Office of Ground-Water Protection
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
In August, 1984, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency {'£j?A')
issued a Ground-Water Protection Strategy, setting out the Agency's
plans for enhancing ground-water protection efforts by EPA and the
States. A central feature of the Strategy is a policy framework
for EPA's programs which accords differing levels of protection
to ground water based on its use, value to society, and vulnerability
to contamination
Dividing ground water into three classes, the policy provides
an extra degree of protection to ground water that is highly
vulnerable to contamination and of great value because of its
importance as a source of drinking water or its contribution to
a unique ecological habitat (Class I). The vast majority of the
nation's ground water is in Class II, a current or potential source
of drinking water, and it is for this ground water that basic EPA
ground-water protection requirements are designed. Class III ground
water is not a potential source of drinking water due to levels of
contamination from naturally occurring conditions or the effects
of broadscale human activity that cannot be feasibly cleaned up.
As an initial step in carrying out this policy, the Agency
has developed draft Guidelines for classifying ground water which:
o Further define the classes, concepts, and key terms
related to the classification system outlined in the
Ground-Water Protection Strategy, and
o Describe the procedures and information needs for
classifying ground water.
The procedures in the draft Guidelines address classification
of the segment of ground water near a particular source that is
most likely to be affected should a release occur, generally
defined as ground water within a two-mile radius of the source.
While the specific procedures are not designed for broader aquifer
classification, many of the concepts and procedures developed
for site-by-site classification will also be useful in such
classification efforts.
The draft Guidelines set out EPA's policy choices regarding
ground-water classification, but the manner and extent to which
the Guidelines will be incorporated into EPA regulatory, permitting,
and planning decisions will be determined on a program-by-program
basis. The Guidelines are not enforceable in particular EPA programs
until legally incorporated by program guidance, regulations, or other
appropriate means. Where States have delegated authority to administer
an EPA program that incorporates the classification Guidelines
in its decision-making procedures, States will be required to use
either the Guidelines or another method resulting in equivalent
or higher class designations for ground water.

Following is a summary of the key criteria for each class and
procedural approaches for determining whether the criteria are met.
Classification Review Area (CRA)
The first step in making a classification decision is defining the
area around the source that should be evaluated. Once this
Classification-Review Area (CRA) has been delineated, information
regarding public and private wells, demographics, hydrogeology,
and surface water and wetlands is collected and a classification
decision is made based on the criteria for each class as described
The Guidelines specify an initial CRA as the area within a two-mile
radius of the boundary of the facility or activity under review.
Under certain hydrogeologic conditions an expanded or reduced
CRA is allowed.
Class I - Special Ground Water
Class I ground waters are defined as resources of particularly
high value. They are highly vulnerable and either an irreplaceable
source of drinking water or ecologically vital.
o Highly vulnerable ground water is characterized by a relatively
high potential for contaminants to enter and/or be transported
within the ground-water flow system. The draft Guidelines
provide two options for determining vulnerability based on
hydrogeologic factors. Option A uses a standard numerical
ranking system known as DRASTIC, with numerical cutoff points.
Option B relies on a qualitative "best professional judgement"
approach which could include use of numerical or alternative
o An irreplaceable source of drinking water is ground water
that serves a substantial population and replacement by
water of comparable quality and quantity from alternative
sources in the area would be economically infeasible or
precluded by institutional barriers. There are two options
for judging irreplaceability. Option A relies on a standard
methodology using one or more numeric cutoff values for size
of population served and economic feasibility. Option B is a
qualitative "best professional judgement" approach which
could include use of quantitative approaches as part of the
o Ecologically vital ground water supplies a sensitive ecological
system located in a ground-water discharge area that supports
a unique habitat. Unique habitats include habitats for endangered
species listed or proposed for listing under the Endangered
Species Act as well as certain Federally managed and protected

Class II - Current and Potential Sources of Drinking Water and
Ground Water Having Other Beneficial Uses
Class II ground waters include all non-Class I ground water
that is currently used or is potentially available for drinking
water or other beneficial use.
Subclass IIA is a current source of drinking water. Ground
water is classified as IIA if within the CRA there is either
(1) one or more operating drinking water wells or springs,
or (2) a water supply reservoir watershed or portion that
is designated for water quality protection by either a State
or locality.
