REPORT OF SURVEY
ON
NEW/INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY STUDIES
SUPPORTED BY U.S. EPA
STEP-1 WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES
PLANNING GRANTS IN THE 10 REGIONS
OFFICE OF MONITORING AND TECHNICAL SUPPORT
OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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REPORT OF SURVEY
ON
NEW/INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY STUDIES
SUPPORTED BY U. S. EPA
STEP-1 WASTEWATER TREATMENT FACILITIES PLANNING GRANTS
IN THE 10 REGIONS
Regional Services Staff
Office of Monitoring and Technical Support
Office of Research and Development.
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
March 25, 1977
Revised September 26, 1977
Prepared by:
George R. Shultz
Regional Liaison Officer,
RSS
Approved by:
Michael L. Mastracci
Director, RSS	/
A.. . ft	/ I
U S EPA LIBRARY REGION 10 MATERIALS
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FOREWORD
The Office of Air, Land, and Water Use (OALWU), Office of
Research and Development (ORD), is concerned with the development
of new and/or innovative municipal wastewater treatment technology
for use in the Regional Construction Grant Programs.
In this connection, the Waste Management Division, OALWU, re-
quested the Regional Services Staff, Office of Monitoring and
Support, ORD, to assist in collecting information from the ten
Regions to determine: (1) the extent to which Step-1 facilities
planning grants are utilized to support pilot studies of new and/or
innovative treatment technology; and, (2) how to maintain communi-
cations between the Regions and ORD with regard1 to such future
pilot studies.
The purpose of this report is to present the findings of the
survey, and to place the findings in perspective with the Regional
construction grant process.

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CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE	NUMBER
INTRODUCTION
The Construction Grant Process in Brief		1
Historical Perspective		1
Congressional Concern		2
REGIONAL SERVICES STAFF' SURVEY OF REGIONS
Objectives		4
Assumptions						4
Type of Information Collected		5
Other Related EPA Activities and Surveys		6
FINDINGS
Regional Cooperation		8
Step-1 Pilot Studies		8
Candidate Mechanisms for Signaling Proposed		12
New/Innovative Studies in Step-1 Planning
Grants
RECOMMENDATIONS
Candidate Mechanisms for Signaling Proposed		17
New/Innovative Studies in Step-1 Planning

