vxEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency WASP7 Benthic Algae - Model Theory and User's Guide RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ------- EPA 600/R-06/106 September 2006 www.epa.gov WASP7 Benthic Algae - Model Theory and User's Guide Supplement to Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) User Documentation Robert B. Ambrose, Jr., P.E. U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development National Exposure Research Laboratory Ecosystems Research Division Athens, Georgia James L. Martin, Ph.D., P.E. Mississippi State University Starkville, Mississippi Tim A. Wool U.S. EPA, Region 4 Water Management Division Atlanta, Georgia U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development Washington, DC 20460 ------- NOTICE The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through its Office of Research and Development (ORD) funded and managed the research described herein. It has been subjected to the Agency's peer and administrative review and has been approved for publication as an EPA document. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. ------- ABSTRACT The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substrates) are often of greater importance than phytoplankton. These attached plants affect water quality in various ways, and their impact must often be considered in order to properly evaluate riverine water quality conditions. An advanced WASP7 eutrophication module has been developed to handle streams and rivers with bottom algae. This supplemental user manual documents the new bottom algae algorithms, including the kinetic equations, the additional model input and output, and a series of model verification tests. This advanced WASP7 module, named "periphyton," includes the standard WASP7 eutrophication algorithms, and incorporates bottom algae, with three additional state variables: bottom algal biomass, bottom algal cell nitrogen, and bottom algal cell phosphorus. Bottom algae are not subject to advective and dispersive transport. Sources and sinks include nutrient uptake, growth, nutrient excretion, death, and respiration. Nutrient uptake rates are driven by concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column and within algal cells, and are controlled by cell minimum and half- saturation parameters. Biomass growth is computed from a maximum zero or first-order rate constant that is adjusted internally by water temperature, bottom light intensity, internal nutrient concentrations, and maximum carrying capacity. Nutrient excretion, death, and respiration are represented by first-order, temperature dependent rates. Growth, respiration, and death rates affect other model state variables, including dissolved oxygen and nutrients. The algorithms for predicting bottom algal biomass and nutrient concentrations are based upon the periphyton routines included in the QUAL2K model (Chapra 2005). To run the WASP7 periphyton module, the user must supply initial concentrations of algal biomass and cell nitrogen and phosphorus content by segment. In addition, some model parameters, time functions, and constants must be specified. A new spatially- variable parameter represents the fraction of bottom area suitable for growth. Standard WASP7 parameters and time functions representing water temperature and incident light intensity are used. A periphyton constant group was added, with 27 new rate constants and coefficients that must be specified. The WASP7 periphyton module adds 8 new output variables to the standard eutrophication output available for examination in the post-processor. Simulated algal biomass per unit area of substrate is expressed both on a dry weight basis and as chlorophyll a. Internal cell nitrogen and phosphorus values are expressed as fractions of total biomass and as ratios with chlorophyll a. Finally, calculated light and nutrient growth limitation factors are provided. in ------- Table of Contents Abstract iii List of Figures v List of Tables v 1 Introduction 1 2 Background 2 3 Development of Equations 4 3.1 Bottom algal biomass (at,) 4 3.1.1 Photosynthesis 4 3.1.2 Losses 6 3.2 Bottom Algal Cell Nutrients (QN, qp) 6 3.3 External Inorganic Nutrients 8 3.4 External Organic Matter 9 3.5 Dissolved Oxygen 9 4 Bottom Algae Model Inputs 10 4.1 Initial Conditions and Model Parameters 10 4.2 Model Parameters and Time Functions 11 4.3 Model Constants and Reaction Coefficients 11 5 Bottom Algae Model Outputs 15 6 References 16 7 Appendix 1: Model Verification Tests 17 7.1 Development of Equations 17 7.2 Verification Test Results 18 7.3 Model Comparison Test 23 IV ------- List of Figures Figure 1 Phytoplankton and Periphyton 1 Figure 2 WASP Version 7 Eutrophication Kinetics 3 Figure 3 Model Parameters and Time Functions 11 Figure 4 Model Constants for Benthic Algae 12 Figure 5 Conversion of constants from QUAL2K to WASP7.1 14 Figure 6 Output Variables for Eutrophi cation - Bottom Algae Module 15 Figure 7 WASP7 Simulation of Benthic Algal Density 20 Figure 8 WASP7 Calculated Nutrient and Light Limitation 20 Figure 9 WASP7 Simulation of Cell Nutrient Content 21 Figure 10 WASP Diel Temperature and Light Functions 24 Figure 11 QUAL2K Periphyton Biomass Diel Results 24 Figure 12 WASP7 Periphyton Biomass Diel Results 25 Figure 13 QUAL2K Cell Nutrient Diel Results 25 Figure 14 WASP7 Cell Nutrient Diel Results 25 Figure 15 QUAL2K Diel Dissolved Oxygen Results 26 Figure 16 WASP7 Diel Dissolved Oxygen Results 26 List of Tables Table 1 Kinetic coefficients for bottom algae 19 Table 2 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - base test conditions 21 Table 3 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - low temperature & light 21 Table 4 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - high temperature & light.... 