October 1 - December 31, 1973
An Associate Laboratory of
National Environmental Research Center—Corvallis

S A PR 197*
October 1 - December 31, 1973
N. A. Jaworski, Director
L. P.Seyb, Deputy Director
200 S.W. 35th ST.
FTS 503-752-4571

The purpose of this report is to present a quarterly view of the
activities, both intramural and extramural, of the Pacific Northwest
Environmental Research Laboratory (PNERL). The research branches at
PNERL include:
Coastal Pollution Branch (CPB), involving research on the
behavior of pollutants in the marine environment.
Eutrophication and Lake Restoration Branch (ELRB),
involving research on the eutrophication (premature
aging) process in polluted water and development of
methods and technology for the control and restoration
of eutrophic waters.
Eutrophication Survey Branch (ESB), a study to identify
and analyze approximately 800 bodies of water in the
United States with potential or actual eutrophication
problems brought on by the discharge of excessive amounts
of nutrients into them.
Thermal Pollution Branch (TPB), involving the study of
causes, effects, controls, and prevention of thermal
pollution in streams, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and
coastal waters.
Industrial Wastes Branch (IWB), involving research on
treatment of wastes from the pulp and paper industry,
wood products industry, forestry and logging, and the
food processing industry.
Laboratory Services Branch (LSB), a centralized laboratory
providing analytical and computer services to the five
branches of PNERL.
The reporting of the research activities focus around the Research
Objective Achievement Plan (ROAP). Included in the presentation are
the ROAP approach, intramural activities, and extramural activities.

sS* Research Highlights
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory
200 S. W. 35th Street	Corvallis, Or. 97330
Program Element 1BA025
A. New York Bight
The fifth quarterly survey of the Ney York Bight experimental
sewage sludge dump site was conducted in December. Specimens
from the first four cruises have been identified and enumerated.
The site is characterized by an apparently "healthy" assemblage
of polychaete, amphipod and other macrobenthic species. The
structure of this community should be a good indicator of the impact
of sludges on the benthos.
The current meter stations established in May '73, have
been maintained through December. One additional meter was
positioned near the bottom using a tripod assembly. This meter has
been recovered and is now being processed in concert with four
others deployed during the summer months.
Two types of sediment traps have been tested within the site
area. Large, 30-liter traps positioned in groupings of three per
station have exhibited some problems attributable to inadequate
vessel capability for deployment. A smaller metal cylinder has
performed adequately and the latest retrieval in December shows
significant amounts of materials including what appears to be a
large fraction of sand. Tests are now underway to quantify and
identify the material.
The mathematical model	to be evaluated as part of this study
is now operational and some	preliminary parametric investigations
have been performed. These	basic studies have demonstrated the
need for laboratory work to	better characterize the waste
parameters in terms of:
(a)	The percent solids by volume and type.
(b)	The oettling velocity ahd specific gravity of identifiable
solid types.
(c)	The bulk specific gravity of the composite waste.
An Associate Laboratory of the National Environmental Research Center • Corvallis
200 S.W. 35th Street, Corvallis, Or. 97330

(d) The porosity of sludge solids settled through marine
The model's sensitivity to the ambient density structure has demonstrated
the need for additional and more sensitive characterizations of the
local salinity-temperature gradients and their seasonal variability.
Horizontal and vertical coefficients of eddy diffusivity have been
identified as important parameters to investigate seasonally
at this particular site because of the time requirements to realize
a 50+ percent settling of the solids.
Work on the analysis of Trace Metals in sludges from various
sewage treatment plants considered as potential sources of experimental
material for placing in the NB buoy area, and of sediments taken
from the NB area, has continued.
Several sludges and sediments and water samples have been examined
for PCB content. The results show that the levels in the sludges
are significantly higher than in the sediments so that the proposed
experimental study of the movement and chemical behavior of
these chlorinated hydrocarbons may be feasible. Since the analytical
procedures require a fairly large sludge sample, there may be
difficulty in obtaining adequate sludge samples from the bottom after
experimental placement in the N.Y. Bight. In addition, it is
necessary to obtain some normalizing factors, too, if chemical
changes are to be observed. This information will be available
if a group of Trace Metal constituent traces can be successfully
analyzed in actual experimentation.
B. Simulated Ecosystems
An experiment on the effects of sewage sludge on benthic
communities maintained under controlled laboratory conditions was
initiated at the Newport Field Station in December. Several
benthic crustaceans, polychaetes, mollusks, and a demersal
fish are being exposed to different concentrations of sewage
sludges in a continuous-flow aquarium system. This study
complements our field study of the response of the macrobenthos
to sludge dumping in the New York Bight.
A. Southern California Bight
The first year's work on DDT mass emission rates (MER) measurements
from various point (pipeline) sources and some non-point sources

has been successfully completed including the establishment of
analytical methodology. An annual report was issued by the
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCRWP),
Dr. David Young, Principal Investigator.
A second year's effort has been planned to continue work on
such non-point source MER estimates as aeolian and net input from
coastal current flux density. It is now intended to observe the
modes of transport of the originally deposited DDT (the original
manufacturing source having been brought under control) as the DDT
moves from inventory points by various possible mechanisms. This
substantial experimental effort is scheduled to commence in January
1974, taking advantage in this following work of the analytical
capability developed during the first year's effort; a corollary
utilization of the analytical capability will be to identify
those constituents whose peaks continually show up, but whose
identity is unknown. This, it will be recalled, was the case with
PCB becoming recognized during original DDT analytical work.
Scientists at the Southern California Coastal Water Research
Project are continuing their study of the effects of wastewater
discharges on the population dynamics, disease incidence, species
composition, and diversity of benthic invertebrates and fishes of
the Southern California Bight.
B.	Chlorinated Hydrocarbons Decay
A six months progress report was received from Dr. Phillips
of the Stanford University Hopkins Marine Station laboratory on the
work in progress on bacterial decay of DDT under various conditions
of pH, Eh, and nutrients.
Radiorespirometry is the method of choice for following this
rather difficult experimental problem. Because of the very low
solubility of the DDT and its metabolic products and because
of the low incidence in the regional muds of bacteria capable
of its metabolism, it is difficult to assay the changes. However,
analyses of the muds show DDT concentration changes, so there is
a good possibility some of the laboratory cultures will give
useful rate of decay measurements.
C.	Phytoplankton Responses to PCB
The field observations in Puget Sound have been summarized in
SYOPS, Data Report #54, from Department of Oceanography, University

Washington, December 1973. SYOPS is Synthetic Organics In Puget
Sound. Principal Investigator is Dr. Spyros Pavlou.
The next year's effort in this program is to continue and
expand the chemostat measurements already begun, on the basis
of the field data summarized in the data report. Estimates of
the influence of these levels (i.e., observed in waters and
sediments) of PCB, of course, add to the utility and reality of the
empirical laboratory measurements made in the chemostat for
ultimate setting of acceptable levels or criteria for water quality.
D. Trace Metal Transport Mechanisms in Southeastern Coastal
This project has evaluated Trace Metals in a variety of locations
and along the coastal currents to the salt marshes. The investigator is
now summarizing and constructing tentative models of these transport
mechani sms.
In addition to the first annual report (Dr. Herbert Windom,
Principal Investigator) which aroused considerable interest in EPA
and in other laboratories, an interim report comprising the thesis
of Daniel R. Bloomer has now been received. Dr. Windom also compiled
for EPA some useful data showing actual data on Trace Metal resuspension
and mobilization during dredging operations. This work, supported
by the Corps of Engineers, has been summarized so that those analyses
listed or recommended by the EPA, Corps of Engineers, Marine Technology
Workshop (Chemistry Panel) at Montauk, November 1972, take on more
meaning for regulatory and permit purposes.
The analytical procedures listed in November 1972, tell what
ought to be done prior to dredging decisions, but this data
compilation (available in limited quantities to those having a
need for it) shows what kinds of results were obtained in some
actual cases.
The Florida State University mercury study (Dr. Robert Harriss,
Principal Investigator) in watersheds, river, and Eastern Gulf Coast
waters continues with several journal publications after a very
slow and delayed start due to administrative difficulties. One
useful fact for ultimate use of the data on transport mechanisms
from inputs on up through spartina to higher trophic levels of
a significant Trace Metal is the estimation of stability constants
for various ligands with the mercury. Another useful fact is that
in all the areas in which ionic and methyl mercury measurements
have been made, the methyl mercury has not been found to have more
than .07 percent of the total mercury.

