^ referred to
above, dissolved oxygen shall be measured at a depth of 5 feet In waters 10
feet or greater 1n depth; and for those waters less than 10 feet 1n depth,
dissolved oxygen criteria will be applied at mid-depth.
5.	Toxic substances; color producing; heated liquids; or other
deleterious substances attributable to sewage, Industrial wastes, or other
wastes:
Only such amounts, whether alone or 1n combination with other
substances, and only such temperatures as will not render the waters unsafe
or unsuitable as a source of water supply for drinking or food-processing
purposes, or exhibit acute toxicity or chronic toxicity, as demonstrated by
effluent toxicity testing or by application of numeric criteria given 1n
Rule 335-6-10-.07, to f1sh, wildlife and aquatic life, or adversely affect
the aesthetic value of waters for any use under this classification.
6.	Taste and odor producing substances attributable to sewage,
industrial wastes, or other wastes:
Only such amounts, whether alone or 1n combination with other
substances or wastes, as will not cause taste and odor difficulties In
water supplies which cannot be corrected by treatment as specified under'
subparagraph (b), or Impair the palatab111ty of fish.
7.	Bacteria:
(I)	Bacteria of the fecal conform group shall not exceed a geometric
mean of 2,000/100 ml; nor exceed a maximum of 4,000/100 ml In any sample.
The geometric mean shall be calculated from no less than five samples
collected at a given station over a 30-day period at Intervals not less
than 24 hours. The membrane filter counting procedure will be preferred,
but the multiple tube technique (five-tube) 1s acceptable.
(II)	For Incidental water contact and recreation during June through
September, the bacterial quality of water Is acceptable when a sanitary
survey by the controlling health authorities reveals no source of dangerous
pollution and when the geometric mean fecal conform organism density does
not exceed 100/100 ml 1n coastal waters and 200/100 ml 1n other waters.
When the geometric mean fecal collform organism density exceeds these
levels, the bacterial water quality shall be considered acceptable only If
a second detailed sanitary survey and evaluation discloses no significant
public health risk 1n the use of the waters. Waters 1n the Immediate
vicinity of discharges of sewage or other wastes likely to contain bacteria
harmful to humans, regardless of the degree of treatment afforded these
wastes, are not acceptable for swimming or other whole body water-contact
sports.
8.	Radioactivity:
No radionuclide or mixture of radionuclides shall be present at
concentrations greater than those specified by the requirements of the
State Department of Public Health.
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335-6-10-.09
9. Turbidity:
There shall be no turbidity of other than natural origin that will
cause substantial visible contrast with the natural appearance of waters or
Interfere with any beneficial uses which they serve. Furthermore, In no
case shall turbidity exceed 50 Nephelometric units above background.
Background will be interpreted as the natural condition of the receiving
waters, without the Influence of man-made or man-Induced causes. Turbidity
levels caused by natural runoff will be included 1n establishing background
levels.
(2) SWIMMING AND OTHER WHOLE BODY WATER-CONTACT SPORTS
(a)	Best usage of waters:
Swimming and other whole body water-contact sports.*
(b)	Conditions related to best usage:
The waters, under proper sanitary supervision by the controlling health
authorities, will meet accepted standards of water quality for outdoor
swimming places and will be considered satisfactory for swimming and other
whole body water-contact sports. The quality of waters will also be
suitable for the propagation of fish, wildlife and aquatic life. The
quality of salt waters and estuarlne waters to which this classification 1s
assigned will be suitable for the propagation and harvesting of shrimp and
crabs.
(c)	Specific criteria:
1.	Sewage, Industrial wastes, or other wastes:
None which are not effectively treated or controlled 1n accordance with
Rule 335-6-10-.08.
2.	pH:
Sewage, Industrial wastes or other wastes shall not cause the pH to
deviate more than one unit from the normal or natural pH, nor be less than
6.0, nor greater than 8.5. For estuarlne waters and salt waters to which
this classification is assigned, wastes as described herein shall not cause
the pH to deviate more than one unit from the normal or natural pH, nor be
less than 6.5, nor greater than 8.5.
*NOTE: In assigning this classification to waters intended for swimming
and water-contact sports, the Commission will take Into consideration the
relative proximity of discharges of wastes and will recognize the potential
hazards Involved 1n locating swimming areas close to waste discharges. The
Commission will not assign this classification to waters, the bacterial
quality of which 1s dependent upon adequate disinfection of waste and where
the Interruption of such treatment would render the water unsafe for
bathing.
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335610.09
3.	Temperature:
(I)	The maximum temperature In streams, lakes, and reservoirs, other
than those In river basins listed 1n subparagraph (11) hereof, shall not
exceed 90F.
(II)	The maximum temperature In streams, lakes, and reservoirs In the
Tennessee and Cahaba River Basins, and for that portion of the Tallapoosa
River Basin from the tallrace of Thurlow Dam at Tallassee downstream to the
junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers which has been designated by
the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources as supporting
smallmouth bass, sauger, or walleye, shall not exceed 86F.
(III)	The maximum In-stream temperature rise above ambient water
temperature due to the addition of artificial heat by a discharger shall
not exceed 5F 1n streams, lakes, and reservoirs 1n non-coastal and
non-estuarlne areas.
(1v) The maximum In-stream temperature rise above ambient water
temperature due to the addition of artificial heat by a discharger shall
not exceed 4F 1n coastal or estuarlne waters during the period October
through May, nor shall the rise exceed 1.5F during the period June through
September.
(v) In lakes and reservoirs there shall be no withdrawal from, nor
discharge of heated waters to, the hypollmnlon unless It can be shown that
such discharge or withdrawal will be beneficial to water quality.
(v1) In all waters the normal dally and seasonal temperature
variations that were present before the addition of artificial heat shall
be maintained, and there shall be no thermal block to the migration of
aquatic organisms.
(v 11) Thermal permit limitations 1n NPDES permits may be less
stringent than those required by subparagraphs (1) - (lv) hereof when a
showing by the discharger has been made pursuant to Section 316 of the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. or
pursuant to a study of an equal or more stringent nature required by the
State of Alabama authorized by Title 22, Section 22-22-9(c), Code of
Alabama. 1975, that such limitations will assure the protection and
propagation of a balanced, Indigenous population of shellfish, fish and
wildlife, 1n and on the body of water to which the discharge 1s made. Any
such demonstration shall take Into account the Interaction of the thermal
discharge component with other pollutants discharged.
4.	Dissolved oxygen:
(1) For a diversified warm water biota, Including game fish, dally
dissolved oxygen concentrations shall not be less than 5 mg/1 at all times;
except under extreme conditions due to natural causes, it may range between
5 mg/1 and 4 mg/1, provided that the water quality is favorable In all
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335-6-10-.09
other parameters. The normal seasonal and dally fluctuations shall be
maintained above these levels. In no event shall the dissolved oxygen
level be less than 4 mg/1 due to discharges from existing hydroelectric
generation Impoundments. All new hydroelectric generation Impoundments,
Including addition of new hydroelectric generation units to existing
Impoundments, shall be designed so that the discharge will contain at least
5 mg/1 dissolved oxygen where practicable and technologically possible.
The Environmental Protection Agency, In cooperation with the State of
Alabama and parties responsible for Impoundments, shall develop a program
to Improve the design of existing facilities.
(II)	In coastal waters, surface dissolved oxygen concentrations shall
not be less than 5 mg/1, except where natural phenomena cause the value to
be depressed.
(III)	In estuaries and tidal tributaries, dissolved oxygen
concentrations shall not be less than 5 mg/1, except 1n dystrophic waters
or where natural conditions cause the value to be depressed.
(1v) In the application of dissolved oxygen criteria referred to
above, dissolved oxygen shall be measured at a depth of 5 feet In waters 10
feet or greater 1n depth; and for those waters less than 10 feet 1n depth,
dissolved oxygen criteria will be applied at mid-depth.
5.	Toxic substances; color producing substances; odor producing
substances; or other deleterious substances attributable to sewage,
Industrial wastes, or other wastes:
Only such amounts, whether alone or in combination with other
substances or wastes, as will not render the water unsafe or unsuitable for
swimming and water-contact sports; exhibit acute toxicity or chronic
toxicity, as demonstrated by effluent toxicity testing or by application
of numeric criteria given 1n Rule 335-6-10-.07, to fish, wildlife, and
aquatic life or, where applicable, shrimp and crabs; Impair the
palatablllty of fish, or where applicable, shrimp and crabs; Impair the
waters for any other usage established for this classification or
unreasonably affect the aesthetic value of waters for any use under this
classification.
6.	Bacteria:
(1) Waters In the Immediate v1c1n1ty of discharges of sewage or other
wastes likely to contain bacteria harmful to humans, regardless of the
degree of treatment afforded these wastes*, are not acceptable for swimming
or other whole body water-contact sports.
*NOTE: In assigning this classification to waters intended for swimming
and water-contact sports, the Commission will take Into consideration the
relative proximity, of discharges of wastes and will recognize the potential
hazards Involved 1n locating swimming areas close to waste discharges. The
Commission will not assign this classification to waters, the bacterial
quality of which Is dependent upon adequate disinfection of waste and where
the Interruption of such treatment would render the water unsafe for
bathing.
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335-6-10-.09
(II)	In all other areas, the bacterial quality of water Is acceptable
when a sanitary survey by the controlling health authorities reveals no
source of dangerous pollution and when the geometric mean fecal collform
organism density does not exceed 100/100 ml 1n coastal waters and 200/100
ml In other waters. When the geometric mean fecal collform organism
density exceeds these levels, the bacterial water quality shall be
considered acceptable only 1f a second detailed sanitary survey and
evaluation discloses no significant public health risk In the use of the
waters.
(III)	The policy of nondegradatlon of high quality waters shall be
stringently applied to bacterial quality of recreational waters.
7.	Radioactivity:
The concentrations of radioactive materials present shall not exceed
the requirement of the State Department of Public Health.
8.	Turbidity:
There shall be no turbidity of other than natural origin that will
cause substantial visible contrast with the natural appearance of waters or
Interfere with any beneficial uses which they serve. Furthermore, 1n no
case shall turbidity exceed 50 Nephelometric units above background.
Background will be Interpreted as the natural condition of the receiving
waters, without the Influence of man-made or man-Induced causes. Turbidity
levels caused by natural runoff will be included In establishing background
levels.
(3) SHELLFISH HARVESTING
(a)	Best usages of waters:
Propagation and harvesting of shellfish for sale or use as a food
product.
(b)	Conditions related to best usage:
Waters will meet the sanitary and bacteriological standards Included In
the latest edition of the National Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of
Operations. Sanitation of Shellfish Growing Areas (1965), published by the
Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
and the requirements of the State Department of Public Health. The waters
will also be of a quality suitable for the propagation of fish and other
aquatic life, Including shrimp and crabs.
(c)	Other usage of waters:
It 1s recognized that the waters may be used for Incidental water
contact and recreation during June through September, except that water
contact Is strongly discouraged 1n the vicinity of discharges or other
conditions beyond the control of the Department or the Alabama Department
of Public Health.
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335-6-10-.09
6.	Color, taste, and odor-producing substances and ottier deleterious
substances attributable to sewage, Industrial wastes, or other wastes:
Only such amounts, whether alone or 1n combination with other
substances, as will not exhibit acute toxicity or chronic toxicity, as
demonstrated by effluent toxicity testing or by application of numeric
criteria given 1n Rule 335-6-10-.07, to fish and shellfish, Including
shrimp and crabs; adversely affect marketability or palatablllty of fish
and shellfish, Including shrimp and crabs; or unreasonably affect the
aesthetic value of waters for any use under this classification.
7.	Bacteria:
(I)	Not to exceed the limits specified 1n the latest edition of the
National Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of Operations. Sanitation of
Shellfish Growing Areas (1965). published by the Food and Drug
Administration, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.
(II)	For Incidental water contact and recreation during June through
September, the bacterial quality of water 1s acceptable when a sanitary
survey by the controlling health authorities reveals no source of dangerous
pollution and when the geometric mean fecal conform organism density does
not exceed 100/100 ml 1n coastal waters and 200/100 ml In other waters.
When the geometric mean fecal collform organism density exceeds these
levels, the bacterial water quality shall be considered acceptable only 1f
a second detailed sanitary survey and evaluation discloses no significant
public health risk. 1n the use of the waters. Waters 1n the Immediate
vicinity of discharges of sewage or other wastes likely to contain bacteria
harmful to humans, regardless of the degree of treatment afforded these
wastes, are not acceptable for swimming or other whole body water-contact
sports.
8.	Radioactivity:
The concentrations of radioactive materials present shall not .exceed
the requirements of the State Department of Public Health.
9.	Turbidity:
There shall be no turbidity of other than natural origin that will
cause substantial visible contrast with the natural appearance of waters or
Interfere with any beneficial uses which they serve. Furthermore, 1n no
case shall turbidity exceed 50 Nephelometric units above background.
Background will be Interpreted as the natural condition of the receiving
waters without the Influence of man-made or man-Induced causes. Turbidity
levels caused by natural runoff will be Included 1n establishing background
levels.
(4) FISH AND WILDLIFE
(a) Best usage of waters:
Fishing, propagation of fish, aquatic life, and wildlife, and any other
usage except for swimming and water-contact sports or as a source of water
supply for drinking or food-processing purposes.
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335-6-10-.09
(b)	Conditions related to best usage:
The waters will be suitable for fish, aquatic life and wildlife
propagation. The quality of salt and estuarlne waters to which this
classification 1s assigned will also be suitable for the propagation of
shrimp and crabs.
(c)	Other usage of waters:
It Is recognized that the waters may be used for Incidental water
contact and recreation during June through September, except that water
contact 1s strongly discouraged 1n the vicinity of discharges or other
conditions beyond the control of the Department or the Alabama Department
of Public Health.
(d)	Conditions related to other usage:
The waters, under proper sanitary supervision by the controlling health
authorities, will meet accepted standards of water quality for outdoor
swimming places and will be considered satisfactory for swimming and other
whole body water-contact sports.

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335610.09
(1v) The maximum in-stream temperature rise above ^ambient water
temDerature due to the addition of artificial heat by a discharger shall
not exceed 4F 1n coastal or estuarlne waters during the period October
through May, nor shall the rise exceed 1.5F during the period June through
September.
(v) In lakes and reservoirs there shall be no withdrawal from, nor
discharge of heated waters to, the hypol1mn1on unless' 1t can be shown that
such discharge or withdrawal will be beneficial to water quality.
(v1) In all waters the normal dally and seasonal temperature
variations that were present before the addition of artificial heat shall
be maintained, and there shall be no thermal block to the migration of
aquatic organisms.
(v11) Thermal permit limitations 1n NPDES permits may be less
stringent than those required by subparagraphs (1) - (1v) hereof when a
showing by the discharger "has been made pursuant to Section 316 of the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. or
pursuant to a study of an equal or more stringent nature required by the
State of Alabama authorized by Title 22, Section 22-22-9(c), Code of
Alabama. 1975, that such limitations will assure the protection and
propagation of a balanced, Indigenous population of shellfish, fish and
wildlife, 1n and on the body of water to which the discharge Is made. Any
such demonstration shall take Into account the Interaction of the thermal
discharge component with other pollutants discharged.
4. Dissolved oxygen:
(I)	For a diversified warm water biota, Including game fish, dally
dissolved oxygen concentrations shall not be less than 5 mg/1 at all times;
except under extreme conditions due to natural causes, It may range between
5 mg/1 and 4 mg/1, provided that the water quality 1s favorable 1n all
other parameters. The normal seasonal and dally fluctuations shall be
maintained above these levels. In no event shall the dissolved oxygen
level be less than 4 mg/1 due to discharges from existing hydroelectric
generation Impoundments. All new hydroelectric generation Impoundments,
Including addition of new hydroelectric generation units to existing
Impoundments, shall be designed so that the discharge will contain at least
5 mg/1 dissolved oxygen where practicable and technologically possible.
The Environmental Protection Agency, In cooperation with the State of
Alabama and parties responsible for Impoundments, shall develop a program
to Improve the design of existing facilities.
(II)	In coastal waters, surface dissolved oxygen concentrations shall
not be less than 5 mg/1, except where natural phenomena cause the value to
be depressed.
(III)	In estuaries and tidal tributaries, dissolved oxygen
concentrations sha.ll not be less than 5 mg/1, except In dystrophic waters
or where natural conditions cause the value to be depressed.
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335-6-10-.09
(1 v) In the application of dissolved oxygen criteria referred- to
above, dissolved oxygen shall be measured at a depth of 5 feet In waters 10
feet or greater In depth; and for those waters less than 10 feet 1n depth,
dissolved oxygen criteria will be applied at mid-depth.
5.	Toxic substances attributable to sewage, Industrial wastes, or
other wastes:
Only such amounts, whether alone or 1n combination with other
substances, as will not exhibit acute toxicity or chronic toxicity, as
demonstrated by effluent toxicity testing or by application of numeric
criteria given 1n Rule 335-6-10-.07, to fish and aquatic life, including
shrimp and crabs 1n estuarlne or salt waters or the propagation thereof.
6.	Taste, odor, and color-producing substances attributable to sewage,
Industrial wastes, or other wastes:
Only such amounts, whether alone or In combination with other
substances, as will not exhibit acute toxicity or chronic toxicity, as
demonstrated by effluent toxicity testing or by application of numeric
criteria given 1n Rule 335-6-10-.07, to fish and aquatic life, Including
shrimp and crabs 1n estuarlne and salt waters or adversely affect the
propagation thereof; Impair the palatablllty or marketability of fish and
wildlife or shrimp and crabs In estuarlne and salt waters; or unreasonably
affect the aesthetic value of waters for any use under this classification.
7.	Bacteria:
(I)	Bacteria of the fecal collform group shall not exceed a geometric
mean of 1,000/100 ml on a monthly average value; nor exceed a maximum of
2,000/100 ml 1n any sample.
(II)	For Incidental water contact and recreation during June through
September, the bacterial quality of water 1s acceptable when a sanitary
survey by the controlling health authorities reveals no source of dangerous
pollution and when the geometric mean fecal collform organism density does
not exceed 100/100 ml 1n coastal waters and 200/100 ml In other waters.
When the geometric mean fecal collform organism density exceeds these
levels, the bacterial water quality shall be considered acceptable only 1f
a second detailed sanitary survey and evaluation discloses no significant
public health risk In the use of the waters. Waters In the immediate
vicinity of discharges of sewage or other wastes likely to contain bacteria
harmful to humans, regardless of the degree of treatment afforded these
wastes, are not acceptable for swimming or other whole body water-contact
sports.
8.	Radioactivity:
The concentrations of radioactive materials present shall not exceed
the requirements of the State Department of Public Health.
9.	Turbidity:
There shall be no turbidity of other than natural origin that will
cause substantial vlslble contrast with the natural appearance of waters or
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238