Subclass IIB is a potential source of drinking water. This
ground water TO can be obtained in sufficient quantity to
meet the needs of an average family (i.e., 150 gallons
per day); (2) has total dissolved solids (TDS) of less than
10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l); and (3) is of a quality
that can be used without treatment or that can be treated
using methods reasonably employed by public water systems.
Class III - Ground Water Not a Potential Source of Drinking
Water and of Limited Beneficial Use
Class III ground waters have either (1) a TDS concentration
of over 10,000 mg/l? or (2) contamination by naturally occurring
conditions or by the effects of broadscale human activity that
cannot be cleaned up using treatment methods reasonably employed
in public water systems. Technology-based and economics-based
tests for reasonably employed treatment methods are presented
in the Guidelines.
Subclass IIIA ground water has a high to intermediate
degree of connection with adjacent ground water of a
higher class or with surface water.
Subclass IIIB ground water has a low degree of connection
with adjacent surface waters or ground waters of a
higher class.
Copies of the full draft Guidelines for Classifying Ground Water
(over 350 pages) and a shorter technical summary can be obtained
by sending a written request to:
Office of Ground-Water Protection
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, WH-550G
Washington, D.C. 20460
Comments on the draft Guidelines must be postmarked and sent to
the above address by no later than February 8, 1987.

I38M	Federal Kegeler / Vol. SI. So. 232 J Wednesday, December 3. 1098 / Notjpee
nematocide/insectycide ethoprop (O-
ethyl S.S-dipropyl phosphorodithioate)
in or on brussels sprouts at 0.02 ppm.
Rhone-Poulenc. Inc. has amended the
petition by incraaaingtha tolerance level
to 0.05 ppm. The propoaad analytical
method for determining residues is gas
chromatographic procadare using a
phosphorous, flama photometric
detector. (PIA-M).
8. PP 7F3470. CSia-Geigy Corp. P.O.
Box 1830R Greensboro, NC 27419.
Proposes to amnri an rra mn^nfl by
establishing tolerances for the combined
residua* of the fungicide metalaxyl [JV-
alanine methyl eater}, and its.
metabolite* containing the 2.#-
dimethytanttbe moeity. and N-&-
(methoxyacetyl) alanine methyl ester in
or on the commodities Mneberries at ZJ3
ppm. stoo»f!raiti at t.0 ppm. walnut*
and almonds at 05 ppm; and almond
hulls at 5.0 ppm; Thar proposed
analytical method fin determining
residw* irgn* chromatography. (PM-
7.	PAP7HSB3&L Cfba-Geigy Corp.
Proposes amending Zt CFR 183.277 by
establishing a regulation permitting die
combined residues of metalaxyl and its
metabolite* In or on dried apricots and
Prunes at 4Appm ranking from
application of metalaxyl to the growing
crop. (PM-at*.
8.	PP7P34n. Fsrmanta Ptanl
Protection CeuftO. mm PainesvHl*
OH 440W. Pteposus amending 40 CFR
180.275 bp establishing a tolerance for
*UT rniahiasil rsslriiwa nl Iha fn~rf
chiorothalonil [(Z4&6-
"tn lilis iriais^lsiiMllilst! ¦"* it*
Mchloroisopthaionitrile in or on pecan*
at 0.02 ppm. The proposed analytical
method for determining residues is gas
chromatography. (PM-Zl).
9.	PPSF34SU Rohm A Haas Co..
Independence West. Philadelphia*
PA 19105. Proposes amending 40 CFR
Part 180 by -titahttihf-q a tolerance far
residue* eftbeJMrbiaid* 2 ethoxy-8.
nvr^rthyl 5 (t rhlafti f
nitrobenzoate in or oaeeybeane at 0J»
PP-iiJha ppopoasd lui^icai method
for istarminlin iiisldnsa la aiedroa-
cyptnm mis i liniamltnisphyusing a "NK
tiTtiM —j-tnr* ¦htK*"*! (PM»J3L
10.	PP 7J&47Z Brea. Agrfciiltael
Service. Ino. Stockton. CA by Delta
ManagementCroup. Fenwick
Professional Park. 1414 Fenwick Lane.