The California Institute of Technology project on Trace Element-
Ligand Equilbria in Sewage Pipeline Discharges to the L.A. Bight (Dr.
J. J. Morgan, Principal Investigator) has begun to make partial
computation of some of the governing equilibria utilizing their
elaborate computer methodology and assuming the amino acids (known
to occur in sewage sludges) to be the principal ligands for a set
of metals selected as of interest. These computations enable a
model to be established of the probable influence of pH, Eh, and dilution on
the distribution and destination of the Trace Elements in the
effluent discharge area. Some measurements of particular metals
are available and their relative concentrations and positions can
be described.
G.	Floatables
The funded project to assess the significance of surface floatable
materials of sewage origin is nearing completion: the field work
was completed on schedule, and the final sample analyses and data
interpretations are now in progress. The final report is scheduled
for January 1974, and is, barring any last minute delays, on
The sampling procedures developed for surface slicks was
presented at an EPA-sponsored symposium on marine monitoring
methodologies as a candidate method for standardization by EPA1s
Quality Assurance Division. The field procedures were also
demonstrated to personnel of the sponsoring agency and the
L. A. County Sanitation District.
H.	Microbial Predation of Enteric Organisms
Dr. Ralph Mitchell, Harvard University, has completed a
preliminary model of coliform die-off in the sea. The model is
based, in part, on his previous research on environmental factors
affecting the predation of enteric organisms by the native
marine microflora. After field verification, this model should
provide a valuable predictive tool for outfall design and
Considerable effort has been expended in developing models
capable of simulating the circulation of continental shelf areas.

An Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Navy Environmental Prediction
Research Facility at Monterey, California, (Dr. T. Laevastu, Principal
Investigator) is nearing completion. One of the initial objectives
of the Agreement was to "model" the New York Bight area (bounded,
approximately, by the west, 39°30'N, 71°30'W). Additionally, two
"inner-harbor" models were prepared.
Single-layer, vertically-integrated models of all three regions
utilize the same algorithm for solution; differences in the models
are mainly in the specified boundary conditions. Input consists
of wind, tide, and runoff forcing from given initial conditions.
Also, continuous or instantaneous pollutant sources may be
specified at one or more grids. Output consists in tidal elevations,
current vectors, and pollutant concentration versus time. The final
report on this project should be completed in January.
The final report on a grant with California Institute of
Technology (Dr. Norman H. Brooks, Principal Investigator) was published
and is available for those interested by writing to us. The report
summarizes the results of a five-year laboratory research project
on various flow phenomena of importance to transport and dispersion
of pollutants in hydrological and coastal environments.
The results for buoyant jets may be used for the design of
wastewater outfalls in oceans, reservoirs, lakes, and large
estuaries. Particular emphasis is given to line sources (or
slot jets) which represent long multiple-outlet diffusers, which
are necessary for all large discharges to get high dilutions.
For reservoirs which are density stratified, the results
include formulations for prediction of selective withdrawal,
and a simulation procedure for predicting reservoir mixing by
systems which pump water from one level to another. For applications
to rivers and estuaries, laboratory flume experiments were made
to measure transverse mixing of buoyant or heavy tracer flows,
as well as for neutral-density flows.
A. Fjords
The overall objective in our grant with the University of Washington
(Dr. D. Winter, Principal Investigator) has been to develop techniques

for predicting pathways and retention times of pollutants introduced
into fjords, with emphasis on the deep basins of Puget Sound. In
pursuit of this objective during the first year, they have developed
an approximate description of near-surface nontidal circulation
in fjord segments, using similarity techniques, and have identified
some of the basin subdivisions in Puget Sound where the conditions
of similarity are reasonably well satisfied, having given priority
to the main basin, portions east of Whidbey Island, and the main
basin of Hood Canal. Historical oceanographic data are being
used to check the self-consistency of this quantitative description
of the circulation and density structure.
B. Estuaries
The MIT grant, "Tidal Variations of Water Quality Parameters
in Estuaries: Longitudinal and Vertical Distributions," Dr. D. R. F.
Harleman, Principal Investigator, is continuing under prior year
fundi ng.
Current effort is devoted to the continued development of the
transient, estuary water quality model for nutrient and algal
distributions for the prediction of the effect of increasing levels
of waste treatment on estuarine water quality. The parameters
that govern the temporal variations in the concentrations of
essential water quality parameters are strongly influenced by
physical environmental conditions, of which temperature and salinity
are the most important.
In the water quality model, two categories of substances will
be handled by the proposed model.
I.	Conservative
a)	Salinity
b)	Dye concentrations
(c) Biologically "inert" pollutants
II.	Non-Conservative
a)	Temperature
b)	Abiotic
NH3, NOl, NOZ, particle organic matter, dissolved
organic nitrogen
(c) Biotic
(i)	phytoplankton
(ii)	zooplankton

Conceptually, the water quality part of the model is similar to
the Chen and Orlob approach, but the formulation of the MIT model
is different, in the following domains:
(a)	Hydraulics: Instead of using node-stream approach and
looking at nodes, the MIT model applies the continuity and momentum
equations simultaneously for each element. Furthermore, density
variations due to salinity intrusion and variations in the longi-
tudinal dispersion coefficient are taken into account in the momentum
and water quality equations. The Chen and Orlob model solves a set of
motion equations written for links of the system and a set of
continuity equations written for nodes.
(b)	Reaction and/or process rate determinations.
(c)	Level of sophistication in the description of nitrogen
cycle. The goal here is not to model the whole ecosystem, but to
investigate the variation in the structure and the composition
of the aquatic environment (meaning nutrient and trophic levels)
under varying hydrologic and meteorologic conditions.
The Use of the Proposed Model
1.	The model will be a useful tool to describe and predict
the temporal and spatial distribution of a set of variables which
may influence the extent of eutrophication in an estuary. It is
being applied to the upper reaches of the Potomac estuary.
2.	The goal is to have a model which will specifically predict
the relative location of algal blooms, and the expected duration of
algal growth under transient meteorological conditions.
3.	The model will aid in environmental planning by providing
information necessary to anticipate the environmental impact of
potential nutrient loadings from proposed new treatment plant
desi gns.
The draft final report on a grant with Dr. David Bella,
Oregon State University, on "Tidal Flats in Estuarine Water Quality
Models" was completed. The initial phases of the study involved
mixing processes and tidal hydraulics; however, the study emphasis
shifted to estuarine benthic systems as the importance of these
systems became more apparent. The sulfur cycle was given particular
emphasis because:
(1) Sulfides, resulting from sulfate reduction within the
benthic systems, can influence the benthic oxygen uptake rate;

(2)	Free sulfides are highly toxic to a variety of organisms,
(3)	The release of hydrogen sulfide may contribute to a
deterioration of air quality.
IV. Technical Assistance
A.	Operations Quicksilver and Fetch
Operation Quicksilver was an attempt to recover seven sediment
traps deployed at Region Ill's interim sludge dumping site. EPA's
Annapolis Field Office, The Coastal Pollution Branch and the U.S. Coast
Guard prooled resources in this matter.
Operation Quicksilver was completed in the first quarter of
FY-74 and is documented in EPA Report #903/9-73-001-A, September,
1973. Sediment traps deployed during the initial survey period
were not recovered and two subsequent attempts were made. Each
attempt followed documented buoy sitings by local research vessels.
The first attempt utilized the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter
Sassafras supported by a search and rescue helicopter. A two and
one-half day search produced no sitings.
Operation "Fetch" was the second recovery attempt and was a
joint undertaking by Research and Regional personnel and served
as a monitoring survey for the Philadelphia sludge disposal operation
and the E. I. DuPont titanium waste discharge at sites some 50
miles off the Delaware coast.
Report(s) covering this last operation will be prepared
by the Annapolis Field Station and Region III S & A personnel.
B.	Near Field Dispersion Model for Barged Waste Discharges
Staff personnel have continued technical support of Regions IV
and VI in the area of barged waste disposal. Sample computer
simulations were run for Region IV for a sodium chloride brine
permit application.
Region VI work has been more complicated in that the model
responses for a deep water discharge of a three-phase waste,
including immiscible droplets, was sought. Environmental parameters
to describe the site have not been made available and only order
of magnitude values for initial dilution have been provided. Work
in this area is continuing, but at a slow "time available" rate.