21 Table 5 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - low nutrients 22 Table 6 Alternate kinetic coefficients for bottom algae 22 Table 7 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - alternate rate constants 23 v ------- 1 Introduction Phytoplankton (floating plants) are commonly included as state variables in water quality models, such as WASP, both because they impact dissolved oxygen and material cycling in water bodies and because excessive phytoplankton populations are of environmental concern. However, in many shallow streams and rivers it is the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substrates) that are often of greater importance. These attached plants affect water quality in various ways, and their impact must often be considered in order to properly evaluate riverine water quality conditions. Though the term "periphyton" includes both bottom algae and associated detritus and bacteria, in this document "benthic algae" and "periphyton" are used to designate the algal community attached to bottom rocks and stable sand surfaces. As with phytoplankton, periphyton growth is impacted by temperature, light and nutrients. The growth of periphyton consumes nutrients and produces oxygen. Periphyton, like phytoplankton, also excrete cell contents and die, recycling dissolved and particulate organic matter to the stream's carbon and nutrient pools. While the modeling approaches used for phytoplankton and periphyton are similar, periphyton differ from phytoplankton in a number of fundamental ways, as illustrated in Figure 1 : • Periphyton do not move with the water current, as do phytoplankton, • Periphyton typically dwell on or near the bottom, so are not impacted by the average light in the water column but the light reaching the bottom (substrate). • Periphyton are limited by the amount of substrate available for growth. • There is typically a maximum density for attached plants. Figure 1 Phytoplankton and Periphyton The importance of periphyton and need for incorporation of periphyton routines into the WASP modeling framework has long been recognized. Because of the impact of 1 ------- periphyton on water quality, Chapra (1997) suggested that eutrophication frameworks should include both phytoplankton and periphyton. As a result of the need to simulate either or both phytoplankton and periphyton in the WASP framework, studies were initiated to review available routines, select the routine(s) and then incorporate periphyton routines into WASP. For incorporation of periphyton routines into WASP, two periphyton models were reviewed: the Jackson River periphyton model developed by HydroQual (HydroQual 2003, reviewed by Martin 2003) and the periphyton routines incorporated into the QUAL2K model (Chapra 2003). The QUAL2K routines were ultimately selected and incorporated into WASP7. The more detailed HydroQual routines may be incorporated in part or in whole in later versions. 2 Background WASP7 includes two eutrophication modules. The standard module (Ambrose, et al., 1993, Wool et al., 2001) includes the following state variables: • Ammonia • Nitrate • Orthophosphate • Phytoplankton • Detrital carbon • Detrital nitrogen • Detrital phosphorus • CBOD type 1 • CBOD type 2 • CBOD type 3 • Dissolved Oxygen • Dissolved Organic Nitrogen • Dissolved Organic Phosphorus • Salinity • Inorganic Solids The advanced stream eutrophication module incorporates bottom algae, with the following additional state variables: • Bottom algae biomass • Internal cell nitrogen • Internal cell phosphorus The relationship between WASP state variables is illustrated in Figure 2. ------- Periphyton Phytoplankton Oxidation Photosynthesis and Respiration 4 —• atmosphere Reaeration Settling Uptake (Growth) and Excretion (Respiration) Nitrification Inorganic Nutrients P04 NH4 N03 DOM CBOa CBOU OP ON Settling Figure 2 WASP Version 7 Eutrophication Kinetics Each of the above state variables is represented using a general mass balance equation of the form of: accumulation = + advective transport + diffusive transport + external load + sources/sinks. where accumulation is the rate of change in the mass of the constituent and sources/sinks result from reactions and transfer mechanisms. Periphyton state variables do not move with the flow of water, and their mass balance equations are reduced to: accumulation = + sources/sinks. Sources and sinks for periphyton include growth, death, and respiration. Growth is computed from a maximum rate that is then modified based upon available light and internal nutrients. Unlike phytoplankton, bottom light rather than average water column light is used in the computation of growth. Rates of death and respiration are temperature dependent. Rates of growth, respiration, and death impact other model state variables including dissolved oxygen and nutrients. The algorithms for predicting variations in detrital and periphyton concentrations were based upon routines included in the QUAL2K model (Chapra 2005). The kinetic formulations provided in the following text were taken largely from the QUAL2K ------- (Chapra 2005) documentation. Here, source/sink terms are denoted by "5" and are in g/d. 2 Areal rates (e.g., fluxes) [g/m -d] are denoted by "F" and are used to calculate benthic 3 algal source/sink terms. Volumetric rates [g/m -d] are denoted by ",R" and are used to calculate source/sink terms for most WASP variables. Volumetric rates are the product of areal rates and active surface area divided by segment volume. Rate constants are denoted by "#" and are in units of d"1. Mass units are qualified by D, C, N, P, and A, which refer to dry weight, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll a, respectively. 3 Development of Equations 3.1 Bottom algal biomass (ab) Bottom algae, a\,, is represented as total biomass per unit area of available substrate [gD/m2]. Bottom algal biomass increases due to photosynthesis and decreases with respiration and death: Sab=(FGb-FRb-FDb)Ab (1) where Sab is the total source/sink of algal biomass [gD/d], Fob is the photosynthesis rate [gD/m2-d], pRb is the respiration loss rate [gD/m2-d], Fob is the death rate [gD/m2-d], and Ab is the bottom substrate surface area [m2]. 