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335-6-10-.09
Interfere with any beneficial uses which they serve. Furthermore, In no
case shall turbidity exceed 50 Nephelometric units above background.
Background will be Interpreted as the natural condition of the receiving
waters without the Influence of man-made or man-Induced causes. Turbidity
levels caused by natural runoff will be included In establishing background
levels.
(5) AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY
(a)	Best usage of waters:
Agricultural Irrigation, livestock watering, Industrial cooling and
process water supplies, and any other usage, except fishing, bathing,
recreational activities, Including water-contact sports, or as a source of
water supply for drinking or food-processing purposes.
(b)	Conditions related to best usage:
(I)	The waters, except for natural Impurities which may be present
therein, will be suitable for agricultural Irrigation, livestock watering,
Industrial cooling waters, and fish survival. The waters will be usable
after special treatment, as may be needed under each particular
circumstance, for Industrial process water supplies. The waters will also
be suitable for other uses for which waters of lower quality will be
satisfactory.
(II)	This category Includes watercourses 1n which natural flow 1s
Intermittent and non-existent during droughts and which may, of necessity,
receive treated wastes from existing municipalities and Industries, both
now and 1n the future. In such Instances, recognition must be given to the
lack of opportunity for mixture of the treated wastes with the receiving
stream for purposes of compliance. It Is also understood 1n considering
waters for this classification that urban runoff or natural conditions may
Impact any waters so classified.
(c)	Specific criteria:
1.	Sewage, Industrial wastes, or other wastes:
None which are not effectively treated or controlled In accordance with
Rule 335-6-10-.08.
2.	pH:
Sewage, Industrial wastes or other wastes shall not cause the pH to
deviate more than one unit from the normal or natural pH, nor be less than
6.0, nor greater than 8.5. For salt waters and estuarlne waters to which
this classification 1s assigned, wastes as herein described shall not cause
the pH to deviate more than one unit from the normal or natural pH, nor be
less than 6.5, nor. greater than 8.5.
3.	Temperature:
(1) The maximum temperature rise above natural temperatures before the
addition of artificial heat shall not exceed 5*F 1n streams, lakes, and
reservoirs, nor shall the maximum water temperature exceed 90"F.
239
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SECTION THREE: WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES
3.1 Water Quality Standards
Georgia is authorized, through the Rules and Regulations for Water
Quality Control promulgated under the Georgia Water Quality Control
Act of 1964, as amended, to establish water quality standards and
water use classifications for the waters of the State. Further,
the State is authorized to designate appropriate waters as trout
waters.
There are nine water use classifications recognized. These are:
drinking water supplies; recreation; fishing, propagation of fish,
shellfish, game and other aquatic life; wild river; scenic river;
urban stream; agricultural; industrial; and navigation. For each
of these classifications, there are specific criteria which apply.
In nearly every case, the criteria relate to the parameters of dis-
solved oxygen, pH, fecal coliform, and temperature. Specific para-
meter limitations for each use classification are identified in
Table 3-1.
There are also a number of general criteria which apply to all the
waters of the State, regardless of the water use classification.
In summary, these relate to the prohibition of: materials which
cause sludge deposits; materials which cause scums; materials which
produce turbidity, odor, color, or other objectionable conditions;
substances which would be harmful to aquatic life; radioactive sub-
stances in amounts which exceed federal or state regulations; and
stream-bed alterations which may result in the violation of stream
water quality standards. The standards also address the approach to
be followed to maintain existing high quality waters. The specific
details can be found in Chapter 391-3-6.03, Water Use Classifications
and Water Quality Standards.
In addition to the four specific parameters mentioned above, the
State does regulate all pollutants, on a case-by-case basis, that
would have a detrimental impact on the beneficial uses of the waters.
Many of the pollutants, although significant, can appear in such low
concentrations that they are immeasurable in the stream water. There-
fore, the State has found it better to control these pollutants
through the establishment of adequate effluent limitations on the
source rather than through the use of in-stream water quality standards.
This is done using guidelines produced by the U. S. Environmental
Protection-Agency and other sources.
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TAB1" 1-1.
SUMMARY OF GEORGIA WATF.R .a.TTY STANDARDS BY USE CLASSIFICATIONS
Use
Classification
Drinking water
no treatment
Drinking Water
requiring
treatment
Recreation
F ishing
(excluding
shellfishing)
Agricultural
Industrial
Naviga tion
Urban Stream
Wild River
Scenic River
Bacteria (fecal coliform)
30-day
Geometric Mean Maximum
(no./100 ml) (no./100 ml)
50	*
Dissolved Oxygen
(other than trout streams)
Daily
Average Minimum
(mg/1) (nig/1) pH
1,000
200*
1,000
5,000
5,000
2,000
4,000
4,000
5.0
5.0
5.0
5,000
/. .0
/, .0
'3.0
:i .o
:i .o
.3.0
6.0-8.5
6. 0-3. 5
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
No alteration of natural water quality
Tempera ture
(other than estuaries
or trout streams)	
Maximum
Rise	Maximum
(F)	(F)
5
5
5
5
5
5
90
90
90
90
90
90
Remarks
A, E
B ,	E
<:,	E, F
C,	E, F
D,	I?
I),	F
I),	F
r;
c
A - No waste discharge.
11 - No suhstance in a concentration which after L rea Linru I <-xci'e
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Appendix 9
242

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Documentation of aerial photography for West Point Lake watershed during
diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991.
243

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Documentation of aerial photography for West Point Lake watershed during
diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991.
Project: West Point Lake
Photography program 8 NAPP - Natural Aerial Photography Program
Date of photography: 21 February 1988, 24 February 1988, 29 February 1988 and
21 March 1988.
Photo acquisition (contractor): United States Geological Survey
Medium: Color infrared (Kodak Aerochrome 2443 film)
Camera type: Conventional cartographic aerial camera
Flight altitude (above mean ground level): 20,000 feet
Focal length: 6 inches
Resolution: 1 meter
Photo scale: 1:40,000
Role frame series: 723, 824, 725, 726, 728 and 740.
244

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Node location summary for aerial photography analysis of West Point Lake
watershed during the diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991.
245

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Node location summary for aerial photography analysis of West Point Lake
watershed during the diagnostic study, November 1990-October 1991.
Area
Node	(Hectare)	location	
Alabama
01	1,027	Chattahoochee River from Haple Creek to Uehadkee Creek.
0202	1,587	Uehadkee Creek from Veasey Creek to Guss Creek.
020202	1,327	Veasey Creek from Stroud Creek to full pool.
02020201	1,130	Stroud Creek from Veasey Creek to full pool.
02020202	4,245	Stroud Creek from full pool to headwaters.
020203	656	Veasey Creek from full pool to Alabama Highway 263 bridge.
020204	2,751	Veasey Creek from Alabama Highway 263 bridge to headwaters.
0203	267	Uehadkee Creek from Gus Creek to bridge off Alabama Highway 16.
020301	5,347	Gus Creek from Uehadkee Creek to headwaters.
0204	143	Uehadkee Creek from bridge off of Alabama Highway 16 to Little Uehadkee Creek.
020401	1,687	Little Uehadkee Creek from Uehadkee Creek to headwaters.
0205	10,685	Uehadkee Creek from Little Uehadkee Creek to headwaters.
090201	641	Cedar Creek from Hillabatehee Creek to headwaters.
0903	1,150	Hillabatchee Creek from Town Creek to headwaters.
090301	1,572	Town Creek from Hillabatchee Creek to headwaters.
Georgia
00	30	Chattahoochee River from Uest Point Dam to Haple Creek.
01	1,847	Chattahoochee River from Haple Creek to Uehadkee Creek.
0101	2,714	Maple Creek from Chattahoochee River to headwaters.
02	1,502	Chattahoochee River from Uehadkee Creek to Uilson Creek.
0201	121	Uehadkee Creek from Chattahoochee River to Veasey Creek.
0202	4,165	Uehadkee Creek from Veasey Creek to Guss Creek.
020201	15	Veasey Creek from Uehadkee Creek to Stroud Creek.
020202	31	Veasey Creek from Stroud Creek to headwaters.
02020201	77	Stroud Creek from Veasey Creek to full pool.
0203	479	Uehadkee Creek from Guss Creek to bridge off Alabama Highway 16.
020401	2,749	Little Uehadkee Creel from Uehadkee Creek to headwaters.
03	1,193	Chattahoochee River from Uilson Creek to Uhitewater Creek.
0301	1,799	Uilson Creek from Chattahoochee River to headwaters.
04	861	Chattahoochee River from Uhitewater Creek to Yellowjacket Creek.
246

-------
Cont.
Area
Node	(Hectare)	Location
Georgia
0401
534
Whitewater Creek from Chattahoochee River to unnamed creek.
0402
2,213
Whitewater Creek from unnamed creek to full pool.
040201
934
Unnamed creek from Whitewater Creek to Hagedons Lake.
040202
894
Unnamed creek from Hagedons Lake to headwaters.
0403
1,922
Whitewater Creek from full pool to Heard/Troup county line.
0404
3,581
Whitewater Creek from Heard/Troup county line to headwaters.
05
9,404
Chattahoochee River from Yellowjacket Creek to Potato Creek.
0501
2,109
Yellohjacket Creek from Chattahoochee River to Jackson Creek.
0502
350
Yellowjacket Creek from Jackson Creek to Dixie Creek.
050201
1,604
Jackson Creek from Yellowjacket Creek to headwaters.
0503
228
Yellowjacket Creek from Dixie Creek to Beech Creek.
050301
134
Dixie Creek from Yellowjacket Creek to full pool.
050302
185
Dixie Creek from full pool to Georgia Highway 219 bridge.
050303
690
Dixie Creek from Georgia Route 219 bridge to headwaters.
0504
3,243
Yellowjacket Creek from Beech Creek to bridge at Hammett Road.
050401
515
Beech Creek from Yellowjacket Creek to Shoal Creek.
050402
567
Beech Creek from Shoal Creek to full pool.
05040201
867
Shoal Creek from Beech Creek to bridge at Hammett Road.
05040202
3,893
Shoal Creek from bridge at Hammett Road to headwaters.
050403
652
Beech Creek from full pool to bridge at Hammett Road.
050404
4,593
Beech Creek from bridge at Hammett Road to Bear Creek.
050405
5,072
Beech Creek from Bear Creek to headwaters.
05040501
4,327
Bear Creek from Beech Creek to headwaters.
0505
676
Yellowjacket Creek from bridge at Hammett Road to Flat Creek.
050501
9,341
Flat Creek from Yellowjacket Creek to headwaters.
0506
13,998
Yellowjacket Creek from Flat Creek to headwaters.
06
56
Chattahoochee River from Potato Creek to New River.
0601
1,949
Potato Creek from Chattahoochee River to full pool.
0602
2,665
Potato Creek from full pool to headwaters.
07
711
Chattahoochee River from New River to Brush Creek.
0701
3,343
New River from Chattahoochee River to Clear Creek.
247

-------
Cont.
Area
Node	(Hectare)	Location
Georgia
0702
462
New River from Clear Creek to Georgia Highway 100 bridge.
070201
2,564
Clear Creek from New River to headwaters.
0703
938
New River from Georgia Highway 100 bridge to Caney Creek.
0704
328
New River from Caney Creek to Mountain Creek.
070401
5,897
Caney Creek from New River to headwaters.
0705
9,691
New River from Mountain Creek to headwaters.
070501
16,686
Mountain Creek from New River to headwaters.
08
3,319
Chattahoochee River from Brush Creek to Hillabatchee Creek.
0801
719
Brush Creek from Chattahoochee River to full pool.
0802
5,032
Brush Creek from full pool to headwaters.
09
733
Chattahoochee River from Hillabatchee Creek to U.S. Highway 27 bridge
0901
4,564
Hillabatchee Creek from Chattahoochee River to Cedar Creek.
0902
397
Hillabatchee Creek from Cedar Creek to Town Creek.
090201
3,115
Cedar Creek from Hillabatchee Creek to headwaters.
0903
6,177
Hillabatchee Creek from Town Creek to headwaters.
090301
3,006
Town Creek from Hillabatchee Creek to headwaters.

196,677

248

-------
Landuse/landcover acreage by class and node for aerial photography
analysis of West Point Lake watershed during the diagnostic study,
November 1990-October 1991.
249

-------
Landuse/landcover acreage by class and node for aerial photography analysis of
West Point Lake watershed during the diagnostic study. November 1990-October
1991.


Landuse/




Landcover
Area
Total
State
Node
Class
(Hectares')
CHectares)
AL
01
2
63
1027
AL
01
21
58

AL
01
4
588

AL
01
5
318

AL
0202
1
4
1587
AL
0202
2
210

AL
0202
21
22

AL
0202
4
1197

AL
0202
45
64

AL
0202
5
92

AL
020202
2
91
1327
AL
020202
21
3

AL
020202
210
1

AL
020202
4
919

AL
020202
45
5

AL
020202
5
308

AL
02020201
1
35
1130
AL
02020201
2
56

AL
02020201
210
2

AL
02020201
4
745

AL
02020201
45
44

AL
02020201
5
247

AL
02020202
2
825
4245
AL
02020202
21
209

AL
02020202
4
3174

AL
02020202
45
2

AL
02020202
5
34

AL
020203
2
130
656
AL
020203
4
504

AL
020203
5
22

AL
020204
1
4
2751
AL
020204
2
389

AL
020204
21
197

AL
020204
4
2158

AL
020204
5
3

AL
0203
2
28
267
AL
0203
21
11

AL
0203
4
215

AL
0203
45
7

AL
0203
5
6

AL
020301
2
1007
5347
AL
020301
21
235

AL
020301
210
14


-------
Cont.
Landuse/
Landcover	Area	Total
State
Node
Class
(Hectares)
(Hectares)
AL
020301
4
3740

AL
020301
45
7

AL
020301
5
67

AL
020301
1
277

AL
0204
2
5
143
AL
0204
21
47

AL
0204
4
90

AL
0204
5
1

AL
020401
2
115
1687
AL
020401
210
1

AL
020401
4
1548

AL
020401
45
16

AL
020401
5
7

AL
0205
1
55
10685
AL
0205
2
2406

AL
0205
21
391

AL
0205
210
9

AL
0205
4
7542

AL
0205
45
228

AL
0205
5
34

AL
0205
750
3

AL
0205
751
13

AL
0205
762
4

AL
090201
2
75
641
AL
090201
4
555

AL
090201
45
7

AL
090201
5
1

AL
090201
762
2

AL
0903
2
149
1150
AL
0903
21
18

AL
0903
4
820

AL
0903
5
1

AL
0903
45
162

AL
090301
2
191
1572
AL
090301
21
24

AL
090301
4
1314

AL
090301
5
3

AL
090301
45
38

AL
090301
210
2

GA
00
2
2
30
GA
00
4
9

GA
00
5
19

GA
01
2
30
1847
GA
01
210
6

GA
01
4
414

GA
01
5
1398

251

-------
Cont.


Landuse/




Landcover
Area
Total
State
Node
Class
(Hectares')
CHectares")
GA
0101
1
49
2714
GA
0101
2
323

GA
0101
21
114

GA
0101
4
1498

GA
0101
5
731

GA
02
1
52
1502
GA
02
2
110

GA
02
21
14

GA
02
4
786

GA
02
5
540

GA
0201
4
28
121
GA
0201
5
92

GA
0202
1
112
4165
GA
0202
2
147

GA
0202
21
67

GA
0202
4
2965

GA
0202
5
873

GA
020201
4
3
15
GA
020201
5
12

GA
020202
2
1
31
GA
020202
4
10

GA
020202
5
21

GA
02020201
1
1
77
GA
02020201
2
6

GA
02020201
4
21

GA
02020201
5
49

GA
0203
2
7
479
GA
0203
4
472

GA
020401
2
554
2749
GA
020401
4
2083

GA
020401
5
17

GA
020401
45
95

GA
03
1
16
1193
GA
03
2
36

GA
03
21
13

GA
03
4
630

GA
03
5
498

GA
0301
1
395
1799
GA
0301
2
269

GA
0301
21
64

GA
0301
210
14

GA
0301
4
900

GA
0301
5
157

GA
04
1
115
861
GA
04
2
13

GA
04
4
376

252

-------
Cont.


Landuse/




Landcover
Area
Total
State
Node
Class
(Hectares')
(Hectares')
GA
04
5
357

GA
0401
2
1
534
GA
0401
4
375

GA
0401
45
30

GA
0401
5
129

GA
0402
1
7
2213
GA
0402
2
84

GA
0402
45
73

GA
0402
4
1797

GA
0402
5
234

GA
0402
761
19

GA
040201
2
11
934
GA
040201
4
715

GA
040201
45
89

GA
040201
5
120

GA
040202
2
8
894
GA
040202
4
819

GA
040202
45
53

GA
040202
5
14

GA
0403
1
6
1922
GA
0403
2
36

GA
0403
4
1811

GA
0403
45
66

GA
0403
5
2

GA
0404
1
3
3581
GA
0404
2
177

GA
0404
4
3085

GA
0404
45
309

GA
0404
5
8

GA
05
1
115
9404
GA
05
2
481

GA
05
21
294

GA
05
4
6591

GA
05
45
280

GA
05
5
1634

GA
05
762
9

GA
0501
1
328
2109
GA
0501
2
80

GA
0501
21
43

GA
0501
4
1230

GA
0501
5
428

GA
0502
1
6
350
GA
0502
2
2

GA
0502
4
236

GA
0502
5
105

GA
050201
1
109
1604
253

-------
Cont.
Landuse/
Landcover	Area	Total
State
Node
Class
(Hectares')
(Hectares)
GA
050201
1235
2

GA
050201
2
61

GA
050201
4
1304

GA
050201
5
128

GA
0503
1
42
228
GA
0503
2
8

GA
0503
21
3

GA
0503
4
100

GA -
0503
5
75

GA
050301
1
4
134
GA
050301
4
110

GA
050301
5
20

GA
050302
1
36
185
GA
050302
2
34

GA
050302
4
110

GA
050302
5
5

GA
050303
1
423
690
GA
050303
2
16

GA
050303
21
30

GA
050303
4
220

GA
050303
45
1

GA
0504
1
120
3243
GA
0504
2
296

GA
0504
21
100

GA
0504
4
2271

GA
0504
45
111

GA
0504
5
345

GA
050401
1
47
515
GA
050401
2
32

GA
050401
4
274

GA
050401
5
162

GA
050402
1
24
567
GA
050402
2
15

GA
050402
21
8

GA
050402
4
446

GA
050402
5
74

GA
05040201
1
145
867
GA
05040201
2
36

GA
05040201
4
651

GA
05040201
45
16

GA
05040201
5
19

GA
05040202
1
565
3893
GA
05040202
2
449

GA
05040202
21
90

GA
05040202
4
2693

GA
05040202
45
55

254

-------
Cont.
State
Node
Landuse/
Landcover
Class
Area
(Hectares')
GA
05040202
5
22
GA
05040202
750
19
GA
050403
2
41
GA
050403
'21
73
GA
050403
4
538
GA
050404
1
75
GA
050404
2
177
GA
050404
21
309
GA
050404
210
4
GA
050404
4
3640
GA
050404
45
372
GA
050404
5
16
GA
050405
1
12
GA
050405
2
112
GA
050405
21
276
GA
050405
210
12
GA
050405
4
4523
GA
050405
45
121
GA
050405
5
16
GA
05040501
1
3
GA
05040501
2
838.
GA
05040501
21
102
GA
05040501
210
2
GA
05040501
4
3202
GA
05040501
45
115
GA
05040501
5
65
GA
0505
2
45
GA
0505
4
570
GA
0505
45
59
GA
0505
5
2
GA
050501
1
161
GA
050501
2
1273
GA
050501
21
568
GA
050501
210
46
GA
050501
4
6759
GA
050501
45
491
GA
050501
5
43
GA
0506
1
680
GA
0506
2
2124
GA
0506
21
709
GA
0506
210
8
GA
0506
4
9626
GA
0506
45
571
GA
0506
5
280
GA
06
4
19
GA
06
5
37
Total
(Hectares'}
652
4593
5072
4327
676
9341
13998
56
255

-------
Cont.


Landuse/




Landcover
Area
Total
State
Node
Class
(Hectares')
(Hectares}
GA
0601
2
196
1949
GA
0601
21
35

GA
0601
4
1257

GA
0601
45
391

GA
0601
5
70

GA
0602
2
308
2665
GA
0602
21
95

GA
0602
4
1968

GA
0602
45
288

GA
0602
5
6

GA
07
2
2
711
GA
07
4
542

GA
07
5
167

GA
0701
2
146
3343
GA
0701
4
2848

GA
0701
45
194

GA
0701
5
155

GA
0702
2
51
462
GA
0702
21
8

GA
0702
4
276

GA
0702
45
126

GA
0702
5
1

GA
070201
1
13
2564
GA
070201
2
29

GA
070201
21
36

GA
070201
4
1965

GA
070201
45
410

GA
070201
5
111

GA
0703
2
52
938
GA
0703
4
781

GA
0703
45
105

GA
0704
2
11
328
GA
0704
21
15

GA
0704
210
4

GA
0704
4
288

GA
0704
45
8

GA
0704
5
2

GA
070401
1
9 .
5897
GA
070401
2
509

GA
070401
21
55

GA
070401
210
8

GA
070401
4
4549

GA
070401
45
723

GA
070401
5
44

GA
0705
1
223
9691
GA
0705
2
708

256

-------
Cont.


Landuse/




Landcover
Area
Total
State
Node
Class
(Hectares)
(Hectares')
GA
0705
21
735

GA
0705
4
7708

GA
0705
45
274

GA
0705
5
43

GA
070501
1
1349
16686
GA
070501
2
2299

GA
070501
21
858

GA
070501
210
40

GA
070501
4
10449

GA
070501
45
1366

GA
070501
5
297

GA
070501
762
28

GA
08
2
291
3319
GA
08
21
132

GA
08
4
2561

GA
08
45
150

GA
08
5
185

GA
0801
1
1
719
GA
0801
2
16

GA
0801
4
615

GA
0801
45
" 9

GA
0801
5
78

GA
0802
2
401
5032
GA
0802
21
113

GA
0802
4
4067

GA
0802
45
418

GA
0802
5
15

GA
0802
751
20

GA
09
1
79
733
GA
09
2
77

GA
09
4
533

GA
09
5
43

GA
0901
1
39
4564
GA
0901
2
630

GA
0901
21
146

GA
0901
4
3362

GA
0901
45
127

GA
0901
5
66

GA
0901
751
194

GA
0902
2
2
397
GA
0902
4
388

GA
0902
45
5

GA
0902
5
2

GA
090201
2
299
3115
GA
090201
21
27

GA
090201
4
2762

257

-------
Cont.