Ocean Dumping Legislation
Staff personnel respond on a regular basis to requests from
Headquarters for review of draft sections of new proposed legislation.
The work assignment from the Office of Water Programs for the
preparation of draft interim analytical and sampling methods for
marine determinations has been completed and forwarded on schedule to
the project coordinator Dr. Paul Lefcourt. One section dealing
with biological sampling procedures was reassigned in late October
and is progressing on schedule under the direction of Dr. Swartz.
V. Presentations:
Messrs. Baumgartner, Callaway, Feldman, Rittall and Swartz
participated in an Office of Monitoring Symposium in Seattle,
October 16-18, 1973. The symposium dealt with methods of monitoring
the marine environment. The Proceedings will be published.
Papers presented were:
"Comparison of Species Diversity and Faunal Homogenity Indices
as Criteria of Change in Biological Communities," Dr. Richard C.
"Petrochemical Marine Monitoring Methods," by Dr. Milton H.
"Surface Slicks and Films--A Need for Control," by Walter F.
Ri ttal1.
"Mathematical Modeling as a Framework for Coastal Monitoring,"
by Richard J. Callaway.
A report on "Techniques for Sampling and Analyzing the Marine
Macrobenthos" has been completed by Dr. Swartz and submitted for
inclusion in the EPA Ocean Dumping Analytical Methods Manual.
The ROAP for the study of oil pollution, 21AIV "Scientific
Criteria for Oil Discharges" was active in 1973, in the planning
stages only, and has now been discontinued entirely, but two items

of interest have resulted. One was the participation of a staff
member on the NAS Ocean Affairs Committee Workshop on Oil Pollution
in May 1973. The NAS publication Oil Pollution is in press. The
EPA publication Ecological Research Series, 660/3-73-013, "Petroleum
Weathering: Some Pathways, Fate and Disposition on Marine Waters"
by Milton H. Feldman was issued. This document considers the trace
material phenomena occurring in the surface layers of the ocean as
a result of oil pollution, and their ecological significance.
The second item was the experimental examination of some tar
ball specimens from the Atlantic and from the Bermuda Biological
Station environs. This work showed that the trace elements content
of the tar balls can readily be studied by neutron activation
analysis methods and represents a significant addition to the long
list of methods in use to study petroleum pollution of the sea. A
publication of this work is being written.
Personnel to Contact for Further Information:
D. J. Baumgartner, Chief, Coastal Pollution Branch, (503) 752-4211,
Ext. 368.
R. J. Callaway, Physical Oceanography and Modeling, (503) 752-4211,
Ext. 369.
M. H. Feldman, Chemistry, (503) 752-4211, Ext. 370
R. C. Swartz, Biological Oceanography (503) 867-4031.
W. F. Rittall, Technical Assistance and Ocean Dumping (503) 752-4211
Ext. 365

United States
Environmental Protection Agency
200 S W 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
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i&ji) ^	utrophication
Research Highlights
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory
200 S. W. 35th Street	Corvallis, Or. 97330
December 1973
Nutrient Inactivation Research
Laboratory screening of lanthanum, zirconium, aluminum, tungsten,
and titanium compounds as possible phosphorus inactivants has shown
lanthanum to be the most efficient complexer of phosphate, followed
by zirconium and aluminum. Zirconium and lanthanum exhibited optimum
performance with pH ranges commonly encountered in eutrophic lakes,
whereas the optimum pH for aluminum was lower, rendering it less
apDropriate for field situations. Algal assays conducted on algal
growth medium and in natural lake water treated with lanthanum,
zirconium and aluminum showed that algal growth was depressed
and the decrease in algal growth was caused by the removal of
phosphorus. Toxicity studies utilizing salmonid fish and Daphnia
magna revealed severe detrimental effects only with lanthanum rare
earth chloride, and in that case it is believed that the mortalities
result from a component of the compound other than lanthanum.
Laboratory tests have been designed and implemented to test the
longevity of inactivation and the effect of inactivant-phosphorus
precipitates on sediment-water nutrient interchange. These experiments,
which utilize phosphorus isotopes as tracers, have not proceeded
sufficiently far for conclusions to be made.
Diamond Lake Nutrient Diversion Study
Three years data have now been accumulated on the limnology of
Diamond Lake, Oregon, where interception of campground septic tank
wastes has been completed by the U.S. Forest Service. Waste discharge
from a lodge-motel complex has not yet been incorporated into the
system. The data now on hand on lake limnology, nutrient-hydrologic
budget, and lake use are the basis for a forthcoming report which
will constitute the baseline against which future changes in the
lake will be evaluated.
Algal Assay Application
Algal assays were conducted on 18 Snake River and tributary sites
to determine the impact of domestic, industrial and agricultural
waste effluent upon algal growth within a multiple use river system.
Information received from EPA's Region X Surveillance and Analysis
Branch identified nutrient-bearing (nitrogen and phosphorus) effluents
that could be stimulatory to algal growth.
An Associate Laboratory of the National Environmental Research Center • Corvallis
200 S.IV. 35th Street, Corvallis, Or. 97330

The goals of this assay were to: (1) determine if algal growth
obtained in the assay was consistent with results predicted from
review of chemical analysis for ortho-phosphorus and total soluble
inorganic nitrogen (NOp + NO^ + Nhk); (2) determine if algal yields
were limited by phosphorus, nitrogen or some otfier nutrient essential
for algal growth; and (3) predict the effects of nitrogen and
phosphorus additions on algal productivity.
Phosphorus was the algal growth-limiting nutrient in 45 percent
of the 18 river waters assayed. Nitrogen was growth-1imiting in 33
percent of the waters and nutrients other than nitrogen and
phosphorus were growth-limiting in 11 percent of the river water samples.
Studies to determine the nitrogen and phosphorus requirements
of the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum indicate that, in
the presence of other essential nutrients, in the absence of toxicants
and not less than 10 yg ortho-phophorus per liter, each microgram
of ortho-phosphorus per liter will yield 0.43 mg dry weight of the
alga. Similarly, under the same conditions, 0.001 mg of total
soluble inorganic nitrogen per liter will yield 0.038 mg dry weight
of the alga. Actual yield is considered statistically significant
within +_ 20 percent of the predicted yield.
A high correlation ( ^ = 0.98) between the predicted and actual
yields were found in the Snake River samples limited for algal
growth by either phosphorus or nitrogen. Failure of some of the
samples to meet predicted yields indicated that these waters may
contain toxicants. Inhibition of daily maximum yields during
the logarithmic phase of algal growth (usually one to seven days)
further indicated that some constituent, other than nitrogen and
phosphorus, limited growth in the samples. Inadequately treated
toxic wastes and commercial poisons have been identified as causing
intermittent water quality problems in the Snake River Basin.
Further research is necessary to adequately define the effect of these
toxicants upon algal growth.
Shagawa Lake Demonstration Project
The advanced wastewater treatment plant at Ely, Minnesota, which
commenced operation in April 1973, continues to operate successfully
in removing phosphorus from municipal wastewater that discharges to
Shagawa Lake. During the nine month period of operation, the average
concentration of phosphorus in the final effluent has been 0.043
mg/liter, a reduction of about 99 percent. The total phosphorus load
to the lake has been reduced to about 70 percent of the average for
the same interval for the previous three years. Total and ortho-phosphate
concentrations in the lake are somewhat lower than they have been
the previous three years. The coming year will provide critical
information concerning the expected supply of phosphorus from the

Modeling Workshop
The Utah Water Research Laboratory, the Division of Environmental
Engineering, College of Engineering of Utah State University and the
Eutrophication and Lake Restoration Branch of EPA sponsored a
Workshop entitled "Modeling the Eutrophication Process" which was
held at Logan, Utah, September 5-7, 1973. Fourteen papers were
presented including one entitled "Modeling Algal Growth Dynamics
in Shagawa Lake, Minnesota, with Comments Concerning Projected
Restoration of the Lake" by D. Phillip Larsen of the Eutrophication
and Lake Restoration Branch. The Proceedings of the Workshop have
been published.
Recently Completed Reports
Brezonik, Patrick L. Nitrogen Sources and Cycling in Natural Waters.
Environmental Protection Agency Ecological Series, EPA-660/3-73-002,
July 1973.
Megard, Robert 0. Rates of Photosynthesis and Phytoplankton Growth in
Shagawa Lake, Minnesota. Environmental Protection Agency Ecological
Series, EPA-R3-73-039, July 1973.
Heel, Joe K. , Peterson, Spencer A., and Smith, Wintfred L. Weed Harvest
and Lake Nutrient Dynamics. Environmental Protection Agency Ecological
Series, EPA-660/3-73-001.
Prows, Bernard L. and Mcllhenny, William F. Development of a Selective
Algaecide to Control Nuisance Algal Growth. Environmental Protection
Agency Ecological Series, EPA-660/3-73-006, August 1973.
Baumann, Paul C., Hasler, Arthur D., Koonce, Joseph F., and Teraguchi,
Mitsuo. Biological Investigations of Lake Wingra. Environmental
Protection Agency Ecological Series, EPA-R3-73-044, August 1973.
Maloney, Thomas E. Use of Algal Assays in Studying Eutrophication
Problems (Presented at the 6th Intl. Water Pollution Res. Conf., June
18-23, 1972). Pergamon Press, Oxford & New York, 1973.
Clesceri , Nicholas L. Organic Nutrient Factors Effecting Algal
Growths. Environmental Protection Agency Ecological Series, EPA-660/3-73-003,
July 1973.
Workshop Proceedings, Modeling the Eutrophication Process. Edited by
E. J. Middlebrooks, D. H. Falkenborg and T. E. Maloney, 1973.