3.1.1 Photosynthesis Two options are available to represent the bottom algal photosynthesis rate, FGb [gD/m2- d]. The first option is a temperature-corrected, zero-order maximum rate attenuated by nutrient and light limitation (simplied from Rutherford et al., 2000): FGb = FGb20 Tb Nb Lb (2) 2 where FGb2o is the maximum photosynthesis rate at 20 °C [gD/m -d], fab is the photosynthesis temperature correction factor [dimensionless], fab is the bottom algae nutrient attenuation factor [dimensionless number between 0 and 1], and fab is the bottom algae light attenuation coefficient [dimensionless number between 0 and 1]. The second option uses a first-order, temperature-corrected rate constant, attenuated by nutrient, light, and space limitation: F0b = kGb20 Tb ------- 4n = C2° (4) where 0Qb is the photosynthesis temperature coefficient [dimensionless]. Nutrient Limitation Effect. Nutrient limitation of the photosynthesis rate is dependent on intracellular nutrient concentrations using a formulation originally developed by Droop (1974): A ™ir, 1 ^OAT 1 m=mm 1 U1 (5) where q^ and qp are cell quotas of nitrogen [mgN/gD] and phosphorus [mgP/gD], respectively, and qw and qop are the minimum cell quotas of nitrogen [mgN/gD] and phosphorus [mgP/gD], respectively. The minimum cell quotas are the levels of intracellular nutrient at which growth ceases. Nutrient cell quotas are state variables calculated by WASP. Their mass balance equations are described in a later section. Light Limitation Effect. Light limitation is determined by the amount of photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR) reaching the bottom of the water column. This quantity is computed with the Beer-Lambert law evaluated at the bottom of the river: I(H) = I(Q)e-k'H (6) where I(H) is light intensity at depth H below the water surface [Ly/d], 1(0) is light intensity just below the water surface [Ly/d], His depth [m], and ke is the light extinction coefficient [d"1]. Three models are used to characterize the impact of light on bottom algae photosynthesis. Substituting the above formulation into these models yields the following formulas for the bottom algae light attenuation coefficient: Half-Saturation Light Model: T/r\\ —kpH _ I(v)e e . Smith's Function: '" (8) ------- Steele's Equation: KLb (9) where KU, is the appropriate bottom algae light parameter for each light model. Space Limitation Effect. Bottom algal densities are limited by their carrying capacity, or maximum density. Space limitation of the first-order growth rate is modeled as a logistic function: (10) where a^max is the bottom algae carrying capacity, or maximum density [gD/m2]. 3.1.2 Losses Bottom algal biomass decreases due to respiration and death. Respiration. Bottom algal respiration is represented using first-order, temperature- corrected kinetics: FRb = kRb20 &Rb2° ab where kRb2o is the bottom algae respiration rate constant at 20 °C [d"1] and 6Rb is the bottom algae respiration temperature coefficient [dimensionless]. Death. Bottom algal death is also represented using first-order, temperature-corrected kinetics: FDh=kDh209TDh20ah (12) where knb2o is the bottom algae death rate constant at 20 °C [d"1] and dub is the bottom algae death temperature coefficient [dimensionless]. 3.2 Bottom Algal Cell Nutrients (qN, qP) Intracellular nutrient concentrations, or cell quotas, represent the ratios of the intracellular nutrient to the bottom algal dry weight: (13) ah ------- (14) a where qN and qP are cell quotas [mgN/gD or mgP/gD], INb is intracellular nitrogen concentration [gN/m2], IPb is in units conversion factor [mg/g]. concentration [gN/m2], IPb is intracellular phosphorus concentration [gP/m2], and 103 is a The total source/sink terms for intracellular nitrogen and phosphorus in bottom algal cells [g/d] are controlled by uptake, excretion, and death: ^bN = VUNb ~*lENb ~*'DNb)Ab (15) ^bP = VUPb ~ ^ EPb ~*lDPb)Ab (16) where Fum and Fupb are uptake rates for nitrogen and phosphorus by bottom algae [gN/m2-d and gP/m2-d], FENb and FEpb are the bottom algae cell excretion rates [gN/m2-d and gP/m2-d], and Fom and Fopb are loss rates from bottom algae death [gN/m2-d and gP/m2-d]. The N and P uptake rates depend on both external and intracellular nutrient concentrations as in Rhee (1973): (18) Where NH^ NO 3, and PO4 are external water concentrations of ammonium N, nitrate N, and phosphate P [mgN/L and mgP/L], pmN and pmP are the maximum uptake rates for nitrogen and phosphorus [mgN/gD-d and mgP/gD-d], KsNb and Kspb are half-saturation constants for external nitrogen and phosphorus [mgN/L and mgP/L], Kq^ and Kqp are half-saturation constants for intracellular nitrogen and phosphorus [mgN/gD and mgP/gD], and 10"3 is a units conversion factor [g/mg]. Note that nutrient uptake rates fall to half of their maximum values when external nutrient concentrations decline to the half- saturation constants, or when excess internal nutrient concentrations rise to the internal half-saturation constants. The internal N and P excretion rates are represented using first-order, temperature- corrected kinetics: TEb2°qNablO-3 (19) TEb20qPablO-3 (20) ------- where kEb2o is the bottom algae cell excretion rate constant at 20 °C [d"1] and 6Eb is the bottom algae excretion temperature coefficient [dimensionless]. The internal N and P loss rates from benthic algal death are the product of the algal death rate, FDb [gD/m2-d], and the cell nutrient quotas: j—' -j—1 -i f\~3 /r\ -i \ FDPb=FDbqPW-3 (22) where 10"3 is a units conversion factor [g/mg]. In the following sections, volumetric rate terms "R" [g/m3-d] are used in place of the corresponding periphyton areal rate, or flux terms "F/' [g/m2-d]. Volumetric rates are calculated from areal rates as follows: Rs=Fs(Ab/V) (23) where "s" denotes the appropriate subscripts, Ah is the active surface area [m2], and Fis the segment volume [m3]. 3.3 External Inorganic Nutrients External inorganic nutrients, found in the water column around the benthic algae, include ammonia nitrogen, NH4 [mgN/L], nitrate nitrogen, NO 3 [mgN/L], and orthophosphate, PO4 [mgP/L]. Bottom algae affect these nutrient concentrations by cell uptake and cell excretion. The source/sink terms in the inorganic nutrient mass balance equations include the following benthic algal terms: ~ [(RENb + RDNb ) i1 ~ foNb ) ~ RUNb PNH 4b ] V (24) =-[RUNb(l-PNH4b)]V (25) SP04b = [(REPb + RDPb ) i1 ~ foPb ) ~ RUPb ] V (26) where fom andfopb are the cell nutrient organic fractions [dimensionless number between 0 and 1] andPNH4b is the benthic algae ammonia preference factor [dimensionless number between 0 and 1]. The cell nutrient organic fractions are calculated as ratios of the stoichiometric nutrient fraction to the total cell nutrient fraction: _(ANC/ADC) JONb - _ -. n-3 (APC/ADC) Jopb 7 ------- where ANC, APC, and ADC are specified stoichiometric nitrogen to carbon, phosphorus to carbon, and dry weight to carbon ratios [gN/gC, gP/gC, and gD/gC], QN and qp are the calculated total cell nitrogen and phosphorus cell quotas [mgN/gD and mgP/gD], and 10"3 is a units conversion factor [g/mg]. Whenever the calculated cell nutrient fractions fall below the specified stoichiometric nutrient fractions, the nutrient organic fractions are set to 1.0. The ammonia preference factor reflects the preference of benthic algae for ammonium as a nitrogen source. Pmi4b is calculated from NH4 and NO 3 concentrations: p _ 1-\TTTA-U - (Khnxb+NH4)(Khm:b+N03) (NH4+N03)(Khnxb+N03) where Khmb is the preference coefficient of bottom algae for ammonium [mgN/L]. 