Landuse/




Landcover
Area
Total
State
Node
Class
(Hectares^
(Hectares^
GA
090201
45
22

GA
090201
5
5

GA
0903
2
769
6177
GA
0903
21
57

GA
0903
4
5276

GA
0903
45
68

GA
0903
5
6

GA
090301
2
325
3006
GA
090301
21
119

GA
090301
210
4

GA
090301
4
2552

GA
090301
5
6

TOTAL	196678	196678
258

-------
Appendix 10
259

-------
U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level guidelines for chemical
contamination in fish tissue.
260

-------
U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level guidelines for chemical
contamination in fish tissue.
Metal	Value
Mercury	1.0 ppm1
Pesticides	Value
Aldrin	0.3	ppm1
Chlordane	0.3	ppm1
DDT	5.0 ppm1
Dieldrin	0.3	ppm1
Endrin	0.3	ppm1
Heptachlor	0.3	ppm1
Kepone (chlorodecone)	0.3	ppm1
Mirex	0.10 ppm1
PBC's	2.0 ppm2
Toxaphene	5.0 ppm1
xAction level.
zTolerance level.
261

-------
Limiting nutrients and mean maximum standing crop (mg/1) of Sp.1 pnasi-turn
caprlcornutum cultures in West Point Lake waters during 1990, 1991 and
1992.
262

-------
Limiting nutrients and mean maximum standing crop (mg/1) of Sel enastmni
capricomutum cultures in West Point Lake waters during 1990, 1991 and 1992.
Station
Date
1
LN1
Mean Maximum Standing Crop
4 LN 5 LN
(mg/1)
7
LN
9
LN
10
LN
24 April '91
40.32
(N)
29.38
(P)
26.82
(P)
15.45
(P)
6.38
(P)
1.64
(P)
19 June '91
33.90
(N+P)


15.50
(P)
8.98
(P)
7,66
(N+P)
0.33
(P)
22 Aug *91
45.62
(N)
20.59
(N+P)
17.09
(P)
11.68
(P)
1.03
(P)
0.43
(P)
23 Oct '91
11.72
(N+P)
21.83
(N+P)
13.11
(P)
16.63
(P)
0.30
(P)
0.22
(P)
22 April '92
39.22
(N+P)
24.58
(P)
11.14
(P)
3.02
(P)
5.15
(P)
0.42
(P)
22 June '92
54.60
(N+P)
34.38
(N+P)
20.35
(P)
8.60
(P)
3.68
(P)
0.11
(P)
20 July '92
25.28
(N+P)
18.86
(P)
12.33
(P)
0.77
(P)
0.43
(P)
0.17
(P)
25 Aug '92
(ADEM)
30.85
(N+P)
20.02
(N)
21.67
(N+P)
13.07
(P)
6.38
(P)
1.06
(P>
19 Oct '92
44.69
(N)
42.25
(N)
40.31
(N)
20.88
(P)
10.92
(P)
6.38
(P)
*LN  Limiting nutrient; N = Nitrogen; P  Phosphorus.
263

-------
Definitive sampling station locations for the West Point Lake studies
conducted from June 1990 through October 1992.
264

-------
Definitive sampling station locations for the West Point Lake studies conducted
from June 1990 through October 1992.
Station
Nimber
Station
DescriDtion
County
State
Max i nun
DeDth (m)
Latitude
Longitude
1
Huy 27 Franklin, GA
Heard, GA
3.1
33*16'39"
85*08'52"
2
Main channel downstream mouth
of Hew River
Heard, GA
8.0
33*11,26"
85*02'34
3
New River embayment
Heard, GA
5.3
33*11'46"
85 *02'40"
4
Hwy 219 main channel
Troup, GA
12.0
33*07'46
85*05'53"
5
LaGrange water intake main
channel
Troup, GA
15.0
33*04'43"
85*C6'45"
6
Yellowjacket Creek embayment
Troup, GA
13.5
33*04'10M
85*06'03"
7
Main channel Hwy 109
Troup, GA
18.0
33*01>44"
85 *09-53"
8
Wehadkee Creek embayment
Troup, GA
17.0
32*59'54"
8512'01"
9
Rocky Point main channel
Troup, GA
20.1
32'59'15"
85*11'33
10
Forebay of dam
Troup, GA
24.0
32* 55111M
85*11'04"
11
TaiIwaters
Troup, GA
0.5
32*55,03u
85*11'23"
12
Dixie Creek
Troup, GA
0.5
33*04'22''
85 *02'38"
13
Yellowjacket Creek
Troup, GA
1.7
33*08'21"
84*58'33"
14
New River
Heard, GA
4.0
33*14'07"
84*59'16"
15
Uehadkee Creek
RandoIph,
AL
4.0
33*07'20"
85 *14'57"
16
Veasey Creek
Chambers ,
AL
1.5
33*00'28"
85 *16"39"
17
Blue John Creek
Troup, GA
0.5
32*59'57"
85*03'04"
265

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Approximate location of sampling sites for fecal coliform bacteria in West
Point Lake, June-September, 1992.
266

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Approximate location of sampling sites for fecal coliform bacteria in West Point
Lake, June - September, 1992.
Hater Quality
Miles'	Late Station	Description	
0	1	Downstream (DS) Franklin Bridge
1	Between (B/T) powerlines
2	Creek mouth - upstream (US) Buoy 128
3	Buoy (B) 126
A	B/T B125 and B12A
5	Snake Creek - B122
6	B119
7	B/T B117 and B116
8	2	B114
9	B110
10	200 yds DS B105
11	B102
12	B99
. 13	B93
H	4 US 219 Bridge
16	B76
18	B67
20	B55
22	B47
24	7 US 109 Bridge
26	200 yds DS B32
28	B/T B20 and B18
30	B10
32	10 Dam forebay
'Distance downstream from Franklin, Georgia.222
267

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Letter from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers regarding sedimentation data for
West Point Lake
268

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DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
MOBILE DISTRICT, CORPS OF ENGINEERS
P.O. BOX 2288
MOBILE, ALABAMA 36628-0001
October 21, 1993
REPLY TO
ATTENTION OF.
Hydrology and Hydraulics Branch
Engineering Division
Dr. David R. Bayne
Fisheries Department
Auburn, Alabama 36849
Dear Dr. Bayne:
Reference is made to your recent telephone conversation
with Geary McDonald regarding sedimentation data for West
Point Lake. The initial survey was performed in 1978 with a
resurvey in 1983. From the results of the two surveys, the
depletion was 0.04% during the five-year interval. This
depletion is considered minimal.
A resurvey is scheduled for late summer 1994 and is
contingent on available funding.
If you need further assistance, feel free to call Geary
at 205-694-3697.
Sincerely,
BENTON W. ODOM, JR. ,
Chief, Hydrology & Hydraulics
Branch
269

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Letters and documents related to report completion and recommended Lake
Water Quality standards for West Point Lake.
270
%

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Auburn university
Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5419
College of Agriculture
Department of Fisheries
and Allied Aquccultures
International Center
for Aquaculture
April 6, 1993
Telephone (205)844-4786
Telex 5106002392
FAX- 205-844-9208
United States of America
Mr. Mork Winn, Program Director
Water Quality Management Program
Georgia Environmental Protection Division
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
205 Butler Street, Twin Towers East
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Dear Mr. Winn:
Enclosed you will find a first draft copy of the West Point Lake diagnostic
study conducted from June 1990 through October 1992. Although there are
sections of the diagnostic phase of the report that we have not completed, the
enclosed copy contains all findings of studies carried out to define problems
that may exist on West Point Lake. We are still working to improve this draft
and would welcome your comments and criticism, however, the purpose of
submitting this draft of the diagnostic study at this time is to initiate a
dialogue with Georgia (DNR) and Alabama (ADEM) concerning the feasibility
phase of the study. After both states have had an opportunity to review the
enclosed diagnostic study results, I will plan a meeting, perhaps in LaGrange,
Georgia, to discuss viable approaches to solving existing problems. Hopefully
we can come to mutual agreement on the issues.
Remember that the University of Georgia is completing final reports of their
work on fish health and toxics and those results should be available to us
prior to the proposed meeting. The final draft of our report will contain all
data in an appendix but should you need additional information at this time
please let me know.
Look forward to hearing from you when you have completed your review.
David Bayne
Professor
DB/aja
Dr. Walter Murphy
Dr. Vickie Blazer
Dr. Parshall Bush
271
A LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY

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Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5419
College of Agriculture
International Center
for Aquaculture
Department of Fisheries
and Allied Aquacultures
April 6, 1993
Telephone: (205) 844-4786
Telex 5106C02392
FAX 205-844-9208
United States of America
Mr. Bob Cooner, Chief
Special Studies Section
Field Operations Division
Alabama Department of Environmental Management
1751 Congressman W. L. Dickinson Drive
Montgomery, Alabama 36130
Dear Mr. Cooner:
Enclosed you will find a first draft copy of the West Point Lake diagnostic
study conducted from June 1990 through October 1992. Although there are
sections of the diagnostic phase of the report that we have not completed, the
enclosed copy contains all findings of studies carried out to define problems
that may exist on West Point Lake. We are still working to improve this draft
and would welcome your comments and criticism, however, the purpose of
submitting this draft of the diagnostic study at this time is to initiate a
dialogue with Georgia (DNR) and Alabama (ADEM) concerning the feasibility
phase of the study. After both states have had an opportunity to review the
enclosed diagnostic study results, I will plan a meeting, perhaps in LaGrange,
Georgia, to discuss viable approaches to solving existing problems. Hopefully
we can come to mutual agreement on the issues.
Remember that the University of Georgia is completing final reports of their
work on fish health and toxics and those results should be available to us
prior to the proposed meeting. The final draft of our report will contain all
data in an appendix but should you need additional information at this time
please let me know.
Look forward to hearing from you when you have completed your review.
David Bayne
Professor
DB/aja
Dr. Walter Murphy
Dr. Vickie Blazer
Dr. Parshall Bush
272
A LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY

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AuDurn university
Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5419
College of Agriculture
department of Fisheries
jnd Allied Aquacultures
International Center
for Aquaculture
Telephone. (205) 844-4786
2 August 1993	Telex: 5106002392
FAX. 205-844-9208
United States of America
Mr. Alan Hallum, Branch Chief
Environmental Protection Division
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
205 Butler Street, Twin Tower East
Atlanta, Georgia 30334
Dear Mr. Hallum:
x On Tuesday, 20 July 1993, a meeting was held at LaGrange College in
LaGrange, Georgia, to discuss the feasibility phase of the West Point Lake Clean
Lakes Study and to recommend water quality standards as called for in the 1990
amendment to the "Georgia Water Quality Control Act" dealing with lake water
quality standards. Attending the meeting were Dr. Parshall Bush, University of
Georgia, Dr. David Kamps, Georgia Environmental Protection Division, Mr. Robert
Cooner and Mr. James M-Indoe, Alabama Department of Environmental Management, and
me. I have enclosed a meeting agenda for your information.
As you know, I submitted a draft of the diagnostic phase of the study to
EPD and ADEM on 6 April 1993, asking for comments and a meeting on the
feasibility phase of the study. The July 20th meeting was most helpful with the
participants agreeing on many of the crucial issues. I will now proceed to
finish the feasibility report and forward it to you in the near future.
In order to meet the deadlines spelled out in the Lake Standards Law, I am
submitting the recommended water quality standards for West Point Lake (see
enclosed). More discussion and justification of these criteria will appear in
the feasibility report, but I will be glad to answer any questions or hear your
comments on these recommendations. Please advise me if I can assist you in any
way.
David R.
Professor
cc. Mork Winn
Bob Cooner
David Kamps
Parshall Bush
James M^Indoe
273
A LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY

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MEETING AGENDA
WEST POINT LAKE FEASIBILITY STUDY
20 July 1993
1 - Review status of water quality issues related to
West Point Lake.
2	- Discuss problems revealed by diagnostic phase of
Clean Lakes Study.
3	- Discuss Georgia lake water quality standards law
as it relates to West Point Lake.
Establish numerical standards to be recommended.
4	- Recommendations related to toxic substances.
5	- Recommendations to reduce sedimentation.
274

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STATUS OF WATER QUALITY ISSUES
0.75 mg/L phosphorus limitation.
Use classification changes.	3
lectio ^ Svoim ( vOS?r
-------
PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED
I. Eutrophication
Point source nutrient loading
Combined sewer overflow
Urban stormwater runoff
Water quantity
Lake water quality standards
II. Bacterial Contamination
Combined sewer overflow
Urban stormwater runoff
III. Toxics
Urban stormwater runoff
IV. Sedimentation
Stormwater control
276

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Lake Water Quality Standards
PH
6.5 - 9.5
Fecal coliform
< 200 colonies/100 ml
Corrected chlorophyll a (mean photic zone concentration)
Lakevide mean during growing season 15-20 /xg/1
LaGrange water intake mean growing season 27 ng/1
Dissolved oxygen
When a thermocline (change in temperature of 1.0C or
more per meter depth) exist, the epilimnion (water
column above thermocline) that is within the photic
zone (that portion of the upper water column receiving
at least 1.0% of the surface incident light) should
maintain a dissolved oxygen concentration of 5.0 mg/L
or higher at all times.
In the absence of a thermocline (no epilimnion) the
dissolved oxygen concentration of the photic zone
should be 5.0 mg/L or higher at all times.
Maximum
50 /ig/1
Total phospho]
Total nitrogei
277

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RECOMMENDED WEST POINT LAKE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
The following standards are recommended to assure that West Point Lake
waters will be safe and suitable for fishing, swimming, and as a public water
supply.
pH. Lake water pH should not decline below pH 6.5 nor rise above pH 9.5.
Fecal Collform Bacteria.
The geometric mean fecal coliform density based on four samples collected
during a 30 day period should not exceed 200 colonies/100 ml in lake
water. At least 24 hours should elapse between samples.
Chlorophyll a (corrected for pheopigments)
Under 10-year, low flow conditions (2,100 cfs at Whitesburg,
Georgia) mean (based on samples collected at about 15 day intervals)
photic zone chlorophyll a concentrations measured near the LaGrange
water intake structure during the growing season (April through
October) should not exceed 27 /ig/L. Mean photic zone chlorophyll a
concentration should not exceed 50 /ig/L at any time, anywhere in
West Point Lake. Lake-wide, the growing season average should range
between 15 to 20 Mg/L. Lake-wide photic zone chlorophyll a means
will be based on samples collected at about 15 day intervals at no
less than four mainstem (along Chattahoochee River channel)
locations distributed about equidistance between West Point Dam and
the mouth of New River.
If future water withdrawal within the Chattahoochee River Basin,
upstream of West Point Lake, exceeds current (1993) levels and
results in Chattahoochee River flows of less than 2,100 cfs (at
Whitesburg, Georgia) the chlorophyll a standards, for the 10-year,
low flow condition (as stated above) will apply until such time as
river flows exceed 2,100 cfs.
Under average flow conditions (3,925 cfs at Whitesburg) mean photic
zone chlorophyll a concentrations measured near the LaGrange water
intake structure during the summer (June through August) should not
exceed 27 /tg/L. Mean photic zone chlorophyll a concentration should
not exceed 40 /ig/L at any time, anywhere in West Point Lake. Lake-
wide the growing season average should range between 15 and 20 /ig/L.
Lake-wide photic zone chlorophyll a means will be based on samples
collected at about 15 day intervals at no less than four mainstem
(along Chattahoochee River channel) locations distributed about
equidistance between West Point Dam and the mouth of New River.
278

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Total Phosphorus.
Total phosphorus loading of the Chattahoochee River and its
tributaries upstream of West Point Lake by point source dischargers
will be reduced to levels that will ensure maintenance of the
chlorophyll a standards as stated above.
Total Nitrogen.
Since the lake will be phosphorus limited in terms of algal growth,
nitrogen concentrations can vary as long as concentrations of toxic species
(e.g. NH3 and N02~) remain at safe levels.
Dissolved Oxygen.
When a thermocline (change in temperature of 1.0 C or more per meter depth)
exists, the epilimnion (water column above thermocline) that is within the
photic zone (that portion of the upper water column receiving at least 1.0
% of the surface incident light) should maintain a dissolved oxygen
concentration of 5.0 mg/L or higher at all times.
In the absence of a thermocline (no epilimnion) the dissolved oxygen
concentration of the photic zone should be 5.0 mg/L or higher at all times.
279

-------
Department of Fisheries
and Allied Aquacultures
203 Swingle Hell
International Center
for Aquaculture and
Aquatic Environments
201 Swingle Hall
Mourn universit)
Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5419
College of Agriculture
August 20, 1993
T
Telephone. (205) 844-4786
Telex- 5106002392
FAX (205) 844-9203
United Stctes of America
Mr. Mork Winn, Program Director
Water Quality Management Program
Georgia Environmental Protection Division
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
205 Butler Street, Twin Towers East
Atlanta, GA 30334
Dear Mr. Winn:
Just a reminder to send comments on the diagnostic portion of the West Point
Lake Phase I Study at your earliest convenience. I would like to complete that report
prior to taking on new tasks in the fall. I am working on the feasibility portion of the
report and will forward you a draft as soon as it is completed.
I appreciate all of your help and cooperation on this project through the years.
Professor
DB/mdm
280
a land-grant umv;(!Sii*

-------
Auburn University
Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5419
College of Agriculture
department of Fisheries
and Allied Aquacultures
Telecnone (205)844-4786
Telex: 5106002392
FAX: 205-844-9208
United States of America
December 14, 1993
International Center
for Aquaculture
Mr. Robert Cooner
Alabama Dept. Environmental Mgt.
1751 Federal Drive
Montgomery, AL 3 613 0
Dear Mr. Cooner:
Enclosed, you will find a draft copy of the feasibility study
report (West Point Lake Phase I, Diagnostic/Feasibility Study)
for West Point Lake. Please review this document and provide me
with your comments and criticisms as soon as possible so that I
can complete the final draft in a timely manner. We have
incorporated recommended improvements and suggested changes into
the diagnostic study report and it is ready to be submitted.
Please advise me if you have questions or if I can assist you in
any way.
DRB/apb
281
A LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY

-------
Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5419
College of Agriculture
Department of Fisheries
and Allied Aquacultures
Teiecncne- (205) 844-4 786
Telex-5106002392
FAX. 205-844-9208
United States of America
International Center
for Aquaculture
December 14, 1993
Mr. Mork Winn, Program Director
Water Quality Management Program
Georgia Environmental Protection Division
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
205 Butler Street, Twin Towers East
Atlanta, GA 303 34
Dear Mr. Winn:
Enclosed, you will find a draft copy of the feasibility study
report (West Point Lake, Phase I, Diagnostic/Feasibility Study)
for West Point Lake. Please review this document and provide me
with your comments and criticisms as soon as possible so that I
can complete the final draft in a timely manner. We have
incorporated recommended improvements and suggested changes into
the diagnostic study report and it is ready to be submitted.
Please advise me if you have questions or if I can assist you in
any way.
DB/apb
cc: Alan Hallum
David Kamps
Parshall Bush
Walter Murphy
Sincerely yours
David Bayne /'
Professor
282
A LAND-GRANT UNIVERSITY

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Georgia Department 01 mturai jtvesumico
205 Butler Street S.E., Floyd Towers East, Atlanta. Georgia 30334
'	ejx iiMMMJAM PiUpuUjh
Joe Q Tiraw, Cxrrai&ara
HcoU P. Otfcctor
December 23, 1993
Mr. Dan Ahem, Chief
Watershed Protection Section
USEPA Region IV
345 Courtland Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30365
Dear Mr. Ahern:
The purpose of this correspondence is to transmit to you a copy of the draft feasibility report
for the West Point Lake Phase I Diagnostic Feasibility Study. The study was conducted by Auburn
University and LaGrange College and the report produced by Dr. David Bayne of Auburn University.
The feasibility report was received on December 22,1993. As you know the dran diagnostic report
.was reviewed earner this year and comments provided. We have asked Dr. Bayne :o transmit tc you
a copy of the revised diagnostic study report by separate cover.
We would appreciate your review and comment on the study reports. We would then
coordinate transmitting comments to Dr. Bayne for consideration.
We appreciate your help on this project. Please let me know if you have questions or if we
can assist you in any way.
Sincerely,
7*\. 
W. M. Winn, ill
Program Manager
Water Quality Management Program
WMW.dmg
WfW/t.TR?A*T
Tfi TCil p

-------
Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5419
College of Agriculture
Department of Fisheries
and Allied Aquacultures
203 Swingle Hall
January 11, 1994
Telephone: (205) 844-4786
Telex: 5106002392
FAX: (205) 844-9208
United States of America
International Center
for Aquaculture and
Aquatic Environments
201 Swingle Hall
Mr. Dan Ahern
Chief Watershed Protection Section
U.S.E.P.A., Region IV
345 Courtland St.
Atlanta, GA 3 03 65
Dear Mr. Ahern:
Mr. Mork Winn, Georgia EPD, has requested that I forward to you a
copy of the revised West Point Lake Diagnostic Report that has
been reviewed by both EPD and ADEM. Comments and suggestions
made by these agencies have been addressed in the enclosed draft.
Please advise me if I can assist you in any way as you review
these documents.
Professor
DRB/apb
cc: Mork Winn
Robert Cooner
284