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INTRODUCTION
The Construction Grant Process in Brief
A brief outline of the construction grant process is presented
for the reader at the outset of this report, since the report focuses
on new and innovative municipal wastewater treatment technology
studies which are supported by the Regional Construction Grant
Programs.
The construction grant process is divided into five phases:
(1) Pre-application; (2) Step-1 planning grant; (3) Step-2 design
grant; (4) Step-3 construction grant; and (5) post-construction
inspections of operations and maintenance activities. The grant
process provides for evaluation of new and innovative technology
in the preapplication and Step-1 planning grant phases, in order
to investigate the most cost-effective alternatives. This does
not, however, preclude further detailed evaluation during the Step-2
design grant phase.
Appendix A contains a more complete overview of the construction
grant process.
Historical Perspective
The 1972 Amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act, PL 92-500, included authority to develop new and innovative
municipal wastewater treatment technology. The Amendments also
encouraged and expanded construction effort on the part of the
communities, through various types of Federal aid including:
(1)	Grants for planning activities
(2)	Technical assistance, primarily for design and con-
struction of facilities
(3)	Technical information from EPA research, demonstration,
and monitoring
At the same time, however, the 1972 Amendments led to a com-
bination of time constraints and heavy workloads for the EPA Re-
gional Construction Grant Programs, which were not conducive to
developing, testing, and demonstrating new and innovative techno-
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logies. It has been recognized for five years now that the EPA
Regional Construction Grant Programs, State governments, municipal
governments, and consulting engineers are prone to apply proven
technology, rather than take the time and risk to develop new and
improved technology.
Congressional Concern
In January 1974, the General Accounting Office indicated that
one of EPA's primary goals should ^ to find ways to minimize the
cost of treating municipal sewage.	Subsequently, Congressional
concern has been expressed as to what EPA is doing to develop and
utilize new and improved municipal wastewater treatment technology.
In response to this concern, Andrew W. Breidenbach, Assistant
Administrator for the Office of Water and Hazardous Materials
(OWHM), appeared in October 1976 before the House of Representatives
Subcommittee on the Environment and the Atmosphere, of the Committee
on Science and Technology. He stated that the EPA acknowledges the
need for developing and utilizing new and improved wastewater treat-
ment technologies, and assured the Committee that EPA looks to its
Office of Research and Development (ORD) for technical support in
this regard. This was an indication that the OWHM desires to work
with ORD to establish a closer working relationship to carry out
the intent of the 1972 Amendments, especially with respect to develop-
ment and utilization of new and improved technology.
Joe G. Moore, Jr., Head, Graduate Program in Environmental
Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, also appeared in October
1976 before the same House of Representatives Subcommittee, as a
private citizen. He stated in effect that even though new techno-
logy and/or innovative approaches may prove to be more cost effec-
tive, the procedural requirements, coupled with the time pressure to
obligate grant funds, appear to present competing goals.
The Office of Air, Land, and Water Use (OALWU) in the Office
of Research and Development (ORD), is addressing itself to the
overall issue of application of new/innovative technology in the
Regional Construction Grant Programs. In this connection, discus-
sions were held in early 1976 between William Rosenkranz, Chief,
Waste Management Division, OALWU, ORD, and William Whittington,
Chief, Municipal Technology Branch, Municipal Construction Division,
Office of Water Program Operations (OWPO), OWHM, with Michael
Mastracci, Director, Regional Services Staff (RSS), Office of
(1) GAO Report, entitled "Research and Development Programs to
Achieve Water Quality Goals: What the Federal Government
Needs to Do", B166506, January 16, 1974.
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Monitoring and Technical Support (OMTS), ORD, attending. As a
direct result of this meeting, RSS was asked by OALWU to conduct
a preliminary review of the Regional construction grant records
to:
(1)	Help OALWU determine the extent to which new and/or
innovative processes occur within the Regional Con-
struction Grant Programs.
(2)	Help evolve a mechanism that could highlight new and/or
innovative processes or studies that occur within the
Step-1 facility planning phase of the construction
grant process.
(3)	Recommend to OALWU a tracking system that can collect
design and operating data from plants that employ new
technology.
(Fulfillment of this request was in accordance with the RSS Func-
tional Statement, in which the RSS is charged with "Coordination
and arrangements for obtaining Regional Assistance to ORD activities".)
In further response to Congressional concern, Donald Ehreth
of the Waste Management Division, OALWU, modified the request in
October 1976 by asking that the RSS assist in collecting specific
information from the ten Regions on those Step-1 planning grants
that support on-going pilot projects, pilot studies, treatability
studies, and/or other related data collecting activities. This
information was transmitted to Mr. Ehreth on February 10, 1977,
and is attached in Appendix B of this report.
The RSS approach to fulfilling the OALWU requests is discussed
in the following Section.
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REGIONAL SERVICES STAFF SURVEY OF REGIONS
Objectives
George Shultz of the RSS, OMTS, ORD, visited and interviewed
Regional Construction Grant Program personnel during the period
November 1976 through January 1977. The objectives of these
Regional visits were to:
(1)	Collect specific information on new/innovative municipal
wastewater treatment technology pilot studies that are
supported by Step-1 facilities planning grants within
the Regional Construction Grant Programs.
(2)	Identify to OALWU a mechanism(s) that could signal new/
innovative technology pilot studies proposed within the
Step-1 facilities planning grants.
(3)	Recommend a communication system between the Regional
Construction Grant Programs and ORD for relaying Step-1
pilot study information.
Assumptions
In order to set up an informal set of guidelines for discussion
with Regional personnel, a number of assumptions were made at the
outset of the RSS Regional Survey. They were:
(1)	The survey would be conducted on a part-time basis over
a 2-3 month period by 1 member of the RSS staff.
(2)	The focus would be on Step-1 facilities planning grant
pilot studies and related data collecting activities,
and may even cover the preapplication phase. (It should
be noted that pilot studies are also conducted under
Step-2 grants.)
(3)	A rigorous definition of new and/or innovative technology
was not necessary, since it was presumed that the focus
would be on those on-going pilot studies which were being
conducted primarily to determine cost effective alternatives.
As the survey progressed, it became more and more apparent
that such a definition was not essential to attain the
survey objectives, and that a definition is better left as
a Regional prerogative.
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(4)	OALWU's specific request was for the collection of all
available information relating to pilot studies, pilot
projects, etc. The RSS detected that a low-key approach
would enhance Regional cooperation and would yield better
though fewer data and would not add work load to an
already overworked Regional Staff. The Regional Construc-
tion Grant Projects Engineers were asked to provide only
enough information on those projects which came easily
to mind. There was no extensive review of the files by
the RSS, nor were the Regional personnel asked to do this.
(5)	The survey would be conducted in such a way as to create
the least workload possible for the Regional personnel
and, in general, deadlines for submittal of information
were the prerogative of Regional Construction Grant Pro-
gram personnel.
(6)	The current EPA Grants Information and Control System
(GICS) was not geared to provide such information.
(7)	This survey could lead to a system of communication
between ORD and the Regional Construction Grant Programs.
In order to be considered acceptable, however, the com-
munication system would necessarily have to have minimal
impact on the Regional resources. At the same time, in
order to be effective, the mechanism should be capable of
highlighting or signaling upcoming pilot studies, in
order to provide enough lead time for Regional and ORD
personnel to discuss possible cooperative studies.
(8)	The findings of this survey would be made available to
all Regions.
(9)	The report of this survey would provide a basis for
cross-pollination between Regional Construction Grant
Programs in the 10 Regions.
(10) This RSS effort would initiate a direct long-term
dialogue between specific responsible principals in
both the ORD and the Regions who are concerned with waste-
water management and practices.
Type of Information Collected
In response to Objective 1 of the RSS Regional Survey, infor-
mation was collected on new/innovative technology studies, which
ranged from wastewater collection, to on-site municipal wastewater
treatment, to sludge disposal, to land application of effluent. The
information requested for each pilot study was:
(1) Geographical location of the pilot plant or related study.
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(2)	Identification number assigned to the Step-1 planning
grant.
(3)	A brief narrative description of the technology in-
volved, including design criteria, or other related
information as needed for a better understanding of
the study.
The information, as submitted by the Regions in response to the
above, is attached in Appendix B. A list of Regional Construction
Grant Program personnel contacted during the Regional visits is
attached in Appendix C.
In response to Objectives 2 and 3 of the RSS Regional Survey,
numerous discussions were held with Regional Construction Grant
Program personnel with regard to alternative mechanisms for
signaling new/innovative studies in Step-1 grants and for follow-
up communication between the Regions and ORD. The discussions
primarily revolved around the merits of such alternative mecha-
nisms as: (1) person-to-person contact; and (2) the new EPA Grants
Information and Control System (GICS-II) (see Appendix D).
Other Related EPA Activities and Surveys
Following is a brief notation of six other related EPA program
activities and surveys which were prompted by the January 1974 GAO
Report, and the recent Congressional concern about what EPA is doing
to develop and utilize new and improved municipal wastewater treat-
ment technology in the Regional Construction Grant Programs.
Appendix E contains more detailed information on each of the
activities and surveys.
.Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, OALWU, ORD
The MERL is serving as the coordinator for the OALWU
to explore, on a trial basis with Regions I and V, the
feasibility of long-range planning for cooperative techno-
logy studies between ORD and the Regions, on new and inno-
vative wastewater treatment processes and methods.
.Office of Air, Land, and Water Use, ORD
Hie OALWU contracted Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Inc.,
to conduct a survey at local, State and EPA Regional levels.
The purpose of the survey was to determine whether or not
innovative technologies are being used in municipal waste-
water treatment projects funded under the Regional Construc-
tions Grant Programs, and to identify the reasons why such
technologies are or are not being used.
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Technical Information Division, OMTS, ORD
The TID awarded a one-year research grant, "Introducing
New Technology to Municipal Waste Treatment: A Decision-Making
Study", to the Syracuse Research Corporation. The grantee
proposes to delineate the roles of decision-makers and how
coalitions form at the local level that serve to promote or
impede the introduction of new technology to municipal waste
treatment.
Office of Water Program Operations, OWHM
The OWPO visited the Regions to collect information on
Step-2 and Step-3 construction grant projects, to determine
the number of projects utilizing new technologies, the types
of technology currently under design or construction, and the
factors which impact the implementation of new and alternative
technology.
.Office of Planning and Evaluation, Office of Planning and
Management
The OPE visited the Regions to evaluate the impact of
the EPA municipal water pollution control research and de-
velopment program, on the development and application of
innovative municipal water pollution control technology.
.Environmental Protection Agency
The EPA recently issued a request for proposals to con-
duct a special study, which will evaluate the current Step-1
facilities planning grant process, and recommend ways in which
the process might be improved to ensure that the rate of fa-
cility planning is sufficient to ensure obligations at the
rate of $5-6 billion per year.
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FINDINGS
Regional Cooperation
The Regional Services Staff met with excellent Regional
cooperation. All Regional Construction Grant Program personnel
contacted showed a desire to work with the ORD's OALWU in order to
provide the information requested. There was general agreement
that the type of information requested should provide a basis for
determining the feasibility of cooperative Regional/ORD studies,
the ultimate goal being the utilization of better cost-effective
wastewater treatment approaches by the municipalities.
Step-1 Pilot Studies
Based on the information received from the 10 Regions, there
are well over 50 Step-1 planning grants identified which have one
or more associated pilot studies, or need performance data. There
is little doubt that there are additional pilot studies, but RSS
did not attempt to pinpoint the number, since some Regions indi-
cated that there were "several" or "numerous" target sites available
for study. These target sites may best be determined by the Regions,
and appropriate OALWU Headquarters and Laboratory personnel. RSS
highlights some of these target sites in the overview of specific
findings annotated by Regions.
The following is an overview of the specific findings of this
survey, Region by Region (see Appendix B):
Region I
A meeting was held in the Regional Office between Re-
gional and ORD personnel to discuss short- and long-range
cooperation between the Construction Grant Program and ORD's
Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory. The Regional
personnel expressed interest in developing cooperative pilot
studies with emphasis on low operating and maintenance expense,
and high reliability of treatment for communities with 1.0 mgd
or less. Of particular interest were: controlled discharge
multi-cell oxidation ponds; phase-isolation oxidation ponds;
oxidation ditch-carrousel technology; land application; sludge
treatment land disposal technology; and septage treatment.
This approach was decided upon since Region does not have
Step-1 pilot studies which could serve as indicators of Region
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I wastewater treatment technology needs. It should be noted
that this longer-range approach may serve as an indicator of
how the ORD and the Regions may proceed in the future to co-
operate with the States and municipalities.
At the ^time of this report, the MERL and Region I Con-
struction Grant Program personnel have held a telephone confe-
rence to discuss an approach, which will include cooperation
of the State agencies in identifying candidate municipalities
that are 12-18 months from receiving a Step-1 planning grant.
Region II
The Regional Construction Grant Program personnel in
Region II indicated that there are three target sites for
pilot studies in New Jersey, and several possibilities in
Puerto Rican municipalities which come under the preview of
Region II. The New Jersey studies include: composting of
primary sludge; treatability studies (undefined); and de-
velopment of design parameters for a denitrification system.
The Region considers that there are several Step-1 awards in
Puerto Rico which may require associated studies in sludge
composting under conditions unique to Puerto Rico, as well
as the need for R&D assistance in recommending operational
and monitoring methods in connection with land disposal and
treatment.
Region III
Region III Construction Grant Program personnel indicate
that there are two discrete pilot study projects, one in Mary-
land and one in Virginia. The Region indicates that the Mary-
land project involves construction of a composting pad and
building, and that the Virginia project is a proposed study for
recycling of digested sludge to agricultural land.
Region IV
The Construction Grant Program personnel in Region IV
identified five target sites in Florida where performance data
is needed, four in Tennessee, and numerous on-going projects
in sewer rehabilitation throughout the Region which are avail-
able for study.
The Florida projects involve deep well disposal studies
at four sites, and a unique sludge disposal project which has
just been put in operation and which consists of drying, pel-
letizing, and bagging, where the end product is sold as fer-
tilizer. The Region believes that a performance evaluation
of the operation could be beneficial to the Agency.
The Tennessee projects include: studies of a 40 mgd
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activated sludge plant using pure oxygen for BOD reduction
followed by air for nitrification; study of an attached growth
media tower for BOD reduction; and two cost-savings studies
of vacuum collection systems in lieu of deep cutting through
rock that would be required by gravity systems.
The numerous sewer rehabilitation projects available
for studies throughout the Region would involve the evaluation
of the performance and life of different joint compounds and
the overall effectiveness of rehabilitation effort in terms
of flow reduction.
Region V
The Regional Construction Grant Program personnel in
Region V report that there are a comprehensive series of
wastewater treatment studies which may be available in Mich-
igan at one municipality (Kalamazoo), two pilot studies in
Ohio, and three in Wisconsin.
The Kalamazoo studies include:
Primary - Coagulation, for SS removal without harming
secondary.
Secondary - Pure oxygen, bio-disc, variations in con-
ventional activated sludge.
Advanced - Activated carbon, two-stage aeration, bio-
disc, trickling filter, filtration.
Recycle Streams - Trickling filter, bio-disc, pure
oxygen.
Miscellaneous - Plant automation, scrubber water, equip-
ment replacement, odor control, and sludge treatment
and disposal.
The two Ohio projects involve a study of different alum
strengths in final settling tanks, and a performance study
on a commercial rotating disc unit.
The Wisconsin projects include: testing of rotating bio-
disc systems for secondary treatment; a pilot plant study of
an activated biofiltration system; and a treatability study
associated with high BOD treatment problems.
In addition to the above near-time potential studies,
the Regional Construction Grant Program is cooperatively ex-
ploring on a trial basis with the MERL, the feasibility of
long-range cooperative technology studies on new and innovative
wastewater treatment processes and methods. This approach
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is described in Appendix E, "Other EPA Program Contacts with
Regional Construction Grant Programs".
Region VI
Further communication may be indicated between ORD and
the Regional Construction Grant Program, regarding possible
grant mechanisms for mutually beneficial cooperative cost-
effective technology studies.
Region VII
Region VII Construction Grant Program personnel report
that there is one pilot study at Topeka, Kansas, and that
there is a broad Regional need for study of methods and cri-
teria to evaluate State pollution control agency management
and municipal management programs for controlling discharge
from lagoons as a treatment alternative. In addition, the
following have been reported as needing performance data:
four municipalities in Iowa; one in Nebraska; one in Kansas;
and eight in Missouri.
The Topeka project involves pilot work to study com-
pactability of undigested activated sludge using Permutit
"DCG" and "MRP" units.
The Iowa projects involve performance evalutation of:
an ABF system; traveling brush aerator modification or oxi-
dation ditch; heat treatment of sludge; and rotating biological
filter.
The Nebraska project involves performance evaluation of
a two-stage trickling filter followed by a rotating biological
filter designed for nitrification using pilot plant.
The Kansas project involves performance evaluation of an
aerated lagoon followed by large lagoon cells.
The Missouri projects involve performance evaluation of
land application of effluent; granular rock filter following
3-cell lagoon (2 sites); rapid sand "filters following aerated
lagoon; deep ditch oxidation; full-scale ozone "disinfection;
and rapid sand filters following extended aeration.
Region VIII
The Regional Construction Grant Program personnel in
Region VIII indicated that it has not been the Regional policy
to support pilot studies of a research nature through Step-1
grant funds. Rather, it is the Region's feeling that such
research studies may be supported by the ORD grant mechanism.
In fact, the Region believes there are opportunities for ORD
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participation in cooperative studies through the research
grant mechanism which may be mutually beneficial to the
municipalities, the Regional office, and ORD.
Further communication will be needed between ORD and the
Region to determine the nature of the studies, and whether
they are related to new and innovative technological processes
and methods, or whether peripherally related.
Region IX
The Regional Construction Grant Program in Region IX
indicates that there are 8 Step-1 planning grants with com-
prehensive pilot studies throughout the State of California.
The projects include studies on: virus removal; regional
wastewater solids management program; conversion of existing
incinerator to a pyrolysis mode; pyrolysis of mixture of sludge
and air-classified refuse; energy recovery; activated carbon
treatment system; pure oxygen aeration; and effluent irriga-
tion.
Region IX has delegated all aspects of the construction
grant program in California to the State of Claifornia that
can legally be delegated. Consequently, the California State
Water Resources Control Board submitted a list of 42 current
201 grant-supported pilot and special studies, funded by 27
Step-1 grants. Fifteen of the 42 studies are related to bay
outfall, ocean outfall, and oceanographic studies.
Region X
Based on RSS notes taken during the visit to the Region
X Construction Grant Program, the following are studies as-
sociated with Step-1 planning grants: a sewer sealing study
in Idaho which may be near completion; two studies on phased
isolation lagoons in Oregon; process evaluation of a problem
caused by student population fluctuation in Washington; and
several pilot studies involving biological and physical-chem-
ical treatment systems as options to comply with secondary
treatment requirements of the law in the Seattle Metropolitan
area. OALWU notes that ORD is funding a similar lagoon pro-
ject in California and that Region X and IX should coordinate
their lagoon work.
Candidate Mechanisms for Signaling Proposed New/Innovative
Studies in Step-1 Planning Grants
The information on pilot studies and other data collecting
activities associated with Step-1 facilities planning grants
(Appendix A) is the product of ten Regional visits and numerous
interviews with Regional Construction Grant Program personnel. It
is the most complete collection of such information to be available
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to ORD at the present time, and represents a base to which updated
information should be added.
.The question is, what mechanisms and/or communication channels
between Regional and ORD personnel are feasible to update this data
base, for the purpose of identifying potentially cooperative pilot
studies.
Based on discussions with Regional Construction Grant Program
and Headquarters personnel, there appear to be several basic can-
didate mechanisms: (1) person-to-person communication; (2) utilize
the new GICS-II system; and (3) modify Regional Step-1 planning
grant procedures. These mechanisms, together with certain options,
are presented as follows:
I. Person-To-Person Communication
...OPTION 1
Direct person-to-person communication between the cog-
nizant Regional Construction Grant Program person and
the OALWU's designated coordinating laboratory, MERL,
when a pilot study is proposed in a Step-1 grant ap-
plication.
Pro
(1)	The communication would be direct and simple.
(2)	The communication would be effective time-wise, since
the procedure is simple.
Con
(1)	Communication may become unreliable during periods of
peak workloads in the Region, laboratory and/or Head-
quarters.
(2)	The system places a responsibility on the Regional
person to initiate an additional action item.
Policy Implications-None
...OPTION 2
Utilize a cooperative Regional/MERL approach to identify
potential pilot studies in municipalities,' 12-18 months
in advance of the Step-1 grant awards. (See Appendix E,
pages 1 and 2, for a description of this trial approach).
Pro
(1)	Pre-selection of treatment process and methods by muni-
cipalities and their consulting engineers would be
minimized.
(2)	The preapplication and Step-1 grant phases would be fa-
cilitated and expedited.
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Con
(1)	There would be a certain amount of guesswork involved.
(2)	A significant amount of time and effort would be re-
quired by the Region and MERL.
(3)	The approach is currently a "trial balloon".
Policy Implications-None
...OPTION 3
Designate a Regional person, such as the R&D Representative
or Technology Transfer Representative, to relay the infor-
mation on proposed pilot studies to the OALWU's designated
coordinating laboratory (MERL).
Pro
(1)	This could save time and effort for the Regional Construc-
tion Grant Program personnel.
(2)	The Regional R&D Representative or Technology Transfer
Representative would be kept up to date on R&D needs
and developments within the Region.
Con
(1)	The system would involve a "middleman" who might not
always be made available by the Region.
(2)	Questions of a detailed nature would still have to be
referred back to the Regional Construction Grant Program
person.
Policy Implications-None
Utilize the New GICS-II System
...OPTION 1
The Regional Construction Grant Programs could utilize
the data elements entitled "Special Study Received" and
"Special Study Reviewed", to signal Step-1 pilot studies.
Pro
(1)	The data element is already available for special
studies and, therefore, pilot studies and related
data collection activities could be included.
(2)	ORD could access the information easily and at any
time.
Con
(1) The data elements would be extended beyond their in-
tended use, and the information could be confusing for
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ORD personnel since special, non-pilot, studies would
represent extraneous information.
(2)	The data elements are currently optional and, therefore,
there would be no assurance that all of the Regions would
utilize the elements for pilot study information.
(3)	From the Regional viewpoint, entry of pilot study infor-
mation into the data elements could confuse the Regional
tracking and management of Step-1 grants.
(4)	Only limited detail would be available.
Policy Implications-None
...OPTION 2
Add new data elements entitled "Pilot Study Received"
and "Pilot Study Reviewed", to signal upcoming or proposed
pilot studies received in Step-1 grant applications.
Pro
(1)	The data element would contain Step-1 pilot study infor-
mation only.
(2)	The information would be easy to access on a ten-Region
basis.
(3)	There would be short lag time, since ORD could access
the information at any time.
Con
(1)	An extra entry would be required from Regional personnel.
(2)	Useful feedback information from ORD could be lacking
or sketchy.
Policy Implications-Headquarters and Regional Construction
Grant Program concurrence would be
required.
III. Modify Regional Step-1 Planning Grant Application Procedures
...OPTION 1
Require grantee to provide a separate synopsis of pro-
posed pilot studies, as an integral part of the Step-1
application, with a copy provided for transmittal by
the Region to the designated OALWU laboratory (MERL) for
review and comment.
Pro
(1) No significant extra Regional workload would be
required.
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(2)	The Region would have the benefit of extra expert
review by ORD staff.
(3)	The written synopsis would enhance clarification of
the applicant's proposed study.
Con
(1)	The synopsis would require extra work and possibly
a time delay for the applicant.
(2)	The applicant might be discouraged from looking for
cost-effective alternatives.
Policy Implications-Headquarters and Regional Construction
Grant Program concurrence required.
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RECOMMENDATIONS
Candidate Mechanisms for Signaling Proposed New/Innovative
Studies in Step-1 Planning Grants
Recommendation No. 1
The first recommendation that RSS offers to OALWU for consid-
eration is to "Modify Regional Step-1 Planning Grant Application
Procedures" as outlined in Option 1, i.e., require the grantee to
provide a separate synopsis of the Step-1 Grant application, with
a copy provided for transmittal by the Region to the designated
OALWU laboratory (MERL) for review and- comment.
r
..Discussion of Recommendation No. 1 - This procedure would permit
the most dependable signaling of new/innovative studies in Step-1
planning grants. It would also facilitate follow-up communication
between ORD and the Regional Construction Grant Programs because the
proposed pilot studies would be described in writing at the outset.
It is recognized, however, that it would be necessary to obtain
OWPO and Regional Construction Grant Program concurrence, and would
be time consuming for the modified procedure to be cleared and im-
plemented. Nevertheless, it is believed that this procedure is
the most reliable one of those which have been investigated.
In this procedure, it is visualized that:
(1)	The Regional Construction Grant Project Engineer would
"pull" a hard copy of the grantee's separate synopsis
of proposed pilot study, and mail the synopsis to the
Director of the Municipal Environmental Research Labo-
ratory at Cincinnati.
(2)	MERL would respond by selecting an individual from the
Wastewater Research Division to review and comment on
the proposed pilot study, or refer it to the Environ-
mental Research Laboratory at Ada.
(3)	The comments would be transmitted to the cognizant
Regional Construction Grant Project Engineer by tele-
phone and/or memorandum. The response may range from
"this looks good, MERL should 'piggyback' the proposed
pilot study by an expansion as follows..., which would
require X-dollars of ORD funds to supplement the study,"
to "data is already available from previous studies."
The important thing to recognize is that this procedure
17