Need More Information
Consultation and advice on the subjects of this research are available
by calling or writing to:
Thomas E. Maloney
Chief, Eutrophication & Lake Restoration
Commercial - 503 752-4211, Extension 353
FTS - 8-503 752-4353

g	t0	Highlights
I | National Lake
\ Pnolto< Survey Pro gram
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory
200 S. W. 35th Street	Corvallis, Or. 97330
January, 1974
Status of Sampling Programs
In the summer and fall of 1973, the one-year stream sampling pro-
gram was completed in the states of Vermont, Connecticut, Rhode Island,
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan,
and New York. The stream nutrient, the lake and the sewage treatment
plant effluent data are now being evaluated to determine (1) trophic
condition of each surveyed lake, (2) nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus)
loadings to each surveyed lake, (3) the limiting nutrient in each water
body, (4) the percentage of the total nutrient load originating from
municipal sewage treatment plants and (5) nutrient loadings from non-
point sources within the drainage basin for each lake.
The data relevant to each lake are being summarized and evaluated
in individual reports. These reports are reviewed by the appropriate
state environmental agency before they are finalized and available for
public distribution. To date preliminary reports have been prepared for
thirty-five lakes or reservoirs.
In November, 1973, the NERC-Las Vegas field teams concluded lake
sampling in the remaining seventeen states east of the Mississippi
River which involved about 250 lakes, each sampled three times. Simul-
taneous stream and sewage treatment plant sampling in the same seventeen
states will begin phasing out this month.
An Associate Laboratory of the National Environmental Research Center • Corvallis
200 S.W. 35th Street, Corvallis, Or. 97330

Survey Authorized for Western States
After a six month delay, the Survey was authorized to extend sampling
activities into the states west of the Mississippi River during calendar
years 1974 and 1975. Initial contacts will be made with involved EPA
Regional Offices and State Water Pollution Agencies starting in February.
The emphasis in the western states will be on nutrients contributed to
lakes and reservoirs from non-point sources rather than from municipal
sewage treatment facilities.
Nutrient Criteria for Lakes: Based on Loading or Concentrations
One of the objectives of the Survey is to estimate, for each study
lake, the total annual nitrogen and phosphorus inputs and to determine the
percentage of the total inputs originating from non-point sources, e.g.,
land runoff, versus the percentage originating from more easily controlled
point sources such as municipal sewage treatment effluents. In addition,
data on nutrient concentrations within each lake are also being obtained.
Both the loading and concentration data will be useful for assessing the
need for phosphorus control measures for a specific lake situation and
predicting whether control measures could be expected to have any impact
on the rate of eutrophication.
Within the past year, there has been considerable controversy con-
cerning the establishment of lake water quality criteria for phosphorus
and whether the criteria should be based on phosphorus concentrations
within a lake or on phosphorus loading rates to a lake. The question of
a single nation-wide phosphorus criterion versus individually tailored
criteria for specific areas or some compromise between the two has also
been discussed.
The idea of the concentration criteria is the older of the two
concepts, dating back primarily to Sawyer (1947) who suggested that

concentrations of 0.010 mg/1 of inorganic phosphorus and 0.300 mg/1 of
inorganic nitrogen were critical levels in the development of algal blooms.
The concept of loading rate criteria stems largely from the work of
Vollenweider (1968) who developed a relationship between annual nutrient
loading rates and mean depth from which "permissible" and "dangerous"
loading rates could be estimated for a lake with a given mean depth.
Vollenweider's theory is subject to further verification, meanwhile, he
has continued to refine it, adding most recently considerations of vol-
ume and retention time.
From the standpoint of enforcement, a loading rate criteria would
be easier to work with than a lake concentration criteria because it is
one step closer to the source of nutrient supply; therefore, once a
desirable loading rate to a given water body is established it would
be relatively easy to determine the extent of nutrient reduction from
point sources and non-point sources that would be necessary to achieve
the desired loading.
On the other hand, if a concentration criterion alone were applied
to a water body, the back calculation necessary to determine the nutrient
reduction necessary to meet that concentration level would be much more
difficult because the relationship between concentration in a lake and
nutrient input to a lake is not a simple one. Factors such as volume,
detention time, mixing patterns, biological activity, sedimentation rates
and resolubilization of nutrients from the sediments all play a role in
determining the concentration that will result from a given loading rate.
A single loading rate criterion for a lake also has its disavantages
because it is applied with the assumption that the loading is equally
distributed to all parts of the lake. This assumption is often invalid
particularly in larger lakes or reservoirs with several tributary streams

carrying different nutrient loads. While the average loading rate to the
entire lake may appear acceptable, nutrient loads in some embayments may
be excessively high resulting in localized nuisance problems while other
areas may receive very light nutrient loads and have no problems.
The questions of what kind of nutrient criteria to apply to lakes
and reservoirs and more specifically the level at which to set the
criteria are difficult to answer. The data being collected and evaluated
by the National Eutrophication Survey will assist in answering these
difficult questions.
Literature Cited
Sawyer, C. N. 1947. Fertilization of Lakes by Agricultural and
Urban Drainage. J. New England Water Works Association. 61:109-127.
Vollenweider, R. A. 1968. Scientific Fundamentals of the Eutrophi-
cation of Lakes and Flowing Waters, with Particualr Reference to Nitrogen
and Phosphorus as Factors in Eutrophication. OECD, DAS/CSI/68-27. 159 p.
Additional information about the Lake Survey Program is available
from the following persons:
Mr. Robert Payne
Coordinator, National Eutrophication Survey, EPA
Waterside Mall - Room 3801
410 M Street, S. W.
Washington, D. C. 20460
Commercial #202-426-4453
FTS #8-202-426-4453

Mr. Donald Wruble
National Eutrophication Survey, EPA
P. 0. Box 15027
Las Vegas, Nevada 89114
Commercial #702-736-2969
FTS #8-702-736-2969
Dr. Jack H. Gakstatter
National Eutrophication Survey, EPA
200 S. W. 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Commercial #502-752-4211, Extension 575
FTS #8-503-752-4575

United States
Environmental Protection Agency
20n S w 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Return this sheet if you do NOT wish to receive this material Q. or if change of address is needed O (indicate change, including zip code)

^£0 ST*.
(JjL) Thermal Pollution
X^J Research Highlights
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory
200 S. W. 35th Street	Corvallis, Or. 97330
January 1974
Reviewing Environmental Impact Statements
The approach and technical base that have been used by EPA's Thermal
Pollution Branch for reviewing those portions of Environmental
Impact Statements relative to cooling water systems of thermal
power plants are described in a new report (see item 2 in New EPA
Publications). This report (completed in June but still with the
printer) provides information and discussions on cooling system
configurations, operations, environmental effects and costs.
Methods of assessing alternative selections and benefit-cost analyses
are also presented.
Primary responsibility for EPA review of these topics was transferred
from the Thermal Pollution Branch to the Regional Offices in July.
EPA Thermal Report to Congress is Available
The 11-chapter report "Effects and Methods of Control of Thermal
Discharges" [See Thermal Pollution Research Highlights, July 1973]
has been published by the Senate Committee on Public Works. The report
is available in three volumes (See New EPA Publications). Volume 1
contains Chapters 1-2, Volume 2--Chapters 3-7, and Volume 3--Chapters
An Associate Laboratory ot the National Environmental Research Center • Corvallis
200 S.W. 35th Street, Corvallis, Or. 97330

Modeling Aquatic Thermal Pollution
Research to develop a stochastic temperature prediction model was
conducted by ESL, Inc., of Sunnyvale, California under EPA research
contract No. 68-01-0167. The final report "Statistical Prediction
of Equilibrium Temperature from Standard Meteorological Data Bases"
(EPA 660/2-73-003) contains analyses and associated computer software
pertaining to this research effort. Meteorological data from standard
ESSA weather tapes for three cities and several time periods were
used in a computer program developed to calculate equilibrium
temperatures. The stochastic nature of the variation in meteorological
parameters and their relation to equilibrium temperature were investigated.
In general, the correlations between meteorological variables are
not consistent from place to place or between time periods. This
lack of statistical uniformity among variables precluded the development
of a general model suitable for providing a distribution function
for equilibrium temperature. However, this research effort shed
considerable light on the stochastic nature of meteorological parameters
and their relation to equilibrium temperature.
Fluid dynamic research culminated in several reports and papers.
See New EPA publications.
Power Plant Effluent Control Technology
No effluent limits for steam electric power generation promulgated
by EPA yet (1-15-74), but keep your eyes and ears open.
Two extramural final reports are being readied for publication and
distribution in early 1974. They are: 1. "A Demonstration of Thermal

Water Utilization in Agriculture" by the Eugene, Oregon, Water and
Electric Board. This report describes a five-year project using
warm water for irrigation, frost protection, and undersoil heating.
2. "A Review of Engineering Aspects of the Control of Power Plant
Discharges" by S. J. Daugard and T. R. Sundaram of Hydronautics, Inc. This
report describes a comprehensive inventory of discharges and treatment
techniques of fifteen power plants in the Maryland region. Control
trade-offs are discussed.
Contract "Request for Proposals" were announced for two projects-
one on detailed economics of backfitting cooling devices and one on
engineering and economic aspects of once-through discharge modifications.
Sorry if you missed this one; closure date is passed.
Some potential environmental concerns with coal gasification are
identified in Jim Chasse's "Staff Report on Coal Gasification: Processes
and Effects.11 Efforts will continue in gathering information in this
area to enable proper assessment of water and discharge
effluent requirements for this developing technology.
An inhouse effort is currently in progress to assess the potential for
power plant water recycle/reuse. Economics are emphasized in the
assessment. The approach interprets each "water requiring" process
as an integral part of the total plant water use system. Important
factors for the assessment include: 1) process water quality requirements--
including makeup, blowdown, and recirculating water; 2) process water
quantity requirements; and 3) plant operating and site conditions that
affect water requirements. This recycle/reuse information is planned
to be released via the EPA reporting system.