3.4 External Organic Matter External organic matter includes particulate and dissolved forms. Particulate organic matter is derived from algal death, and is transformed to dissolved organic matter by bacterial dissolution. Dissolved organic matter is further mineralized to inorganic forms. WASP7 simulates detrital carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus [mgC/L, mgN/L, and mgP/L], dissolved organic nitrogen [mgN/L], and dissolved organic phosphorus [mgP/L]. WASP7 also simulates three forms of dissolved organic carbon in terms of their oxygen equivalents (i.e., CBODj in mgO2/L). These carbonaceous variables are formed only by detrital dissolution, and are not linked directly to algal cell excretion or death. Bottom algae affect the particulate detrital C, N, and P pools by death: SmCb=RDbADC-lV (30) SmNb = RDNb foNb V (3 0 SmPb = RDPb foPb V (32) Bottom algae affect the dissolved organic N and P pools by cell excretion: " DONb ~ -^ENb JoNb ' \* * ) R-EPb JOPb V (34) 3.5 Dissolved Oxygen Bottom algae affect dissolved oxygen levels directly through photosynthesis and respiration, and indirectly through the production of detrital organic carbon, which is subsequently dissolved and oxidized. The indirect effects of organic matter on dissolved ------- oxygen are covered in the WASP6 user manual, and will be documented in a WASP7 supplement on dissolved oxygen. The production of oxygen by periphyton is given by the following equation: O ROC ANC( /3 32>| ROC] -- h /V, - [i — f; \rriAh l\ — x - \~-K-Dh - \y Gb ^ NH4b Rb -- ADC ADC 2 14 ADC) 3 where Rob is the periphyton growth rate [gD/m-d], RRI, is the periphyton respiration rate 3 [gD/m-d], ROC is oxygen to carbon ratio, 32/12 [gC>2/gC], ADC is periphyton dry mass to carbon ratio [gD/gC], and ANC is periphyton nitrogen to carbon ratio [gN/gC]. The first term gives the production of oxygen during photosynthesis. The third term gives the consumption of oxygen by respiration. The second term represents the evolution of oxygen with the reduction of nitrate to ammonium. It is based on the following reaction: 2NO3^2NH4 + 3O2 (36) in which 3 moles of oxygen are produced when 2 moles of nitrate are reduced. The term 32/14 converts this molar ratio to the mass ratio of gCVgN. 4 Bottom Algae Model Inputs The data required to support the application of a model of periphyton include initial conditions (for total biomass, cell nitrogen, and cell phosphorus), model parameters, and reaction constants and coefficients. Each of these is briefly described in the sections below. 4. 1 Initial Conditions and Model Parameters Initial conditions are required for bottom algal biomass [gD/m2], cell nitrogen quota [mgN/gD], and cell phosphorus quota [mgP/gD]. If initial conditions are not specified for cell N and P in a segment with bottom algal biomass, WASP will initialize these variables to the minimum cell quotas specified in the constants section 4.3. Boundary conditions are not required for bottom algae variables. The initial conditions can be based on measurements or estimated by modeling. The modeling estimations are typically based on steady state or quasi-dynamic calculations. Estimates of initial periphyton biomass can also be made using direct measurements or artificial substrate studies. If the periphyton biomass is estimated in units other than ash free dry weight (e.g. carbon or chlorophyll a) it will be necessary to convert the units using some representative stoichiometry. The following representation is suggested as a first approximation (Redfield et al. 1963, Chapra 1997, Chapra 2005), 100 gD : 40 gC : 7200 mgN : 1 000 mgP : 1 000 mgA (3 7) 10 ------- where gX is mass of element X [g] and mgY is mass of element Y [mg]. It should be noted that chlorophyll a is the most variable of these quantities with a range of approximately 500-2000 mgA (Laws and Chalup 1990, Chapra 1997). 4.2 Model Parameters and Time Functions To implement bottom algae simulations, segment-specific values for the bottom substrate surface area Ab are required for equation 1. In WASP the plan surface area of a model segment Asurf is computed by dividing the computed volume by the computed depth. Only a fraction of this area, however, may provide adequate substrate. Alternatively, in some reaches, the substrate (such as rocks) may provide more available area for growth than is represented by the plan area. To account for the effects of available substrate, the spatially-variable parameter f\s was added to WASP representing the fraction of bottom area in each segment providing suitable substrate for growth (parameter 23). The user must specify segment-specific values for fAs, and the model will compute the available substrate area Ab as the product of fAs and Asurf. If no substrate fraction is specified for a segment, the value defaults to 0 and no bottom algae will be supported. Bottom algal simulations also require the specification of parameters and time functions representing temperature and light. An example is provided in Figure 3. Paiaraeter Used Scafe Faetoi j 1 Segment Scale Factor forWind \ F* 1.0000 1 2 Wind Speed Time Function to use lofSe f~ 1.0000 4 Tanpeiatuieof Segment lOeijiees Can IS" 1.0000 6 bci» Extinction tor SecimcrfiPei Dai' or t ix 10000 | 7 Ligl* Extinction Time Function to use for : H 1 0000 j $ BCDfliDscaj' Rare Scab Facia f~ 10000 j 9 BC'OG) Decat Rate Scale Fsuot f~ 1.0000 I TO GOE13J Decay Rate Scale Factor !~~ 10000 | 11 EB-i«cAt,-imc™Fli.ix(raa/m2/dasl [~ 1 0000 j 12 eonlhic Phosphate FluK (mg/r^/day) P 10000 j 13 Sedmient Oxygen Demarid [g/m2/da;ii f™ 1 0000 I 14 SedwenS Oxygen Demand Temperate t !~~ 10000 | 15 incoming Sola' Radiation tlangteys/dayi f^ 1 0000 ] 16 Measured Segment Reaeralnn Hate (pet P 10000 17 Zooplanklon Population !"~ 1.0000 18 Fraction Light Intercept fei Canow T 1.0000 19 Ts'/tgolo Escape Coefficient P 1 OOOQ f 20 Dam Elevator, imetete) !~ 1 0000 j 21 DamPoolWOCoetteert T 1.0000 j J2 Dam IjpeCorfhciem l~ 1.0000 j 25 Fraction of Bottom of Segrrrenr Coveted b !W 1.0000 ] Time Function Used * Wdta Temperature Function 1 fCi !x" Water Ternperatuie t-yncttcn 2 TCi F" •Wate Temperature Fyricttori 4 f p P •Dafe olai Radiation sLati^leysl f)? .Fraofi n Daily Light Ifracticnl F" jrievj^yei^ifjJonA^er^Teiipeiature Functon T ITJ Dal« Time Vdue 1 | .'31/2004 | 0.00 2.154E.1 3 /31/2OM 2'00 2064E.1 4 /31/2004 SOO 203?E«1 5 /31/2004 4:00 2019E.1 0 .'31/2004 500 200EEt1 ? .'31/2004 6:00 1.934E*! 