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would require a feedback response from the MERL, whether
negative or positive, so the Regions can have the benefit
of ORD's comments. It should also be recognized that,
based on data obtained from the OWPO survey of the Regions
for new/innovative technology used in Step 2 and Step 3
Grants, it is conceivable that there could be as many as
20 proposed studies per month from the ten Regions.
(4) When the Regions receive the ORD comments, they could use
the information in deciding whether or not to fund the
proposed pilot study, and/or whether ORD involvement is
appropriate, the Regional Construction Grant Project
Engineer would communicate by telephone and/or memorandum
with the MERL to firm up arrangements for ORD participa-
tion in the proposed pilot study.
Recommendation No. 2
A second, interim, recommendation which the RSS offers for
OALWU consideration is "Utilize the New GICS-II System," as out-
lined in Option 2, i.e., add new data elements entitled "Pilot
Study Received" and "Pilot Study Reviewed," to signal upcoming
or proposed pilot studies received in Step-1 grant applications.
..Discussion of Recommendation No. 2 - Again, as with Recommen-
dation No. 1, this would require Headquarters and Regional Con-
struction Grant Program concurrence, but would take much less
time to implement than changing the grant procedural require-
ments .
If the new GICS-II system is to be utilized, it would be on
an interim basis, until Recommendation No. 1 was implemented, and
operational in the Regions.' At that time, the procedure could be
continued for cross-check purposes.
In the meantime, the procedure would be as follows:
(1)	MERL would utilize the Cincinnati-based computer facility
to access Step-1 pilot study information from the GICS-II,
on a routine basis.
(2)	When MERL receives the printout information, the appropriate
Regional personnel would be contacted for further details
about the proposed pilot study. This contact normally
would be by telephone, with a request for followup written
information on the study when appropriate.
(3)	MERL would then review the proposed pilot study, or refer
it to ERL at Ada for review and comment.
(4)	The comments would be transmitted to the cognizant Regional
Construction Grant Project Engineer by telephone and/or
18

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memorandum.
When the Region receives the ORD comments, they could
be used as information in deciding whether or not to
fund the proposed pilot study, and/or whether ORD involve-
ment would be mutually beneficial. Assuming ORD's in-
volvement is appropriate, the Regional Construction
Grant Project Engineer would communicate by telephone
and/or memorandum with the MERL to firm up arrangements
for ORD participation in the proposed pilot study.
19

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Appendix A
Overview of the Construction Grant Process

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OVERVIEW OF THE CONSTRUCTION GRANT PROCESS ^
General
The construction grant process is divided into 5 phases: (1) Pre-
application; (2) Step-1 planning grant; (3) Step-2 design grant; (4) Step-3
construction grant; and (5) Post-construction inspections of operations
and maintenance activities.
Preapplication Requirements
A municipality must be entered on a State priority list before the
official Construction Grants process is initiated. Following inclusion
on the State priority list and"approval of its plan of action, the community
selects a qualified architectural/engineering consultant, who usually
prepares the Step-1 grant application.
At this point there is usually a preapplication conference, jointly
conducted by EPA and the State, to give the community a comprehensive
overview of the program procedures, with particular attention to meeting
the requirements of a Step-1 grant application.
Once a community has prepared and submitted this grant application
for State and EPA review, and it is approved, a Step-1 grant is awarded
upon such approval.
Step-1 Planning Grant
The grant provides funds for the preparation of a facilities plan,
which must address itself to issues required by PL 92-500, ensuing
(1) The publication, "The Federal Wastewater Treatment Facilities Con-
struction Grant Process from A(bilene) to Z(anesville)", prepared in
March 1975 by John T. Rhett, Deputy Assistant Administrator for
Water Program Operations, Office of Water and Hazardous Materials,
provides the basis for the overview.

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- 2 -
regulations, and by other Federal laws. These include design related
issues such as: cost effectiveness data, where pilot studies for new
or improved technologies may be indicated; wastewater discharge permit
status; infiltration/inflow into the collection system; land disposal;
reclaiming or recycling of water; replacement or rehabilitation of
existing sewer systems; disposal of sludge; and provisions for the effec-
tive operation and maintenance of the treatment works.
Once the Step-1 facilities plan has been approved by EPA and the
State, the State can then certify the project as eligible for a Step-2
grant for preparation of construction plans and specifications. The
project now enters the formal design stage. (In certain cases where no
facilities plan has been prepared, the prospective grantee or his con-
sultant may prepare an application for a Step-2 grant directly.)
Step-2 Design Grant
In the Step-2 process, the grantee's consultant prepares engineering
plans and specifications that will translate decisions, made during the
facilities planning stage, into efficient and effective treatment
facilities.
Design planning conferences are held by the EPA Regional Offices
and States to facilitate the Step-2 grants process, and to assure that
new requirements under the 1972 Amendments are met. If so indicated at
this time, special or pilot studies may be initiated/expanded to evaluate
cost effective alternatives, which may involve new/innovative technologies.
Once the plans and specifications have been submitted, the State
and/or EPA must review them to insure that the proposed project will
meet effluent limitations and water quality standards, and that it is
not designed with excessive capacity.

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- 3 -
Step-3 Construction Grant
If the plans and specifications are acceptable, the project is
again entered on the State list of priority projects, and the munici-
pality prepares a Step-3 grant application (or an earlier agreement is
again amended) and it is reviewed. If approved EPA transmits to the
applicant a Step-3 grant agreement for signature and return to EPA.
EPA then sends copies of the plans and specifications to the munici-
pality's engineering firm through the State agency, so the community can
advertise for sealed bids. Upon selection of the lowest responsible
bidder, the community submits to EPA the bid information as a tabulation,
and requests approval for a contract award. Upon approval a letter of
of approval of the contract award is mailed to the grantee, who secures
the contractor's signature so that construction operations can begin.
During construction, EPA is involved in various activities: partial
payments to the applicant from the Federal share of the grant; interim
field inspection by the staff engineers; processing change orders; and
assure preparation of an O&M manual which is approvable by the State
and EPA.
When a final inspection is made of the completed project and a final
payment is made, plant operation may begin.
Post-Construction Inspections
Once the plant begins to treat wastes, EPA and the State conduct
inspections to insure that the facility operation complies with its dis-
charge permit, and to determine whether the O&M practices are adequate.

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- 4 -
It should be noted that in the interest of improving the cost
effectiveness of the entire construction grant program, EPA has increased
the pressure for improved integration of O&M objectives with the con-
struction planning process.

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Appendix B
Regional Pilot Plant Step-1 Studies

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REGION I
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
Region I does not have Step-1 pilot studies, but expressed interest in
developing such studies with emphasis on low operating and maintenance
expense, and high reliability of treatment for communities with 1.0 mgd
or less. Also of interest were: controlled discharge multi-cell oxida-
tion ponds; phase-isolation oxidation ponds; oxidation ditch-carrousel
technology; land application; sludge treatment land disposal technology;
and septage treatment.
Mr. Mayo, Director, MERL-CI, is to coordinate short- and long-range
cooperation between the Regional Construction Grant Program and the OALWU
Waste Management Division's program in wastewater technology.

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REGION II
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
City of Camden - Project Number C-34-678, located in Camden County,
New Jersey. This project (Step 1 application presently under review
by EPA) is for a full scale, on site pilot study for the composting
of primary sludge.
Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority - Project Number C-34-524,
located in Camden County, New Jersey. A portion of this project
(currently not certified by the State) is for the performance of
treatability studies in conjunction with the Facilities Plan, now
nearing completion in the Delaware Basin of Camden County.
Township of Wayne - Project Number C-34-393, located in Passaic
County, New Jersey. A portion of this project will be to conduct
pilot plant studies to develop design parameters for their proposed
denitrification system.
Puerto Rico Municipalities (Submitted by William J. Muszynski)
Background
The Puerto Rico Aqueduct & Sewer Authority (PRASA) is the Common-
wealth of Puerto Rico agency that plans, constructs and operates its
municipal wastewater treatment plants. It is also the agency that
applies to EPA for all of the grants to construct municipal waste-
water treatment works. The Environmental Quality Board (EQB) is the
Commonwealth Agency that certifies the applications to EPA.
A. Sludge Composting
Several Step 1 awards have been made to PRASA to do facility planning
for various regions on the island. These Step 1 grants are currently

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- 2 -
in the process of being completed and submitted to the EQB and EPA
for review, approval and Step 2 award. It has come to our attention
that one of the problems faced by the island is the treatment and
disposal of the sludge from the municipal wastewater treatment
facilities. Based upon the facility plans currently under review,
it appears that the larger facilities will use incineration and
landfill disposal, while the smaller, more rural facilities will
use anaerobic digestion, sludge drying beds and landfill disposal.
Landfill disposal creates several problems for the rural areas
because in most cases a new landfill site may have to be opened, an
old one may not be operated in accordance with acceptable sanitary
landfill practices, municipalities control their landfills and may
not accept the sludge, and some landfills may be a considerable
distance from-the wastewater treatment facility.
As a result of reading the literature on the Beltsville, Maryland
project, I recommended to PRASA and EQB that consideration be given
to establishing a compositing operation at one of their small,
existing facilities. It was our feeling that because of the size
of the Beltsville project, the relative unavailability of wood chips
on the island and possible localized operational problems it would
be necessary to establish this working model to investigate its
adaptability to the Commonwealth facilities. PRASA has indicated
that it is interested and that it has a small plaint which has a
vacuum filter and sufficient land to run a full scale pilot facility.
Because we are still at the discussion stage, no analysis has been

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done as to what the cost of providing additional equipment, testing,
etc. would be.
It is my impression that the stumbling blocks in making the decision
to proceed with this study are: the lack of local funds, the antici-
pated turnover in PRASA and EQB because of the recent elections, and
the lack of detailed information as to the scope of the study. The
first step must be to sit down with PRASA, & EQB and ourselves to
detail the scope of the study. Once this is completed, we can then
develop the cost. It is anticipated that the personnel situation
in both PRASA and EQB will be stabilized in January 1977. Once we
know the costs, we can then proceed to develop how much funds we can
provide and how much will be the Commonwealth's share.
The study must have as its goals; the identification of costs of
operation, the possible utilization of island available materials
such as Bagasse (sugar cane stalks), other materials in lieu of
wood chips, including the synthetic materials, identification of
operational techniques and possible problems, the possible uses or
needs for the residue material and a cost comparison to other sludge
treatment and disposal techniques. It is quite possible that a
successful demonstration of the compositing operation may show that
it is an acceptable technique for larger facilities planned for the
island. PRASA has always been a most cooperative agency and I
believe, will be most receptive to this proposed study.
As discussed with Mr. Shultz, whether or not R&D has the available

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- 4 -
funds to supplement our grant funds for this project, I do feel
that we could use their expertise in developing the scope and
cost of such a study. Your' assistance in coordinating this request
with other R&D staff would be appreciated.
B. Land Disposal and Treatment
Our discussions with the Corps of Engineers, PRASA, its consultants,
EQB and experience gained through our grant program has indicated
that certain regions of the island have or may have future water
supply problems. As a result, several of the facility plans have
recommended the land disposal of the conventional secondary treat-
ment effluent. The general disposal areas selected would be sugar
cane fields. While I am aware of the work being done in Hawaii on
this subject, I feel that there is a hesitation on the part of PRASA
and EQB to accept responsibility of large scale acceptance for such
an operation without the benefit of assistance in the operation and
monitoring of a trial facility.
It is my opinion that if we were to establish the monitoring program
and assist in the evaluation of the results, PRASA would be more
receptive to this treatment and disposal process. R&D assistance
would be helpful in recommending any step 2 considerations, as well
as, establishing the monitoring program.
If there are any questions concerning the above please contact me
(William J. Muszynski) at 212/264-4750.

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REGION III
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
Beltsville, Maryland (USDA) C-240580-01 Construction of a Composting
Pad and Building
Grant Period: December 1975 to September 1977
Project Manager: Maryland Environmental Services
Annapolis, Maryland
EPA Share: $1,067,250
Total:	$1,423,000
Hampton Roads, Virginia C-51545-01
(Hampton Roads Sanitation
District for the Atlantic
Wastewater Treatment
Facility)
Grant Period: April 1977 to April 1980
EPA Share: $147,750 (Step-1 share)
($ 50,000 - Study)
($147,000 - Land acquisition)
Proposed Study .for Recycling of
Digested Sludge to Agricultural
Land
Total:
$510,000

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REGION IV
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
Largo, Florida C120493 Step-3
We have a unique sludge disposal project just put in operation in
Largo consisting of a drying, pelletizing and bagging process- The
end product is sold as a fertilizer. A study to evaluate the perform-
ance of the operation could be of great benefit to the agency.
Deep Well Disposal
Several deep well disposal projects in Florida are available for
study. Test wells have been drilled or are being drilled now. These
are in Step-3 stage but final effluent disposal have not been approved
yet. Performance data needed.
Dade County
W. Palm Beach
St. Petersburg
Orlando
C120377	(Step-3)
C120489	(Step-3)
C120523	(Step-3)
C120399	(Step-2)
Knoxville, Tennessee C470385-02 Step-2
40 MGD activated sludge plant. Pure oxygen for BOD reduction
followed by air for nitrification.
Covington, Tennessee C470362-01 Step-1
Attached growth media tower for BOD reduction.
Vacuum Collection System
Cost savings may be possible by avoiding deep cuts through rock that
would be required by gravity system.
Westmoreland, Tennessee C470451-02 (Step-2)
Tracy City, Tennessee	C470410-01 (Step-1)
Sewer Rehabilitation
A study is urgently needed to evaluate the effectiveness of rehabili-
tation work on sewer systems. In regard to the millions of dollars
being spent, we need to evaluate the performance and life of the
different joint compounds and the overall effectiveness of the
rehabilitation effort in terms of flow reduction. Numerous ongoing
projects are available for such a study.