SUver Spring MO 20910. Propose*
amending 40 CFR Part 180 by
establishing an exemption from the
requirement of a tolerance for residue*
°f the plant growth regulator hydroxy-
propanoic acid in or on all raw
agricultural commodities. The proposed
analytical method for determining
residues is titration using the USP XXI
procedure. (PW-25).
Authority: 21 U.S.C. 3Ms and 21 U.S.C. 34&
Dated: November 24,1980.
Edwin P. tlamuilh.
Director, Registration Division, Office of
Pesticide Programs.
[FR Doc. 86-Z7Q3S Filed 12-2-88; MS am)
Ouldellnee for <3rounc^WMer
OaaaWcatkNi Under ttw EPA Orotmtf>
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AGENCY: Environmental Protection
ACTTOSC Notice of *Y*i&ab&ty at draft
document for public comment
summary: Tha Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) announce* the
availability for public review and
comment of draft "Guidelines for
Ground-Water Classification under the
EPA Ground-Water Protection
Strategy." The purpose of this document
is two-fold: (1) To further define the
classes, concepts and key terms related
to the ground-water classification
system outlined in the Ground-Water
Protection Strategy (August 1984), and
(2) to describe the procedures and
information needs for classifying ground
water. These Guideline* are not
enforceable in particular EPA program*
until iegefly incorporated by program
guidance, regulation* or otW
appropriate mean*.
OATtt: The document will be available
for public comment on or about
December 10,1986. Comments must be
received by February 8,136? or
postmarked on that date.
AOOMMSK Those persons interested in
obtaining a copy of either the full 400-
page document or only tha shorter
executive summary will be able to do so
as follows:.
(1)	Single copies will ba availabla-
from SPA at the following addceaa;
Office of Ground* Waterftotectian. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, 401M
St. SW. (WH-550CV Washington. DC
204W. To receive a copy, requesters
should send their names and addresses
to the Office of Ground-Water
Protection at this time.
(2)	Copies will also, be available for
public inspection at the Public Reference
Unit U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Room M2404,401M St. SW,
Washington, DC 20460. and at all tan of
the EPA Regional Office Libraries during
their operating hours.
Individuals desiring to make
comments on this document must submit
their written comments no later than
February S, 1987 to: Project Officer
Ground-Water Classification
Guidelines, Office of Ground-Water
Protection. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, 401M St, SW. (WH-
560GJ, Washington, OC20(60.
Comments will not be accepted unless
-they are submitted in this manner.
Jose Valdee, Office at Ground-Water
Protection. U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. 401M St.. SW. (WH-
550G). Washington. DC 20480; 202/382-
7077 or FTS: 382-7077.
August 1984. EPA issued its Ground-
Water Protection Strategy to provide
clear objectives to guide the Agency's
ground-water protection efforts and
ensure consistency among related
programacilie strategy established a
ground water classification system
based on tha policy that depending on
their value to society, use and
vulnerability to contamination, different
ground water* merit different levela of
protection. Hie following clasaes of
ground water were established:
•	Class 1—Speciel ground water.
•	Class II—Ground water currently or
potentially a source of drinking water.
•	Class III—Ground water not a
current or potential source of drinking
Pursuant to the goal* of the Strategy,
the purpose of the Ground-Water
Classification Guidelines are to: (1)
Further define the classes, concepts and
key terms outlined in the Strategy, and
(2) to describe the procedures and data
requirements for performing ground
water classifications. Although
comments on all aspects of the
document are being sought, two options
are specifically presented for public
comment regarding the definition of
each of three Clas* 1 terms: "highly
vulnerable," "substantial population"
and "economically infeasible." Public
comments on the options presented will
be considered by the Agency in
determining how best to incorporate
these parameters in classification
It is important to note that the
Guidelines are not enforceable in
particular EPA programs until legally
incorporated by program guidance,
regulations, or other appropriate means.
Interested individuals may wish to
provide their ideaa on appropriate
means to incorporate the guidelines in
EPA actions.
Duted: November 25.1986.
Lawranc* f. Jeaseu.
Assistant Administator for Water.
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