A report by Ron Manabe, "Accurately Measuring Residual Chlorine Levels
in Cooling Water--Amperometric Method" is to be released soon. The
report discusses several techniques to improve the accuracy of residual
chlorine measurement in cooling water—especially water with metal ion
Demonstration Grant Money Available
EPA remains interested in cooperative projects with industry to
demonstrate recycle/reuse and other effluent control technology.
Aerospace Corporation, "Study of Power Plant Desulfurization Waste
Waters for Reuse and Discharge," Grant No. R802853-01.
The Aerospace Corporation will conduct a program of experimentation and
data analysis to determine the technical and economic potential for
an allowable discharge of power plant desulfurization system water
effluent or for its recycle/reuse in scrubbing and non-scrubbing
applications. The program will consider the consequence of effluent
water discharge to navigable waters as may be required. As assessment
of water treatment technology will be made to determine the technical
and economic basis of water reuse or discharge requirements.
University of Colorado, "Simulation of Two Power Plants' Thermal
Discharges into the Atmosphere," Grant No. R802893-01.
An experimental and analytical investigation of environmental
modifications due to heat and moisture rejection from a power plant

cooling tower and cooling pond is proposed. Field studies at the
Fort St. Vrain and Valmont plants of the Public Service Company of
Colorado, utilizing a low-altitude sounding rocket, will produce
data on plume rise and dispersion from an induced draft evaporative
cooling tower and from a cooling pond, respectively. These data
from operating plants will be unique in that a moisture concentration
profile check on the validity of analytical models has never before
been rigorously attempted. The development of experimentally
tested models will allow for the optimal location of cooling towers
and cooling ponds.
1.	Effects and Methods of Control of Thermal Discharges, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency. Committee Report, Committee
on Public Works, United States Senate, Serial No. 93-14, Nov. 1973.
Government Printing Office, in three volumes at $3.70 each.
2.	Reviewing Environmental Impact Statements - Power Plant Cooling
Systems, Engineering Aspects. Thermal Pollution Branch Staff.
Environmental Protection Technology Series, EPA 660/2-73-016,
June 1973.
3.	Coal Gasification: Process and Effects, by James P. Chasse,
Staff Report, Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory,
Corvallis, Oregon, October 1973.
4.	A Demonstration of Waste Heat Use in Agriculture, by A. G.
Christianson, J. W. Berry, and H. H. Miller, Jr. Paper presented

at First World Congress on Water Resources, Chicago, Illinois.
September 24-28, 1973. To be published in proceedings.
5.	Some Results from Experimental Data in Surface Jet Discharge of
Heated Water, by Mostafa Shirazi. Paper presented at First
World Congress on Water Resources, Chicago, Illinois, September
24-28, 1973. To be published in proceeding.
6.	An Evaluation of Ambient Turbulence Effects on a Buoyant Plume Model
by M. A. Shirazi, L. R. Davis, and K. V. Byram. Paper presented at
1973 Summer Computer Simulation, Montreal, Canada, July 1973.
published in proceedings.
7.	Heated Water Jet in a Coflowing Turbulent Stream, by M. A.
Shirazi, R. S. McQuivey, and T. N. Keefer. To be published
in American Society of Civil Engineers, Hydraulic Division
Journal. 1974.
8.	Thermal Pollution Research Highlights. July 1973.
9.	Explicit Calibration of the PILLS II System, Environmental
Systems Corporation, Environmental Protection Technology Series
EPA-660/2-73-011. September, 1973.
10.	Nomographs for Thermal Pollution Control Systems, Hittman Associates,
Inc., Environmental Protection Technology Series, EPA-660/2-73-004,
September, 1973.

11.	Numerical Thermal Plume Model for Vertical Outfalls in Shallow
Waters, Oregon State University, Environmental Protection Technology
Series, EPA-R2-73-162, March 1973.
12.	Statistical Prediction of Equilibrium Temperature from Standard
Meteorological Data Bases. Environmental Systems Laboratory.
Environmental Protection Technology Series, EPA-660/2-73-003,
August, 1973.
13.	Technical and Economic Evaluations of Cooling System Blowdown
Control Techniques, Wapora, Inc., Environmental Protection
Technology Series, EPA-660/2-73-026, October 1973.
14.	Dispersion in Hydrologic and Coastal Environments, by Norman H.
Brooks, California Institute of Technology, Ecological Research
Series, EPA-660/3-73-010, August 1973. [Developed as
part of the Coastal Pollution Branch Program].
Note: Since we are using a new mailing list for the Research
Highlights, we append a complete list of our publications, with
a key to sources and addresses where publications are available.
Other Significant .Publications
1. Waldrop, W. R., and R. C. Farmer. Three-dimensional Flow
and Sediment Transport at River Mouths. Coastal Studies
Institute, Louisiana State University, Technical Report No.
150. September 1973. 137 p.

2. Draley, J. E. Chlorination Experiments at the John E. Amos Plant
of the Appalachian Power Company. April 9-10, 1973. Argonne
National Laboratory Report #ANL/ES/23. June 1973. 26p.
3.	Complete Watereuse, Cecil, L. K. (ed). New York, N. Y., American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, April 1973. 728 p.
4.	Margetts, M. J. and F. N. Shofner. Characterization of the
Drift Emissions of a Natural Draft Cooling Tower and
Examination of Sensitivity to Operational Parameter Variations.
Babcock and Wilcox Technical Paper. Presented to Joint Power
Generation Conference, New Orleans, L.A. Sept. 1973.
More detailed information on EPA's Thermal Research may be obtained
by contacting:
Mr. Frank H. Rainwater, Chief
Thermal Pollution Branch
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Lab
200 SW 35th St.
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
Phone numbers:
Commercial: (503) 752-4211, ext. 349,350
FTS: 8-503-752-4349 or 4350

Thermal Pollution Branch
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory
National Environmental Research Center, EPA
200 Southwest 35th Street
Corvallis, Oregon 97330
December 1973
*	Library, NERC, Corvallis, as long as supply lasts.
GPO & Price Purchase through GPO.
NTIS	National Technical Information Service. Use PB order number.
Microfiche - $1.45. Price listed is for paper copy.
OP	Out of Print. Available through Library, NERC, Corvallis, and
many other EPA and University libraries with an interlibrary
loan form.
	 . ^ »
etc.	No reprints available. See published article.
IP	In press. Name kept on file for notification when
@	Transcripts of conferences are on file in many EPA libraries,
federal depository libraries, and other university collections.
You may also contact the appropriate regional EPA offices for
copies of transcripts.
NERC - Library
National Environmental Research Center
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
200 S.W. 35th St.
Corvallis, OR 97330
NTIS - National Technical Information Service
Department of Commerce
Springfield, VA 22151
GPO	Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402

Title of Publication
Chasse, James P.
1973 Staff Report on Coal Gasification: Processes
and Effects. Pacific Northwest Environmental
Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR.
Alden G., and Bruce A. Tichenor
Economic aspects of thermal pollution control in the NTIS
electric power industry, Working Paper No. 67.	PB 208-434
Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. $3.00
13 pp.
Alden G.
Thermal Pollution. Paper presented at the Missouri *
Water Pollution Control Association, Annual Meeting.
February 25. Kansas City, Missouri. Unpublished.
A. G.
Pollutional aspects of geothermal resources development.*
Staff report. 8 p. Unpublished.
r^i-i\+iancnn. A, Q , J. W. Bc^ry, H. H. Miller, Jr.
1973 A demonstration of waste heat use in agriculture.
Paper presented at First World Congress on Water
Resources; Chicago, Illinois, September 24-28.
Garton, Ronald R., and Alden G. Christianson
1970 Beneficial uses of waste heat -- an evaluation.
Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office. Water
Pollution Control Research Series 16130—04770. 7 pp,
(To be
published in
proceedi ngs)
PB 201-724
Garton, Ronald
R. and Ralph D. Harkins
Guidelines: Biological surveys at proposed heat
discharge sites. Washington, D.C. Government	NTIS
Printing Office. Water Pollution Control Research PB 206-815
Series 16130---04/70. .	$3.00
Garton, Ronald
Biological effects of cooling tower blowdown.	*
Presented at 71st National Meeting, American Institute JOURNAL
of Chemical Engineers, February 20-23, Dallas, Texas.
25 pp. Published in the American Institute of
Chemical Engineer's Annual, entitled: Water--1972,
Vol. 69, 1973. {AICHE Symposium Series No. 129)
p. 284-292.