-------
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
REGION IV
3-i5 COURTLAND STREET N E
ATLANTA GEORGIA 30365
JUN 0 3 1994
Mr. W.M. Winn, III
Program Manager
Water Quality Management Program
GA Dept. of Natural Resources
205 Butler Street S.E.
Floyd Towers East
Atlanta, GA 30334
Dear Mr. Winn:
This correspondence concerns the Draft West Point Lake Phase
1 Feasibility Report transmitted by your letter of December 23,
1993, as well as the Revised Diagnostic Report transmitted by
Dr. David R. Bayne, Auburn University, on January 11, 1994.
We have reviewed both of the above-referenced reports and
commend the many participants in the study on a well balanced and
highly professional effort. A few limited comments on the
technical aspects of these reports are noted below.
The diagnostic section of the report provides an excellent
description of the eutrophic conditions in the lake, and
documents the ongoing strategy of phosphorus reduction in the
watershed as a control mechanism to correct these problems.
However, the feasibility section should include more detailed
information on the Georgia Environmental Protection Division's
short-term and long-term goals for the reduction of total
phosphorus entering the lake. There also should be a explanation
of the status of existing attempts to meet these goals.
Projected future total phosphorus loadings and the resultant
water quality conditions should be included.
The feasibility section contains an excellent description of
the use of chlorophyll a as indicator of eutrophic conditions in
West Point Lake. EPA has found that chlorophyll a is probably
the best single parameter for the establishment of water quality
goals for large lakes. However, we have noted over the past
twenty years that water quality resources are protected best if
water quality goala are formally established through the adoption
of numerical water quality standards. Therefore, EPA Region IV
recommends that the Phase 1 Diagnostic/Feasibility Report for
west Point Lake and other studies already completed be utilized
to establish numerical water quality standards for West Point
Lake. EPA Region IV has reviewed Georgia Senate Bill 714, which
became a state law in 1990, and feels that it provides an
excellent format for the establishment of lake water quality
standards.
285

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Georgia Senate Bill 714 also requires the establishment of
Total Maximum Daily Loads. Although Senate Bill 714 does not
specifically reference Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, it
does follow the legal principles established in the Act.
Therefore, EPA Region IV recommends Total Maximum Daily Loads be
established for West Point Lake and its tributaries. The
methodology for the establishment of the Total Maximum Daily
Loads should comply with the procedural requirements of Section
303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act.
If I may be of additional assistance, please do not hesitate
to contact me.
Sincerely yours,
Robert F. McGhee
Acting Director
Water Management Division
cc: Mr. Robert Cooner
Alabama Department of Environmental Management
Dr. David R. Bayne
Auburn University
286

-------
Department of Fisheries
and Allied Aquacultures
203 Swingle Hall
International Center
for Aquaculture and
Aquatic Environments
201 Swingle Hall
Auburn University
Auburn University, Alabama 36849-5419
College of Agriculture
July 22, 1994
Teieohone (205) 844-4786
FAX (205) 844-9208
Unfed States of America
Mr. W. M. Winn, III
Program Manager
Water Quality Management Program
GA Dept. of Natural Resources
205 Butler Street S.E.
Floyd Towers East
Atlanta, GA 30334
Dear Mr. Winn:
At your request I am enclosing a copy of the letter addressed to you from Mr. Robert F.
McGhee of EPA Region IV concerning the West Point Lake Phase I study report. As I
move to complete the final report and address review comments, I will need your assistance
.in answering questions raised in paragraph three of this letter. I would not feel comfortable
addressing EPD goals for phosphorus reduction in West Point Lake. If you care to
comment on questions raised in the letter about the establishment of numerical water quality
standards and total maximum daily loads for the lake, that could be included in the final
Feasibility Report also. Any response to these questions will be appended in its entirety to
the final report to help prevent misinterpretation.
I plan to begin revising the draft Feasibility Report next week and will need your response
as soon as possible to complete the task. Look forward to hearing from you.
Professor
- DRB/aja
cc: Mr. Robert Cooner
287

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Toxic substances in water, sediment and fish and fish health assessment
(1990-1992)
288

-------
PROJECT: WEST POINT LAKE: PHASE 1 - DIAGNOSTIC/FEASIBILITY STUDY
Toxic Substances in Water, Sediments and Fish
and
Fish Health Assessment
(1990- 1992)
Prepared By:
Dr. Parshall B. Bush
Pesticide Residue Chemist
Extension Pesticide Residue Laboratory
The University of Georgia
Riverbend Research Laboratory
110 Riverbend Road
Athens, GA 30602
Phone: (706) 542-9023
Dr. Vickie Blazer
Fisheries Biologist
National Fish Health Lab
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Box 700
Kearneysville, W.VA.
Phone (304) 725-8461
Date of Submission: December, 1992
289

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY 	3
LIST OF TABLES 	6
LIST OF FIGURES	8
INTRODUCTION 		9
METHODS AND MATERIALS 	11
A.	Sample Receipt and Storage for Contaminant Analysis	11
B.	Analysis of Water Samples	11
C.	Analysis of Sediment Samples 	12
D.	Analysis of Fish Samples 	13
E.	Fish Health Assessment 	14
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION	17
CONCLUSIONS	25
BIBLIOGRAPHY	27
APPENDIX 1. Sampling Catalogue and Map of Locations	29
APPENDIX 2. Parameters, Detection Limits and Data Sets for Water
Samples 	34
APPENDIX 3. Parameters, Detection Limits and Data Sets for Sediment
Samples 	41
APPENDIX 4. Complete Data Sets for Whole Fish and Filet Fish
Samples 	51
APPENDIX 5. Parameters and Complete Data Sets for Fish Health
Assessment	66
2

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SUMMARY
The University of Georgia in cooperation with the States of Georgia and Alabama and
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency collected water, sediment, and fish tissue samples
for toxic substance analysis as a part of the Clean Lakes Phase I Diagnostic/Feasibility Study
of West Point Lake. A sampling catalogue and map of locations are included in Appendix 1.
Water samples collected during the three sampling periods contained no measurable
volatile organic compounds (VOA's), base/neutral/acid semi-volatiles (BNA's), metals or
pesticides (Appendix 2). Occasional water samples collected during the spring of 1991
contained detectable levels of mercury (Table 3) at concentrations in excess of Georgia water
quality standards.
Sediment samples collected during the fall of 1990 , spring 1991 and fall 1991 were
generally found to contain no measurable VOA's, BNA's or pesticides with the exceptions
presented in Appendix 3. Detectable nitric acid extractable metal residues are presented (Table
5) and the positive BNA semi-volatile residues are summarized (Table 6). Sediment samples
were found to contain phthalates (plasticisers) and polynuclear aromatic compounds (PNA's).
The most common PNA's were pyrene, fluoranthene and benzopyrene. Nitrogen and
phosphorus levels were determined and are reported (Tables 7-8).
Fish pesticide and heavy metal residue levels for whole fish and filets are summarized
in Appendix 4 (Tables 9-14). Residues of PCB, chlordane, pentachloroanisole and DDT
metabolites were delected. PCB's (primarily Arachlor 1260) concentrations ranged from non-
detectable to 1.57 ppm. All PCB levels were below the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
2.0 ppm action level. Numerous chlordane residues were detected at levels above the FDA
action level of 0.3 ppm. Other detectable residues were below action levels. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fish tissue guidance values for the protection of
human health are also reviewed in this report.
Common carp and largemouth bass were collected from six sites in Spring and Fall 1991
for determination of a site-specific fish health assessment index (HAI). The results are
3

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presented in Appendix 5. The assessment included a visual evaluation of various organs as well
as collection of blood for hematocrit, leucocrit and serum protein. In addition, condition factor
(Ktl) was calculated.
In general, the fish appeared fairly healthy. No fish were grossly deformed, had
ulcerated or open lesions, had fin rot or were emaciated.
Condition factor and hematocrit values tended to be higher in Fall than Spring when
differences between seasons were noted. Bass leucocrits varied greatly with no apparent
pattern. Carp leucocrits were higher in Spring at all stations except the river site (U.S. Hwy
27). No discernible patterns were found in serum protein. The data indicate that blood
parameters are too variable to use as indicators of health in wild populations. A large number
of factors (water temperature, feeding status, etc.) can influence the results. No significant
differences were found among the sites in the overall H AI in the Spring for either carp or bass.
Significant differences were found between sites for Fall samples. Bass caught at the Dam had
a significantly higher index (or were in worse shape) than those from the other sites. Carp
caught at the river site (U.S. Hwy 27) had the highest index, those caught at Yellowjacket
Creek had the lowest and the other four sites were intermediate.
The majority of conditions contributing to the observed index values for largemouth
bass were parasite load and pathological indicators for the kidney and spleen. A
histopathological evaluation indicated that nodules found in the spleen were lipomas. These
are benign tumors, have never been correlated with environmental pollution and did not appear
to cause significant damage to the tissue. Both helminth and myxosporidian parasites were
found in the kidney tissue.
In the carp, HAI's were consistently lower in the Spring compared to Fall. This
difference was primarily due to changes in gill and kidney tissue in the Fall. Histologically,
mucus proliferation and an increase in inflammatory cells was observed in the gills and
increased ceroid deposition was noted in the kidneys.
4

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Correlation analyses were conducted for bass health parameters and contaminants
found in both tissues and sediments in Fall 1991. The only parameters which were highly
correlated were tissue PCB levels and liver/somatic index.
The results indicate that the H AI is probably not sensitive enough to detect effects from
exposure to low concentrations of environmental contaminants. Many of the lesions observed
grossly were due to parasites (which do no constitute a human health hazard).
5

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LIST OF TABLES
Page
TABLE 1. SAMPLING CATALOGUE	 30
TABLE 2. WEST POINT, RESERVOIR WATER SAMPLES: Water samples
collected in the fall 1990, Spring 1991 and Fall 1991 were found to contain no
detectable quantities of the listed analities	 35
TABLE 3. WEST POINT RESERVOIR SAMPLES:Results of Hg analysis conducted
on water samples collected in Fall 1990, Spring 1991, and Fall 1991	 40
TABLE 4. WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Sediment samples
collected in the fall 1990, Spring 1991 and Fall 1991 were found to contain no
detectable quantities of the listed analities	 42
TABLE 5. WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Results of
elemental analysis conducted on sediment samples collected during the Fall 1990,
Spring 1991 and the Fall of 1991	 45
TABLE 6. WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Results of
base/neutral/acid semi-volatile GC-MS analysis conducted on sediment samples
collected during the Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and the Fall of 1991	 48
TABLE 7. WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Results of nitrogen
analysis conducted on sediment samples during the Fall 1990 and
Fall 1991	 49
TABLE 8. WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Results of
phosphorus analysis conducted on sediment samples during the Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and
Fall 1991	 50
TABLE 9. WEST POINT RESERVOIR WHOLE FISH SAMPLES: Results of
elemental analysis conducted on fish samples collected during the Spring 1991 and
the Fall of 1991	 52
TABLE 10. WEST POINT RESERVOIR FISH FILET SAMPLES: Results of
lemental analysis conducted on fish samples collected during the Spring 1991 and ,
the Fall of 1991	 56
6

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Page
TABLE 11. WEST POINT RESERVOIR WHOLE FISH SAMPLES: Results of
pesticide analysis conducted on fish samples collected during the Spring 1991 and
the Fall ofl 991	 60
TABLE 12. WEST POINT RESERVOIR FISH FILET SAMPLES: Results of
pesticide analysis conducted on fish samples collected during the Spring 1991 and
the Fall of 1991	 62
TABLE 13. WHOLE AND FILET FISH SAMPLES: Mean values for Bass
and Carp Contaminant Analysis	 64
TABLE 14. COMPREHENSIVE CONTAMINANT ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR
BASS AND CARP	 	 65
TABLE 15. NECROPSY CLASSIFICATION	 67
TABLE 16. FISH HEALTH CONDITIONS, DESIGNATIONS AND
SUBSTITUTED VALUES	 68
TABLE 17. WEST POINT LAKE - BASS. Summary of data presented as
mean + or - standard deviation	 70
TABLE 18. WEST POINT LAKE - CARP. Summary of data presented as
mean + or -standard deviation	 71
TABLE 19. COMPARISON OF FISH HEALTH ASSESSMENT INDEX -
BASS	 72
TABLE 20. COMPARISON OF FISH HEALTH ASSESSMENT INDEX -
CARP	,	 73
TABLE 21. LARGEMOUTH BASS FALL 1991 SAMPLE: Results of Pearson's
Correlation test between contaminants and various health indices	 74
TABLE 22. COMMON CARP FALL 1991 SAMPLE: Results of Pearson's
Correlation test between contaminants and various health indices	 75
TABLE 23. SUSPECTED TUMORS IN BASS AS OBSERVED GROSSLY. .. 76
TABLE 24. SUSPECTED TUMORS IN CARP AS OBSERVED GROSSLY. . . 77
7

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LIST OF FIGURES
Page
FIGURE 1. BASS HEMATOCRITS	 79
FIGURE 2. CARP HEMATOCRITS 	 81
FIGURE 3. BASS LEUCOCRITS	 83
FIGURE 4. CARP LEUCOCRITS 	 85
FIGURE 6. BASS PLASMA PROTEIN	 87
FIGURE 7. CARP PLASMA PROTEIN 	 89
FIGURE 8. BASS HEALTH INDEX VALUES	 91
FIGURE 9. CARP HEALTH.INDEX VALUES 			 93
8

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INTRODUCTION
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Georgia Environmental Protection
Division, and Alabama Department of Environmental Management with the assistance of
LaGrange College, Auburn University and the University of Georgia are engaged in a
cooperative water quality assessment study ofWest Point Lakesupported by the Federal Clean
Lakes Program with local matching funds provided by the Calloway Foundation. The purpose
of the study is to assess and diagnose water quality problems and review potential feasible
courses of actions to reduce documented problems. A contract was entered into between the
Georgia Department of Natural Resources Environmental Protection Division and the
University of Georgia (Riverbend Research Laboratory) to conduct a two-year study of toxic
substances and fish health as part of the West Point Lake Clean Lakes Study. This report is
the final result of that two-year study.
The objective of this portion of the West Point Lake study was 1) to conduct the
sampling and analysis of water, sediments and fish (whole fish and filets) for toxic substances
at eight stations located on the lake and, 2) to conduct fish health assessments. The sampling
stations were pre-selected by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and are listed in
Appendix 1 (Table 1).
In Fall 1990, four stations were selected by the researchers of this study to conduct
preliminary sampling and analyses. This preliminary study was conducted to develop and
refine sampling and laboratory procedures. Water, sediments and fish samples were
subsequently collected from all eight stations in Spring and Fall 1991. Water and sediment
samples collected in all sampling periods were analyzed for metals, pesticides,
organophosphates, herbicides, volatiles and semi-volatiles. Any additional compounds
detected were included in this report.
A total of 16 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and 16common carp (Cvprinus
earpio) composites of six fish each were collected and analyzed for toxic contaminants. Twelve
to fifteen additional largemouth bass and common carp from six of the sampling stations were
9

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anesthetized, weighed, measured and bled. Fish were collected in Fall and Spring to allow for
seasonal comparisons. Individual hematocrit, leucocrit and plasma protein values were
determined. A Fish Health Condition Assessment was conducted for each fish. Eighteen
external and internal organs, including blood, were evaluated as indicators of stress in fish. The
liver was removed from each fish to allow calculation of a liver-somatic index. Other tissues
were removed from fish, classified according to pathological condition and evaluated for
histopathologically. Correlation analyses were conducted for health parameters and
contaminants found in both tissues and sediments in the Fall 1991 sample. Modification of the
fish health assessment technique is discussed.
The data from this study is included in this report. The results have been evaluated for
overall fish health and human health concerns for West Point Lake.
10

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METHODS AND MATERIALS
Sample Receipt and Storage:
Water and sediment samples were stored on ice and delivered to the laboratory within
1-2 days of collection. Water and sediment samples were logged into the Agricultural Services
Laboratory master log. Water and sediment samples were stored in a refrigerator until
extraction could be initiated.
Analysis of Water Samples:
(J) VOA: EPA Method 624; GC-MS; 60 meter megabore Volcol capillary column
(2)	BNA: EPA Method 625; GC-MS; 60 meter megabore SPB-5 capillary column
(3)	PESTICIDE SCREEN: Water samples (800 ml) were extracted 3 times with ethyl
acetate. Extracts were combined, dehydrated with sodium sulfate, and concentrated on a
rotary evaporator. The extract was made to a final volume of 2 ml for GLC-EC and GLC-
FPD analysis.
(4)	METAL ANALYSIS:
Digestion Method	EPA Method
Element
Water1
Sediment
Method
As
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
Atomic absorption (Hydride)
Se
Acid
Wet ash (HNO/HCIOJ
Atomic absorption (Hydride)
Hg

Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
Cold Vapor
Cd
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
200.7
Cr
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
200.7
Pb
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
200.7
Ni
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
200.7
Zn
None
Wet ash (HN03/1HC10J
200.7
Cu
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC10J
200.7
Sb
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
200.7
Be
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC10J
200.7
Fe
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
200.7
Mn
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
200.7
Ag
None
Wet ash (HN03/HC104)
200.7
Ti
None
Wet ash (HN03/HCI04)
200.7
'Water Sampled. Elemental analysis (Method 200.7 referenced above) was conducted directly on water samples without digestion. Anenic and mercury levels
were alio determined on water samples without digestion via atomic absorption hydride and cold vapor techniques, respectively. For determination of selenium,
an aliquot of water was made 3N with HC1. and digested for one hour. The selenium level was determined by atomic absorption hydride method.
11

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Analysis of Sediment Samples:
(1)	VOA: EPA-RCRA Method 8010
(2)	BNA: Soxhlet extraction by EPA method 3540; analysis by GC-MS using EPA 625
parameters.
(3)	PESTICIDE SCREEN: Sediment samples were analyzed for chlorinated and
organophosphate content as follows: Approximately 30 gm of sediment was Soxhlet extracted
overnight (16 hrs) with ethyl acetate. The extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator
.and made to a volume of 10 ml with ethyl acetate:toluene (75:25). Further cleanup was
achieved by gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). After GPC cleanup, the extract was
concentrated and made to a final volume of 5 ml with ethyl acetate (This generated an
equivalent final volume of 10 ml.). The extract was screened for chlorinated hydrocarbon
content and organophosphate content as described below.
A. Organophosphate Screen: The initial ethyl acetate extract was screened for possible
organophosphate content. The organophosphate analysis wasconducted with aTracor Model
222 gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector (FPD) operated in the P
& S mode simultaneously. The chromatograph contained a U-shaped column (2 M X 4mm,
1. D.) packed with 3%OV-l on Chromosorb WHP. The hydrogen and air flow were optimized
for maximum response and the detector temperature was 220 C. The carrier gas was nitrogen
at a flow rate of 40 ml/min.
Residue levels were determined by comparison of peak height in the sample
chromatogram to those of analytical standards obtained from the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. The analytical standards included:
malathion, methylparathion, ethylparathion, ethion, and carbophenothion.
fL Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Content: The extract was analyzed for toxaphene
-(chlorinated hydrocarbon) content using a Tracor Model 222 gas chromatograph equipped
with a N i" electron capture detector and a 2 M X 4 mm I.D. glass column packed with 3% OV-
12

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1 on Chromosorb WHP. The detector, inlet, and column temperatures were 350, 250, and
200 C, respectively. The carrier and purge gases were 5% methane/95% argon, with a flow rate
of 45 ml/min and 10 ml/min, respectively.
Residue levels were determined by comparison of peak height in the sample
chromatogram to those of analytical standards obtained from the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.
(4).	METAL ANALYSIS: Wet ashing of sediments (modified AO AC method
975.03.B.b.(1988)): A 1 gm sample was transferred to a 150 ml Pyrex beaker. HN03 (10ml)
was added, and the sample was allowed to soak thoroughly. Five ml of60%HC10 was added
and the sample was heated on a hot plate (slowly at first) until frothing ceased. The sample was
heated until HNO, was almost evaporated. Ten milliliters ofHN03 was added and the sample
was heated to white fumes. The sample was allowed to cool, 10 ml HCL (1 + 1) was added, and
the sample was made to volume in a 100 ml volumetric flask. Elemental analysis was
conducted using an ICP spectrophotometer. The As and Se levels were determined by Atomic
Absorption Sodium Borohydride reduction. Hg samples (ca 1 gm) were digested in nitric
sulfuric acid (10:5) for approximately 1 hr on a hot plate. The sample was analyzed by atomic
absorption cold vapor technique.
(5).	NITROGEN ANALYSIS: Total kjeldahl nitrogen was determined by AOAC
Method 976.05, Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist,
15th Edition, 1990. Nitrogen was determined from frozen samples in November, 1992.
Analysis of Fish Samples:
The organic pesticide and heavy metal screens were conducted on ground filet
composites and whole fish composites from each station. One filet from each of six fish in a
composite sample was ground together, using a Hobart meat grinder (2 passes). A 200 gm
subsample was taken for pesticide and heavy metal analysis and the remaining ground filet
.sample was added back to the remaining whole fish. The whole fish sample was ground (2
13