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REGION V
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
Kalamazoo, Mich. C262583-01 Wastewater Treatment Study
Costs.: Total Estimated Project Cost:	$669,500
Estimated Wastewater Treatment
Study cost approved in Grant
Application:	$215,400
Costs incurred thus far:	$330,375
Items investigated (see attached summary)
PRIMARY: Coagulation - for SS removal without harming secondary
SECONDARY: Pure oxygen, bio-disc, variations in conventional
activated sludge.
ADVANCED: Activated carbon, two-stage aeration, bio-disc,
trickling filter, filtration
RECYCLE STREAMS: Trickling filter, bio-disc, pure oxygen.
MISC.: Plant automation, scrubber water, equipment replacement,
odor control, and sludge treatment and disposal.
Mansfield, Ohio	C391129-01	(Completed)
Pilot Study - Uses of different alum strengths in final settling
tanks.
Oxford, Ohio	C390932-01	Rotating Discs Pilot Study*
(BIO SURF PROCESS)
~Quoted 5/7/75 letter from Oxford Community to Ohio EPA:
"One potential means of adding tertiary treatment to our
existing plant is through a process of rotating media covered
discs or drums through the effluent. Prior to incorporating
this process into our plant, however, we wish to be convinced
of its ability to perform adequately. One commercial unit is

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- 2 -
available for PILOT STUDY and test at a monthly cost of $600 -
A six month test would cost $3600. By performing a PILOT STUDY
in advance of final design, we can be more assured of achieving
the best possible final product."
o EauClaire, Wisconsin C550628-01 Rotating bio-disc systems
testing for secondary
treatment
o EauClaire, Wisconsin C550628-01 Pilot plant study of an
activated biofiltration
system
o Whitewater, Wisconsin C550752-01 Treatability study - high
BOD treatment problem

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Attachment for City of Kalamazoo (Michigan)  C-262583-01
WASTEWATER TREATMENT STUDY
The City of Kalamazoo treats a most unusual combination of industrial
and municipal wastes. A substantial portion of the total waste stream
is comprised of paper mill effluents. Nearly half the total BOD load to
the plant is the result of pharmaceutical waste discharges. The pharma-
ceutical wastes are subject to wide variations in characteristics.
The Plan of Study area designated by the Water Resources Commission
of the State of Michigan greatly expands the potential Service Area of
the Kalamazoo wastewater system. The increased connected population will
result in an increase in volume of domestic waste and will change the
ratio of industrial to domestic wastewaters.
The treatment concept at Kalamazoo uses the nutrient-rich municipal
and pharmaceutical wastes to balance the nutrient-deficient paper wastes
and thus provides secondary treatment without adding nutrient chemicals.
The present facilities do not produce an effluent that consistently
meets secondary treatment standards. In addition, the water quality for
the Kalamazoo River proposed by the State of Michigan and the Federal
requirements for the best practicable waste treatment technology make it
necessary to improve the present facilities. The degree of treatment
that must be achieved to meet water quality goals under present loading
conditions will require BOD and suspended solids removals in excess of
95%, together with substantial ammonia oxidation. The combination of
complex wastes and high degree of treatment requires that pilot studies
be conducted to establish operation and design parameters for maximum
utilization of existing facilities for future improvements. Pilot
studies also must be conducted to determine the possibility of producing
a plant effluent that can be used for recycle or land disposal. If the
wastes are to be discharged to the River, it will be necessary to use
the best practicable waste treatment technology.
The pilot plant approach to be used at Kalamazoo recognizes that a
high quality primary effluent must be provided if secondary treatment
is to function well. Preliminary investigations have1shown that the
paper mill effluents can be chemically coagulated as a unit or in com-
bination with municipal wastes and produce a low suspended solids primary
effluent that is essentially free of clays and paper fibers. High clay
and paper fiber concentrations presently cause upsets in the activated
sludge as well as solids overloads in the final clarifiers. The success
of chemical coagulation must be studied over a substantial period of
time due to the need to maintain a nutrient balance for secpndary treat-
ment. Chemical dosage, detention time, and overflow rate must be estab-
lished before large capital outlays are made in the construction of
chemical additions and primary treatment facilities.

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- 2 -
Secondary treatment pilot studies must be conducted also: The
possibility of developing a reliable nitrification system in the presence
of pharmaceutical wastes must be established. The success of nitrifica-
tion with very warm wastes over the winter months must be determined.
Substantial capital savings could be achieved in design if the available
heat is adequate to maintain a high level of nitrification using short
detention times.
The presence of fine clays and paper fibers makes it necessary to
investigate the effectiveness of effluent filtration. The fibers and
clays may tend to coat the filters and result in very short filter runs.
There are two in-plant recycle streams at the Kalamazoo plant that
require attention because of their flow and/or loading significance. The
separate treatment of oxidized sludge liquors and incinerator scrubber
water should be investigated before an overall treatment scheme is devised.
Methods to conserve energy will be investigated as part of this task.
Effective utilization of energy will be considered in relation to cost of
operation and conservation of a natural resource.
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS AND INVESTIGATIONS
The major waste streams contributing to the treatment plant were
analyzed in detail. Several treatment schemes including coagulation-
sedimentation, chemical addition-coagulation-sedimentation, centrifuging,
carbon adsorption, and ozonation were conducted using bench scale equip-
ment. The results of the preliminary analyses and investigations were
used to design the pilot facilities.
THE PILOT PLANT
The City had two unused chemical flocculation tanks, aerators,
several pumps, valves, meters, and miscellaneous pipe. The two floccula-
tion tanks were modified to provide a flocculation tank, primary and
secondary settling tanks, and two aeration tanks. The other available
equipment was assembled and used for the pilot plant. The cost of
modifying the existing tanks, installing electrical power lines, pipe-
lines, and miscellaneous supporting equipment was approximately $70,000.
The pilot plant has a great deal of flexibility and capacity. The plant
can treat an average flow of nearly 1 mgd through primary treatment and
0.5 mgd (approximately 1% of the anticipated future flow) through second-
ary treatment.
As an alternative to modifying existing tankage and other equipment,
the City could have rented small pilot plants to conduct the studies.
The cost of renting primary/secondary pilot equipment was estimated at
$1,500 per month, or about $27,000 for the projected 18-month duration of
the study. Added to this cost would be the cost of installation of
electric service, pipelines, pumps, and other supporting equipment similar

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to that required for the present pilot plant. Rented pilot facility
would be of much smaller size and require the purchase of more support-
ing equipment. The cost of this supporting equipment, including power
supply, was estimated at $35,000, or a total cost of $62,000. The
greater flexibility of the larger pilot unit coupled with the increased
reliability in the data and the reduced errors of scale-up more than
offset the small additional cost.
REQUIRED IMPROVEMENTS TO PRIMARY TREATMENT
The present high clay and fiber content of the paper mill wastes
causes a buildup of inert solids in the secondary treatment system. The
high percent of inert solids in the mixed liquor requires operation at
very high mixed liquor solids. Uiis high concentration of MLSS over-
loads the final settling tanks and causes the discharge of an effluent
with high solids and BOD.
The present pilot studies will optimize primary treatment in the
plant. Primary treatment studies will be as follows:
1.	Investigate primary treatment of paper mill wastes
a.	Coagulation-sedimentation
b.	Chemical addition-coagulation-sedimentation
2.	Investigate primary treatment of combined paper mill wastes
and municipal wastes
a.	Coagulation-sedimentation
b.	Chemical addition-coagulation-sedimentation
The above pilot studies are required to:
a.	Determine whether primary treatment of the combined
wastes is feasible and practicable
b.	Determine whether the primary treatment effluent will
have a sufficiently high phosphorus content to support
biological activity in secondary treatment
c.	Establish design criteria for primary treatment
REQUIRED IMPROVEMENTS TO SECONDARY TREATMENT
Improvements to secondary treatment are required to:
1.	Increase BOD removal
2.	Increase SS removal
3.	Increase TOD removal
4.	Provide a consistent effluent quality
The stringent effluent quality requirements that the Kalamazoo
facilities will have to meet, and the changed nature of the future

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secondary treatment influent require best practicable waste treatment
technology and that investigations be conducted to determine optimum
aeration periods and secondary settling rates. The pilot investigations
will:
1.	Study the effects of various aeration times on effluent
quality using conventional activated sludge flow diagrams
2.	Study the effects of various aeration times on effluent
quality using sludge reaeration flow diagrams
3.	Study the effectiveness of pure oxygen systems
4.	Investigate various settling rates
5.	Investigate chemical addition to remove phosphorus and
improve solids and BOD removals
6.	Study the effectiveness of the above approaches in
controlling and reducing the NH^-N concentration in the
pilot effluent
The most cost-effective method will be recommended for implementation.
NEED FOR ADVANCED WASTE TREATMENT
Advanced waste treatment facilities will be needed to produce an
effluent with the required quality. Best practicable waste treatment
technology will be required to produce an effluent for discharge to the
River or for recycle and reuse. At present the following advanced waste
treatment processes are contemplated for pilot studies:
1.	Subject to the findings of Item 6 above, the study will
include the investigation of NH^-N oxidation by:
a.	Activated carbon addition to aeration tank
b.	Two-stage aeration
c.	Fixed-film processes
1.	Plastic media trickling filter
2.	Rotating disk
2.	Effluent filtration
3.	Chemical treatment-filtration
a.	Activated carbon addition
b.	Metal salts addition
4. Post aeration
The most cost-effective method of achieving this goal will be recom-
mended for implementation.

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- 5 -
TREATMENT OF IN-PLANT RECYCLE STREAMS
The sludge disposal process results in the return of very substan-
tial COD loads to the treatment systems. The pilot studies will investi-
gate the feasibility of pretreatment of said return streams before they
are incorporated into the total waste volume. The following studies are
presently scheduled:
1.	Plastic media trickling filter
2.	Rotating disk
3.	Biological treatment using pure oxygen may also be investigated
The most cost-effective method will be recommended for implementation.
MISCELLANEOUS WASTE TREATMENT NEEDS
Under this portion of the project we propose to undertake four major
tasks:
1.	Plant automation
2.	Scrubber water disposal
3.	Improvement and/or replacement of antiquated equipment
4.	Odor control
5.	Sludge treatment and disposal
Plant Automation
The need for more sophisticated process control as well as the
necessity of lowering labor costs dictate that the City begin to consider
and plan for some degree of automation in the operation of the treatment
plant. The use of a computer in the compilation of operating data as
well as the preparation of monthly operating reports allows for the
release of personnel to perform other tasks.
The study proposed herein provides for the development of a logical
program to implement automation. The need for computerized operation of
some portions of the treatment facility will receive careful study.
Items receiving specific consideration for automatic operation
include:
1.	Feeding of phosphorus removal chemicals
2.	Control of dissolved oxygen in the aeration tanks
3.	Waste sampling and analysis
The most cost-effective method of plant automation will be recom-
mended for implementation.
Scrubber Water Disposal
Hie incinerator scrubber water is discharged to primary treatment

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- 6 -
after cooling and this water imposes an additional hydraulic and solids
load on the system. laboratory work will be undertaken to determine the.
effectiveness of this method of treatment for the scrubber water. After
cooling, and with improved quality of the effluent water used for scrub-
bing, this recycle stream amy be of adequate quality for discharge to the
Kalamazoo River without further treatment.
The most cost-effective system will be recommended for implementation.
Improvement and/or Replacement of Antiquated Equipment
The primary portion of the plant has been in service for 20 years and
some items of equipment are unsuitable for the present loading and should
be replaced. As part of the program proposed herein, an inventory of such
items will be prepared in cooperation with the plant personnel. This
portion of the project is planned for early completion to allow for imple-
mentation of improvements at the earliest possible time.
Odor Control
Investigations on methods of controlling odors from the treatment
facilities are being and will continue to be conducted as part of the study.
The use of ozone to control odors from sludge processing and thickening
tanks has been investigated. Scrubbing and carbon adsorption of foul air
streams is scheduled for testing at the treatment plant in the near future.
The most cost-effective system will be recommended for implementation.
Sludge Treatment and Disposal
The present sludge treatment and disposal system will be reviewed.
Sludge disposal on land will be investigated. Estimates will be prepared
to determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative sludge disposal systems.
The most cost-effective system will be recommended for implementation.

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REGION VI
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
At time of report, information not received on pilot studies
associated with Step-1 Facility Planning Grants.
Further communication may be indicated between ORD and the Regional
Construction Grant Program, regarding possible grant mechanisms for
cooperative cost-effective technology studies.

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REGION VII
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
R&D POTENTIAL ASSISTANCE
Step 1 Projects with Pilot Plants
Topeka, Kansas	Pilot work to study comparability of undigested
C200746	activated sludge using Permutit "DCG" and "MRP"
units.
Other Projects with Potential R&D Involvement
 A contract study to develop methods and criteria to evaluate the
state pollution control agency management and municipal management
of controlled discharge lagoons (i.e., when to discharge, why, for
how long, what analytical tests are required or can be accepted).
A review of current state management programs successfully opti-
mizing this treatment alternative would also be useful.
0 Ft. Dodge, Iowa-^C190551 - ABF system almost on line, needs per-
formance data.
0 Reinbeck, Iowa -C190557 - Traveling brush aerator modification of
oxidation ditch, construction complete, needs performance data.
 Muscatine,Iowa -C190592 - Heat treatment of sludge, almost on
line, needs performance data.
0 Emmettsburg, Iowa-C190604-Rotating biological filter, construction
complete, needs performance data.
0 York, Nebraska -C310433-2-stage trickling filter followed by
rotating biological filter unit designed for nitrification using
pilot plant data. Construction complete. Needs performance data
and scale up comparison data,
 Iola, Kansas  -C200407-Aerated lagoon followed by large lagoon
cells, now under construction, needs performance data.
 Frankford, Mo. -0290720-Submerged sand filter following aerated
lagoon. Plans and specifications are under review, needs per-
formance data,
0 Alton, Missouri- C290849-Testing of land application effluent.
Plans and specs will be initiated shortly; needs performance data.
0 Delta, Missouri- C290644-Granular rock filter following 3-cell
lagoon, construction complete, needs performance data.
 California, MO - C290608-Granular rock filter following 3-cell
lagoon, construction complete, needs -performance data.
 Branson, MO - C290592-Rapid sand filters following aerated
lagoon, construction complete, needs performance data.