Title of Publication
National Thermal Pollution Research Program, Staff	NTIS
1968 Industrial waste guide on thermal pollution	PB 197-262
Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. $3.00
112 pp.
National Thermal Pollution Research Program, Pacific Northwest
Water Laboratory, and Great Lakes Regional Office
1970 Feasibility of alternative means of cooling for	@ Proceedings
thermal power plants near Lake Michigan. Washington, D.C.
Government Printing Office. 122 pp. (This is also
printed in the Proceedings of the conference on
pollution of Lake Michigan and its tributary basin, 3rd
session reconvened in workshop sessions, September
28-30, October 1-2. Chicago, 111. pp. 163-283).
National Thermal Pollution Research Program, Staff
State of the art newsletter. Pacific Northwest
Water Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. Issues published
Nelson, Guy R.
1973	Predicting and controlling rpcidti*! chlorine in
cooling tower blowdown. PNERL Working Paper #9
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory,
Corvallis. 49 p. Also printed in the Environmental
Protection Technology Series, EPA-R2-73-273.
Rainwater, Frank H.
1968 Research in thermal pollution control,	Proceedings
Proceedings, 4th American Water Resources Conference, NTIS
held in New York, N. Y., November 18-22. American
Water Resources Association, Urbana, Illinois, pp.
Rainwater, Frank H.
1970 Thermal waste treatment and control. Iji Proceedings, Proceedings
Joint Conference of Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., NTIS
and Electric Power Council on Environment, on
Thermal Considerations in the Production of Electric
Power, June, Washington, D. C. Gordon & Breach
Science Publishers, Inc., New York. pp. 189-212.
Rainwater, Frank H..
1971	Recent developments in thermal waste control. In^ Proceedings
Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference NTIS
p. 38, Proceedings of a meeting held August 3-6, in
Boston, Mass. Society of Automotive Engineers. Pub-
lished by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, N. Y. pp. 728-730. Reprint No. 719099.

Title of Publication	Source
Rainwater, Frank H.
1971 Statement Before the State Water Resources Control *
Board of California. Water Temperature Standards.
September 16, 1971, Los Angeles, CA.
Rainwater, Frank H.
1973 Statement Before New York State Department of	*
Environmental Conservation. Water Temperature
Standards. August 8, 1973. Albany, N.Y.
Shirazi, Mostafa A.
1970 Tnermoelectric generators powered by tnermal waste
from electric power plants. Water Pollution	NTIS
Control Research Series 16130—10/70.	PB 207-870
Shirazi, Mostafa A., R. S. McQuivey and T. N. Keefer
1971	Basic data report on the turbulent spread on	OP
heat and matter. United States Dept. of Interior
Geological Survey, Water Resources Div., in
cooperation with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
National Thermal Pollution Research Program, open-
file report.
Shirazi, Mostafa A.
1972	Dry Cooling Towers for stem electric power plants in Journal
arid regions. Water Research, 6:1309-1319.
Shirazi, Mostafa A., L. R. Davis, and K. V. Byram
1972	Effects of ambient turbulence on buoyant jets dis- *
charged into a flowing environment. PNERL Working
Paper #2. Pacific Northwest Environmental Research
Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. 14 p.
Shirazi, Mostafa, A., and L. R. Davis
1972	Workbook of thermal plume prediction, Vol. 1:	*
Submerged Discharges. Environmental Protection
Technology Series EPA-R2-72-005a.
Shirazi, Mostafa A.
1973	A critical review of laboratory and some field	OP
experimental data on surface jet discharge of heated
water. PNERL Working Paper #4. Pacific Northwest
Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. 46 p.

Title of Publication
Shirazi, M.
Shirazi, M. A.
Shirazi, M.
Some results from experimental data in surface
jet discharge of heated water. Paper presented
at First World Congress on Water Resources, Chicago
Illinois, September 24-28.
, L. R. Davis, and K. V. Byram
An evaluation of ambient turbulence effects on a
buoyant plume model. Paper presented at 1973
Summer Computer Simulation Conference. Montreal,
, R. S. McQuivey and T. N. Keefer
Heated water jet in a coflowing turbulent stream.
To be published in American Society of Civil
Engineers, Hydraulic Division Journal.
(To be
in proceedings;
Bruce A.
FWPCA's role in thermal pollution control. Presented NTIS
at the Cooling Tower Institute Meeting, Water
Conservation Symposium, June 25, Los Angeles, CA.
Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory, Corvallis, OR. 13 pp.
T ichenor,
Bruce A.
Thermal pollution
Water Laboratory,
(A Seminar Paper). Pacific Northwest *
Corvallis, OR. 10pp. Unpublished.
Bruce A., and William A. Cawley
Research needs for thermal pollution control. Iji Proceedings
Frank L. Parker and Peter A. Krenkel, eds., Engineering
Aspects of Thermal Pollution. Proceedings, National
Symposium on Thermal Pollution, sponsored by Federal
Water Pollution Control Administration and Vanderbilt
University, August 14-16. Vanderbilt University Press,
Nashville, Tennessee, pp. 329-339.
Tichenor, Bruce A.
1970	Statement before the conference on pollution of Lake
Michigan and its tributary basin, 3rd session
(reconvened in working sessions), Sept. 28-30,
Oct. 1-2, Chicago, pp. 162-311.
Tichenor, Bruce A., Alden G. Christianson
1971	Cooling and temperature vs size and water loss.
Journal of the Power Division, ASCE, 97(P03):589-596.
Closure printed in Journal of the Power Division, ASCE,
99(P01):252, 1973.

Title of Publication
Tichenor, Bruce A.
1971	Statement. In. Conference in the matter of pollution Proceedings
of Lake Michigan and its tributary basin, 3rd session @
(Reconvened), March 24-25, 1971, in Chicago, pp 157-173.
Tichenor, Bruce A.
1973 Evaluating thermal pollution control alternative. Proceedings
Paper presented to the Second Institute of River
Mechanics Colorado State University, August 2, 1972.
Ill Environmental Impact on Rivers (River Mechanics III),
edited and published by Hsieh Wen Shen, Fort Collins,
Colorado, pp. 7-1 tnrougn 7-22.
Tichenor, Bruce A.
1973 EPA's view of waste heat control. Paper presented *
at the 72nd National Meeting, American Institute of Proceedings
Chemical Engineers, March 1973, in New Orleans, LA.
To be published in their Annual entitled: Water-
Thermal Pollution Branch Staff
1973	Reviewing Envrionmental Impact Statements—Power	IP
Plant r.ooliny Systems, Engineering AspecLs. Environ-
mental Protection Technology Series, EPA 660/2-73-016.
Thermal Pollution Branch Staff
1973 Research Highlights, Issues January, July, December. *
Winiarski, Lawrence D., Bruce A. Tichenor, and Kenneth V. Byram
1970 A method for predicting the performance of natural NTIS
draft cooling towers. Water Pollution Control Research
Series 16130GKF12/70.
Winiarski, Lawrence D., and Bruce A. Tichenor
1970 Model of natural draft cooling tower performance.	Journal
Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, ASCE NTIS
96(S4): pp. 927-943.
(This is a shorter version-of the above-published
Winiarski, Lawrence D., and Kenneth V. Byram
1970 Reflective cooling ponds. Presented at ASME Winter NTIS
Annual Meeting, November 29- December 3, 1970,
New York, N. Y. American Society Mechanical Engineers
Paper #70-WA/PWR-4. 8 pp.