0 .'31/2004 7:00 1 SSBEtl 9 SI/2004 3.00 2005E>1 10 /31/2004 900 2051E*1 12 /31,'2004 11:00 2223E*1 13 /31/2004 12:00 2337Ef1 14 7/31/200J 13:00 2.443E*1 15 7/31/2004 14:00 2.523E41 16 7/31/2004 15:00 25S2E*1 mAet-lfm emBn-eFunttiorHfCl : 3*j .- ::, : , p.: ,,. - A\ : W £•:•:•* £--• •-'*=£•*• -I, --•;•:* -<&•- -;^v= -- ^ . Sat 11 StfemS? Wed@4 fri@€ i July through August, 2004 • — .-:= — D»% Set«r Ks^sli*n ttirtn^si : 1««»1 •--;"• -"--".• : : { _ _.«- : -:-v_ : SMS @§HI§ 13;@§ 16:SS @@:@9 : July through August, 2004 Figure 3 Model Parameters and Time Functions 4.3 Model Constants and Reaction Coefficients Several kinetic constants and reaction coefficients control benthic algal dynamics. The WASP7 model constants related to bottom algae are listed Figure 4. The correspondence between the QUAL2K constants and the WASP7 constants is provided in Figure 5. 11 ------- Constant Group Constant 1 Benthic Algae D:C Ratio (mg Dry Weight/mg C) 2 B enthic Algae N: C R atio (mg N /mg C) 3 B enthic Algae P: C R atio (mg P/rng C) 4 Benthic Algae Chi a:C Ratio (mg Chlorophyll a / mg C) 5 Benthic Algae 02:C Production (mg 02/mg C) 6 Growth Model, 0 =Zero Order; 1 = First Order 7 Max Growth Rate (gD/m2/d for 0-order growth, 1 /d for 1 -order growth) 8 Temp Coefficient for Benthic Algal Growth 9 Carrying Capacity for First Order Model (gD/m2) 10 Respiration Rate Constant (1 /day) 11 Temperature Coefficient for Benthic Algal Respiration 12 Internal Nutrient Excretion Rate Constant for Benthic Algae (1 /day) 13 Temperature Coefficient for Benthic Algal Nutrient Excretion 14 D eath R ate Constant (1 /day) 15 T emperature Coefficient for B enthic Algal D eath 16 Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Extracellular Nitrogen (mg N/L) 17 Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Extracellular Phosphorus (mg P/L) 18 Inorganic Carbon Half-Saturation Constant (not implemented) (rnoles/L) 13 LIGHT OPTION, 1=Half saturation, 2=SMITH, 3= STEELE 20 Light Constant for growth (langleys/day) 21 Benthic Algae ammonia preference (mg N/L) 22 Minimum Cell Quota of Internal Nitrogen for Growth (mgN/gDW) 23 Minimum Cell Quota of Internal Phosphorus for Growth (mgP/gDW) 24 Maximum Nitrogen Uptake Rate for Benthic Algae (mgN/gDW-day) 25 Maximum Phosphorus Uptake Rate for Benthic Algae (rngP/gDW-day) 26 Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Intracellular Nitrogen (mgN/gDW) 27 Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Intracellular Phosphorus (mgP/gDW) iffe Copy 3 Paste I |f Fill/Gate Cancel 2.5 Used Rl Rt 1.8E-1 R] 2.5E-2 Rl 2.5E-2 Ri 263 Rl 0 RI 3 Rl 1.07 n o mi 3E-1 Ri 1.07 Rl 3E-2 Ri 1.07 Rl 1E-2 Ri 1.07 IH 2E-2 mi 1E-3 n o Rl 2 Ri 1E+2 Ri 2.5E-2 Rl 7.2 Rt 1 R) 7.2E+2 R) 5E+1 Rl 9 Rl 1.3 Value Figure 4 Model Constants for Benthic Algae The stoichiometric coefficients (constants 1-4) reflect the measured or assumed stoichiometry of benthic algal organic matter. They correspond to variables ADC, ANC, and APC in the treatment on page 8. The following organic matter representation is suggested as a first approximation (Redfield et al. 1963, Chapra 1997): 12 ------- 100 gD : 40 gC : 7200 mgN : 1000 mgP The terms D, C, N, P, and A refer to dry weight, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll a, respectively. These values are then combined to determine stoichiometric ratios [gX / gY]. For example, the amount of organic phosphorus that is released due to the death of periphyton expressed in carbon units is: 'gP 40 gC (38) The stoichiometric ratio for oxygen production and consumption (ROC, constant 5) is based upon a typical chemical reaction for plant photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R) assuming that ammonia is used as a substrate (Chapra 1997): p 106CO2 + 16NHJ + HPC>4~ + 108H2O C^R^OnoN^?! + 107O2 + 14H+ R so that the stoichiometric ratio in Figure 4 is determined by (Chapra 2003): (39) W6[moleC]xU[gC/moleC] gC Periphyton growth (equations 2-9) is computed from a maximum growth rate (constant 7) that is modified by the impacts of temperature (constant 8), light (constants 19, 20), and the ratios of cell nutrient concentration to minimum cell quota (constants 22, 23). The impact of light on periphyton is computed using the quantity of light reaching the bottom of a WASP segment. The maximum growth rate is typically on the order of 30 g/m2-d, with a range of 10-100. The nutrient half-saturation constants tend to be higher than in phytoplankton by a factor of 10 to 100 (Chapra, personal communication). Bottom algal biomass declines with respiration and death (equations 11-12). Rates are calculated from first-order, 20 °C rate constants (constants 10, 14) and temperature coefficients (constants 11, 15). Typical values of the respiration rate constant are on the order of 0.1 d"1 with a range of 0.05-0.2. Death rate constants have typical values of 0.05 d"1 with ranges of 0.01-0.5. Death rates during sloughing events could be greater (Chapra, personal communication). Cell nutrient concentrations are controlled by uptake, excretion, and death rates (equations 15-22). Ambient nutrient uptake is a function of the maximum uptake rate (constants 24, 25), the external nutrient half-saturation constants (constants 16, 17), and the internal nutrient half-saturation constants (constants 26, 27). Excretion is calculated from a first-order, 20 °C rate constant and a temperature coefficient (constants 12, 13). 13 ------- j __/ d ,1 ,3 JL • 1* u i A -j ^ - / * " • fe z * ti IJ la 4> 100% » * u 3j Hie |dit View Insert Farroat Tools Data Window Sheets Plots Help : •:'.-:• ''.-- -<-•'•• : r-.-?--:- •» _ -> I ~_ ~ _ --.' ••> . : - :-.' .-- - :" ""'- -:""."- '-:." '-- ' J| ; "I- : $•>'* >•' "2 <;: »/, P G29 ' j& : ! A : B ' C ! D ! 8 i 9 iCaibon j 40 ! 10 [Nitrogen ! 11 ! 12 : Dry weight I 13 7.2 1 100 1 §€ if iN §P 9D «A ! 14 ! 15 |S*ttlin§ ¥«loeity 0.3 nv'd : 16 ! 17 iReaeiation ! 18 jTemp conection • 19 :Reaeration wind effect [ 20 !O2 for carbon oxidation i 21 [O2forNH4 ! 