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Warrensburg, Missouri	-C290655-Deep ditch oxidation
system, under construction, needs performance data.
Springfield, Missouri	-C290564-Full scale ozone disinfec-
tion, under construction, needs performance data.
Little Blue Valley S.D., MO -C290630-Rapid sand filters following
extended aeration, construction nearing completion, needs
performance data-

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REGION VIII
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
The Regional Construction Grant Program personnel in Region VIII indicated
that it has not been the Regional policy to support pilot studies of a
research nature through Step-1 grant funds. Rather it is the Region's
feeling that such research studies may be supported by the ORD grant mecha-
nism. In fact, the Region believes there are opportunities for ORD
participation in cooperative studies through the research grant mechanism
which may be mutually beneficial to the municipalities, the Regional
Office, and ORD.

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REGION IX
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES
Pomona Virus Study I.D. 061051
Grantee: L. A. County Sanitation Districts
Location: Pomona, California - Statewide applicability
Goal: To compare virus removal efficiencies of four different
tertiary treatment processes:
1.	Coagulation + sedimentation + filtration + disinfection using
Cl^ or O^, aiming for 5 mg/1 Cl^ residual.
2.	Low-dose chemical addition + filtration + Cl^ (or 0^) .
3.	Two-stage carbon adsorption + filtration (20 minute empty bed
detention time) + C^ (or 0^) between stages.
4.	Same as 2 but with nitrified secondary in addition.
Results: Process No. 1 was found to be best; the other three
processes were found to be roughly equivalent in virus removal
efficiency. All four processes were effective and acceptable for
practical application.
Criterion Developed: Two-hour Cl^ detention time providing 10 mg/1
total Cl2 residual.
Other Results: Trace organics were characterized and classified.
Virus sampling and concentration procedures were developed.
The study is complete or near completion.
LA/OMA Project = Los Angeles/Orange County	I.D. C061042
Metropolitan Area Regional Wastewater Solids
Management Program
Grantee: L. Ac County Sanitation Districts
Location: L. A. County and Orange County
Goal: To develop a regional sludge management plan for the L. A.-
Orange County Metropolitan area. Completion date expected by 1979.
Sludge Management Alternatives Chosen as Candidate Systems:
1. Incineration

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- 2 -
2.	Pyrolysis
3.	Separate WAS (waste activated sludge) treatment
4.	Co-pyrolysis with refuse
5.	Jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) pyrolysis system
6.	B.E.S.T. (basic extractive sludge treatment) dehydration process
7.	Carver-Greenfield multiple-effect evaporation process
8.	Dewatering for landfill or agriculture
9.	Sludge recycle center
10.	Evaporation ponds
11.	Remote dewatering for landfill or agriculture
12.	Liquid sludge for agriculture
13.	Soil reclamation on San Clemente Island
14.	Thermal conditioning - anaerobic digestion
15.	Ocean disposal - Not EPA Grant Eligible (in conflict with law)
16.	Exportation
17.	Wet air oxidation
Studies Underway:
1.	Pyrolysis
2.	Heat treatment (400F) followed by digestion
3.	Leachate analysis
4.	High-rate composting
5.	Sludge marketing
Results: No design criteria yet developed. A Phase I report (August
76)	is available.
o San Francisco Bay Region Wastewater I.D. C061225
Solids Study
Grantee: East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD)

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- 3 -
Location: Nine-county San Francisco Bay Area
Goals:
1.	To develop regional policy and plan for long-term municipal waste-
water solids management needs.
2.	Develop staged facilities plans for the four major wastewater
treatment agencies: San Francisco, San Jose, EBMUD, and Central
Contra Costa County Sanitary District. Final project report/EIR/
EIS expected December 1978.
Testing and Demonstration Program Includes:
1.	Solano County soil enrichment study - reports available
2.	Microbiological testing and evaluation - reports available
3.	Heavy metal study - due for completion July 1977
4.	Ve'ale tract soil enrichment demonstration program - due completion
July 1977.
Other Testing Carried out by Participating Agencies:
1.	Air drying lagoons
2.	Low speed/high speed contrifuges
3.	Composting and co-composting with solid wastes
4.	Incineration
5.	Pyrolysis
6.	Coordination with testing done by LA/OMA Project
Results: Numerous, and can best be found in the various reports
available.
o Central Contra Costa County Sanitary District I.D. C061269
Sludge and Refuse Study
Grantee: Central Contra Costa County Sanitary District
Location: Contra Costa County
Goals:
1. To convert an existing incinerator to a pyrolysis mode.

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2.	To investigate pyrolysis feasibility for a mixture of sludge
and air-classified refuse.
3.	To investigate energy recovery aspects.
Results: Only interim; no design criteria yet.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory Activated Carbon I.D. C061073
Treatment System (JPL-Acts)
1 MGD Pilot Plant
Grantee: County Sanitation Districts of Orange County
Location: Huntington Beach, California
Goal: To evaluate an activated carbon treatment system for sewage
that was conceived and developed by JPL supported by NASA. Completion
date June 1977.
Results: With domestic sewage, the metals and PCB removals were good,
but pilot plant operations are too preliminary to draw useful conclu-
sions regarding process parameters for domestic sewage.
City of Los Angeles Aeration Study' I.D. CO61036
Grantee: City of Los Angeles
Location: Hyperion S.T.P.
Goal: To compare three different types of pure oxygen aeration;
City will choose one:
1.	Unox
2.	Deep torbine
3.	Diffused bubble
Results: The work on the Unox System is completed; work on the other
two is proceeding. Any results available are not on hand at present.
Chino Basin Municipal Water District Virus Study I.D. 060853
Grantee: Chino Basin Municipal Water District
Location: Ontario, California; Chino, California (full-scale plant);
Uplands, California
Goal: To investigate the use of ozone in cominations with chlorine in
various treatment train configurations with the goal of virus removals.

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- 5 -
Results: The work is completed. The most effective virus removal
required O3 plus chemical treatment plus CI2, in that order, on a
secondary settled effluent. A final report is available.
o Santa Rosa Effluent Irrigation Study I.D. C060790
Grantee: City of Santa Rosa
Location: Laguna de Santa Rosa
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of agricultural cropping so
as to design a large-scale wastewater reuse system (parameter develop-
ment) . Four different crops used*, irrigated with reclaimed water,
with groundwater, and with combinations thereof - and with and without
fertilizers.
*Barley, corn sudan grass, hay crops
Results: Soils were tested for pathogen and metals contamination.
Finding: Wastewater (reclaimed) produced better crops than groundwater,

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CALIFORNIA STATE WATER RESOURCES CONTROL BOARD
DIVISION OF WATER QUALITY
CURRENT 201 GRANT SUPPORTED PILOT AND SPECIAL STUDIES
January 1977
PROJECT NO. C-06-0863
Grantee: East Bay Dischargers Authority
Location of Study: Oakland, California
Objective:
For proposed bay outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, potential environment impact.
Description:
Conduct estuarine study within study area including fish and
macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic assessment and chemical,
physical and bacteriological analysis of water column and sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-037Q
Grantee: Humboldt Bay Wastewater Authority
Location of Study: Offshore Samoa Spit, North Humboldt Bay,
California
Objective:
For proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, and potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct oceanographic study within studv area including current
measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and macro-
invertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical, physical
and bacteriological analysis of water column and sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-091k
Grantee: City of Morro Bay
Location of Study: Morro Bay, California

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PROJECT NO. C-06-0914 (contd.)
Objective:
For an ocean outfall disposal alternative determine the feasibility,
best location, design data, and potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct an oceanographic study within the study area including cur-
rent measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and macro-
invertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical, physical,
and bacteriological analysis of water column and sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-0914
Grantee: City of Morro Bay
Location of Study: Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo County, California
Objective:
For a wastewater reclamation alternative determine the feasibility
of using treated wastewater on the soils characteristic to the area.
Description:
Conduct a soils study within the study area, including an assess-
ment of the geology and soil types in the area with respect to
percolative capacity, testing of soil irrigated with treated waste-
water for sodium buildup and physical behavior under use.
PROJECT NO. C-06-0933
Grantee: Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District
Location of Study: Sacramento, California
Objective i
Evaluate digested sludge processing and disposal system utilizing
long-term solids storage basins and high rate application of sludge
to land dedicated to sludge disposal. Determine odor emissions and
travel from solids storage basins and test odor control processes.
Monitor environmental impact of system.
2

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PROJECT NO. C-06-0933 (contd.)
Description:
Full scale solids storage basins (SSBs) were constructed to store
anaerobically digested sludge during wet weather and longer periods.
Basins are loaded at a controlled rate to operate in facultative
mode with algal covering to control odors. Sludge is withdrawn
from the basins for disposal, but the basins are never emptied.
The SSBs are being studied as a unit process rather than as storage
basins. Sludge harvested from SSBs is applied on land dedicated to
sludge disposal. Because no agricultural use is planned, sludge is.
applied at a high rate, experimenting with different application
methods. Odor emissions from SSBs are measured. Techniques are
evaluated to strip odors from digested sludge, to scrub fouled air,
and to operate SSBs to prevent odors. Extensive monitoring of pro-
cesses and environment and varied operational schemes are conducted
to determine effects on virus and other pathogenic organisms, heavy
metals, organics, salts, and other chemical and sludge character-
istics.
PROJECT NO. C-06-0938
Grantee: Sacramento Regional County Sanitation District
Location of Study: Sacramento River, Southwest of Sacramento,
California
Objective:
Evaluate the critical factors which regulate the slime growths occur-
ring in the Sacramento River in late summer and fall.
Description:
A limnological study was performed to evaluate what the critical
water quality and physical factors were in limiting the slime
growths. Community analysis was performed on the periphyton at
various locations in the river to locate density differences in
growth. Possible operating alternatives were evaluated in the
municipal treatment plants, as well as monitoring for seasonal
changes in the waste constituency.
PROJECT NO. C-06-0988
Grantee: City of Benecia
3

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PROJECT NO. C-06-0988 (contd.)
Location of Study: Benecia, California
Objective:
Determine feasibility of biological oxidation for treatment of
combined industrial and domestic wastewater.
Description:
Combined wastewater is treated in three bench scale activated sludge
pilot systems having different operational criteria. The effect
of shock industrial loadings on the biomass and the stability of
the processes are to be evaluated.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1002
Grantee: East/Central Contra Costa County Wastewater Management
Agency
Location of Study: New York Slough, Pittsburg, California
Objective:
For proposed bay outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct estuarine study within study area, fish and macroinverte-
brate assessment, benthic assessment and chemical, physical, and
bacteriological analysis of water column and sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1022
Grantee: San Mateo County MidCoastside Service Agency
Location of Study: Half Moon Bay, California
Objective:
For proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data and potential environmental impact.
4

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1022 (contd.)
Description:
Conduct oceanographic study within study area including current
measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and macroin-
vertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical, physical
and bacteriological analysis of water column and sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-10Zt.2
Task: Field Demonstration of the DECO Pyrolysis Process
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Wastewater Solids Management Program
(LA/CMA Project)
Location of Study: Southgate Refuse Transfer Station, Los Angeles
County, California
Objective:
Obtain operational data, energy and mass balances, and air emission
data for a full scale pyrolytic process.
Description:
A 50 ton/day DECO pyrolysis reactor is being field tested at the
South Gate Transfer Station. The unit is being operated under
various ratios of sludge and refuse, varying from 100 percent refuse
to 100 percent dewatered sludge. For each operating condition, com-
plete energy and mass balances are performed by LA/OMA Project or
LACSD staff. Fuel gases, oil and char are being analyzed to deter-
mine component fractions, heat value, and quantities produced.
Quantities of refuse and sludge added are being closely monitored
as well as all other energy and mass inputs to the system. All air
pollution aspects of the process will be reviewed by the Southern
California Air Pollution Control Board. Actual field testing by
the latter agency will probably be required.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1042
Task: Demonstration Project for Optimization of Sludge
Dewaterability and Energy Production
5

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1042 (contd.)
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Wastewater Solids Management Program
(LA/OMA Project)
Location of Study: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts
Joint Water Pollution Control Plant,
Los Angeles County, California
Objective:
Demonstrate on a continuous flow, pilot scale basis potential for
increased methane production and enhancement of solids dewater-
ability.
Description:
A continuous flow, pilot scale demonstration is being conducted at
the research facility of the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant
(JWPCP). The entire treatment train of thermal conditioning,
anaerobic digestion, and subsequent dewatering will be evaluated
for primary, waste activated sludges, and mixtures' of the two.
Effects of thermal conditioning on energy production, sludge bio-
degradibility, and dewaterability will be evaluated. Energy bal-
ances for the complete system and cost factors will be developed.
It is anticipated that the study will require nine months to one
year for completion.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1042
Task: Carver-Greenfield Demonstration Project
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Wastewater Solids Management Program
(LA/OMA Project)
Location.of Study: City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant,
Playa del Rey, California
Objective:
Demonstrate the Carver-Greenfield evaporation process on a con-
tinuous flow, pilot scale basis
Description:
The Carver-Greenfield process offers considerable potential for
decreasing energy requirements in subsequent pyrolysis processes.
The heat of vaporization in a combustion process is over 1,000
Btu/lb of water whereas in a multiple effect evaporator only about
6