Title of Publication
Winiarski, Lawrence D., and James P. Chasse
1973 Plume temperature measurements	of shallow submerged NTIS
model discharges with current.	Environmental	PB 223-014
Protection Technology Series.	EPA-660/2-73-001.
Advanced nonthermally polluting gas turbines in utility	NTIS
1971 applications. United Aircraft Research Laboratories, PB 211-283
Water Pollution Control Research Series 16130DNE03/71.
Analysis of
engineering alternatives for environmental protection
from thermal discharges. State of Washington Water
Research Center, University of Washington/ Washington
State University, Environmental Protection Technology
Series, EPA-R2-73-161.
An analytical and experimental investigation of surface discharge
1971	of heated water. Massachusets Inst, of Technology, NTIS
Water Pollution Control Research Series 16130DJU02/71. PB 210-134
February 1971.
Biological aspects of thermal pollution. Edited by Peter A.
1969 Krenkel and Frank L. Parker, Proceedings of the
National Symposium on Thermal Pollution, sponsored
by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
and Vanderbilt University, June 3-5, 1968.
VanaerDil t
U. Press
Controlling thermal pollution in small streams. Oregon State	NTIS
1972 University, Environmental Protection Technology Series PB 213
EPA-R2-72-083. October 1972.
Development and demonstration of low-level drift instrumentation. NTIS
1971	Environmental Systems Corporation, Water Pollution PB 210-759
Control Research Series 16130GNK 10/71. October 1971.
Effect of geographical location on cooling pond requirements and	NTIS
1971	performance. Vanderbilt Un-iversity, Water Pollution PB 208-031
Control Research Series 16130FDQ03/71.
Engineering aspects of thermal pollution. Edited by Frank L.	Vanderbilt
1969 Parker and Peter A. Krenkel, Proceedings of the	U. Press
National Symposium on Thermal Pollution, Sponsored	by Nashville,
the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration	Tennessee
and Vanderbilt University, August 14-16, 1968.	$7.95

Title of Publication
An engineering-economic study of cooling pond performance.	NTIS
1970	Littleton Research and Engineering Corporation,	PB 206-817
Water Pollution Control Research Series 16130DFX05/70.
May 1970.
Explicit Calibration of the PILLS II System. Environmental Systems *
1973 Corporation, Environmental Protection Technology Series
Heat and water vapor exchange between water surface and atmosphere *
1973 Wilfred Brutsaert, Cornell University, Environmental
Protection Technology Series, EPA-R2-73-259. May 1973.
Heated surface jet discharge into a flowing ambient stream.	NTIS
1971	Louis H. Motz and Barry A. Benedict, Vanderbilt	PB 211-284
University, Water Pollution Control Research Series
Initial mixing of thermal discharges into a uniform current. John *
1969	Eric Edinger and Edward- M. Polk, Jr., Vanderbilt
University, Report No. 1, October 1969.
Mathematical niGuel s for prediction or temperature distributions	NiiS
1970	resulting from the discharge of heated water into PB 208-034
large bodies of water. Tetra Tech, Inc., Water
pollution control Research Series 16130DW006/70,
June 1970.
Mathematical models for the prediction of thermal energy changes NTIS
1969	in impoundments. Water Resources Engineers, Water PB 210-126
Pollution Control Research Series 16130DHS07/60,
July 21, 1969.
Nomographs for thermal pollution control systems. Hittman	*
19/3	Associates, Inc. Environmental Protection Technology
Series, EPA-660/2-73-004.
Numerical thermal plume model for vertical outfalls in shallow	*
1973 v/aters. Oregon State University, Environmental
Protection Technology Series, EPA-R2-73-162, March 1973.
Potential Environmental Effects of an offshore submerged nuclear NTIS
1971	power plant. Volume I. General Dynamics, Electric PB 208-281
Boat Division. Water Pollution Control Research
Series 16130GFI06/71, June 1971

Title of Publication
Potential Environmental effects of an offshore submerged nuclear NTIS
1971 power plant- Volume II. General Dynamics, Electric PB 208-282
Boat Division. Water Pollution Control Research Series
16130GFI06/71, June 1971.
Potential environmental modifications produced by large evaporative NTIS
1971	cooling towers. EG&G, Inc., Water Pollution Control PB 210-702
Research Series 16130DJHol/71, January 1971.
A predictive model for thermal stratification and water quality	NTIS
1971 in reservoirs. Massachusetts Institute of Technology PB 211-621
Water Pollution Control Research Series 16130DJH01/71,
January 1971.
Project for concentrated research and training in the hydraulic	*
1969 and hydrologic aspects of water pollution control.
Progress Report, August 1 to September 1, 1969,
Vanderbilt University, Report No. 2, October 1969.
Report on Cooling Towers and Weather to FWPCA. Oregon State University.*
Research on dry-type cooling towers for thermal electric aeneration. NTIS
1970	R. w. Beck and Associates, Water Pollution Control PB 206-954
Research Series 16130EES11/70, November 1970.	(Part I)
PB 210-778
(Part II)
Research on the physical aspects of thermal pollution. Cornell	NTIS
1971	Aeronautical Laboratory, Water pollution Control	PB 210-124
Research Series 16130DPU02/71, February 1971.
Statistical prediction of equilibrium temperature from standard	*
1973 meteorological data bases. Environmental Systems
Laboratory, Environmental Protection Technology
Surface Discharge of Heated water.	NTIS
1971	University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Falls. Hydraulic PB 211-285
Laboratory, Water Pollution Control Research Series
16130FSU12/71, December 1971.
A survey of alternate methods for cooling condenser discharge water - NTIS
1969 large scale heat rejection equipment. Dynatech R/D PB 208-035
Company, Phase I - Task I Report, Water Pollution
Control Research Series 16130DHS07/60, July 21, 1969

Title of Publication
A survey of alternate methods for cooling condenser discharge water - NTIS
1971 operating characteristics and design criteria.	PB 208-035
Dynatech R/D Company, Water Pollution Control Research
Series 16130DHS08/70, August 1970.
A survey of alternate methods for cooling condenser discharge	NTIS
1971	water - system selection, design and optimization. PB 212-392
Dynatech R/D Company, Water Pollution Control Research
Series 16130DHS01/71, January 1971.
A survey of alternate methods for cooling condenser discharge water - NTIS
1970	total community considerations in the utilization rB 206-316
of rejected heat. Dynatech R/D Company, Water
Pollution Control Research Series 16130DHS11/70,
November 1970.
Technical and economic evaluation of cooling system blowdown control IP
1973 techniques. Wapora, Inc., Environmental Protection
Technology Series EPA 660/2-73-026.
Temperature prediction in stratified water: Mathematical modeling NTIS
1971	user's manual. Supplement to Water Pollution Control PB 210-701
r* .	•	- "n iini ni
Kebedrcri oer ieb louuuonui/ / i.
Thermal pollution: Status of the art. Frank L. Parker and Peter	ntts
1969	Krenkel, Vanderbilt University, Report No. 3, December
1QCQ	"d £io-/lb
Iyby*	$23.75
A user's manual for three dimensional heated surface discharge	*
1973 computations. Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Environmental Protection Technology Series, EPA-R2-73-
133, January 1973.

Iffii Waste Treatment
Research Highlights
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory
200 3. W. 35th Street	Corvallis, Or. 97330
January 1974
The program of the Fifth National Symposium on Food Processing
Wastes to be held April 17-19, 1974, in Monterey, California at
the Holiday Inn has been finalized. Current research and demonstration
projects for the treatment of wastes and waste reduction methods for
food processing operations will be reported. The meeting will be
co-sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency, Industrial
Wastes Branch, Corvallis, Oregon, National Canners Association,
Berkeley, California, and the Canners League of California.
For those arriving the evening of Tuesday, April 16, 1974, there
will be an evening ice-breaker party at the Holiday Inn and a
registration desk will be open. A no-host buffet luncheon will be
held each day of the meeting. If you plan to attend we urge you to
return the registration form attached to this newsletter together
with your registration fee of $15.00. Checks should be made payable
to "Food Wastes Symposium".
Please indicate on the registration form if you are planning to bring
your wife. If response is great enough some formal program will be
established for the wives. The Monterey Peninsula offers many
opportunities for golf and sight seeing. For further information, write
to Jim Boydston or call 503-752-4211 ext. 312.
An Associate Laboratory of the National Environmental Research Center • Corvallis
200 S.W. 35th Street, Corvallis, Or. 97330

WEDNESDAY, April 17, 1974
Moderator - J. L. Witherow
9:30 Welcome - J. R. Boydston and W. A. Mercer
10:00 Keynote Presentation - (To be announced)
10:40 Coffee
10:55 "Experience with Land Treatment of Food Processing
Wastewater" - R. W. Crites and C. E. Pound
11:35 "Use of a Municipal Permit Program for Establishing
Fair Wastewater Service Charges" - R. T. Williams
12:15 Lunch
Moderator - M. W. Cochrane
1:45 "Frozen Corn Processing Wastes: Use of Ferric Chloride
to Improve Secondary Solids Settling Characteristics -
T. Jaffe
2:25 "Paunch Manure as a Feed Supplement in Channel Catfish
Farming" - R. C. Summerfelt and S. C. Yin
3:05 Coffee
3:20 "Removal of Protein and Fat from Meat Slaughtering
and Packing Wastes Using Lignosulfonic Acid" - T. R. Foltz, Jr.,
R. M. Ries, and J. W. Lee, Jr.
4:00 "Feasibility of Treating Meatpacking Plant Wastewater by
Land Application" - A. Tarquin