22 lOinygen CBOD Internal 1.024 None 2.69 4.57 'saturation iO->/iC 902'-gN ;w -< >• w \ Headwater ^Rates/ Temperature /Light / WASP-SS / | < Ready I 74 I 75 1 7B Growth i 77 T«mp correction i 78 -Firsi-oiidei model capacity ; 79 Respiration | 80 Temp i 81 Excrotion i ate = 82 Temp correction i 83 rate | 84 T«mp i 85 External nitrogen cfliistairt 86 External phosphorus half sat constant 87 Inorganic cat bon half sat constant i 88 light model i 89 Light 90 Ammonia preference i 91 Siibsisfwic* fo< nitrogen 92 Subsistence foi phosphoius = 93 for nitrogen 1 94 for : 95 i 98 sat Zere-order 300 1.07 1500 0.1 1.07 0.09 1.07 0.05 1.07 100 40 1.30E-05 Smith 135 25 0.72 0.1 72 5 0.9 mgA'iif.'il 01 ;'» m§A/mf •'(I 'd .'d ugN.1. ugP'L rnoles>'L rngO"2«l iiijiA ni§i;in§A nigP/ififA m§i;rn§A:cI mgP'mgA/'4 mgN''mgA 0.13|mgP;mgA s» iP tD §A *"i *. rx f^K C* att **ft.'?sn: *rt fi* ** &» *« ^» *s/» *iWt *'<* *!* *fe«* f »/ ft!." P.dA" P*f *'# ^# E; F G I H to WASP7.1 2.500 gD/gC 0.180 gN/gC 0.025 gP/gC 0.025 gA-cjC 2.69 gO2/gC NUM WASP7.1 Zero-order 30 gD/m2-d 1.07 150 gD/m2 0.1 1.07 0.09 /d 1.07 0.05 /d 1.07 0.1 mgN/L 0.04 mgP/L 1.30E-05>moles/L Smith 135 Ly/day 0,025 mgN/L 7.2 imjN/gD 1 mgP/gD 720 mgN/gD-d 50 mgP/gD-d 9 niiN/jjD 1.3 mgP/gD Figure 5 Conversion of constants from QUAL2Kto WASP7.1 14 ------- 5 Bottom Algae Model Outputs Output variables from the algal water quality module are listed in Figure 6. Variables checked in the "Output" box will be available to the WASP7 graphical post-processing software. For each variable with a checked "CSV" box, WASP7 will produce a separate comma-delimited file containing output for all segments and all output times. In this example, checked CSV output variables are related directly or indirectly to the benthic algal simulation. Descriptor! 1 Segment Depth 2 Water Temperature 3 Wind Speed 4 Water Velocity 5 i'lO'garac Solid! b ^PaiticuiateQiganc Mallei ? Total Solid? S PGIQitj? 3 Salinity 10 D Solved O^gen 11 DO Minimum 12 OOMwmuro 13 DO Saturation iConc) 14 DOOe&i 1 5 Pefceni DO Saturation 16 Reaeratson 5 7 Wind Reaerafef! 1 8 Hydraulic Tieaef afeti 1 3 Sedsrrerrt Oxygen Demand 20 CBOD il) (Ultimate! 21 CBOD 1 Decay Rate 22 -CBOD!2)phmaieI 23 CBOD 2 Decay Rate 24 CBOD [3){Ultimatej 25 CBOD 3 Decay Rate 28 Dr^ol^edOrgawcC 27 'Total uBOO Units _*<*»* T- m/-xc rn/*e>- mg/L mg/L ing/L fraction pp! mg/l. mg/L mg/L mg/L psr day pe! day pet day mg/L pa day r*gA per day mg/t per day mgA. Qulpul CSV Bf P Bf P. Sf P Bf 'P !>c p Ix P « P IS ^P Bf P Bf P Bf P Bf P er P Bf P ur p ix f . BE n Bf P i^r p*j Bf P Bf P Sx p SEp f™"; Ix P Bf P Description 28 PhjrtoDiar^ton Carbon 23 Ph>top!ar,K>on CHoropK'll a 30 Ph=/lopiankton Growth 31 Ph5'toplar,kton Death 32 .Ph^optariKon DO Production 33 Ph^HiplanKton DO Comuniptiori 34 Phj'toplankon Carbon lo Chla Ratio 35 •Ph^topiankton Light GuMthLtmti 3& 'Ph5rtop!ar,ktor-iNuttienl Growth Limit 3? phstoplanMon Ni'jogen Growth Limit 38 . Phs'toplafilston P Growth Lmit 3 Total Light 0 Sat, Light IntfrHtji 1 .Light Top Segment 2 Light Bottom Segment 3 Calculated Light ExtretKm 4 Background t:» 5 Algal Shade fe b Soltfc I'.e 7 :DOCKe 8 Total Nitrogen 3 Total Organic N 0 . Particulate Organic N 51 ,Dr,:olvadOrgaimN 52 ToW Inorganic N 53 .Di^olvedlnorganic-N 54 Anrrriotiia N 55 Nitrate H Unite rtg/L ug/L pet day pe- day mg/L;'da-y rng/L/d*y ^/fng 1/m 1/m 1/rrr l/rr. 1/»i mg#l mg/L mg/L rng/L mg/L mod. rng/L mg/L Qytpul BT Ix Be IX p< Ix (« Bf Ix Be Bf p< Ix |» m Bf Bf Be Ix B< BT Bf Bf Bf m m Ix Bt ~:-m~-.* CSV p p, p p p p n p p p p R p p IK |X: P P P P P p P P P P B m Beseiijrtion Urals Output CSV :56 :f'7 :5B •S3 :eo :61 •63 :63 :B4 :65 :66 •67 las 163 :70 :?1 J72 •73 174 : 75 •78 :?? •78 :?9 •80 ;ei :82 Total Phosphorus Total Org-snio P Parfcdata Otdaiiic P Dissolved Organic P Orthpphpsphate P D»io!ved Inoiganio P Hittoger.BenlhioFltix Phojphorot BantWo Flux Benthic Algae Biorrsa^ BentNc Algae Light Limit BenlNc Algae Nutitent Limit Benlhk Algae N Cell Quota Benthk-.4l9a«F Cell Quota Benthio Algae Chloiophyil Benthio Algae Cell N Chi BenthicAI0aeOIIPl7hl Total Detriial Carbon Re-Mdencalime Adyective Flow Fl&w li-tlo Segment Flow Out ot Segment Di-,peniwe Flow MaKsnuriiTitrMjslep Time Step (Used] Volume Biofc Solid? Producricn Rate Biofc Sow,- DiiiiiUion Rate Cow •mg/L rng/l. mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L g/m2/dai' e/m2/da!' gti/o,.' •mgN/gDW •rngP/jDW mgA/m2 mgN/mcA rngP/mgA mg/L days m3/«c tn3/-'M ro3/sec ,m3Aeo day^ days . cubic meters gOW/rn3-day ft, its W\ 'BE :w PB Ixl Be! .IRi BP |X: 'm M m lie: Bf! •|Sfi P 'w Bfl 155 iSf: Bfl m ,P '|R 'Ix: 'f» •|5i P P P P Bf Be P P is- is Bf Bf Bf Bf Ix Be |Sf p r r r p r p p r p Figure 6 Output Variables for Eutrophication - Bottom Algae Module Output variables 64-71 are directly related to the benthic algae. Algal biomass per unit area of substrate is expressed both on a dry weight basis (64) and as chlorophyll a (69). Internal cell nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are expressed as fractions of total biomass (67 and 68) and as ratios with chlorophyll a (70 and 71). Finally, the calculated light and nutrient growth limitation factors are provided (65 and 66). Many other water quality variables will be of interest when calibrating a benthic algae model. Those directly affecting benthic algal nutrients and biomass include bottom light (42), ammonia nitrogen (54), nitrate nitrogen (55), and orthophosphate phosphorus (60). Variables that are directly affected by benthic algae include ammonia and phosphate, detrital carbon (72), paniculate organic nitrogen (50), particulate organic phosphorus (58), dissolved organic nitrogen (51), dissolved organic phosphorus (59), and dissolved oxygen (10). Users are encouraged to explore patterns and relationships among these variables to better understand the dynamics controlling water quality in their water body. 15 ------- 6 References Ambrose, R.B., Jr., T.A. Wool, and J.L. Martin. 1993. The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program, WASPS; Part A: Model Documentation. Internal Report Distributed by USEPA Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA, June, 1993. Chapra, S.C. 1997. Surface Water-Quality Modeling., McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 844 pp. Chapra, S.C. 2003. QUAL2K: A Modeling Framework for Simulating River and Stream Water Quality (Beta Version): Documentation and Users Manual. Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept, Tufts University, Medford, MA. Chapra, S.C. and G.J. Pelletier. 2004. QUAL2K: A Modeling Framework for Simulating River and Stream Water Quality, Version 1.3: Documentation and Users Manual. Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., Tufts University, Medford, MA. Droop, M.R. 1974. The Nutrient Status of Algal Cells in Continuous Culture. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK. 54:825-855. HydroQual. 2003. "Development and Calibration of the Jackson River Periphyton Model," Prepared for MEAD-WESTVACO Corporation. HydroQual Project No: WEST0092, June, 2003. Laws, E. A. and M.S. Chalup. 1990. A Microalgal Growth Model. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35(3):597-608. Martin, J. L. 2003. "Review of the HydroQual Jackson River Periphyton Model," Contract report prepared for Tetra Tech, Inc., Atlanta, GA. Redfield, A.C., B.H. Ketchum, and F.A. Richards. 1963. The Influence of Organisms on the Composition of Seawater, in The Sea., M.N. Hill, ed. Vol. 2, pp. 27-46, Wiley- Interscience, NY. Rhee, G-Y. 1973. A Continuous Culture Study of Phosphate Uptake, Growth Rate, and Polyphosphate in Scenedesmus sp. J. Phycol. 9:495-506. Rutherford, J.C., M.R. Scarsbrook, andN. Broekhuizen. 2000. Grazer Control of Stream Algae: Modeling Temperature and Flood Effects. J. Environ. Eng. 126(4):331-339. Wool, T.A., R.B. Ambrose, and J. L. Martin. 2001. "The Water Analysis Simulation Program, User Documentation for Version 6.0," Distributed by USEPA Watershed and Water Quality Modeling Technical Support Center, Athens, GA. 16 ------- 7 Appendix 1 : Model Verification Tests Model verification tests were designed to assure that the equations are implemented correctly in the model code. In this section, analytical solutions are derived for cell nitrogen, cell phosphorus, and algal biomass concentrations under steady-state conditions. WASP7 simulations were run for 2 months under steady flow, temperature, and light conditions until simulated concentrations reached steady state. The simulated results were then compared to the analytical solutions. 7. 1 Development of Equations First, we solved for total biomass. Setting the source/sink term Sab to 0 in equation 1 gives the controlling steady-state equation: FGb~FRb-FDb=Q (40) Substituting the kinetic expressions for growth (using the zero-order model with the Smith light formulation), respiration, and death developed in Section 3.1 into equation 40, the following equation is derived for bottom algal biomass density: 06 20 gb a = T~20 qT-20 ~Db (41) This equation gives the steady-state algal biomass density [gD/m2] as a function of cell N and P content, a set of reaction constants, and ambient environmental conditions, including light intensity just below the water surface, water temperature, and depth. Cell N and P content can be solved by setting the source/sink terms SbN and Sbp equal to 0 in equations 15 and 16. The resulting equations control cell nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations under steady-state conditions: FUNb-Fmb-FDm=Q (42) UPb EPb DPb Substituting in the rate expressions for these fluxes (equations 17-22) and simplifying results in the following: = 0 (44) 17 ------- These equations can be rearranged into the quadratic form: ai IN + bi VN + ci = ° (46) a2 q2p + b2 qp + c2 = 0 (47) where: a, = 1 (48) «2 = 1 (49) b,=KqN-qON (50) ^2 = KqP - qop (51) c, = _ pm { NHt+N0l Y £» \ 1 r mN TV- UTTT HT/~\ 7 /iT-20 / -oT-20 ^ ^ I ^ + NH4 +N°3A kEb20 °Eb + kDb20 °Db ) C2=-pmP\ The solutions to these quadratic equations are: (54) -b2±Jb2 -4a2c2 qP= ^ 2 "-^ (55) 2a2 These equations give the steady-state cell nutrient content as a function of external nutrient concentrations, a set of reaction constants, and water temperature. The external nutrient concentrations will depend on upstream flow and boundary concentrations, as well as the segment volume. Substituting the values for q^ and qp from equations 54 and 55 into equation 41 gives the value for bottom algal biomass density at steady-state. 7.2 Verification Test Results For verification testing, a single reach was set up with a depth of 0.5 m and a volume of 5000 m3. The advective flow was set to 50,000 mVd, giving a hydraulic residence time of 0.1 days. With this large through-flow, ambient nutrient concentrations will remain close to the specified upstream boundary concentrations. The first verification test is based on the kinetic coefficients in Table 1. Temperature was set at a constant value of 22.63 °C. Incident light was set at a constant value of 519 Ly/d, and the light extinction coefficient was set to 0.1 m"1. In WASP, light just below the water surface is set to 90% of incident light to account for reflectance. In WASP, boundary concentrations for NFLi, NOs, and PC>4 were set to 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L, and 0.1 18 ------- mg/L, respectively, resulting in calculated ambient concentrations of 0.072, 0.930, and 0.088 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations were used to drive the analytical solutions for cell nutrient content and biomass density. Table 1 Kinetic coefficients for bottom algae. No. Constant Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Benthic Algae D:C Ratio (mg Dry Weight/mg C) Benthic Algae N:C Ratio (mg N/mg C) Benthic Algae P:C Ratio (mg P/mg C) Benthic Algae Chi a:C Ratio (mg Chlorophyll a / mg C) Benthic Algae O2:C Production (mg O2/mg C) Growth Model, 0 = Zero Order; 1 = First Order Max Growth Rate (gD/m2/d for 0-order growth, 1/d for 1-order growth) Temp Coefficient for Benthic Algal Growth Carrying Capacity for First Order Model (gD/m2) Respiration Rate (1/day) Temperature Coefficient for Benthic Algal Respiration Internal Nutrient Excretion Rate Constant for Benthic Algae (1/day) Temperature Coefficient for Benthic Algal Nutrient Excretion Death Rate (1/day) Temperature Coefficient for Benthic Algal Death Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Extracellular Nitrogen (mg N/L) Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Extracellular Phosphorus (mg P/L) Inorganic Carbon Half-Saturation Constant (not implemented) (moles/L) LIGHT OPTION, 1=Half saturation, 2=SMITH, 3= STEELE Light Constant for growth (langleys/day) Benthic Algae ammonia preference (mg N/L) Minimum Cell Quota of Internal Nitrogen for Growth (mgN/gDW) Minimum Cell Quota of Internal Phosphorus for Growth (mgP/gDW) Maximum Nitrogen Uptake Rate for Benthic Algae (mgN/gDW-day) Maximum Phosphorus Uptake Rate for Benthic Algae (mgP/gDW-day) Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Intracellular Nitrogen (mgN/gDW) Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Intracellular Phosphorus (mgP/gDW) 2.5 0.18 0.025 0.025 2.69 0 30 1.07 0 0.1 1.07 0.09 1.07 0.05 1.07 0.1 0.04 0 2 135 0.025 7.2 1 720 50 9 1.3 The first month's