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1014-2 (contd.)
300-400 Btu/lb are required. Thus, the Carver-Greenfield pyrolisis
process offers the potential for obtaining energy self-sufficiency.
The Carver-Greenfield process following dewatering will be tested
for improvement of the overall thermal efficiency of the process.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1042
Task: B.E.S.T. Demonstration Project
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Wastewater Solids Management Program
(LA/OMA. Project)
Location of Study: Orange County Sanitation Districts (OCSD)
Plant No. 2, Orange County, California
Objective:
Obtain operational data on the Basic Extractive Sludge Treatment
(B.E.S.T.) system of sludge dehydration by solvent extraction.
Description:
The B.E.S.T. process is relatively new to the field of municipal
sludge treatment, although the principles of solvent extraction
are well developed. The process attempts to evaporate water with
less thermal input than conventional drying processes. The
B.E.S.T. system offers potential for decreasing, energy requirement
in subsequent pyrolysis processes.
It is proposed that the mobile, trailer-mounted B.E.S.T. system
be demonstrated at an existing pyrolysis pilot facility. The unit
is capable of processing about one ton/day (dry) solids and would
be operated on a 2A.-hour basis to assure that representative mass
and energy balances were obtained. Dried sludge will be stored
until sufficient quantity is available to operate the OCSD pyroly-
sis reactor. Total duration of the study is estimated to be about
two or three months including set-up and dismantling of equipment.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1042
Task: Field Demonstrations of Deep Pile Composting
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Wastewater Solids Management Program
(LA/OMA Project)
Location of Study: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts Joint
Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP), Los
Angeles County, California.
7

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PROJECT NO. C-06-10^2 (contd.)
Objective:
Perform field demonstrations of deep pile composting to determine
the feasibility and practicality of the process on a large scale.
Description:
Of all possible methods for deep pile composting, mechanization
of the process in deep concrete bins appears to offer the most
advantages. A concrete bin structure will be constructed at one
of the regional treatment facilities. JWPCP is the probable site
for such a demonstration, since both dewatered and composted sludge
is available. The bin structure itself will be 10 feet high,
16 feet wide, and 200 feet long. Initially, a mechanical rotor
or turning device will be u ' '	' 11 ' ' ~ ~ '
top of each wall and will travel the length of the bin turning the
sludge as often as required to maximize the drying and composting
process. The capability of testing a diffused air system will also
be provided in the bin design. Following construction, the bin
will be operated for at least one year to observe operation under
all weather conditions. Sludge will be loaded and unloaded from
the bin using skiploaders. Various methods of operation will be
examined during the study period to determine the optimum mode of
operation.
PROJECT NO. C-06-10A-2
Task: Sludge Evaporation Ponds Demonstration
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Wastewater Solids Management Program
(LA/CSVIA Project)
Location of Study: Los Angeles County, California
Objective :
Obtain field data on the performance of evaporation ponds for
sludge dewatering.
Description:
Field evaporation pond studies will be performed to gather
detailed design and operation information. At least a one-year
study is envisioned to gather data during both summer and winter
conditions. The studies should address, but not be limited to,
the following items. First, modes of operation for the evapora-
tion ponds should be investigated, including installation of pond
The device will be mounted

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1042 (contd.)
linings or underdrain systems, decanting of ponds, and separate
and combined treatment of digested primary sludge and waste
activated sludge. Second, potential odor problems should be
studied and mitigation measures identified. Third, the potential
for breeding of insects, rodents, or other pests should be
thoroughly studied and mitigation measures identified.
PROJECT NO. C-Q6-1042
Task: Field Demonstration of Mechanical Sludge Dewatering
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Waste-water Solids Management Program
(LA/QMA Project)
Location of Study: . Los Angeles County Sanitation District,
.Los Angeles County, California.
Objective:
Obtain operational and performance data on mechanical dewatering
of sludges generated in the Los Angeles-Orange County Metropolitan
area.
Description:'
Dewatering characteristics of sewage sludges are known to vary
considerably depending on the type of sludge, previous processing,
and general characteristics of the sewerage system. Because of
this variability and because of advancements in equipment design,
those pieces of mechanical dewatering equipment which offer potential
for achieving greater solids capture or greater cake solids will be pild
scale field tested.	Pilot units would be tested on sludges from
each of three major treatment plants in the planning area. This
will provide operational and performance data relative to each
sludge at each plant.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1042
Task: University of California, Riverside, Agricultural Project
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Wastewater Solids Management Program
(LA/OMA Project)
Location of Study: University Farm, University of California,
Riverside, California
9

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PROJECT NO. C-06-104.2 (contd.)
Objective:
Develop guidelines and criteria for recycling and disposing
sewage sludge from the regional wastewater solids study area on
cropland. More specifically,
1.	Determine the effect of soil properties on the capacity and
limitation of cropland in receiving liquid and composted sludge
and the change in soil physical and chemical properties due to
sludge application.
2.	Determine crop responses (yield, nutrient utilization, uptake
of potentially hazardous trace metal elements, and trace
organic components, etc.) to various levels of sewage applica-
tion on cropland.
3.	Determine potential routes and mechanisms whereby surface and
groundwater and soils may be contaminated by the application
of sewage sludge to croplands.
Description:
Many parameters that may limit the land application of sewage
sludge require further evaluation under local climatic, hydrologic
and soil conditions. Direct extrapolation from investigations
completed elsewhere may not apply locally. Therefore, a compre-
hensive study of sewage sludge recycling onto land has been
developed so that the beneficial value and limitations of
cropland application of municipal sludge from the coastal region
of Southern California can be evaluated.
Effects of sludge application which will be evaluated in this
study can be divided into two distinct categories. Effects on
soil and groundwater which will be monitored include the following:
(1) characterization of surface runoff; (2) transformation and
movement of plant nutrient constituents in the soil profile;
(3) trace metal buildup in soils; (4) analysis for trace organic
chemicals in sludge; and (5) changes in soil salinity. Analysis
of crop responses to sludge application will include crop yield,
trace metal uptake by plants, and trace organic .uptake by plants.
Feed crops, truck crops, and non-food crops such as cotton will
be grown during the project. Sludge types to be applied will
include liquid digested sludge from two treatment plants and
digested-dewatered-composted sludge. The crop selection and
sludge types will cover the range of reasonable agricultural use
alternatives.
10

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PROJECT NO. C-06-104?
Task: Sludge Disposal to Sanitary Landfill Demonstration
Project
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (Lead Agency),
Regional Wastewater Solids Management Program
(LA/OMA Project)
Location of Study: Los Angeles County and City of Los Angeles
Sanitary Landfills, Los Angeles County,
California.
Objective:
Demonstrate effects of sewage sludge additions to sanitary
landfills. Determine the feasibility and problems associated with
sludge addition to existing sanitary landfills in the region.
Description:
a.	Phase I - This will consist of testing mixtures of sludge
cake and refuse in different ratios to determine at what ratio
leachate will be generated. Small test cells (4 ft. in dia.,
45 in. high) will be used for this investigation. Hydraulic
pressure will be applied to simulate the actual pressure of
overlying strata at different fill depths. These experiments
will also determine the quantities of leachate expected at
different fill depths. These experiments can be completed in
2 to 3 months.
b.	Phase II - In this phase several lysimeter cells will be set up
at various operating conditions. Such operational parameters
will be determined from the results of Phase I experiments.
Some lysimeter cells may be started during Phase I.
c* Phase III - During this phase one or more large size test
cells (approximately 70' x 100' x 15' deep) may be operated to
verify and correlate the data obtained from the lysimeter
study. However, the need for this phase of the investigation
will be established after reviewing the data obtained from the
Phase I study.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1051
Grantee: Los Angeles County Sanitation District No. 2
Location of Study: Los Angeles, California
Objective:
Compare four alternative tertiary treatment systems to determine
11

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1051 (contd.)
most cost-effective method of virus inactivation. Also
characterize residual organics.
Description:
The California State Department of Health requires a certain
treatment scheme where wastewater is discharged to non-restricted
recreational impoundments. The virus study assessed less costly
treatment schemes in terms of virus removal compared to the
Department of Health standard, using both chlorine and ozone as
disinfectants in a 50 gpm pilot plant. Seeded poliovirus and
naturally-occurring virus were examined for removal through the
processes. The residual organics study attempted to characterize
organic compounds in secondary and tertiary effluents as well as
the effects of treatment on formation and removal of organic
substances.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1053
Grantee: Marin County Sanitary District No. 6
Location of Study: San Pablo and San Rafael Bays, California
Objective:
For proposed bay outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct estuarine study within study area including current
measurement, fish and macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic
assessment and chemical, physical, and bacteriological analysis
of water column and sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1063
Grantee:/ City of Modesto
Location of Study: Modesto, California
Objective:
Examine effectiveness and establish design criteria for intermittenl
sand filtration system for use in polishing oxidation pond effluent
to meet federal secondary treatment standards.
Description:
12

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1063 (contd.)
Collect data from three pilot filtration systems of different
grain sizes utilizing varying hydraulic loading rates on each.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1Q66
Grantee: Monterey Peninsula Water Pollution Control Agency
Location of Study: Monterey, California
Objective:
For the proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best
location, design data, and potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct an oceanographic study within the study area including
current measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and
macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical,
physical and bacteriological analysis of water column and
sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1066
Grantee: Monterey Peninsula Water Pollution Control Agency
Location of Study: Monterey County, California
Objective:
For a potential wastewater reclamation alternative determine the
feasibility of using treated wastewater for the irrigation of
directly consumed food crops.
Description:
Conduct an agricultural reuse demonstration study consisting of
irrigation of various vegetable crops with wastewater treated
to different levels. Measurement of the microbiological quality
of effluents from various levels of treatment, and of agricultural,
soil and plant materials. Assessment of longterm impact of
irrigation with reclaimed wastewater on the productivity of the
area.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1073
Grantee: County Sanitation Districts of Orange County
13

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1073 (contd.)
Location of Study: Huntington Beach, California
Ob jective:
Evaluate the feasibility of substituting a physio-chemical
treatment process, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Activated
Carbon Treatment System (JPL-ACTS), for a biological treatment
process. Establish design criteria for the JPL-ACTS.
Description:
The JPL-ACTS utilizes activated carbon to remove raw waste-water
pollutants. Activated carbon is produced by a pyrolysis process
utilizing sewage solids removed from the raw wastewater stream.
A 1 mgd JPL-ACTS pilot study will be conducted.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1102
Grantee: City and County of San Francisco
Location of Study: San Francisco, California
Objective:
Develop a system to control and manage wet weather flows in the
combined sewer system of the City.
Description:
The City used rainfall data (63 year record) for determining
historical flow patterns. A correlation is then made between
this data and more recent data collected citywide. Computer
programs and other analytical methods are used to determine flow i
management for the proposed storage/transport sewers.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1106
Grantee: City of Santa Cruz
Location of Study: Santa Cruz, California
Objective;
For proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, and potential environmental impact.
Description;
Conduct oceanographic study within study area including current
14

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1106 (contd.)
measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and
macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical,
physical and bacteriological analysis of water column and
sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1118
Grantee: South San Luis Obispo County Sanitation District
Location of Study: Oceano, California
Objective:
For proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data and potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct oceanographic study within study area including current
measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and macro-
invertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical,
physical and bacteriological analysis of water column and
sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1128
Grantee: City of Watsonvi.lle
Location of Study: Watsonville, California
Objective:
For proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, and potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct oceanographic study within study area including
current measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and
macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical,
physical and bacteriological analysis of water column and sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1135
Grantee: South Bay Dischargers Authority
Location of Study: South San Francisco Bay, California
15

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1135 (contd.)
Objective:
For proposed bay outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct estuarine study within study area including fish and
macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic assessment and chemical,
physical, and bacteriological analysis of water column and
sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1135
Grantee:- South Bay Dischargers Authority
Location of Study: South San Francisco Bay, California
Objective:
Evaluate the significance of marsh and benthic loading rates and
their influence on the oxygen budget in South San Francisco Bay.
Description:
A field monitoring program was performed to monitor the changes
in nutrients and oxygen demanding substances in sloughs with and
without significant marsh influences.. These measurements were also
made in flow through respirometers on the different sediment
types found in the Bay.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1154
Grantee: West Contra Costa County Wastewater Management Agency
Location of Study: Richmond, California
Objective:
For_proposed bay outfall determine feasibility,'best location,
design data, potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct estuarine study within study area including current
measurement, fish and macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic
assessment and chemical, physical, and bacteriological analysis
of water column and sediments.
16

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1183
Grantee: City of Woodland
Location of Study: Woodland, California
Objective:
Investigate the effectiveness and applicability of the pond
isolation process in waste oxidation ponding systems.
Description:
The critical factors in algal settling are verified and optimum
operating schedules are determined using pilot ponds operated
to simulate physio chemical and biological conditions existing
in field ponds. Laboratory bioassays are used to identify specific
nutrient limitations.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1202
Grantee: The City of Los Angeles
Location of Study: Los Angeles Outer Harbor, Los Angeles,
California
Objective:
Investigate the effects of the Terminal Island Treatment Plant's
wastewater discharge on the marine environment of the Los Angeles
Harbor.
Description:
A series of studies designed to show that the secondary effluent
discharged by the Terminal Island Treatment Plant is "enhancing"
the waters of the Los Angeles outer harbor. Investigations
include: analysis of existing data, assessment of oxygen budget,
assessment of food chain/web, assessment of chemical constituents,
and toxicity/bioassay studies.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1225
Task: Solano County Soil Enrichment Study
Grantee: East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD)
(Lead Agency), San Francisco Bay Region
Wastewater Solids Study
Location of Study: Solano County, California
17