THURSDAY, April 18, 1974
Moderator - H. W. Thompson
9:00 "Cleaning and Lye Peeling of Tomatoes Using Rotating
Rubber Discs" - R. P. Graham
9:45 "Combining Blanching and Cooling to Reduce Effluent"
- J. L. Bomben, G. E. Brown, W. C. Dietrich and
D. F. Farkes
10:30 Coffee
10:45 "Recovery of Activated Sludge for Poultry Feed"
"Engineering Aspects" - R. H. Jones
"Feeding Studies" - B. L. Damaron
12:00 Lunch
Moderator - A. M. Katsuyama
1:30 "Investigation of Rum Distillery Slops Treatment by
Anaerobic Contact Process" - T. G. Shea and G. Dorion
2:15	"Gulf Shrimp Canning Plant Wastewater Processing" - A. F.
Mauldin and A. J. Szabo
3:00 Coffee
3:15	"Wastewater Characterization for the Specialty Food
Industry" - C. J. Schmidt and J. W. Farquhar
4:00 "Industrial Wastewater Reuse" - J. D. Clise

FRIDAY, April 19, 1974
Moderator - W. W. Rose
9:00 "Investigations of Fishery Byproducts Utilization: Ruminant
Feeding and Fly Larvae Protein Production" - J. H. Green,
S. L. Cuppett and H. J. Eby
9:40 "Pretreatment of Vegetable Oil Refining Wastewater" -
A. Grinkevich
10:20 Coffee
10:35 "Biodegradability of Fatty Oils: A Case Study" - T. K. Nedued
and C. F. Gurnham
11:15 "Economic Effects of Treating Fruit and Vegetable Processing
Liquid Waste" - N. A. Olson, A. M. Katsuyama and W. W. Rose
11:55 Closure - J. R. Boydston
Environmental Protection Agency
Corvallis, Oregon
Environmental Protection Agency
Corvallis, Oregon
Jack W. Ralls
National Canners Association
Berkeley, California
Larry Taber
Canners League of California
Sacramento, California

J. L. Bomben
Western Regional Research Center
Albany, California
J. R. Boydston
Industrial Wastes Branch
Environmental Protection Agency
Corvallis, Oregon
G. E. Brown
Western Regional Research Center
Albany, California
J. D. Clise
Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
State of Maryland
Baltimore, Maryland
M. W. Cochrane
Industrial Wastes Branch
Environmental Protection Agency
Corvallis, Oregon
R. W. Crites
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc.
Palo Alto, California
S. L. Cuppett
Department of Animal Husbandry
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan
B. L. Damaron
Poultry Science Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida
W. C. Dietrich
Western Regional Research Center
Albany, California
K. A. Dostal
Industrial Wastes Branch
Environmental Protection Agency
Corvallis, Oregon
H. J. Eby
Biological Waste Management Laboratory
Beltsville, Maryland
D. F. Farkas
Western Regional Research Center
Albany, California
John W. Farquhar
American Frozen Food Institute
Washington, D.C.
T. R. Foltz, Jr.
Armour Food Company
Pheonix, Arizona
R. P. Graham
Western Regional Research Center
Albany, California
J. H. Green
National Marine Fisheries Service
College Park, Maryland
A. Grinkevich
Hunt-Wesson Foods, Inc.
Fullerton, California
C. F. Gurnham
Gurnham and Associates, Inc.
Chicago, Illinois

T. Jaffe
National Field Investigations Center
Cincinnati, Ohio
W. W. Rose
Western Research Laboratory
Berkeley, California
R. H. Jones
Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc. C. J. Schmidt
Gainesville, Florida
A. M. Katsuyama
Western Research Laboratory
Berkeley, California
SCS Engineers
Long Beach, California
Timothy 6. Shea
W. E. Gates & Associates, Inc.
Fairfax, Virginia
J. W. Lee, Jr.
Cornell, Howland, Hayes and Merryfield
Corvallis, Oregon
A. F. Mauldin
Domingue, Szabo & Associates, Inc.
Lafayette, Louisiana
W. A. Mercer
Western Research Laboratory
Berkeley, California
T. K. Nedued
Gurnham and Associates, Inc.
Chicago, Illinois
N. A. Olson
Western Research Laboratory
Berkeley, California
C. E. Pound
Metcalf & Eddy, Inc.
Palo Alto, California
J. W. Ralls
Western Research Laboratory
Berkeley, California
K. M. Ries
The Greyhound Corporation
Phoenix, Arizona
R. C. Summerfelt
Department of Zoology
Oklahoma State University
Ada, Oklahoma
A. J. Szabo
Domingue, Szabo & Associates, Inc.
Lafayette, Louisiana
A. Tarquin
Civil Engineering Department
University of Texas at El Paso
El Paso, Texas
H. W. Thompson
Industrial Wastes Branch
Environmental Protection Agency
Corvallis, Oregon
R. T. Williams
East Bay Municipal Utility District
Oakland, California
J. L. Witherow
Industrial Wastes Branch
Environmental Protection Agency
Corvallis, Oregon
S. C. Yin
Treatment and Control Branch
Environmental Protection Agency
Ada, Oklahoma

^e0 SI%
^	^	Program Highlights
I ^ I Consolidated
\L	Laboratory Services
Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory
200 S. W. 35th Street	Corvallis, Or. 97330
January 1974
The Laboratory Services Branch, formerly the Consolidated Laboratory
Services, in its continuing effort to provide valid data, has
completed a number of studies: loss of orthophosphate in marine water,
preservation of nutrients in wastewater samples, use of powder
reagents for dissolved oxygen measurements, and the determination
of organic carbon using the direct injection technique.
In seawater, losses of orthophosphate phosphorus were noted after
a sixteen day period in polyethylene bottles. If mercuric chloride
is added to seawater, polyethylene bottles can be used for holding
samples for orthophosphate analysis without any pretreatment
(e.g. acid washing, washing and rinsing). Polyvinyl chloride bottles
can be used as seawater sample storage containers as received from
the supplier without any pretreatment.
The wastewater preservation study indicated that wastewater samples
can be stored at room temperature after preservation with 400 mg/1
of mercuric chloride for periods of up to 100 days with only
minimal changes in the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus.
In the study that compared powdered reagents with liquid reagents for
dissolved oxygen determinations the differences were within ± 0.1 mg/1
at the 4.3, 8.8, and 11.7 mg/1 levels and ± 0.5 mg/1 at the 53.6 mg/1
An Associate Laboratory ot the National Environmental Research Center • Corvallis
200 S.W. 35th Street, Corvallis. Or. 97330

The ampoule technique was compared with the direct injection technique
for determining total organic carbon. The sources of the samples
were raw municipal wastewater, and primary and trickling filter effluents.
The samples were analyzed in duplicate and triplicate except on three
occassions. On two samplings, four replicates were run and on one
sampling, ten replicates were analyzed. A summary of the pooled
standard deviation of the methods is presented below.
Estimate of Standard Deviation for Total Organic Carbon
the Direct Injection and Ampoule Techniques
Low-range (18-146 mg/1 C)
Direct Injection
Mid-Range (161-297 mg/1 C)
Direct Injection
High-Range (303-509 mg/1 C)
Direct Injection

A COD analysis was also performed on the samples and BOD data were
obtained from the wastewater treatment plant. The ratios of COD to
TOC and TOC to BOD are presented below.
COD/TOC and the TOC/BOD Ratio
Wastewater Samples for the Direct Injection and Ampoule Techniques





Raw Direct Inject.
Raw Ampoule
Primary Direct Inj.
Primary Ampoule
Effluent Direct Inj
Effluent Ampoule
*S.D. = Standard Deviation
**n = Number of samples
As a result of the evaluation the direct injection technique can
be substituted for the ampoule technique in wastewater samples.

The following reprints are now available.
1.	Krawczyk, D. F. "Preservation of Wastewater Effluent Samples for
Forms of Nitrogen and Phosphorus." Presented at the Chemical
Institute of Canada/Canada Centre for Inland Waters
Symposium on Water Parameters - Selection, Measurement and Monitoring,
Burlington, Ontario, Canada, (Nov. 1973).
2.	Krawczyk, D. F., and Allen, M. W. "Adsorption of Orthophosphate
on Borosilicate and Citrate of Magnesia Bottles, Polyethylene and
Polyvinyl Surfaces in a Distilled Water and Seawater Matrix".
Presented at the EPA Seminar on Methodology for Monitoring the
Marine Environment, Seattle, Washington (Oct. 1973).
The following are in the review and draft stage:
1.	Krawczyk, D. F. and Allen, M. W. "Dissolved Oxygen Determination:
The Powder Pillow Technique Compared to the Winkler Azide
Liquid Reagents Technique."
2.	Krawczyk, D. F. and Griffis, W. L. "Evaluation of the Direct Injection
Technique for the Determination of Total Organic Carbon."