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passes) through a Hobart meat grinder and a 200 gm portion of the ground whole fish sample
was retained for analysis. Fish were scaled prior to fileting.
Approximately 30 grams of fish sample was homogenized in a Waring blender for 2
minutes with sodium sulfate. The extract was vacuum filtered using a Buchner funnel and the
filter cake was re-extracted with an additional 100 ml of extraction solvent and filtered. The
combined extracts were concentrated using a rotary evaporator and made to volume of 10 ml
with ethyl acetate:toluene (75:25). Additional cleanup was achieved by Gel Permeation
Chromatography (GPC). After GPC cleanup, the extract was concentrated and made to a final
volume of 5 ml with ethyl acetate (This generated an equivalent final volume of 10 ml). The
extract was screened for chlorinated hydrocarbon content and organophosphate content as
described under sediment analysis.
Metal Analysis: Wet ashing of filet and whole fish samples (modified AO AC method
975.03.B.b.( 1988)): A 1 gm sample was transferred to a 150 ml Pyrex beaker. HN03 (10ml)
was added, and the sample was allowed to soak thoroughly. Five ml of 60% HC104 was added
and the sample was heated on a hot plate (slowly at first) until frothing ceased. The sample was
heated until HNOa was almost evaporated. Ten milliliters ofHNOj was added and the sample
was heated to white fumes. The sample was allowed to cool, 10 ml HCL (1 +1) was added, and
the sample was made to volume in a 100 ml volumetric flask. Elemental analysis was
conducted using an ICP spectrophotometer. The As and Se levels were determined by Atomic
Absorption Sodium Borohydride reduction. Hg samples (ca 1 gm) were digested in nitric
sulfuric acid (10:5) for approximately 1 hr on a hot plate. The whole sample was analyzed by
atomic absorption cold vapor technique.
Fish Health Assessment:
Twelve to fifteen largemouth bass and common carp were collected from six sites along
West Point Lake. The sites were positioned at various intervals along the lake. The site at the
U.S. Hwy-27 bridge (Station 1) was selected to evaluate fishes from the Chattahoochee River
immediately before the main impoundment area. New River, Yellowjacket Creek, and
14

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Wehadkee Creek flow into West Point Lake and fish were collected at embayment areas. The
final site, West Point Dam forebay, was chosen to evaluate the water quality prior to discharge
and possible clearance of contaminants by water impoundment.
Fishes were collected by electroshocking boat and were transported in a live well to
minimize handling stress. At the shore fishes were anesthetized with MS-222, weighed, and
measured. Blood samples were obtained via puncture of the caudal vein. Microhematocrit
tubes were filled immediately and stored in a cooler on ice. The remaining blood samples were
also kept cool for later processing. When a sufficient number of hematocrit tubes were
collected, they were centrifuged at 12,000 rpms for 5 minutes.
Immediately after withdrawal of blood, fishes were euthanized by an overdose of MS-
222 and necropsied using the Goede and Barton (1990) fish health/condition profile. Fish
tissues were classified according to color, texture, or level of pathological condition. A
complete listing of the necropsy classifications as done in the field is given in Table 1. During
the necropsy, samples of liver, spleen, head kidney, hind kidney, and gill were preserved in 10%
buffered formalin for later histopathologicaJ assessment. The first six fish of each speciesfrom
each site were reserved for contaminant analysis, wrapped in aluminum foil, and stored on ice
for later processing.
After necropsies were completed, the hematocrits and leucrocrits were read and
recorded. Approximately six to eight hours after collection blood samples were centrifuged to
obtain serum samples. Serum was removed, placed into individual vials and stored on ice for
later determination of serum protein.
Serum protein concentration was determined using the biuret method (Gornall et al.,
1949). Total protein reagent and protein standards were obtained from Sigma Diagnostics.
One ml of reagent and 0.02 ml plasma were mixed and delivered as 0.1 ml aliquots into 4 wells
of a 96-well flat-bottomed microplate. A 0.1 ml aliquot of a mixture of 1 ml reagent and 0.02
distilled water was used as a blank. The mixtures were incubated for 10 minutes then read on
-a BT2000 Microkinetics reader using a 540 nm filter. A standard curve was developed from
the given standards and serum protein concentrations calculated from the curve.
15

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Results from the necropsy and blood analysis were entered into a computer program
designed to calculate an index of fish health. The original program presents data as percentage
of fishes with pathological conditions (Goede and Barton, 1990). The program has been
modified for warmwater fishes and a health assessment index (H AI) is generated for each fish
(Adams and Greely, Jr., 1991). A value of zero is given to normal variables. Pathological
conditions are given a 30 or values ranging from 10 to 30 depending on the severity of the
condition (Table 2). The values are summed for each fish thus rendering the HAI. A
completely normal fish would have a HAI of zero. Increasing HAI's indicate a more severe or
stressed condition.
Statistical comparisons of length, weight, condition factor, hematocrit, leucocrit, serum
protein, and HAI were made between sample sites and sample dates using SAS (1985)
multivariate ANOVA (proc glm). Correlations between HAI and length were determined using
the Pearson correlation coefficients (proc corr, SAS 1985).
HAI for common carp was calculated in the presence and absence of hematological
parameters. During the course of the study, both hematocrit and serum protein values
averaged below values considered normal for the model. Although addition of hematological
parameters did increase the HAI, this was not found to be significant. The increase in HAI also
did not alter the patterns between sample sites or dates.
16

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Water Samples:
Water samples collected from all eight stations during the three sampling periods
contained no measureable concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOAs),
base/neutral/acid semi-volatiles (BNAs), metals and pesticides (Table 2). The GC-MS total ion
chromatographic tracing contained no unidentified components. Appendix 2 provides a list
of analities tested and detection limits.
Mercury was detected in a number of samples and results are detailed in Table 3. Fall
1990 samples from the New River and Yellowjacket Creek stations contained mercury levels
above the detection limit. Spring 1991 water samples from five of the eight stations contained
mercury at levels above the detection limit of the analytical procedures used in this study.
Concentrations of mercury from this sampling period ranged from less than 0.4 ppb to 1.46
ppb. The New River and 219 Bridge samples contained the highest levels of mercury at 1.46
ppb. Water samples collected in Fall 1991 did not contain mercury levels above the detection
limit. The mercury concentrations documented in this study were in excess of the Georgia
water quality standard for aquatic life of 0.012 ppb.
Sediment Samples:
Sediment samples collected in all three periods contained no measurable concentrations
of VOAs, BNAs, and pesticides. Theexceptions being sediments from U.S. Highway 27 bridge
and New River which contained detectable levels of polynuclear aromatic compounds (PNA's)
indicative of possible industrial activity. The most common PNA's found were pyrene,
fluroanthene, and benzopyrene. Nitrogen concentrations were determined for Fall 1990 and
Fall 1991. Concentrations ranged from 134-569 ppm and are detailed in Table 7. Phosphorus
levels were determined for all three sampling periods. The mean phosphorus level was 309 ppm
and concentrations ranged from 20-868 ppm. Most Georgia Piedmont lakes are mesotrophic
with a mean total phosphorus level of 300-400 ppm. Sediments from the fertilized fish pond
at Rock Eagle 4-H Camp, Eatonton, Georgia contain a mean total phosphorus level of 737
17

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ppm (data of Dr. R. Rashke, EPA, Athens, Georgia). Appendix 3 provides a list of analities
and detection limits. Those parameters detected are detailed in Tables 4-8. There are no
Federal or State standards for sediments.
Fish Samples:
Pesticide and heavy metal residue levels for whole fish and filets are summarized in
Appendix 4, Tables 9-14. Federal guidelines for toxic substances in fish tissue apply to filets
only. There are no guidelines for whole fish. Whole fish were analyzed to provide information
on the overall body burden of the fish. This information was utilized in assessing fish health.
Mercury was detected in whole fish and filets from several sampling stations (Tables 11-12).
However, all values were below the EPA guidelines. Residues of PCB, chlordane,
pentachloroanisole, and DDT metabolites were detected (Tables 11-12). PCB's (primarily
Arachlor 1260) were detected, but all PCB levels were below the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) 2.0 ppm action level. Table 13 provides mean concentrations for
detected contaminants.
Table 14 summarizes the results of human health concerns in relation to fish
consumption. Levels of metal concentrations and lipophilic organochlorine compounds in filet
tissue showed some variation between seasons and species. Metal concentrations in filet tissue
tended to be higher in Spring, with the exception of zinc. Concentrations of lipophilic
organochlorine compounds tended to be higher in Fall. Chromium, zinc and organics (PCB's,
chlordane and DDT metabolites) tended to higher in carp filets than bass. Although mean
values did not exceed the FDA action levels for bass or carp, some individual samples of carp
filets did exceed the action level for chlordane. Compared to U.S. EPA guidance levels, values
for arsenic, PCB and chlordane exceeded guidance values for 1 x 10"6 risk in bass and carp filets.
DDT exceeded the 10* criteria only in carp filets. PCB levels in both bass and carp filets
exceeded the criteria at the 10^ risk level. Therefore, PCB's represent the greatest concern for
long term exposure.
18

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Fish Health Assessment:
The results of fish health assessment are listed in Appendix 5. Common carp and
largemouth bass were collected from 4 sites in Fall 1990 and 6 sites in Fall and Spring 1991.
Histopathology was not conducted on fish from Fall 1990. This collection was treated as a
practice run for the fish health assessments. Hence, discussion of the data collected focuses on
Fall and Spring of 1991. The fish health data collected during Fall 1990 is available in
Appendix 5. A necropsy classification code is outlined in Table 15 and Table 16 and provides
the designations and substituted values for fish health conditions. Tables 17 and 18 provide
a summary of all the data collected during the fish health assessment. Data sheets provided in
Appendix 5 also give a compilation of the data, percentages of male and female collected, and
percentages of fish showing individual abnormalities. Although an attempt was made to limit
variation in fish lengths, differences were found among sites in all but the largemouth bass
Spring 1991 sample. Weights were likewise different in most samples. A correlation test (proc
corr, SAS,1985) did not find significant correlations between lengths and any other
measurements. Therefore the differences in mean lengths should not bias any results.
The majority of fish collected appeared grossly to be in relatively good health. No
emaciated or deformed fish were found. Nor were any fish observed with large ulcerated
lesions, extensive fin rot, or fin or tail erosion. External lesions noted such as reddening of the
fins, small pinpoint hemorrhages on the ventral body surface and some nodules on the fins were
considered minor, certainly not life threatening, and often due to external parasites.
There were significant differences observed between some sites for individual
measurements such as condition factor, hematocrit, leucocrit and serum protein. Condition
factor (Ktl) is often used to compare stressed vs. non-stressed fishes (Barnes et al., 1984). It is
basically a measure of the plumpness of a fish expressed as weight/length3 (Carlander, 1977).
The condition factor calculated by the fish health/condition profile was similar between Fall
and Spring 1991 for some sites in both bass and carp. When variation was observed between
seasons, the Spring Ktl values were lower than the Fall, perhaps reflecting reproductive
condition or the fact that they have just come out of the winter/low temperature period. There
19

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is no agreement in the literature as to whether there are seasonal cycles in condition factor or
plumpness of largemouth bass (Carlander, 1977). At least one study has suggested seasonal
changes in condition factors are related to weights of the stomach contents, at least in small fish
(Kramer and Smith, 1960). Another study found the mean condition factors to be higher
during the spawning season for age III and IV bass (Zweiacker, 1972).
In order to achieve some comparison of the condition of West Point Lake bass to other
systems mean relative weights were calculated from the various sites during the two seasons.
Relative weight compares the actual weight of a bass with a standard weight for that particular
size. It has been reported that a mean relative weight of95-100 indicates a balanced population
in satisfactory condition. Relative weights well below 100 indicate problems exist in food and
feeding relationships (Wege and Anderson, 1978). Bass collected during the Spring had mean
relative weights of 98 to 110 at the first five sites. Only fish collected at the Dam had a mean
relative weight of 92. During the Fall, mean relative weights ranged from 96 to 110. Hence,
by this means of evaluation the fish appeared relatively healthy.
Hematocrit values represent the packed cell volume of red blood cells in a given blood
sample. Stress has been shown to affect hematocrits which may be increased or decreased
depending on the type of stress involved (Novotny and Beeman, 1990). Season also affects
hematocrit values in a number of fish species. In this study bass hematocrits varied as a result
of season with Spring measurements being lower than Fall at all but one site (Fig. 1). Common
carp hematocrits were much more similar between season, with the exception of one site Spring
measurements were still lower (although not significantly) than Fall (Fig. 2).
Leucocrit is a measure of the white blood cell volume. The response of white blood cells
to stress also varies greatly with the type of stress (Blaxhall, 1972). White blood cell number
may increase with infection (Wedemeyeretal., 1990). The leucocrits of bass in this study varied
greatly but with no apparent pattern (Fig. 3). Carp leucocrits showed a consistent difference
between season (except at Station 1, U.S. Hwy 27) with Spring samples having higher values
.(Fig. 4).
20

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Serum protein values are influenced by stress, temperature, sex, and nutritional status
(Goede and Barton, 1990). Lockhart and Metner (1984) showed that low protein levels are
associated with lowered energy stores. In this study, for both carp and bass, the serum protein
values tended to be more consistent from site to site in the Fall (Fig. 6 and 7). During the
Spring sample, fish of both species collected at the New River Embayment site had the lowest
serum protein levels and increased as one progressed toward the Dam. Carp had consistently
lower serum protein values than bass, in many cases below the "normal" range. However, other
reports in the literature (Van Vuren and Hattingh, 1978) indicate this may be normal for carp.
In wild fish it is difficult, if not impossible to determine of what value variations in blood
parameters such as hematocrit, leucocrit and serum protein are in determining "fish health".
Sex, age, water temperature, oxygen level, presence or absence of infectious disease, nutritional
status, and time after last meal, are only a few of the factors which may affect one or more of
these parameters. Even in most cultured fish, fish pathologists do not use these clinical
methods to evaluate fish health because there is not enough background data for most species
10 determine 1) what are acceptable ranges and 2) what does it mean if a value is above or
below that range.
The overall fish condition assessment (H AI) incorporates blood parameters as well the
gross observations of a number of organs. The program used was the modification developed
for warmwater fish populations. This modification gives conditions numerical values (Table
16). Because of variability in the blood parameters measured - hematocrit, leucocrit and plasma
protein, particularly in the common carp the data were analyzed with and without blood
parameters (Tables 17 and 18).
The spring sample showed no significant difference in HAI for either largemouth bass
or common carp (Tables 19 and 20). This was true regardless of blood parameter status.
Significant differences in mean HAI were found between sites for the Fall samples of
both largemouth bass and common carp when data was analyzed without the blood
parameters. TheFall 1991 bass sample indicated that the dam site was significantly higher than
all other sites, except LaGrange intake which was intermediate (when hematological parameters
21

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were included in the analysis). These differences are primarily due to increased serum protein
levels at the Dam site and LaGrange Intake. The significantly higher H AI values for bass from
the Dam site without the hematological parameters is primarily due to a higher parasite load
and the pathological indication in the kidney. Histologically, evidence of helminths and the
myxosporidian parasite were determined to be the causes of these lesions. The bass H AI values
did not change significantly from one season to another (Fig. 8, presented as HAI with
hematological values included).
The Fall 1991 common carp sample analyzed without hematological values, showed a
lower mean index value for the Yellowjacket creek site and a higher HAI value at Station 1,
with the other sites being intermediate. The Yellowjacket site carp all had normal spleens and
a majority had normal kidneys. Carp from Station 1 had a majority of abnormal kidneys, and
a number of abnormal spleens and livers. It is evident (Figure 9) that a somewhat similar
pattern occurred in the carp health index during both Fall and Spring. It is also evident that
carp caught in the Fall were in poorer health at all sites when compared to Spring. This
difference is primarily due to an increase in abnormal gills and kidneys in the Fall. A
preliminary histological evaluation indicates that the pale gills observed during the Fall had
mucus proliferation and an increase in eosinophils (an inflammatory cell). Kidneys given the
OT (other) designation can best be described as appearing "velvety". Histologically this
appears to be due to an increase in inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue of the kidney and
an increase in ceroid deposition.
Correlation analyses were run for health parameters and contaminants found in both
tissues and sediments during the Fall 1991 sample (Tables 21 and 22). As can be seen in these
tables, a number of contajninants did show moderate correlation with individual contaminants.
The only two which showed a high correlation were tissue PCB levels and the liver somatic
index.
The fish health assessment technique was first developed for the monitoring of fishes
in culture facilities (Novotny and Beeman, 1990). Other studies involving the use of this fish
health assessment have concentrated on trout and salmon populations in the western and
22

-------
northwestern United States (Goede and Barton, 1990). Although this technique has been
modified for largemouth bass and other warmwater fishes, this study indicates that further
refinement may be necessary for other fish species such as common carp. For example, the
blood parameters as previously discussed. In addition, it is obvious that liver color and
consistency differ greatly among fish species. Again, although many "pathological" conditions
were noted in the liver of both carp and bass it is questionable whether these are really
problems. A "coffee and cream" or fatty liver may be perfectly normal for some species during
some times of the year. A mottled liver may represent differential storage of glycogen or fat
by different portions of the liver in some species.
A similar fish health/condition assessment done by Adams and Greeley, Jr (1991)
showed much neater results. In that study 3 sites (2 contaminated and 1 reference) were
examined in Lake Hartwell. Thirty largemouth bass from each site were examined. A clear
correlation between PCB levels in fish flesh and HAI values was found. However, the three
sample sites from the Adams and Greeley study were chosen according to previous indications
of contamination and there were no seasonal comparisons. The West Point Lake study chose
six sites representing locations throughout the lake. The HAI'sgenerated in the Hartwell study
were well below those reported in this study. However, due to the subjective nature of this
health assessment method, it is difficult to compare values from one study group to another.
In working with two other groups involved in this type of assessment since completing the West
Point project it is obvious that different researchers have varying perceptions of conditions such
as "mottled" or "coffee and cream" livers, as well as for pale gills etc. In this study, the HAI's
were higher because the investigators were more stringent on what was normal, not because
the fish were in worse shape.
The majority of pathological conditions contributing to HAI values for largemouth bass
came from gills, liver, and parasite load. The main conditions contributing to HAI values for
common carp were gills, kidney, and liver. Largemouth bass had a much higher, grossly
visible, parasite load than common carp.
23

-------
Some potential fish tumors were found during the necropsy and are listed as OT in the
HAI program, which gives a numerical rating of 30. Grossly four possible tumor types were
found. These included liver and testicular masses, white nodules in the spleen and mesentery
and a papilloma-like growth. Fall 1990, Spring 1991, and Fall 1991 incidences of suspected
tumors seen grossly were 15%, 14%, and 19% for largemouth bass and 0%, 2%, and 9% for
carp, respectively (Tables 23and 24). Certain epithelial tumors (liver, pancreas, skin)havebeen
correlated with environmental contaminants (Harsh barger and Clark, 1990). These include the
papillomas and hepatocarcinomas described from a number of polluted sites. Again a
preliminary histopathologic^! evaluation indicated that known of the suspected tumors were
papillomas. The papilloma-like growth was actually granulation tissue, probably from a old
hook wound. At least one of the liver "tumors" appeared to be trauma induced and none of
the others were advanced hepatocarcinomas. There were some actual gonadal tumors found.
Epizootics of gonadal tumors have been observed in other areas but their occurrence seems
unrelated to environmental pollution (Harshbarger and Clark, 1990). By far the most
prevalent tumor type found in the West Point Lake fish was the lipoma - found in the spleen
and mesentery of the largemouth bass. Again, this type of neoplasm has never been correlated
to environmental pollution, ll is speculated that both the gonadal tumors of carp and the
lipomas of the bass may have a genetic basis.
A preliminary histopathological assessment indicated that many of the lesions noted
grossly were due to infectious agents. For instance, pathological conditions of the kidney in
bass were due primarily to the presence of digenetic trematodes, microsporidia and
myxosporidia parasites. The observations on parasites and tumors raise a number of questions.
First is the level of parasitism we observed affecting the overall health and survival of the fish?
Second, the lipomas observed a problem to the fish? Particularly if they are benign growth
which do not invade or destroy other tissues.
24

-------
CONCLUSIONS
1.	Water, sediment, and fish samples were collected in Fall 1990 and Spring and Fall
of 1991 for toxic substream analyses. Additional fish were collected for fish health assessment.
2.	Three sets of water samples collected from eight locations in West Point Lake were
analyzed for 115 toxic substances including volatile organic compounds, base/neutral/acid semi-
volatiles, metals and pesticides. Mercury was the only substance detected in water samples.
3.	Mercury was detected in seven of twenty water samples with a range of 0.18 ppb to
1.46 ppb. This concentration of mercury in water samples is in excess of the Georgia water
quality standard of 0.12 ppb.
4.	Three sets of sediment samples collected from eight locations in West Point Lake
were analyzed for 115 toxic substances. Substances documented at levels greater than detection
limits in sediments included As, Se, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, phthalates, pyrene,
fluoranthene, and benzophyrene. Nitrogen was delected at levels ranging from 134-569 ppm.
Phosphorus levels ranged from 20-868 ppm with a mean value of 309 ppm which falls within
the mean total phosphorus level (300-400 ppm) found in most Georgia Piedmont lakes. There
are no Federal or State standards for sediment concentrations.
5.	Fish were collected from six locations in West Point Lake for testing. Largemouth
bass and common carp were the target species. A total of 18 composites of six fish of each
species were collected and tested for 34 toxic substances. As, Se, Hg, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, PCB,
chlordane, PCA, and DDT were detected. Concentrations of these substances were compared
to FDA action levels and EPA guidance levels for fish filets to assess human consumption risks.
PCB's (primarily 1260) were delected in fish filets below the FDA action level but in excess of
the EPA 10"4 risk level. Chlordane was detected in fish filets in excess of the FDA action level
and EPA 10"4,10'\ and 10*6 risk levels. Other substances detected were below Federal guideline
levels where guidelines are available.
6.	Additional largemouth bass and carp were collected for fish health assessment. In
general, fish appeared healthy. It is the researchers opinion that the method employed to
determine fish health may not be sensitive enough for the relatively low level pollution observed
25

