United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Pollution Prevention
Washington, DC 20460
March 1991
&EPA Pollution Prevention
Fact Sheet
Local Governments
and Pollution Prevention
Role of Local
Local governments can play a significant role in promoting pollution
prevention in the industrial, consumer, transportation, agricultural,
and public sectors of the community. Many local governments have
already taken the lead in putting successful recycling programs into
A variety of tools are available to promote prevention. Local
governments (including cities, counties, sewer and water agencies,
planning departments, and other special districts) can provide:
	educational programs to raise awareness in businesses and the
community of the need to reduce waste and pollution and
conserve resources;
	technical assistance programs that provide on-site help to
companies and organizations in reducing pollution at the
	regulatory programs that promote prevention through
mechanisms such as codes, licenses, and permits; and
	procurement policies regarding government purchase of
recycled products, reusable products, and products designed
to be recycled.
Many local governments have passed resolutions and ordinances
relating to waste reduction, energy conservation, automobile use,
procurement policies, etc. Such resolutions and ordinances can be
useful steps in signaling a public commitment to operate under
environmentally sound principles; they also help to define goals and
targets and to delineate the specific responsibilities of different local
agencies. Several model resolutions are included in this fact sheet.
For more information and copies of model ordinances, contact the
Local Government Commission, 909 12th St., Suite 205,
Sacramento, CA 95814, Tel: 916-448-1198.
Printed on Recycled Paper

Establishing a Recycled Product Procurement Policy
in the City/County of	.
WHEREAS the volume of material disposed of at the (city/county) landfill(s) has been increasing
WHEREAS sanitary landfill space is at a premium and it is becoming increasingly difficult to site
new landfills,
WHEREAS much of the material that enters the waste stream can be recycled, reused, or
incorporated in the manufacture of new products,
WHEREAS participation in and promotion of recycling programs can significantly reduce the
volume of material entering the waste stream thereby extending (city/county) landfill
life expectancy and reducing expenses, and
WHEREAS for recycling programs to be effective, markets must be developed for products that
incorporate postconsumer materials in their manufacture, are reusable, or are
designed to be recycled.
NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED by the (Council/Board of Supervisors) of the
(City/County) of	as follows:
is hereby amended by adding Section
to read as follows:
Within twelve months subsequent to the effective date of this section, all
(city/county) departments, agencies, offices, boards and commissions must conduct
a review of existing product and service specifications to determine whether existing
specifications either require the use of products manufactured from virgin materials
or exclude the use of recycled products, reusable products, or products designed to
be recycled.
In the event that such specifications do exclude the use of recycled products or
require the use of virgin materials, then such exclusions or requirements must be
eliminated unless the pertinent department of entity can demonstrate to the
satisfaction of the (city manager/chief executive office/etc.) that these recycled
products would not achieve a necessary performance standard.
Within the same 12 month period, all (city/county) departments and agencies must
recommend changes to the (city manager/chief administrative officer/etc.) to ensure
that performance standards for particular products can be met and that specifications
are not overly stringent, and to recommend changes to ensure that specifications will
incorporate a requirement for the use of recycled materials, reusable products, and

products designed to be recycled to the maximum extent practicable, subject to an
alternative showing that either the performance of the product will be jeopardized
or that the product will negatively impact health, safety or operational efficiency.
4.	Outside contractors bidding to provide products or services to the (city/county),
including printing services, must demonstrate that they will comply with the
specifications described in paragraph 3 to the greatest extent feasible.
5.	(City/county) staff will work to encourage the copier industry to develop high-speed
copiers that will accept recycled paper. In addition, recycled paper shall be
purchased and used in all copy machines that will accept it.
6.	When recycled products are used, reasonable efforts shall be undertaken to label the
products to indicate that they contain recycled materials. (City/County) departments
and agencies shall use for their masthead stationery and envelopes, recycled paper
that includes postconsumer recycled content and indicate on the paper and envelopes
that they contain recycled material. Other recycled products used by the
(City/County) shall also indicate that they contain recycled material to the extent
7.	A (10% or greater) price preference may be given to recycled products, reusable
products offered as alternatives to disposable products, and products designed to be
recycled where they are offered as alternatives to non-recyclable products. The
preference percentage shall be based on the lowest bid or price quoted by the
supplier or suppliers offering non-recycled products.
8.	The (city/county) will cooperate to the greatest extent feasible with neighboring city
and county governments in an effort to develop a comprehensive, consistent and
effective procurement effort intended to stimulate the market for recycled products,
reusable products, and products designed to be recycled.
9.	All related (city/county) departments and agencies shall work cooperatively to further
the purposes of the ordinance. The (city/county's) economic development process
shall incorporate the goal of stimulating the market for recycled material.

To Require a POTW to Develop a Hazardous Waste Minimization Program
to Reduce Industrial Pollutant Discharges to the Sewers
WHEREAS hazardous waste minimization includes reducing the use of hazardous substances, reducing
the generation of hazardous waste at the source, and recycling hazardous waste;
WHEREAS industrial hazardous waste minimization strategies can substantially reduce hazardous
pollutant loads to the sewers, without transferring those same pollutants to the air or land;
WHEREAS hazardous waste minimization saves industry money by increasing productivity while
treatment and disposal costs, sewer fees, long-term liability and chemical feedstock costs
are reduced;
WHEREAS the industrial chemical compounds currently discharged to POTWs can work their way into
the environment through receiving water pass-through, sludge disposal, air evaporation and
collection system leaks, causing potential environmental problems;
WHEREAS future regulatory pressures and economic growth are likely to significantly increase the
current industrial pollutant load to the sewers; and
WHEREAS, due to increasingly stringent state and federal laws, POTWs in the future will have to
significantly limit the hazardous pollutants in their sludge, receiving water pass-through,
and air emissions;
NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the	fname of the POTW)	establishes a
hazardous waste minimization program to assist area businesses reduce their hazardous pollutant discharges
to the sewers; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the	dead dept. or division') develop and implement this
hazardous waste minimization program; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that, in developing this program, the dead dept. or division')	:
	Identity specific industrial dischargers and water-borne pollutants for priority attention;
	Set percentage reduction goals for those water-borne hazardous pollutants identified as a
	Confer with other local agencies that regulate the same industries; and
	Evaluate the feasibility of each of the following program options: education and outreach,
technical assistance, and regulations; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the	(lead dept. or division')	submit a proposed work
program back to this board for approval by fdatel that identifies the hazardous waste minimization
activities selected for implementation, along with a timetable and required financial support; and
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the	(lead dept. or division')	recommend to this board
by fdatel any changes to the existing sewer use ordinance necessary to implement the hazardous
waste minimization program as proposed.