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PROJECT NO. C-Q6-1225 (contd.)
Objective:
Evaluate the use of digested and dewatered sewage sludge on
marginal agricultural land under controlled field conditions
to determine the agricultural benefits, environmental effects,
health-related effects, and public acceptance of such practices.
Description:
A series of field test plots and a comprehensive environmental
monitoring program are being used to determine liquid sludge
application rates; crop yields; soil, plant, and water quality;
heavy metal effects; and pathogenic micro-organism survival and
effects. Public acceptance is evaluated through a public
participation program involving local farmers and ranchers, farm
advisors, prominent citizens, and decision-makers.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1225
Task: Microbiological Testing and Evaluation of
Sludge Application to Agricultural Land
Grantee: East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD)
(Lead Agency), San Francisco Bay Region
Wastewater Solids Study
Location of Study: Solano County, California
Objective:
Evaluate the health related effects of pathogenic microorganisms
associated with land application of sewage sludge, and determine
the relative health risk of such practice.
Description:
Samples of sewage sludge, soil, soil-sludge medium, and irrigation'
water are collected. Quantitative analyses are made for total
mesophilic aerobic forms of Salmonella, Shigella, Fecal Coliform,
and Fecal Streptococci. Helminths are quantified using the
MacMaster*s slide technique and viability tests made by hampster
innoculation. An assessment of health risk will be made upon
completion of the monitoring program through a cooperative effort
with the California State Department of Health. Microbiological
testing will be conducted at other test sites as applicable.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1225
Task: Heavy Metal Study
IS

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1225 (contd.)
Grantee: East Bay Municipal Utility District (EEMUD)
(Lead Agency), San Francisco Bay Region
Wastewater Solids Study
Location of Study: University of California, Riverside, California
Objective:
Determine the phytotoxic effects of selected heavy metals on
selected plants, "safe" sludge loading rates, and the "useful"
life of an agricultural land application project assuming heavy
metals are the long-term limiting factor.
Description:
The pot test program is being conducted at U. C. Riverside by
Drs. A1 Page and Frank Bingham, under the auspices of the U. C.
Kearney Foundation. Three soils, three air-dried sludges, four
sludge application rates and a control, three plant systems,
and four replications, for a total of 5k0 pots are being utilized.
The heavy metals of interest are Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and' Zn. The
total metals and their availability will be measured in the sludge,
soil and plants, to observe heavy metal uptake and accumulation and
resultant yield relationships. This information will provide a
firm basis for developing diagnostic soil and plant tissue criteria
for assessing the phytotoxic hazard from heavy metals accumulation
in soils. These criteria will facilitate the development of "safe"
sludge application rates, and the "useful" life of such projects.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1225
Task: Veale Tract Soil Enrichment Demonstration Program
Grantee: East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD)
(Lead Agency), San Francisco Bay Region
Wastewater Solids Study
Location of Study: East Contra Costa County, California
Obje ctive:
Demonstrate the beneficial effects of dewatered sewage sludge,
composted sewage sludge, and fibreboard waste on marginal
agricultural land in East Contra Costa County. The test program
would evaluate sludge composting methods, application methods,
and public acceptance of this practice in this area. There are
approximately 12,000 areas of such marginal agricultural land in
the immediate surrounding area that is accessible to barge
transportat ion.
19

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1225 (contd.)
Description:
The program will be conducted by the Study staff in cooperation
withEBMUD laboratory personnel, and Veale Tract, Inc. A series
of field test plots and a monitoring program will be utilized.
Dewatered sludge cake will be hauled to the test site. The sludge
will be incorporated into the test plots and will be composted with
fibreboard waste product. The test plots will consist of sludge
only, a mixture of sludge and fibreboard waste, chemical fertilizer,
and a control replicated three times. Selected crops will be
grown and harvested. EBMUD will provide laboratory services to
monitor the site operations in accordance with regulatory agency
requirements. Various sludge application methods will be tested
to determine feasibility for fullscale operation.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1252
Grantee: City and County of San Francisco
Location of Study: Offshore San Francisco, California,
south of the Gulf of Farallon
Objective:
For proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, and potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct- oceanographic study within study area including current
measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and macro-
invertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical, physical
and bacteriological analysis of water column and sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1269
Grantee: Central Contra Costa Sanitary District
Location of Study: Concord, California
Objective:
Determine and optimize the operating characteristics of a full
scale model sewage sludge-solid waste coincineration and pyrolysis
process with respect to feed techniques, waste.heat recovery,
fossil fuel input, and exhaust air emissions.
Description:
An unused sludge incinerator was modified and instrumented to accept
a mixture of dewatered raw sludge and the light fraction of solid
waste. Different mixtures of sludge and solid waste were used and
total feed rates were varied. The operation of the unit was
optimized for minimum startup input of fossil fuel, maximum waste
heat recovery, and minimum exhaust gas contaminants. The data
obtained will be used to develop design criteria for modification
of two existing sludge incinerators now designed to be fired with
natural gas..
20

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1266
Grantee: Carmel Sanitary District
Location of Study: Carmel Bay, California
Objective :
For proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, and potential environmental impact.
Description:
Conduct oceanographic study within study area including current
measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and
macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical,
physical and bacteriological analysis of water column and
sediments.
PROJECT NO. C-06-1289
Grantee: City and County of San Francisco
Location of Study: San Francisco, California
Objective:
Determine the best treatment process that can be adapted to the
wide range of flow conditions that occur in the combined sewer
system. Determine level of treatment for wet weather flows.
Description:
Test treatment systems on transitional flows that range from dry
to wet weather and then back to dry weather. Pilot advanced
primary systems to check treatment ability and resulting sludge
volume.
PROJECT MO. C-06-1327
Grantee: City of Pismo Beach
Location of Study: Pismo Beach, California
Objective:
For proposed ocean outfall determine feasibility, best location,
design data, and potential environmental impact.
21

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PROJECT NO. C-06-1327 (Contd.)
Description:
Conduct oceanographic study within study area including current
measurement, marine geophysical investigation, fish and
macroinvertebrate assessment, benthic assessment, and chemical,
physical and bacteriological analysis of water column and
sediments.
22

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REGION X
PILOT PLANT STEP-1 STUDIES*
o Nampa, Idaho
Sewer sealing study (completed?)
o Dayton, Oregon
Phased isolation lagoon tests. (Has a Step-1 grant, but no
EPA funds for tests.)
o Ontario, Oregon
Phased isolation lagoon tests. (Does not have a Step-1 grant
yet.)
o Pullman, Washington
Process evaluation - problem of Washington State University
student population fluctuation.
o Seattle Metro
Several pilot studies involving biological and physical-chemical
treatment systems as options to comply with secondary treatment
requirements of law.
*Based on notes taken during Regional visit.

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Appendix C
Regional Construction Grant Program Personnel Contacted

-------
LIST OF REGIONAL CONTACTS.
REGION I
REGION II
REGION III
REGION IV
REGION V
REGION VI
REGION VII
REGION VIII
Kenneth Johnson-, Deputy Regional Administrator
Richard Kotelly, Deputy Director, Water Programs
Richard Keppler, R&D Representative
William J. Muszynski, Chief
Construction Grants Branch (Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands)
James DeLaura, Project Engineer (New Jersey)
Andy Warren, Chief
Central New York Section Construction Grants
Robert Mason, R&D Representative
A1 Montague, R&D Representative
Kirk Lucius, Deputy Director, Water Division
Eugene Chaiken, Deputy Chief
Construction Grants Branch, Water Division
Kent Fuller, Deputy Chief, Planning Branch, Water Division
Individual State Project Engineers
Clifford Risley, R&D Representative
Ned Burleson, Municipal Facilities Branch, Water Division
Robert Steiert
Arlein Wicks, Director, Office of Intermedia Programs
Aleck Alexander, R&D Representative, OIP
James Mandia, R&D Representative, OIP
Samuel Berman, Chief, Engineering Operations Branch
Water Division
Wayland Britt, Engineering Operations Branch
George Hartman, Engineering Operations Branch
Water Division

-------
- 2 -
Alfred Vigil, Chief, Grants Administration Branch
Water Division
Jon Herrmann, R&D Representative
REGION IX	Sheila Prindiville, Director, Water Division
Allan Abramson, Chief, Planning and Standards Branch
Water Division
William Bishop, R&D Representative
REGION X	Norman Sievertson, Grants Operations Section
Water Operations Branch, Water Division
Tom Dennington, Grants Administration Branch
Water Division
Dave McClelland, Grants Administration Branch
Water Division
John Osborn, R&D Representative

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Appendix D
Description of Grants Information and Control System-II (GICS-II)
and Sample Printout of a Step-1 Grant from Region IV

-------
Grants Information and Control System (GICS)
Ihe original GICS system was modified recently to standardize on a
national basis certain information concerning the Regional Construction
Grant Programs in the ten Regions. The system allows additional data
elements for Regional use for tracking and management purposes.
It is understood that the new GICS-II system will essentially be
operational in all Regions by March or April 1977. The following is a
brief description of the system, as presented in the Grants Information
and Control System Users Manual, which is available from the Grants Infor-
mation Branch, Grants Administration Division:
Hie Grants Information and Control System (GICS) is a computer
based management system that gathers information on EPA grant
programs, whether administered at Headquarters or in the Regional
Offices. The system provides computer programs to collect appli-
cation, award, and status data from Regional and Headquarters
offices, edit the data, maintain a grant data base, and disburse
error data to the submitting office. Finally, the system main-
tains current query files for on-line retrieval for some grant
programs.
Specifically, the objectives of the system are:
1.	Provide monthly grant activity information to management
2.	Provide real-time or on-line response to special infor-
mation requests from grants applicants, Congress, and top
management of EPA.
3.	Provide real-time or on-line response to daily opera-
tional problems to program review staff and grants clerks

-------
- 2 -
4.	Eliminate unnecessary manual record keeping and reporting
procedures, both in the Regions and Washington
5.	Provide a standard system design module that can supply
standard management information and still be modified to
meet special local operational requirements

-------
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Appendix 
Other Belated EPA Activities and Surveys

-------
OTHER RELATED EPA ACTIVITIES AND SURVEYS
There were six other related EPA program activities and surveys
prompted by the January 1974 GAO Report, and the recent Congressional
concern about what EPA is doing to develop and utilize new and improved
wastewater treatment technology in the Regional Construction Grant Program.
A brief description of these activities and surveys follows.
Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory
The MERL is serving as the coordinator for the Office of Air, Land,
and Water Use to explore, on a trial basis with Regions I and V, the
feasibility of long-range cooperative technology studies between ORD and
the Regions, on new and innovative wastewater treatment processes and
methods.
As a first step, Mr. Mayo, Director, MERL, held telephone conferences
with Regional Construction Grant Program people in Regions I and V to
indicate MERL's interest in developing new and innovative technology
studies for specific municipal projects, in cooperation with the Region.
He acknowledged to Regions I and V that the opportunity to impact the
current 18 billion dollar program is minimal; however, he felt that now
is the time to start laying the ground work for the next Congressional
appropriations.
MERL proposed that, initially, State and Regional Construction Grant
Program personnel meet with individuals from the MERL to review and com-
pare both the MERL list of Innovative Technologies (Appendix F) and State
priority lists, for candidate municipalities (projects) that will probably
not be ready for a Step-1 grant award for 12-18 months. This long-range

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- 2 -
approach is considered desirable because of ORD planning and budgeting
requirements-
The Regions agreed to contact the State agencies to determine their
reactions on the proposal to incorporate cooperative technology studies
in the Step-1 grant process. It was also agreed that for this trial basis
there should be a limit on the number of projects in a Region to no more
than six.
This cooperative State/Regional/ORD approach may serve as an indica-
tion of how the Office of Air, Land, and Water Use, ORD, may wish to
proceed, following the initial examination of current on-going pilot studies
that are being supported by Step-1 planning grants, as covered in this
report.
Office of Air, Land, and Water Use, ORD
Ihe OALWU contracted Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Inc., to conduct a
survey at local, State and EPA Regional levels. The purpose of the survey
was to determine whether or not innovative technologies are being used in
municipal wastewater treatment projects funded under the Regional Construc-
tion Grant Programs, and to identify the reasons why such technologies are
or are not being used.
(*)
In its February 1976 report to the OALWU, Booz-Allen and Hamilton,
Inc. :
(1)	summarized the survey findings and conclusions
(2)	identified emerging problems in municipal wastewater treatment
(3)	examined barriers to the implementation of innovative technology
(4)	made a broad recommendation on data collection and dissemination
(5)	presented alternatives for encouraging the introduction of

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- 3 -
innovative technologies in municipal wastewater treatment
(*) "A Survey of the Use of Innovative Technology in Wastewater Treatment" -
Report by Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Management Consultants,
February 1976, Report No. 9075-044-001, under contract with Office of
Air, Land, and Water Use, Office of Research and Development, EPA
Technical Information Division, OMTS, ORD
Hie TID awarded a one-year research grant (R804782 01) in November
1976 to the Science and Technology Policy Center, Syracuse Research Corpora-
tion, entitled "Introducing New Technology to Municipal Waste Treatment:
A Decision-Making Study".
The following is taken directly from the Summary of Proposed Work
section of the EPA Notice of Research Project.
"Through the Environmental Protection Agency, the federal govern-
ment is encouraging the adoption and use of new technology in muni-
cipal waste treatment. To effectuate realistic technology transfer
policies, EPA must better understand the dynamics of local decision-
making as they impact on decisions to innovate. Some municipalities
have made decisions to incorporate new technology, whereas others
have not. Why? To investigate the factors that impinge on techno-
logical choice by municipal users, the proposed research would study
the process of decision in four cities that have made contrasting
technological determinations. It would prepare in-depth case studies
using an organizational problem-solving approach. ' This would involve
structuring the analysis around key decision points found to be
critical in previous studies in the adoption of new technology:
(1) awareness of problem/opportunity; (2) search for alternative
solutions; (3) advocacy of options; (4) adoption of specific solution;
(5) initial implementation; (6) incorporation or termination. Cross-
case comparisons would be made to delineate the roles played by
various participants in the process and how coalitions form at the
local level that serve to promote or impede the introduction of new
technology to municipal waste treatment."
Office of Water Program Operations, OWHM
Another related activity was the Regional survey conducted by the
Office of Water Program Operations, Office of Water and Hazardous Materials.