-------
at West Point Lake. None of the gross lesions observed appeared to be life-threatening or to
be severely compromising the fish. No ulcerations, open sores, deformities, fin rot, or
emaciated fish were observed. The only strong correlation between contaminant level and a
measured response was the positive correlation between PCB levels and liver/somatic index.
This should be further examined histologically to try to determine the reason. More research
is necessary to a) identify the parasites observed; b) determine their life cycles and what factors
such as organic load, presence or absence of various intermediate hosts etc may play in the
prevalence we observed; c) determine if immunosuppression caused by chronic levels of
environmental contaminants may increase that prevalence and d) use the quantification of
histopathological findings (as recently described by Reimschussel et al., 1992) to try to correlate
tissue contaminant levels to certain findings. In addition, use image analysis to quantify
parasite density, macrophage aggregate numbers and size (Wolke, 1992), and amount of liver
glycogen and fat etc.
26

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Adams,S.M., editor. 1990. Biological Indicators of Stress in Fish. American Fisheries Society
Symposium 8.
Adams, S.M., A.M. Brown and R.W. Goede. In Press. A quantitative health assessment index
for rapid evaluation of fish condition in the field. Trans. Amer. Fish Soc.
Adams, S.M. and M.S. Greeley, Jr. 1991. Assessment and evaluation of the ecological health
of fish populations exposed to PCBs in Hartwell reservoir. Final report for the TVA.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Ager, L.M. 1988. Effects of an increased size limit for largemouth bass on fish populations in
West Point reservoir. Ga. Dept. of Nat. Res., Game and Fish Div., Final Rept. Study
V, Fed. Aid Project F-25, 21pp.
Barnes, M.A., G. Power, and R.G.H. Downer. 1984. Stress-related changes in lake whitefish
(Coregonus clupeaformis) associated with a hydroelectric control structure. Can. J.
Fish, and Aquat. Sci. 41:1528-1533.
Blaxhall, P.C. 1972. The haematological assessment of the health of freshwater fish: a review
of selected literature. J. Fish. Biol. 4:593-604.
Carlander, K..D. 1977. Handbook of freshwater fish biology, vol. 2. Iowa State University
Press, Ames, Iowa.
Goede, R.W. and B. A. Barton. 1990. Organismic indices and an autopsy-based assessment as
indicators of health and condition of fish. Amer. Fish. Soc. Sym. 8:93.
Gornall, A.G., C.J. Bardawill, and M.M. David. 1949. Determination of serum proteins by
means of the biuret reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 177:751.
Harshbarger, J.C. and J.B. Clark. 1990. Epizootiology of neoplasms in bony fish of North
America. Sci. Total Environ. 94:1-32.
Huggett, R.J., R.A. Kimerle, P.M. Merhle, Jr. and H.L. Bergman, editors. 1992.
Biomarkers Biochemical, Physiological, and Histological Markers of Anthropogenic
Stress. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
27

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Kramer, R.H. and L.L. Smith, Jr. 1960. First-year of the largemouth bass, Micropterus
salmoides (Lacepede), and some related ecological factors. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc.
89:222-233.
Lockhart, W.L. and D.A. Metner. 1984. Fish serum chemistry as a pathological tool, pp 73-85
in V.W. Cairns, P.V. Hodson, and J.O. Nriagu, eds. Contaminant effects of Fisheries.
Wiley, New York.
Novolny, J.F. and J.W. Beeman. 1990. Use of a fish health condition profile in assessing the
health and condition of juvenile chinook salmon. Prog. Fish-Cult. 52:162-170.
Reimschuessel,R., R.O. Bennett and M.M. Lipsky. 1992. A classification system for
histological lesions. J. Aquat. Animal Health 4:135-142.
SAS Institute, Inc. 1985. SAS users guide: Statistics, Version 5 edition. SAS Institute, Inc.,
Cary, N.C. 956 pp.
Van Vuren, J.H.J, and J. Hattingh. 1978. A seasonal study of the haematology of wild
freshwater fish. J.Fish. Biol. 13:305-313.
Wedemeyer, G.A., B.A. Barton, and D.J. Mcleay. 1990. Stress and acclimation. pp451-489in
C.B. Schreck and P.B. Moyle, eds. Methods for fish biology. American Fisheries
Society, Bethesda. MD.
Wolke, R.E. 1992. Piscine macrophage aggregates: a review. Ann. Rev. of Fish Dis.
2:91-108.
Zweiacker, P.L. 1972. Population dynamics of largemouth bass in an 808-hectare Oklahoma
reservoir. PhD. dissertation, Oklahoma State University, 126 pp.
28

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APPENDIX 1. Sampling Catalogue
and Map Of Locations
29

-------
TABLE 1: SAMPLING CATALOGUE
Preliminary samples (water, sediment and fish) were collected from 4 stations on Westpoint Reservoir
during the Fall of 1990 as follows:

WATER
SEDIMENT
STATION
LOCATION
DATE
LAB#
LAB#
1
27 BRIDGE
11/7/90
8732
8733
2
NEW RIVER
EMBAYMENT
11/7/90
8734
8735
3
LAGRANGE INTAKE
11/8/90
8736
8737
4
YELLOWJACKET CREEK
11/8/90
8738
8739
Fish samples were lost in a freezer outage.
Spring 1991 sampling (water, sediment, and fish) were collected from 8 stations on the West Point
Reservior during March and April as follows:
Location
Date

Lab Number

WATER
SEDIMENT
FISH
127 Bridge
3/25/91
2034
2039-41
3956-57 (Bass)




3958 (Carp)
219 Bridge
3/27/91
2035
2042-44

LaGrange Intake
3/20/91
2036
2045-47
3990 (Carp)
New River
3/27/91
2037
2048-50
3992 (Bass)




4008 (Carp)
109 Bridge
3/21/91
2038
2051-53

Dam (West Point)
4/11/91
2145
2148-50
3811 (Bass)




3849 (Carp)




3850 (Carp)
Yellowjacket Creek
4/11/91
2146
2151-53
3991 (Bass)




3813 (Carp)
Wehadkee Creek
4/11/91
2147
2154-56
3812 (Bass)




3851 (Carp)
30

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TABLE 1 (continued).
Fall 1991 WATER samples were collected from 8 stations on West Point Reservoir as follows:
Location
Lab No.
VOANo.
BNA Number
Metals
Number
LaGrange
6297
6298
6299
6300
New River
6305
6306
6307
6308
27 Bridge
6313
6314
6315
6316
Yellowjacket Creek
6321
6322
6323
6324
219 Bridge
6329
6330
6331
6332
109 Bridge
6337
6338
6339
6340
Dam (West Point)
6345
6346
6347
6348
Wehadkee Creek
6353
6354
6355
6356
Fall 1991 SEDIMENT samples were collected from 8 stations on West Point Reservoir as follows:
Location
Lab No.
VOANo.
BNA Number
Metals
Number
LaGrange
6301
6302
6303
6304
New River
6309
6310
6311
6312
27 Bridge
6317
6318
6319
6320
Yellowjacket Creek
6325
6326
6327
6328
219 Bridge
6333
6334
6335
6336
109 Bridge
6341
6342
6343
6344
Dam (West Point)
6349
6350
6351
6352
Wehadkee Creek
6357
6358
6359
6360
31

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TABLE 1. (continued):
Fall 1991 FISH samples were collected from 8 stations on West Point Reservoir as follows:
Location
Lab No.
Species
Fillet/Whole Fish
LaGrange
815
Bass 1-6
Fillet
LaGrange
816
Bass 1-6
Whole Fish
U.S. Hwy 27
817
Carp 1-6
Fillet
U.S. Hwy 27
818
Carp 1-6
Whole Fish
U.S. Hwy 27
819
Bass 1-6
Fillet
U.S. Hwy 27
820
Bass 1-6
Whole Fish
New River
821
Carp 1-6
Fillet
New River
822
Carp 1-6
Whole Fish
New River
823
Bass 1-6
Fillet
New River
824
Bass 1-6
Whole Fish
Wehadkee Creek
964
Carp 1-6
Fillet
Wehadkee Creek
965
Carp 1-6
Whole Fish
Yellowjacket Creek
966
Carp 1-6
Fillet
Yellowjacket Creek
967
Carp 1-6
Whole Fish
Yellowjacket Creek
968
Bass 1-6
Fillet
Yellowjacket Creek
969
Bass 1-6
Whole Fish
Dam Site
970
Bass 1-6
Fillet
Dam Site
971
Bass 1-6
Whole Fish
Dam Site
972
Carp 1-6
Fillet
Dam Site
973
Carp 1-6
Whole Fish
Wehadkee Creek
974
Bass 1-6
Fillet
Wehadkee Creek
975
Bass 1-6
Whole Fish
LaGrange Intake
976
Carp 1-6
Fillet
LaGrange Intake
977
Carp 1-6
Whole Fish
32

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MAP OF STATIONS
EIWY 27
WEST POINT LAKE
STATIONS
1=U.S. Hwy 27 (Franklin)
2=Ncw River Embaymcnt
3=GA Hwy 219 Bridge
4=Yellowjacket Creek
5=La Grange Intake
6=GA Hwy 109 Bridge
7=Wchadkee Creek
8=Dam

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APPENDIX 2. Parameters and Detection Limits
for Water Samples
34

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TABLE 2. WEST POINT RESERVOIR WATER SAMPLES: Water samples collected
in Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and Fall 1991 were found to contain no detectable quantities of the
listed analities.
Detectability
Pesticides

Aldrin
0.01 /ig/1
o-BHC
0.01
0-BHC
0.01
&-BHC
0.01
y-bhc
0.01
Chlordane
0.10
4,4-DDD
0.02
4,4-DDE
0.01
4,4-DDT
0.02
DieMrin
0.01
Endosulfan I
0.02
Endosulfan II
0.03
Endosulfan Sulfate
0.05
F.nHrin
0.02
Endrin Aldehyde
0.05
Heptachlor
0.01
Heptachlor Epoxide
0.01
Toxaphene
0.3
PCB-1016
0.3
PCB-1221
0.3
PCB-1232
0.3
PCB-1242
0.3
PCB-1248
0.3
PCB-1254
0.3
PCB-1260
0.3
Methoxychlor
0.3
HCB
. .
Mirex
0.07
Pentachloroanisolc

ChJorpyrifos
	


-------
TABLE 2: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WATER SAMPLES (continued): Water samples collected in the
Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and Fall 1991 were found to contain no detectable quantities of tiie listed analities.
Base/neiitral/acid srmi-volatilc retraction
Detectability
Organic Compounds'	Limit (ppM
Acenaphthene	10
Acenaphthylene	10
Anthracene	10
Benzo(a)Anthracene	10
Benzo(a)Pyrene	10
Benzo(b)Fluroanthene	10
Benzo(GH3)Perylene	10
Benzo(K)Fluoranthene	10
Bis(2-Chlorocthoxy)Methane	10
Bis(2-Chloroethyl)Ether	10
Bis(2-Chloroisopropyl)Ether	10
Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)Phthalate	10
4-Bromophenyl Phenyl Ether	10
2-Chloronaphthalene	10
4-Chlorophenyl Phenyl Ether	10
Crysene	10
1.2-Dichlorobenzene	10
1.3-Dichlorobenzenc	10
1.4-Dichlorobenzene	10
Diethyl Phthalate	10
Dimethyl Phthalate	10
Di-N-Butyl Phthalate	10
Di-N-Octyl Phthalate	10
2,4-Dinitrotoluene	10
2,6-Dinitrotoluene	10
Fluoranthene	10
36

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TABLE 2: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WATER SAMPLES (continued): Water samples collected in the
fall 1990, Spring 1991 and Fall 1991 were found to contain no detectable quantities of the listed analities.
Detectability
l imit fpphl
Fluorene
10
Hexachlorobenzene
10
Hexachlorobutadiene
10
Hexachloroe thane
10
Ideno(l A3-CD)Pyrene
10
Naphthalene
10
N-Butyl Benzyl Phthlate
10
Nitrobenzene
10
N-Nitrosodiphenylamine
10
Phenanthrene
10
Pyrene
10
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
10
2,-Chlorophenol
10
2,4-Dichlorophenol
10
2,4-Dimethylphenol
10
2,4-Dinitrophenol
100
2-Nitrophenol
10
4-Nltrophenol
25
Pentachlorophenol
25
Phenol (single compound)
10
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol
10
Volatile nryanin analysis

Bromoform
1
Carbon Tetrachloride
1
Chlorobenzene
1
Chlorodibromome thane
1
Chloroform
1
Cia-1 ,3-Dichloropropene
1
Dichlorobromome thane
1
1,1 -Dichloroe thane
1
1,2-Dichloroe thane
1
1,1 -Dichloroethylene
1
37

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TABLE 2: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WATER SAMPLES (continued): Water samples collected in the
fall 1990, Spring 1991 and Fall 1991 were found to contain no detectable quantities of the listed analities.
Detectability
Organic Compounds:	Limit fjpb)
1,2-Dichloropropane	1
Ethylbenzene	1
Methylene Chloride	10
Styrenc	1
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane	1
Tetrachlorocthylenc	1
Toluene	1
1.2-Trans-Dichloroethylene	1
1.3-Dichloropropene	1
1,1,1-Trichloroethane	1
1,1 ,2-Trichloroethane	1
Trichloroethylene	1
T richlorofluoromethane	1
Vinyl Chloride	5
O-Xylene	1
Metals

Antimony
10
Arsenic
0.4
Beryllium
10
Cadmium
4
Chromium, Total
7
Copper
6
Lead
20
Nickel
15
Selenium
0.33
Silver
7
Thallium
60
Zinc
2


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NOTES FOR TABLE 2:
Samples were not collected from the following locations in the fall of 1990: 219 Bridge, 109 Bridge, Dam
or Wehadkee Creek.
The following organic compounds were inadvertently omitted from the VOA and BNA water sample
analysis since they are not included in EPA Method 624,625:1,2 diphenylhydrazine, 4,6 dinitro-o-cresol,
parachloro-meta-cresol, acetone, acrylonitrile, carbon disulfide, 2-hexanone, isopropyl acetate,methyl-
ethyl-ketone and methyl-isobutyl-ketone. The GC-MS total ion chromatographic tracing contained no
unidentified components.
The following metals were not determined on samples collected in the FALL 1990: Sb, Be, Ag or TL
39

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TABLE 3: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WATER SAMPLES:
Results of Hg analysis conducted on water samples collected in Fall 1990, Spring 1991,
and Fall 1991.
LOCATION
MERCURY ANALYSIS ON WATER SAMPLES (ppb)

FALL 1990
SPRING 1991
FALL 1991
LaGrange Intake
<.04
1.17
<0.4
New River
0.18
1.46
<0.4
27 Bridge
<.04
0.88
<0.4
Yellowjacket
Creek
0.14
<0.4
<0.4
219 Bridge
N.A.
1.46
<0.4
109 Bridge
N.A.
0.60
<0.4
Dam
N.A.
<0.4
<0.4
Wehadkee Creek
N.A.
<0.4
<0.4
*N.A. = Not Analyzec

40

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APPENDIX 3. Parameters and Detection Limits
for Sediment Samples
41

-------
TABLE 4: WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLIiS: Sediment samples collected in
the Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and Fall 1991 were found to contain no detectable quantities of the listed
analities.
Detectability
flnmpnnnri	Limit
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
VOLATTLES
Benzene	5
Bromoform	5
Carbon tertachloride	3
Chlorobenzenc	6
Chlorodibromomethane	3
Chloroform	2
Cis-1,3-Dichloropropene	5
Dichlorobromomethane	3
1,1 -Dichloroe thane	3
1,2-Dichloroethane	3
1.1-Dichloroethylene	5
1.2-Dichloropropane	6
Ethylbenzene	8
Methylene Chloride	5
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane	7
Tetrachloroethylene	5
Toluene	6
1,2-Trans-Dichloroethylene	5
Trans-! -3,-EHchloropropene	5
1.1.1-Trichloroethane	4
1.1.2-Trichloroethane	5
Trichloroethylene	5
Trichlorofluoromethane	10
Vinyl Chloride	10
O-Xylene	10
42

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TABLE 4: WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Sediment samples collected in the Fall 1990, Spring
1991 and Fall 1991 were found to contain no detectable quantities of the listed analities.
Detectability
Ovm pound	T .imit 
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
PESTICIDES
Aldrin	1
YBHC	1
fi-BHC	1
Chlordane	5
4,4-DDD	2
4,4-DDE	1
4,4-DDT	2
Dieldrin	2
Endosulfan I	2
Endosulfan II	3
Endosulfan Sulfate	5
Endrin	2
Endrin Aldehyde	5
Heptachlor	1
Heptachlor Epoxide	1
Toxaphene	20
PCB-1016	6
PCB-1221	6
PCB-1232	6
PCB-1242	6
PCB-1248	6
PCB-1254	6
PCB-1260	6
Methoxychlor	10
HCB	1
Pentachloroanisole	_
Chlorpyrifos	2
METALS
Antimony
Beryllium
Silver
Thallium
3 mg/kg
1 mg/kg
1 mg/kg
5 mg/kg
43

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NOTES FOR TABLE 4:
Samples were not collected from the following locations in the fall of 1990: 219 Bridge, 109 Bridge, Dam or
Wehadkee Creek.
The following organic compounds were inadvertently omitted from the VOA and BNA sediment analysis since they
are not included in EPA Method 624,625: 1,2 diphenylhydrazine, 4,6 dinitro-o-cresol, parachloro-meta-cresol,
acetone, acrylonitrile, carbon disulfide, 2-hexanone, isopropyl acetate^nethyl-ethyl-ketone and methyl-isobutyl-
ketone. The GC-MS total ion chromatographic tracing contained no unidentified components.
44

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TABLE 5: WEST POTNT RRSF.R VOIR SEDTMENT SAMPLES: Results of elemental analysis conducted on sediment samples collected during the Fall 1990,
Spring 1991 and the Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS ON SEDIMENT SAMPLES (PPM)
As
FALL 1990
SPRING
1991
FALL
1991
Se
FALL
1990
SPRING
1991
FALL
1991
Hg
FALL
1990
SPRING
1991
FALL
1991
LaGrange Intake
0.38
0.60
0.29
0.09
0.25
0.048
<.04
<0.04
<0.02
New River
1.55
1.41
0.74
0.30
0.33
0.183
0.18
0.20
<0.02
27 Bridge
1.44
2.03
1.00
0.13
0.34
0.125
<.04
0.17
0.046
Yellowjacket
Creek
1.75
0.77
0.46
0.28
0.016
0.066
0.14
<0.04
<0.02
219 Bridge
NA
0.30
0.09
NA
0.075
0.048
NA
<0.04
<0.02
109 Bridge
NA
0.14
0.12
NA
0.033
0.048
NA
0.12
<0.02
Dam
NA
3.41
0.33
NA
0.26
0.22
NA
<0.04
<0.02
Wehadkee Creek
NA
0.54
1.33
NA
0.18
0.125
NA
<0.04
<0.02
The following elements were not detected in any of the sediment samples at the ana
Sb (3ppm), Be (1 ppm), Ag (1 ppm) and T1 (5 ppm). *N.A. = Not Analyzed
ytical limit of detection given in Q:
45

-------
TABLE 5: WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES (CONTINUED): Results of elemental analysis conducted on sediment samples collected during
the Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and the Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS ON SEDIMENT SAMPLES (PPM)
Cd
Cr
Ni
FALL 1990
SPRING
1991
FALL
1991
FALL
1990
SPRING
1991
FALL
1991
FALL
1990
SPRING
1991
FALL
1991
LaGrange Intake
<1.0
2.0
<1.0
16.0
12.0
6.0
<1.0
10.0
3.0
New River
<1.0
2.0
2.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
7.0
8.0
6.0
27 Bridge
<1.0
3.0
1.0
10.0
17.0
12.0
<1.0
7.0
6.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
<1.0
2.0
4.0
30.0
8.0
2.0
<1.0
5.0
8.0
219 Bridge
NA
3.0
4.0
NA
13.0
13.0
NA
13.0
15.0
109 Bridge
NA
<1.0
<1.0
NA
3.0
7.0
NA
1.0
3.0
Dam
NA
3.0
4.0
NA
22.0
89.0
NA
9.0
39.0
Wehadkee Creek
NA
<1.0
4.0
NA
5.0
42.0
NA
2.0
5.0
Sb (3ppm), Be (1 ppm), Ag (1 ppm) and T1 (5 ppm). *N.A. = Not Analyzed
46

-------
TABLE 5: WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES (CONTINUED): Results of elemental analysis conducted on sediment
samples collected during the Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and the Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS ON SEDIMENT SAMPLES (PPM)
Cu
FALL 1990
SPRING
1991
FALL
1991
Pb
FALL
1990
SPRING
1991
FALL
1991
Zn
FALL
1990
SPRING
1991
LaGrange Intake
32.0
7.0
4.0
59.0
32.0
12.0
45.0
45.0
New River
29.0
16.0
7.0
63.0
40.0
21.0
77.0
90.0
27 Bridge
5.0
16.0
13.0
14.0
42.0
26.0
29.0
59.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
22.0
8.0
16.0
102.0
26.0
35.0
29.0
15.0
219 Bridge
NA
12.0
10.0
NA
35.0
27.0
NA
52.0
109 Bridge
NA
5.0
9.0
NA
4.0
6.0
NA
33.0
Dam
NA
18.0
12.0
NA
40.0
29.0
NA
32.0
Wehadkee Creek
NA
3.0
16.0
NA
16.0
21.0
NA
2.0
The following elements were not detected in any of the sediment samples at the ana
Sb (3ppm), Be (1 ppm), Ag (1 ppm) and T1 (5 ppm). *N.A. = Not Analyzed
ytical limit of detection given in Q:
47

-------
TABLE 6: WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Results of base/neutral/acid semi-volatile GC-MS analysis conducted on
sediment samples collected during the Fall 1990, Spring 1991 and the Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
BASE/NEUTRAL/ACID SEMI VOLATILE ANALYSIS BY GC-MS (VALUES IN PPB)
Phthalates
Pyrene
Fluoranthene
Benzopyrene

Fall '91
Spring '91
Fall *91
Fall '90
Spring '91
Fall '91
Fall '90
Spring
'91
Fall
'91
Fall '90
Spring
'91
Fall
'91
LaGrange Intake
45.5
32.2
576
4-Dichlorobcnzenc(10.0ppb)IBenzylalcohol(10.0ppb),l,2-Dichlorobenzetie(4.0ppb)^-Methylphenol(10.0ppb),bi8(2-Chloroisopropy)ether(12.0ppb)14-Mcthylphaiol(10.'
ppb),N-Nitroso-di-n-propylamine(12.0 ppb),Hcxachloroethane(4.0 ppb),Nitrobenzene(4.0 ppb),Isophoronc(6.0 ppb),2-Nitrophenol(8.0 ppb),2,4-Dimethylphenol(6.0 ppb),Beiizoic acid(50.0 ppb),bis(:
Chloroethoxy)metliane(12.0ppb),2,4-Dichlorophenol(6.0ppb),l,2,4-Trichlorobcnzene(6.0ppb))Naphthalene(4.0ppb),4-Chloroaniline(10.0 ppb),Hexachlorobutadiene(2.0ppb),4-Ch]oro-3-methylphenol(6
ppb),2-MethylnaphthaIcne(10.0 ppb),Hexach]orocyclopcntadicnc(20.0 ppb),2,4,6-Trichlorophenol(6.0 ppb),2,4,5-TrichlorophenoI(6.0 ppb),2-Chloronaphtbalene(4.0 ppb),Acenaphthylene(8.0 ppb)^,!
Dinitrotolucne(4.0ppb)>3-Nitroaniline(10.0ppb)rAocnaphthcne(4.0ppb)>2,4-DinitrophenoI(84.0ppb)>4-Nitrophenol(6.0ppb),Dibenzofuran(20.0ppb)^,4-Dinitrotoluenc(12.(^>pb)(Dicthylphthalate(44.0ppb),'
Chlorophenyl-phenylther(10.0 ppb),Fluorene(4.0 ppb),4-Nitroaniline(10.0 ppb),4,6-Dinitro-2-mcthylphcnol(48.0 ppb),N-Nitroodiphenylaminc(4.0 ppb),4-Bromophenyl-phcnylethcr(4.
ppb),Hexachlorobcnzenc(4.0 ppb),Peotachlorophenol(8.0 ppb), Anthracenc(4.0 ppb), 3,3-Dichlorobenzidine(34.0 ppb),Benzo(a)anthraocne(16.0 ppb),Chry9ene(6.0 ppbXBenzo(b)fluoranthenc(10.0
pb),Benzo0c)fluoninthene(6.Oppb),Beiizo(a)pyrene(6.O ppb),Indeno(l,2,3-cd)pyrcne(8.0 ppb),Dibcnzo(a,h)anthraccnc(6.0 ppb)^Bcnzo(g^i1i)pcryIcnc(10.0 ppb).
48

-------
TABLE 7. WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Results of nitrogen analysis
conducted on sediment samples during the Fall 1990 and Fall 1991.
PS#
COLLECTION DATE
LOCATION
NITROGEN (PPM)
8727
11/7/90
LaGrange Intake
301
8733
11/7/90
U.S. Hwy 27 Bridge
134
8739
11/8/90
Yellow Jacket Creek
356
6302/6303
11/24/91
LaGrange Intake
214
6309/6312
11/24/91
New River
569
6317
11/24/91
U.S. Hwy 27 Bridge
400
6325
11/24/91
Yellow Jacket Creek
261
6334/6335
11/25/91
Ga. Hwy 219 Bridge
231
6342/6343
11/25/91
Ga. Hwy 109 Bridge
234
6350/6351
11/26/91
Dam
188
6358/6359
11/26/91
Wehadkee Creek
320
Total lcjeldahl N was determined by AOAC Method 976.05, Official Methods of Analysis of the Assoc. of Official Analytical Chemist, 15 th Edition, 1990.
Nitrogen content was determined on frozen samples in November 1992.
Note; Nitrogen concentrations for the Spring sampling period was not determined.
49

-------
TABLE 8. WEST POINT RESERVOIR SEDIMENT SAMPLES: Results of phosphorus analysis
conducted on sediment samples for Fall 1990, Spring 1991, and Fall 1991.
PS#
COLLECTION DATE
LOCATION
PHOSPHORUS (PPM)
8733
11/7/90
U.S. Hwy 27 Bridge
181
8735
11/7/90
New River
530
8737
11/8/90
LaGrange Intake
868
8739
11/8/90
Yellow Jacket Creek
583
2041
3/25/91
U.S. Hwy 27 Bridge
155
2044
3/27/91
Ga. Hwy 219 Bridge
437
2047
3/20/91
LaGrange Intake
163
2050
3/27/91
New River
340
2053
3/21/91
Ga. Hwy 109 Bridge
135
2150
-VI1/91
Dam
108
2153
4/11/91
Yellow Jacket Creek
185
2156
4/11/91
Wehadkee Creek
20
6304
11/24/91
LaGrange Intake
154
6312
11/24/91
New River
216
6320
11/23/91
U.S. Hwy 27 Bridge
239
6328
11/25/91
Yellow Jacket Creek
657
6336
11/25/91
Ga. Hwy 219 Bridge
285
6344
11/25/91
Ga. Hwy 109 Bridge
122
6352
11/26/91
Dam
99
A 1 gm sample was transferred to a 150 ml Pyrex beaker. HNO} (10ml) was added, and the sample was allowed to soak thoroughly. Fivemlof60%HCIO4
was added a ad the sample was heated on a hot plate (slowly at first) until frothing ceased. The sample was heated until HNO, was almost evaporated. Ten
milliliters of HNO, was added and the sample was heated to white fumes. The sample was allowed to cool, 10 ml HCL (1+1) was added and the sample was
make to volume in a 100 ml volumetric flask. Elemental analysis was conducted using an ICP spectrophotometer.
NOTE: Most Georgia Piedmont lakes arc mesotrophic with mean total P levels of 300-400 ppm. Sediments from the fertilized fish pond at Rock Eagle 4-H
Camp, Eatoaton, GA contain a mean total P level of737 ppm (data of Dr. R. Rashke, EPA, Athens, GA).
50

-------
APPENDIX 4. Complete Data Sets for Whole Fish
and Filet Fish Samples
51

-------
TABtE 9: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WHOLE FISH SAMPLES: Results of elemental analysis conducted on fish samples collected during the
Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
BASS (WHOLE FISH) 1991 (PPM)
As
Se
Hg
Cr
Cu
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
NA
<0.069
NA
0.691
NA
0.02
NA
<1.0
NA
<1.0
New River
0.072
<0.04
0.93
0.53
<0.04
0.09
6.0
<1.0
1.0
<1.0
27 Bridge
0.09
<0.04
0.67
0.601
0.05
0.15
45.0
<1.0
3.0
<1.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
0.05
<0.04
0.74
0.39
<0.04
0.03
1.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
Dam
0.13
<0.04
0.92
0.74
<0.04
0.04
4.0
<1.0
1.0
<1.0
Wehadkee
Creek
0.03
<0.04
0.87
0.801
<0.04
0.11
4.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
Sb( 5ppm), Be (lppm), Ag (lppm) and T1 (10 ppm) were not detected in any sample at the analytical limit of detection given in 0- *N.A. = Not Analyzed
52

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TABLE 9: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WHOLE FISH SAMPLES (CONTINUED): Results of elemental analysis conducted on fish
samples collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
BASS (WHOLE FISH) 1991 (PPM)
Pb
Ni
Zn
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
NA
<2.0
NA
<1.0
NA
15.0
New River
<2.0
<2.0
3.0
<1.0
13.0
19.0
27 Bridge
<2.0
<2.0
22.0
<1.0
19.0
19.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
<1.0
<2.0
<1.0
<1.0
16.0
19.0
Dam
<1.0
<2.0
1.0
<1.0
9.0
14.0
Wehadkee
Creek
<1.0
<2.0
1.0
<1.0
11.0
12.0
*N.A. = Not Analyzed
53

-------
TABLE 9: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WHOLE FISH SAMPLES (CONTINUED): Results of elemental analysis conducted on fish samples
collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
CARP (WHOLE FISH) 1991 (PPM)
As
Se
Hg
Cr
Cu
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
0.037
<0.04
0.69
1.24
0.25
0.06
4.0
<1.0
2.0
<1.0
New River
0.035
<0.04
1.00
0.79
0.11
0.02
5.0
<1.0
<2.0
2.0
27 Bridge
0.025
<0.04
0.96
0.511
0.10
0.04
6.0
<1.0
3.0
5.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
0.05
<0.04
0.74
1.79
<0.04
0.07
1.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
Dam
0.04
0.03
<0.04
0.82
1.03
0.85
0.10
0.04
0.07
o 
<1.0
o o
~ 
-------
TABlE 9: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WHOLE FISH SAMPLES (CONTINUED): Results of elemental analysis conducted on fish
samples collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
CARP (WHOLE FISH) 1991 (PPM)
Pb
Ni
Zn
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
<2.0
<2.0
2.0
<1.0
50.0
94.0
New River
<3.0
<2.0
1.0
<1.0
43.0
75.0
27 Bridge
2.0
<2.0
2.0
<1.0
47.0
91.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
<1.0
<2.0
<1.0
<1.0
16.0
84.0
Dam
<2.0
<2.0
<2.0
<1.0
2.0
<1.0
11.0
46
66.0
Wehadkee
Creek
<2.0
<2.0
<1.0
2.0
36.0
119.0
*N.A. = Not Analyzed
55

-------
TABLE 10: WEST POINT RESERVOIR FISH FILET SAMPLES: Results of elemental analysis conducted on fish samples collected during the
Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
BASS (FILET FISH) 1991 (PPM)
As
Se
Hg
Cr
Cu
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
NA
<0.04
NA
0.61
NA
0.05
NA
<1.0
NA
<1.0
New River
0.026
<0.04
0.75
0.49
0.22
0.08
2.0
<1.0
2.0
<1.0
27 Bridge
0.046
0.058
0.50
0.631
<0.04
0.15
4.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
YelJowjacket
Creek
0.04
<0.04
0.84
0.48
0.30
0.08
2.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
Dam
0.08
<0.04
1.5
0.79
0.21
0.03
<1.0
<1.0
1.0
<1.0
Wehadkee
Creek
0.05
<0.04
0.75
0.651
<0.04
0.06
1.0
<1.0
1.0
<1.0
Sb( 5ppm), Be (lppm), Ag (lppm) and T1 (10 ppm) were not detected in any sample at the analytical limit of detection given in Q.*N.A. = Not Analyzed
56

-------
TABLE 10: WEST POINT RESERVOIR FISH FILET SAMPLES (CONTINUED): Results of elemental analysis conducted on fish samples
collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
BASS (FILET FISH) 1991 (PPM)
Pb
Ni
Zn
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
NA
<2.0
NA
<1.0
NA
11.0
New River
<1.0
<2.0
<1.0
<1.0
9.0
15.0
27 Bridge
<2.0
<2.0
2.0
<1.0
5.0
11.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
<1.0
<2.0
<1.0
<1.0
9.0
13.0
Dam
<1.0
<2.0
<1.0
<1.0
4.0
6.0
Wehadkee
Creek
<1.0
<2.0
<1.0
<1.0
9.0
13.0
Sb( 5ppm), Be (lppm), Ag (lppm) and T1 (10 ppm) were not detected in any sample at the analytical limit of detection given in 0-
*N.A. = Not Analyzed
57

-------
TABLE 10: WEST POINT RESERVOIR FISH FILET SAMPLES (CONTINUED): Results of elemental analysis conducted on fish samples
collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
CARP (FILET) 1991 (PPM)
As
Se
Hg
Cr
Cu
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
0.039
<0.04
1.03
0.97
0.24
0.10
4.0
<1.0
2.0
<1.0
New River
0.035
<0.04
0.90
0.83
<0.04
0.04
5.0
<1.0
2.0
<1.0
27 Bridge
<0.02
<0.04
0.95
0.75
0.21
0.06
1.0
<1.0
3.0
<1.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
0.04
<0.04
0.84
0.691
0.30
0.06
2.0
<1.0
<1.0
1.0'
Dam
0.07
0.04
<0.04
1.02
0.92
0.82
0.32
0.10
0.02
1.0
7.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
<1.0
Wehadkee
Creek
0.043
<0.04
1.54
1.52
<0.04
0.06
5.0
<1.0
2.0
<1.0
Sb( 5ppm), Be (lppm), Ag (lppm) anc
T1 (10 ppm) were not c
etected in any sample at the analytical limit of detection given in 0*N.A. =
^ot Analyzec
58

-------
TABLE 10: WEST POINT RESERVOIR FISH FILET SAMPLES (CONTINUED): Results of elemental analysis conducted on fish samples
collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
CARP (FILET) 1991 (PPM)
Pb
Ni
Zn
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
<2.0
<2.0
2.0
<1.0
13.0
21.0
New River
<2.0
<2.0
3.0
<1.0
14.0
40.0
27 Bridge
<2.0
<2.0
<1.0
<1.0
17.0
56.0
Yellowjacket
Creek
<1.0
<2.0
<1.0
<1.0
9.0
29.0
Dam
<2.0
<2.0
<2.0
<1.0
3.0
<1.0
11.0
13.0
26.0
Wehadkee
Creek
<2.0
<2.0
2.0
<1.0
12.0
16.0
Sb( 5ppm), Be (lppm), Ag (lppm) and T1 (10 ppm) were not detected in any sample at the analytical limit of detection given in 0-
*N.A = Not Analyzed
59

-------
TABLE 11: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WHOLE FISH SAMPLES: Results of pesticide analysis conducted on fish samples
collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
BASS (WHOLE FISH) 1991 (PPM)
PCB
CHLORDANE
PC ANISOLE
DDT & MET
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
NA
1.12
NA
0.705
NA
<0.02
NA
0.097
New River
0.227
0.938
<0.03
0.422
<0.01
0.104
0.035
0.104
27 Bridge
0.12
1.18
0.178
0.56
<0.01
<0.02
0.021
<0.01
Yellowjacket
Creek
0.233
0.52
0.034
0.21
<0.01
<0.02
0.058
0.038
Dam
0.31
<0.03
<0.03
0.346
<0.01
<0.02
0.101
0.107
Wehadkee
Creek
0.15
0.51
<0.03
<0.03
<0.01
<0.02
0.061
0.133
ppm), o-BHC(0.01 ppm), Dieldrin(0.01 ppm), Endosulfan 1(0.02 ppm), Endosulfan 11(0.03 ppm), Endosulfan Sulfate (0.05 ppm), Endrin(0.01 ppm), Endrin Aldehyd(
(0.05 ppm), Heptachlor(0.01 ppm), Heptachlor Epoxide(0.01 ppm), Toxaphene(0.10 ppm), Methoxychlor (0.05 ppm), HCB(0.01 ppm), Mirex(0.10 ppm)
Chlorpyrifos(0.04 ppm).
*N.A. = Not Analyzed
MET = Metabolites
60

-------
TABLE 11: WEST POINT RESERVOIR WHOLE FISH SAMPLES: Results of pesticide analysis conducted on fish
samples collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
CARP (WHOLE FISH) 1991 (PPM)
PCB
CHLORDANE
PC ANISOLE
DDT & MET
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
0.251
0.933
0.022
0.157
<0.01
<0.02
<0.01
<0.01
New River
0.895
1.57
0.539
0.580
<0.01
0.055
<0.01
<0.01
27 Bridge
0.049
0.25
0.051
0.230
<0.01
<0.02
0.113
<0.01
Yellowjacket
Creek
0.07
<0.03
<0.03
<0.03
<0.01
<0.02
0.03
0.10
Dam
0.180
0.230
0.886
0.26
0.13
0.260
0.017
0.010
<0.02
0.090
0.11
0.137
Wehadkee
Creek
0.081
0.26
<0.03
<0.03
<0.01
0.012
0.08
0.099
ppm), B-BHC(0.01 ppm),Y-BHC(0.0]
ppm), o-BHC(0.01 ppm), Dieldrin(0.01 ppm), Endosulfan 1(0.02 ppm), Endosulfan 11(0.03 ppm), Endosulfan Sulfate (0.05 ppm), Endrin(0.01 ppm), Endrin Aldehydi
(0.05 ppm), Heptachlor(0.01 ppm), Heptachlor Epoxide(0.01 ppm), Toxaphene(0.10 ppm), Methoxychlor (0.05 ppm), HCB(0.01 ppm), Mirex(0.10 ppm)
Chlorpyrifos(0.04 ppm).
N.A. = Not Analyzed
MET = Metabolites
61

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TABLE 12: WEST POINT RESERVOIR FISH FILET SAMPLES: Results of pesticide analysis conducted on fish
samples collected during the Spring and Fall ofl991.
LOCATION
BASS (FILET) 1991 (PPM)
PCB
CHLORDANE
PC ANISOLE
DDT & MET
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
NA
0.361
NA
0.207
NA
<0.02
NA
0.045
New River
<0.03
0.370
<0.03
0.125
<0.01
<0.02
<0.01
0.016
27 Bridge
0.042
0.202
<0.03
0.12
<0.01
<0.02
<0.01
0.021
Yellowjacket
Creek
<0.03
0.167
<0.03
0.140
<0.01
<0.02
<0.01
0.022
Dam
<0.03
0.158
<0.03
<0.03
<0.01
<0.02
<0.01
0.012
Wehadkee
Creek
<0.03
0.050
<0.03
<0.03
<0.01
<0.02
<0.01
0.012
*N.A_ = Not Analyzed
The following pesticides were found to be non-detectable in fish tissues at the level given in ( ):Aldrin(0.01 ppm), a-BHC(0.01 ppm), B-BHC(0.01 ppm),Y-BHC(0.01
ppm), o-BHC(0.01 ppm), Dieldrin(0.01 ppm), Endosulfan 1(0.02 ppm), Endosulfan 11(0.03 ppm), Endosulfan Sulfate (0.05 ppm), Endrin(0.01 ppm), Endrin Aldehyde
(0.05 ppm), Heptachlor(0.01 ppm), Heptachlor Epoxide(0.01 ppm), Toxaphene(0.10 ppm), Methoxychlor (0.05 ppm), HCB(0.01 ppm). Mirex(0.10 ppm)
Chlorpyrifos(0.04 ppm).
MET = Metabolites
62

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TABLE 12: WEST POINT RESERVOIR FISH FILET SAMPLES (continued): Results of pesticide analysis conducted
on fish samples collected during the Spring and Fall of 1991.
LOCATION
CARP FILET 1991 (PPM)
PCB
CHLORDANE
PC ANISOLE
DDT & MET
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
SPR.
FALL
LaGrange Intake
0.176
0.318
0.016
0.082
<0.01
<0.02
0.042
0.012
New River
0.141
0.819
0.013
0.375
<0.01
0.025
0.018
0.043
27 Bridge
0.181
1.28
0.018
0.89
<0.01
0.024
0.027
<0.01
Yellowjacket
Creek
0.16
0.306
<0.03
<0.03
<0.01
<0.02
<0.01 (T)
0.049
Dam
0.033
0.054
0.288
<0.03
<0.03
<0.03
<0.01
<0.01
<0.02
0.02
0.03
0.072
Wehadkee
Creek
0.054
0.25
<0.03
0.03
<0.01
<0.02
0.03
0.131
*N. A = Not Analyzed.
The following pesticides were found to be non-detectable in fish tissues at the level given in (): Aldrin(0.01 ppm), a-BHC(0.01 ppm), B-BHC(0.01 ppm),Y-BHC(0.0
ppm), o-BHC(0.01 ppm), Dieldrin(0.01 ppm), Endosulfan 1(0.02 ppm), Endosulfan 11(0.03 ppm), Endosulfan Sulfate (0.05 ppm), Endrin(0.01 ppm), Endrin Aldehydi
(0.05 ppm), Heptachlor(0.01 ppm), Heptachlor Epoxide(0.01 ppm), Toxaphene(0.10 ppm), Methoxychlor (0.05 ppm), HCB(0.01 ppm), Mirex(0.10 ppm)
Chlorpyrifos(0.04 ppm).
MET = Metabolites
63

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TABLE 13. WHOLE AND FILET FISH SAMPLES: Mean Values for Bass and Carp Contaminant Analysis.
Summary of values for all sites combined.