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- 4 -
The purpose was to collect information on Step-2 and -3 construction
grant projects to determine the number of projects utilizing new technologies
and the types of new technology currently under design or construction.
In this approach, Gary Otakie, OWPO, conducted personal interviews
with Regional Construction Program Project Engineers/State Coordinators,
and reviewed construction grant files as necessary.
Appendix G contains a copy of the memorandum from John Rhett, DAA,
OWPO, OWHM, to the Regional Administrators requesting their cooperation and
assistance, and attached questionnaire entitled "Construction Grant Projects
Utilizing New and Innovative Technologies".
Office of Planning and Evaluation, Office of Planning and Management
Through a series of Regional visits, Larry Reed of the Program Evalua-
tion Division, Office of Planning and Evaluation, OPM, headed up a study
to evaluate the impact of municipal water pollution control research and
development program on the development and application of innovative
municipal water pollution control technology.
The final product of this study will be a report of the findings to
the Assistant Administrators for Research and Development, and Planning
and Management. It is expected the report will contain recommendations
for improving the overall process of developing and utilizing new/innova-
tive and improved wastewater treatment methods and technologies, which
involves the ORD, OWHM, and the Regional Construction Grant Programs.
Environmental Protection Agency
Hie EPA recently issued a request for proposals to conduct a special
study on the current Step-1 facilities planning grant process.

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- 5 -
Following is the background information provided in the Statement
of Work of the request for proposal.
Public Law 92-500 requires that municipal wastewater treatment
facilities achieve best practicable waste treatment technology or
some more stringent level of treatment necessary to meet water
quality standards. A total of $18 billion was authorized and
alloted in 1972 to help municipalities meet these requirements.
As of July 31, 1976, $11 billion of the total had been obligated,
leaving $7 billion to be obligated of the initially authorized
funds. The Agency anticipates additional authorizations will be
forthcoming, and is planning for an obligation level of $5-6
billion per year in the future.
The rate of future obligations depends on the current level
of facility planning or Step 1 activity. Step 1 grants are
given to help determine the most cost-effective and environ-
mentally sound facilities necessary to solve municipal pollution
problems. If there are not enough applications for Step 1 grants,
or if plans are prepared too slowly after the Step 1 grants are
made, or if the plans that are prepared are poorly conceived and
need major revisions, the Agency will have difficulty in the
long run maintaining a level of grants approval for Step 2
(design) and Step 3 (construction) sufficient to achieve the
overall goals of the program in an orderly manner. This potential
difficulty will be referred to in this rationale as "shortfall."
The problem of preventing a "shortfall" is complicated because
funds are allotted to the individual states. Some states have
a shortfall in the facility planning process compared with their
available allotment. The available allotment is, therefore,
utilized slowly, and the overall national rate of obligations is
reduced accordingly.
EPA regional offices and states play an essential role
in developing, reviewing and approving applications for
Step 1 grants. They must review and approve the Plan
of Study (a requirement for a Step 1 grant) and the
Facility Plan (the major product from the Step 1 grant).
They also provide preapplication assistance to potential
grantees and are immediately responsible for assuring
that the overall grants process moves at a rate com-
mensurate with national obligation goals.

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- 6 -
The Grants Information Control System contains much infor-
mation on pendinq and approved Step 1 grants and facility
plans. This system falls short, however, of providing
a complete picture of facility planning in the pipeline
or about to enter the .pipeline. Prospective grantees
who initiated their feasibility and planning work on
their own prior to October 1974, may apply directly for
a Step 2 or '3 grant. Several states (e.g., New York)
still have many such projects, while in other states
most have already passed through the grants pipeline.
Some states also set aside funds for Step 1 grants to
communities which are not explicitly mentioned by name
on the state priority list as in line for such a grant.
Another consideration which must be kept in mind when
assessing the shortfall is that the rate at which facility
plans are completed and approved varies greatly. The
assessment must be based on an analysis of the time nec-
essary to complete facility plans as well as the number
of facility plans underway or likely to get underway
each year.
These considerations have led the Agency to conclude
that a special study is needed to evaluate the current
Step 1 process and recommend ways m which it might be
improved to ensure that the rate of facility planning
is sufficient to ensure obligations at the rate of $5-6
billion per year.

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Appendix F
List of Innovative Technologies
Wastewater Research Division
Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory-Cincinnati

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;:\sti;'.vathr iti-sr.ARni nrvision'
JANUARY - 1077
CATEGORY f, TITLE
INNOVATIVE- TF.: IINOLOGIF.S
PROVEN BUT NOT
USED EXTENSIVELY
CLASSIFICATION'
TESTED RUT NEEDS GOOD IDEA TIL-V
FIELD VERIFICATION NEEDS TESTINi

:>.
6.
I .
S.
9.
0.
LI.
Secondary Treatment
Alternatives
Intermittent Sand
Filtration to Upgrade
Lagoons
Open Tank Oxygen Aeration -
Automation of Secondary
Treatment Plants
Fluidi7.ec! Bed-0	Biological
Treatment
Carrousel (deep	oxidation ditch
with mechanical	aeration)
Deep Shaft Aeration
Airco Fall Reactor
(clip-on upgrading technique)
Orbital (Raceway brush
aeration & flew equalization)
Activated Bio-Filter
(sludge return in a trickling
filter)
Weighing Agent Upgrading
Rotating Biological Contactor?
X
X
X
B. Disinfection Alternatives
l.
O 
Ultraviolet R:iJiation
Suip'ni;.- Dioxide I'loch 1 or 'mat ion
(J z on-j
Ai r
Electron A. c e  . 1 e rati o n
Chlorine Dioxide
X
X
X
Y
Nutrient Rembv:'.!
I. Single-stage Nitrification-
Dcni tri fi cation in an '"xtendcd
Aeration Plant
'2. Fixed Film Nitrification and
Denitrification

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-2-
C. Nutrient w Toxics Removal
(conti nued)
5. -  11 iol.op.i cal Phosphorus	X
Removal (Phostrip)
4.	Digester Supernatant Ammonia	X
Recovery
5.	AARP - Ammonia Removal 	X
Recovery
D. Toxics Removal (organics 5 heavy metals)
1.	Powdered Carbon Upgrading	X
to Activated Sludge Plants
with Regeneration
2.	Powdered Carbon Upgrading	X
to Activated Sludge Plants
without Regeneration
3.	Sodium sulfide or Ferrite Upgrading	X
for Heavy Metal Removal
4.	Independent Physical-Chemical	X
Treatment with Nitrate Addition
(no regeneration)
Preliminary 5 Primary Treatment Alternatives
Flow Equalization	X
Dry or dry/wet weather1
storage
SI'. fRL Primary
Stationary Screens	X
(Bauer ling.)
Discost raincr
F. Special Applications
1.	Chemical Floccularion S	X
Flotation for Ocean Discharge
2.	Renovation F; Reuse through	X
Groundwater Recharge
3.	Direct Municipal/Industrial	X
Reuse
Aluminum sulphur
Impregnated concrete pipe
Trench less sewers
X

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-3-
Spocial Applications (continued)
5.	Integrated Nfunicipnl Utility
Services
Solid refuse
Sludge
Wastewater renovation
Power production
6.	Solar Energy for Digester
Heating; Remote Facility Pumping
Stations
ti. Small Flow Applications
1.	Centralized Management of Remote	X
Treatment Facilities
2.	Septage Treatment	X
5. Individual Heme Water Conservation	X
Treatment  Reuse Systems
4.	Alternating Soil Absorption Fields	X
and Chemical Rejuvenation
5.	Recreational Vehicle Waste Disposal	X
Systems
Sludge Disposal Applications
1.	Sludge-Refuse Coincineration
Co-pyrolysis
2.	Digester Supernatant Treatment with
Anaerobic Trickling Filter
5.	Coal Sludge Incineration
4.	Sludge Pressure Dev.atering
f> Autothcrmal Incineration
Thermophilic Digestion
Aerobic
An arob i c
6.	Multiple Hearth Pyrolysis
7.	Composting (Alternate Schemes)
5.	Compost Sterilization w/IIent
9. I.ime Stabilization
10.	Sludge Trenching
11.	Heat Treatment of Sludges
Prior to Digestion to Improve
Biodegradation
2. Sludge Disinfection by High
Energy Electron Irradiation
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

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ct Weather Flow Treatment
Vacuum Street Cleaning
Sewer Flushing
Porous Pavement
Helical Flow Regulator

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Appendix G
November 29, 1976 Memorandum from John Rhett, Deputy
Assistant Administrator for Water Program Operations,
to Regional Administrators, Subject: "Utilization of
New and Innovative Technologies in the Construction
Grants Program"

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UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
8JF.CT: Utilization of New and Innovative Technologies
in the Construction Grants Program
DATE: /JOV 2 J? 1375
iOM: John T. Rhett, Deputy Assistant Administrator
Water Program Operations (WH-546)
):	Regional Administrators, Region I - X
Recent Congressional committee hearings have raised questions
concerning .the utilization of new technologies in the Construction
Grants Program. Some outside observers of the program feel these
technologies are not being implemented. The reasons cited include
conservative design practices "&nd lack, of confidence in new technologies
caused in part by a shortage of full scale operating data.
.> A review of Step 2 and 3 Construction Grant Projects will determine
the number of projects utilizing new technologies and the types of new
technology currently under design or construction. This data will
provide a basis for decisions concerning the need for special programs
related to implementation of new technology.
Members of the Office of Planning and Evaluation and my staff will
be scheduling visits to discuss the use of new technology in grant
projects in your Region and to scan the project files to gather information.
Gary Otakie (426-8976) of this Office and Larry Reed (755-0306) of OPE
will ba the principal contacts on these matters. Ue are sending the
attached form so that your construction grants staff can familiarize
themselves with the type of information we are seeking.
I appreciate your cooperation and assistance.
Attachment
cc: Water Division Directors
EPA. Form 1320-6 6-72)

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(.I'll 111(10'/ 11 " t r^cuno i OiJ I-5
Project f!o:	
Grant Apylicant:
Location:	
~Check
One:
		EPA Regions:	
___________	Name of Preparer:	
		Telephone No:	
PL - 92-500 Project Step 2 Grant Awarded / /
PL - 92-500 Project Step 3 Grant Awarded (/
Old law Project CJ Step 1 Study Completed
(MGD)
co
*Date of a^ard (bid,1
~Design average flow"
WASTEWATER:
OXYGtTl ACTIVATED SLUDGE
SPECIFY PROCESS 	
OTHER OXYGEfl SYSTEM ZZL" (specify)	
ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR (Disc) /
for BOD REMOVAL CJ!
for NITRIFICATION f~l
OXIDATION 0ITCH CJ
ACTIVATED BIO FILTER CJ
a
PLASTIC MEDIA
LAGOON (P0."!D)
with roc:-:
FILTER
TRICrCLING
UPGRADING
FILTERS CJ
INTERMITTENT SAND FILTER CJ
SUBMERGED SAND FILTER CJ
OTHER L	(SPECIFY)	
LAND APPLICATION (TREATMENT) 7
CROP IRRIGATION
(or slow rata systems)/~7
RAPID INFILTRATION CJ
OVERLAND FLO'// CO
 CARBON ADSORPTION CJ
GRANULAR l
POWDERED CJ
NEW FILTRATION TECHNIQUES CJ
(NOT RAPID SAND FILTERS)
MULTI OR DUAL MEDIA CJ
SPECIFY
CARBON REGENERATION CJ
LIME TREATMENT CJ
UITH BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT CO
AFTER BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT (tertiary) CO
BEFORE NITRIFICATION CJ
PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL
(no biolociical treatment) / 7
RECARBONATIOii" CJ
ION EXCHANGE C7_
REVERSE OSMOSIS _'
AMMONIA STRIPPING CO
TUBE SETTLERS CJ
MICRO SCREENS CJ
NITRIFICATION CO
SUSPENDED GROWTH "(TANKS)' CO
ATTACHED GROWTH (FILTERS) CO
WITH AIR CJ WITH OXYGEN
FLU IDIZED BEDS 'JO
DENITRIFICATION CJ
SUSPENDED GROWTH (TANKS) CO
ATTACHED GROWTH (FILTERS) Z
COMBINED NITRIFICATION-
DEN I TR I r I CAT I Oii I	'
WASTEWATER REUSE CJ
GROUND WATER RECHARGE CJ
RECREATIONAL REUSE L1
INDUSTRIAL REUSE CJ
OTHER (SPECIFY)		
WASTEWATER:
UTILIZATION OF SOLAR E'ifcKGY_
(COLLECTORS OR CELLS) L_J
NEW DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGY JJJ]
OZONE CJ	,	.
ULTRA VIOLET LIGHT CO
BROMINE CHLORIDE CO
OTHER ilj
SPEC I"FY_^	
DECHLORINATION 
SULFUR DIOXIDE L-,
OTHER tO
SPECIFY
STORM AND COMBINED SEWER j~J
overflow treatment l_J
SPECIFY TYPE 	_	
NON-SEWERED TREATMENT LJ
SPECIFY TYPE	
OTHER INNOVATIVE PROCESSES !~J~
SPECIFY
SLUDGE:
CO
CO
PYROLYSIS CC
SEPTAGE
-	INCINERATION-^
-	PYROLYSIS-CJ
REGIONAL TREATMENT OF
TANK PUMPINGS LJ
SLUDGE COMPOSTING CJ
LIME CONDITIONING lO
UTILIZATION OF INCINERATOR ASH FOR
SLUDGE CONDITIONING CJ
CHEMICAL FIXaXIOM (STABILIZATION)
OF SLUDGE ll
 SPECIFY PROCESS
COMMERICAL SOIL CONDITIONER/
FERTILIZER PRODUCTS CO
DIGESTOR GAS DRIVEN ETERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINCS lj	_
NEW SLUDGE DEHATERIMG TECHNIQUE
HEAT TREATMENT CJ
FILTER PRESS CJ
BELT FILTER 'CD
UTILIZATION OF WASTE HEAT l~~7
SPECIFY
OTHER INNOVATIVE PROCESSES CJ
SPECIFY
DISCUSSION
OTHER INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE TECHNOLOGIES (PROCESSES) CHECKED AGOVE (VARIATIONS,
PECULIAR CIRCUMSTANCES, ETC.)

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