BASS
CARP
Whole (ppm)
Filet (ppm)
Whole (ppm)
Filet (ppm)
Fall
Spring
Fall
Spring
Fall
Spring
Fall
Spring
As
0.07
ND
0.05
0.01
0.03
ND
0.04
ND
Se
0.83
0.63
0.87
0.61
0.83
1.05
1.03
0.93
Hg
0.01
0.07
0.15
0.08
0.09
0.05
0.17
0.06
Cr
12.0
ND
1.9
ND
3 J
ND
3.6
ND
Cu
1.0
ND
1.0
ND
1.6
1.2
1.5
0.2
Pb
ND
ND
ND
ND
0.3
ND
ND
ND
Ni
5.4
ND
0.4
ND
1.2
0.3
1.6
ND
Zn
13.6
16.3
7.2
11.5
35.5
88.2
117
31.3
PCB
0.21
0.71
0.01
0.22
0.25
0.65
0.11
0.54
Chlor
0.04
0.31
ND
0.10
0.15
0.21
0.01
0.24
PCA
ND
0.02
ND
ND
0.004
0.01
ND
0.01
DDT
0.055
0.081
ND
0.02
0.062
0.059
0.025
0.052
ND = not detectable
64

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TABLE 14. COMPREHENSIVE CONTAMINANT ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR BASS AND CARP.

BASS FILET
CARP FILET
FDA
ACTION
LEVEL
U.S. EPA CRITERIA LEVELS
MEAN
(ppm)
RANGE
(ppm)
TIME
MEAN
(ppm)
RANGE
(ppm)
TIME
CARCINOGENS1
TOXICS2
10*
10'
10-4
As
0.05
0.04-0.08
S
0.04
ND-0.07
S
NA
0.0062
0.062
0.62

Se
0.87
0.50-1.50
S
1.03
0.84-1.54
S
NA



5.4
Hg
0.15
ND-0.30
S
0.17
ND-0.32
S
1.0



1.0
Ct
1.9
ND-4.0
S
3.6
1.0-7.0
S
NA



53.8
Cu
1.0
ND-2.0
S
1.5
ND-3.0
S
NA




Pb
ND
ND
S&F
ND
ND
S&F
NA


 

Ni
0.4
ND-2.0
S
1.6
ND-3.0
s
NA



215
Zn
11.5
6.0-15.0
F
31.3
16.0-56.0
F
NA




PCB"
0.22
0.05-0.37
F
0.54
0.25-1.28
F
2.0
0.0014
0.014
0.14

Chlor.
0.10
ND-0.21
F
0.24
ND-0.089
F
0.3
0.0083
0.083
0.83

PCA5
ND
ND
F
0.008
ND-0.025
F
NA
0.09
0.9
9.0

DDT6
0.021
0.012-0.045
F
0.052
ND-0.131
F
5.0
0.0316
0.316
3.16

Values for carcinogens are derived using U.S. EPA's cancer potency factors and assumptions of 6.5 g fish consumption/day for 70 years. Values for toxics are derived from U.S. EPS's reference do9es (RFD
5Cr criteria isforCrVI, the value for CRIII is significantly higher. 4PCB criteria is for arochlor mixtures 1242, 1254,1232,1248,1260 and 1016. 'PCA criteria is for parent compound, pcntachlorophcnol. *DD
criteria is for DDT and DDE.
S = Spring F = Fall ND = Not detectable NA = Not analyzed
65

-------
APPENDIX 5. Parameters and Complete Data Sets
for Fish Health Assessment
66

-------
TABLE 15. NECROPSY CLASSIFICATION
length	Total length in mm
Weight	Weight in gm
Eves	Normal (N) Exopthalmia (El E2) Hemorrhagic (HI H2)* Blind (B1 B2)" Missing (Ml M2)", Other (OT)"
Gills	Normal (N) Frayed (F)* Clubbed (C) Marginate (M) Pale (P) Other (OT)
Pscndobranch	Normal (N) Swollen (S)" Lithic (L)' Swollen and Lithic (SL)' Inflamed (I)* Other (OT)*
Thymus	No Hemorrhage (0), Mild Hemorrhage (1 )* Moderate Hemorrhage (2)* Severe Hemorrhage (3)*
Fins	No erosion (0) Mild Erosion No Bleeding (1)* Moderate Erosion/Hemorrhage (2)" Severe Erosion (3)*
Opercles	No shortening (0) Mild Shortening (1)" Severe shortening (2)*
Spleen	Black (B) Red (R) Granular (G)" Nodular (NO)" Enlarged (E)* Other (OT)"
Hind Gut	No Inflammation (0) Mild (1)'Moderate (2) Severe (3)'
Kidney	Normal (N) Swollen (S) Mottled (M) Granular (G) Urolithic (U) Other (OT)
Liver	Red (A) Light red (B) Fatty (Q* Nodular (D)" Focal discoloration (E)* General Discoloration (F)* Other (OT)'
Skin	No erosion (0); Mild erosion (1); Moderate erosion (2); Severe erosion (3)
Parasite	No parasites (0); Mild parasite load (1); Moderate parasite load (2); severe parasite load (3)
Load
Mesenteric	Internal body fat expressed with regard to amount present
Fat	None (0); Little, less than 50% of ceaca covered (1); 50% of ceaca covered (2);
More than 50% of ceaca covered (3); Ceaca completely covered (4)
Bile	Yellow/straw colored, empty or partially full (0); Yellow/straw colored, full and distended (1);
Light green color (2); dark green (3)
"Denotes a pathological condition which received a numerical substitution of 30 in the quantitative health assessment index. Conditions
which were rated with a number received substitutions of 10 for 1; 20 for 2 and 30 for 3; except for mesenteric fat and bile. These factors
were rated but ratings were not entered into the health assessment index.
67

-------
TABLE 16. FISH HEALTH CONDITIONS, DESIGNATIONS AND SUBSTITUTED VALUES
Tissue/Organ Condition	Designation Value
SKIN	Normal; No aberrations	0	0
Mild skin aberrations	1	10
Moderate skin aberrations	2	20
Severe skin aberrations	3	30
GILLS	Normal; no apparent aberrations	N	0
Frayed; "ragged" appearing	F	30
Gubbcd; swelling at tips of lamellae	C	30
Marginate; light, discolored margin at tips	M	30
Pale; very light in color	P	30
Other; any observation not listed above	OT	30
FINS	No active erosion	0	0
Light active erosion	1	10
Moderate active erosion; some hemorrhaging	2	20
Severe active erosion with hemorrhaging	3	30
BYES	No aberrations; "clear eyes"	N	0
Opaque eyes (one or both)	B	30
Swollen, protruding eye (one or both)	E	30
Hemorrhaging or bleeding (one or both)	H	30
Missing eye or eyes	M	30
Other; any manifestation not listed above	OT	30
PARASITES No observed parasites	0	0
Few observed parasites	1	10
Moderate parasite infestation	2	20
Numerous parasites	3	30
THYMUS	No hemorrhage	0	0
Mild hemorrhage	1	10
Moderate hemorrhage	2	20
Severe hemorrhage	3	30
SPLEEN	Normal; red, very dark red, black	B	0
Granular; rough appearance	G	0
Nodular; contains nodules of varying sizes	NO	30
Enlarged	E	30
Other; aberrations not listed above	OT	30
JdlNDGUT	Normal; no reddening	0	0
Slight reddening	1	10
Moderate reddening	2	20
Severe reddening	3	30
68

-------
TABLE 16. Continued.
KIDNEY	Normal; firm, dark red, relatively flat	N	0
Swollen; enlarged wholly or in part	S	30
Mottled; gray discoloration	M	30
Granular; in appearance and texture	G	30
Urolithiasis; nephrocalcinosis	U	30
Other; any aberrations not described above	OT	30
LTVBR	Normal; solid red or light rod	AO
"Fatty" liver; "coffee with cream" color	C	30
Nodules in the liver; cyst/nodules	D	30
Focal discoloration; localized color change	G	30
General discoloration; change throughout liver	F	30
Other, deviations not fitting above categories	OT	30
HEMATOCRIT "Normal" range	>30.5	0
Outside normal range	<30.5	30
lEUCOCRTT	"Normal" range	<4	0
Outside normal range	>4	30
SERUM PROTEIN "Normal" range	>2.5 &< 6	0
Outside normal range	>6 & <2.5 30
69

-------
TABLfe 17. WEST POINT LAKE - BASS: Summary of Data Presented as Mean + Standard Deviation
Station
Weight
(gm)
Length
(mm)
Condition
(Ktl)
Hematocrit
%
Leukocrit
%
Serum
Protein
g/dL
Liver/
Somatic Index
Hwy 27
Spr. 91
Fall 91
1000+415 A
1299 490 AC
402+47 A
430 51 AC
1.5+0.4 A
1.60.2 A
39.9?.7AB *
46.85.9 A
0.4+0.2 A *
1.3+0.3 AB
4.3+1.0 A 
5.71.4 AB
0.009+0.002 A
New River
Spr. 91
Fall 91
873 +308 A
898552B
387+38 A
381 54 B
1.4+0.2 A
1.50.1 AB
36.3+^.9 A 
49.0+7.5 AB
1.3+1.1 B
1.2+0.6 ABC
3.7+1.2 A ~
5.1+1.6 A
0.106+0.361 A
La Grange In.
Spr. 91
Fall 91
994+554 A
1300 671 AC
392+58 A
426 71 AC
1.5+0.3 A
1.5+0.1 AB
38.7+5.4 A 
51.8+8.7 AB
0.5+0.3 A 
1.4+P.6A
5.9+1.1 B
5.5+1.5 AB
0.009+0.002 A
Yellowjacket
Spr. 91
Fall 91
932+343 A
1166 512 AB
393+40 A
411 49 ABC
1.5+0.1 A ~
1.6+0.2 A
46.6+10.2 BC
45.2+7.1 A
1.2+0.8 B
0.9+0.4 CD
6.3+0.8 BC
6.0+1.6 AB
0.011+0.002 A
Wedhadkee
Spr. 91
Fall 91
1054+434 A
932 346 AB
413+45 A
400 48 AB
1.4+0.2 A
1.4+0.2 B
45.8+10.1 BC ~
56.3+11.7 B
1.3+0.6 B
0.9+0.3 CB
6.8+0.6 C
6.0+1.1 AB
0.008+0.001 A
Dam
Spr. 91
Fall 91
952291 A 
1433463 C
408+37 A *
44947C
1.4+0.1 A 
1.5+0.1 A
48.1+6.9 C
54.5+12.7 B
1.3+0.7 B 
0.5+0.3 D
6.2+1.5 BC
6.1+1.0 B
0.007+0.001 A
*Valucs in a column for a particular sampling time followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05.
Values within a cell are significantly different at p<0.05
70

-------
TABLfi 18. WEST POINT LAKE - CARP: Summary of Data Presented as Mean  Standard Deviation
Station
Collection
Weight
(gm)
Length
(mm)
Condition
(Ktl)
Hematocrit
%
Leukocrit
%
Serum
Protein
g/dL
Li vet!
Somatic
Index
Hwy. 27
Spr. 91
Fall 91
1254+350 AB
1384+733 AB
449+31 A
467+60 AB
1.4+0.1 A
1.4+0.1 A
33.4+5.0 AB *
37.7+4.2 A
1.1+0.4 A
1.24fl.6 A
2.6+0.8 AC
2.9+1.1 A
NA
New River
Spr. 91
Fall 91
1212+?72 A
1198+186 A
448+35 A
447+24 A
1.3+0.1 AB
1.3+0.1 AB
35.8+8.2 AB
37.0+5.4 A
1.4+0.4 A ~
0.9+0.4 BC
1.6+0.6 B *
2.7+1.1 A
NA
La Grange In.
Spr. 91
Fall 91
1517373 B
1720+560 BC
492+42 B
505+59 BC
1.3+0.1 BC
1.3+0.1 B
33.9+5.1 AB
35.2+5.9 AB
1.3+0.5 A 
0.7+0.3 B
2.2+0.7 AB
2.4+0.7 A
NA
Yellowjacket
Spr. 91
Fall 91
1487+347 B ~
2191+740 C
494+34B 
535+49 C
1.2+0.1 C 
1.4+0.2 A
32.5+8.8 A
34.0+5.5 AB
1.2+1.0 A
0.8+0.4 BC
3.0+1.4 AC
2.8+0.7 A
NA
Wedhadkee
Spr. 91
Fall 91
1801+277 C *
2289+611 D
523+16 C
543+53 C
1.3+0.1 BC*
1.4+0.1 A
39.1+8.0 B *
31.3+7.0 B
1.4+0.7 A
1.0+0.4 AB
3.31.2C
2.5+0.6 A
NA
Dam
Spr. 91
Fall 91
2317+576 D
2840+863 E
545+31 C *
586+59D
1.4+0.1 A
1.4+0.1 AB
31.0+11 A
35.5+?.l AB
1.51.1 A
1.1+P.2 AC
3.1+1.3 C
2.8+1.0 A
NA
"Values in a column for a particular sampling time followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05.
Values within a eel! are significantly different at p < 0.05.
71

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TABLE 19. COMPARISON OF FISH HEALTH ASSESSMENT INDEX - BASS.
Site
Spring 1991
Fall 1991
Without
Hematological
Values
With
Hematological
Values
Without
Hematological
Values
With
Hematological
Values
U. S. Hwy 27
80.0+21.0 a
86.0+26.1 a
80.0+?8.6 a
90.0+35.4 a
New River
88.029.1 a
96.0+40.3 a
80.7+15.3 a
94.725.0 a
LaGrange
77.3+32.0 a
91.3+36.6 a
86.725.7 a
106.7+32.8 ab
Yellowjacket
88.0+23.4 a
106.0+24.4 a
76.7+19.9 a
88.7+18.1 a
Wehadkee
84.0+21.0 a
104.0+18.8 a
80.823.1 a
93.325.3 a
Dam
91.3+17.7 a
104.7+25.0 a
108.722.9 b
126.7+29.9 b
"Values in a column followed by the same letter arc not significantly different at p <0.05.
72

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TABLE 20. COMPARISON OF FISH HEALTH ASSESSMENT INDEX - CARP
Site
Spring 1991
FaU 1991
Without
Hematological
Values
With
Hematological
Values
Without
Hematological
Values
With
Hematogical
Values
U. S. Hwy 27
56.7+28.2 a
78.7+38.5 a
74.0+30.7 a
92.0+34.5 a
New River
39.3+22.5 a
77.3+29.6 a
57.3+18.7 ab
73.3+22.6 a
La Grange
42.7+24.6 a
64.7+26.7 a
57.529.3 ab
85.0+34.5 a
Yellowjacket
40.0+21-7 a
58.0+29.6 a
45.828.7 b
70.8+37.5 a
Wehadkee
44.0+33.3 a
56.0+44.4 a
60.0+25.9 ab
92.0+35.9 a
Dam
45.0+30.8 a
79.3+33.4 a
66.7+23.9 ab
94.2+31.8 a
*Valucs in a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different at p<0.05.
73

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TABLE 21. LARGEMOUTH BASS FALL 1991 SAMPLE: Results of Pearson's Correlation test between contaminants and various health indices.

SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS
WHOLE FISH CONTAMINANTS

PYRENE
FLUORANTHENE
BENZOPYRENE
PCB
CHLORDANE
HAI
0.27766*
0.28614*
-0.10910
-0.09137
0.10151
KtL
0.06611
0.08185
-0.07492
-0.05296
0.13435
Hematocrit
0.00283
0.00374
-0.19645
0.00342
-0.11302
Leucocrit
-0.15194
-0.16894
0.30655*
0.23498
0.37750*
Serum Protein
-0.02030
-0.00374
-0.11332
-0.09934
-0.16155
Liv/Somatic Index
0.09061
0.02244
0.21374
0.99946*
0.27984*
"Denotes significance at p < 0.05.
74

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TABLE 22. COMMON CARP FALL 1991: Results of Pearson's Correlation test between contaminants and various health indices.

SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS
WHOLE FISH CONTAMINANTS

PYRENE
FLUORANTHENE
BENZOPYRENE
PCB
CHLORDANE
HAI
0.24365
0.25193
0.22347
0.00012
0.06964
Kit
0.05599
0.06879
0.10689
0.26573*
0.16656
Hematocrit
0.24267
0.23755
0.24004
0.14686
0.24588
Lcucocrit
0.31979*
0.328224
0.27648*
-0.08280
0.06339
Serum Protein
0.06958
0.07659
-0.04279
-0.09692
-0.09739
75

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TABLE i3. SUSPECTED TUMORS IN BASS AS OBSERVED GROSSLY
Site
Fall 1990
Spring 1991
Fall 1991
Hwy 27
4 2 splenic lipomas
2 liver
3 splenic lipomas
3 splenic lipomas
New River
1 splenic lipomas
2 splenic lipomas
2 splenic lipomas
La Grange In.
2 1 splenic lipoma
1 liver
0
2 1 splenic lipoma
1 visceral mass
Yellowjacket
4 3 splenic lipomas
1 visceral mass
2 1 papilloma-like
1 visceral mass
3 splenic lipomas
Wedhadkee
0
1 visceral mass
3 splenic lipomas
Dam
0
1 splenic lipoma
2 1 splenic lipoma
1 visceral mass
76

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TABUfe 24. SUSPECTED TUMORS IN CARP AS OBSERVED GROSSLY
Site
Fall 1990
Spring 1991
Fall 1991
Hwy 27
0
0
2 1 testicular
1 liver
New River
0
0
1 swim bladder
La Grange In
0
0
1 liver
Yellowjacket
0
0
I liver
Wedhadkee
0
0
1 liver
Dam
0
2 1 testicular
1 liver
2 1 liver
1 ovary
77

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Fig. 1. Comparison of largemouth bass hematocrits during the Fall and Spring 1991 sampling
periods, beginning at the river site (Hwy 27) and ending with the Ham site.
78

-------
Fig. 1 BASS HEMATOCRITS
60
30
20
10
SPR 1991
FALL 1 991
0
I-27 N RE
LI
YJC WCE DAM
79

-------
Fig. 2. Comparison of common carp hematocrits during the Fall and Spring 1991 sampling
periods, beginning at the river site (Hwy 27) and ending with the dam site.
80

-------
Fig. 2 CARP HEMATOCRITS
~+~ SPR 1 991
FALL 1991
81

-------
Fig. 3. Comparison of largemouth bass leucocrits during the Fall and Spring 1991 sampling
periods, beginning at the river site (Hwy 27) and ending with the dam site.
82

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Fig. 3 BASS LEUCOCRITS
83
~+~ SPR 1991
* FALL 1991

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Fig. 4. Comparison of common carp leucocrits during the Fall and Spring 1991 sampling
periods, beginning at the river site (Hwy 27) and ending with the dam site.
84

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Fig.4 CARP LEUCOCRITS
-t-Spr 1991
Fall 1991
I-27
NRE
LI
YJC
WCE
Dam
05

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Fig. 6. Comparison of largemouth bass serum protein during the Fall and Spring 1991
sampling periods, beginning at the river site (Hwy 27) and ending with the
dam site.
86

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Fig. 6 BASS SERUM PROTEItJ
SPR 1991
* FALL 1991
I-27
NRE
LI
YJC
WCE
DAM
07

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Fig. 7. Comparison of common carp serum protein during the Fall and Spring 1991 sampling
periods, beginning at the river site (Hwy 27) and ending with the dam site.
88

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Fig. 7 CARP SERUM PROTEllM
+ Spr1991
Fall 1991

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Fig. 8. Comparison of largemouth bass HAI during the Fall and Spring 1991 sampling
periods, beginning at the river site (Hwy 27) and ending with the dam site.
on

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Fig. 8 BASS HEAD H INDEX VALULS
~+~ SPR 1 991
"* FALL 1991
91

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Fig. 9. Comparison of common carp HAI during the Fall and Spring 1991 sampling periods,
beginning at the river site (Hwy 27) and ending with the dam site.
92

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Fig. 9 CARP HEAL'i H
20
Ql	1	1	L_
1-27 NRE LI	YJC
93
INDEX VALULS
Spr 1991
Fall 1991
	i	
WC
j
Dam

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