output from this WASP7 verification simulation is illustrated in Figure 7, Figure 8, and Figure 9. At the end of the first month, calculated variables were close to steady-state conditions. A comparison of these simulated variables after 4 months with the analytical solutions is provided in Table 2. WASP7 deviates from the analytical solutions by 0.05% for total biomass, and 0.01% or less for cell nutrients and limitation factors. The second verification run tested WASP7 output under low temperature and low light conditions. Temperature and incident light intensity were reduced by a factor of 4 to 5.7 °C and 130 Ly/d, and the model was re-run. Table 3 shows WASP7 deviating from the analytical solutions by 0.1% or less. Because of the low temperature conditions, the WASP7 solution was probably not quite to steady-state. The third verification run tested WASP output under high temperature and high light conditions. Temperature and incident light intensity were increased by 50% to 34 °C and 19 ------- 778 Ly/d, and the model was re-run. Table 4 shows WASP7 deviating from the analytical solutions by 0.05% or less. 1704 16M 1500 140« 13SO 1200 1100 1000 ------- ftuj OS Aug 12 Hug 19 July 2004 - September 2004 ftug 26 Sup 02 Cell N quota Call P quota Figure 9 WASP7 Simulation of Cell Nutrient Content Table 2 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - base test conditions Variable Nutrient Limitation Factor Light Limitation Factor Total Biomass, mgA/m Cell Nitrogen, mgN/mgA Cell Phosphorus, mgP/mgA Analytical Solution 0.9382 0.9568 1795 18.68 1.619 WASP7 Solution 0.9382 0.9568 1794 18.68 1.619 Relative Error 0.0000 0.0001 -0.0005 0.0001 0.0000 Table 3 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - low temperature & light Variable Nutrient Limitation Factor Light Limitation Factor Total Biomass, mgA/m Cell Nitrogen, mgN/mgA Cell Phosphorus, mgP/mgA Analytical Solution 0.9659 0.6351 1227 33.34 2.932 WASP7 Solution 0.9659 0.6354 1226 33.31 2.930 Relative Error 0.0000 0.0005 -0.0010 -0.0010 -0.0007 Table 4 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - high temperature & light Variable Nutrient Limitation Factor Light Limitation Factor Total Biomass, mgA/m Cell Nitrogen, mgN/mgA Cell Phosphorus, mgP/mgA Analytical Solution 0.9064 0.9801 1777 12.65 1.069 WASP7 Solution 0.9065 0.9801 1776 12.65 1.069 Relative Error 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 21 ------- The fourth verification run tested WASP output under low nutrient conditions. In WASP, incoming ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate boundary concentrations were reduced by a factor of 100, resulting in calculated ambient concentrations of 0.1 ug/L, 1.2 ug/L, and 0.3 ug/L, respectively. These concentrations were used in the analytical solutions for cell nutrient content and cell biomass density. Table 5 shows WASP7 deviating from the analytical solutions by 0.05% for biomass, 0.1% for cell nitrogen, and 0.05% for cell phosphorus, the limiting nutrient. The WASP nutrient limitation term differs from the analytical solution by 0.1% in this simulation. Table 5 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - low nutrients Variable Nutrient Limitation Factor Light Limitation Factor Total Biomass, mgA/m2 Cell Nitrogen, mgN/mgA Cell Phosphorus, mgP/mgA Analytical Solution 0.3541 0.9568 678 2.14 0.155 WASP7 Solution 0.3545 0.9568 679 2.14 0.155 Relative Error 0.0012 0.0001 0.0005 0.0008 0.0005 The fifth verification run tested WASP output under base temperature and light conditions, but with a different set of rate constants (Table 6). The maximum growth rate was reduced to 9 gD/m2-d, while the respiration rate was increased to 0.3 d"1 and the death rate was reduced to 0.01 d"1. The half-saturation constants for extracellular nitrogen and phosphorus were reduced to 0.02 and 0.001 mg/L, and the Smith light constant was reduced to 100 Ly/d. The model was re-run, with results summarized in Table 7. With lower growth and higher respiration rates, biomass declined by more than a factor of 6 from the base simulation, while the lower death rate caused cell nutrient concentrations to increase. WASP7 deviates from the analytical solutions by less than 0.06%. Table 6 Alternate kinetic coefficients for bottom algae No. Constant Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Benthic Algae D:C Ratio (mg Dry Weight/mg C) Benthic Algae N:C Ratio (mg N/mg C) Benthic Algae P:C Ratio (mg P/mg C) Benthic Algae Chi a:C Ratio (mg Chlorophyll a / mg C) Benthic Algae O2:C Production (mg O2/mg C) Growth Model, 0 = Zero Order; 1 = First Order Max Growth Rate (gD/m2/d for 0-order growth, 1/d for 1-order growth) Temp Coefficient for Benthic Algal Growth Carrying Capacity for First Order Model (gD/m2) Respiration Rate (1/day) Temperature Coefficient for Benthic Algal Respiration Internal Nutrient Excretion Rate Constant for Benthic Algae (1/day) Temperature Coefficient for Benthic Algal Nutrient Excretion Death Rate (1/day) Temperature Coefficient for Benthic Algal Death 2.5 0.18 0.025 0.025 2.69 0 9 1.07 0 0.3 1.07 0.09 1.07 0.01 1.07 22 ------- 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Extracellular Nitrogen (mg N/L) Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Extracellular Phosphorus (mg P/L) Inorganic Carbon Half-Saturation Constant (not implemented) (moles/L) LIGHT OPTION, 1=Half saturation, 2=SMITH, 3= STEELE Light Constant for growth (langleys/day) Benthic Algae ammonia preference (mg N/L) Minimum Cell Quota of Internal Nitrogen for Growth (mgN/gDW) Minimum Cell Quota of Internal Phosphorus for Growth (mgP/gDW) Maximum Nitrogen Uptake Rate for Benthic Algae (mgN/gDW-day) Maximum Phosphorus Uptake Rate for Benthic Algae (mgP/gDW-day) Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Intracellular Nitrogen (mgN/gDW) Half Saturation Uptake Constant for Intracellular Phosphorus (mgP/gDW) 0.02 0.001 0 2 100 0.025 7.2 1 720 50 9 1.3 Table 7 Comparison of WASP7 with analytical solutions - alternate rate constants Variable Nutrient Limitation Factor Light Limitation Factor Total Biomass, mgA/m Cell Nitrogen, mgN/mgA Cell Phosphorus, mgP/mgA Analytical Solution 0.9582 0.9756 271 23.82 2.390 WASP7 Solution 0.9582 0.9756 271 23.83 2.391 Relative Error 0.0001 0.0000 0.0003 0.0005 0.0006 7.3 Model Comparison Test Further testing of the new WASP7 formulation was conducted by comparing case study results with QUAL2K. This is a hypothetical case study with no observed data. A single reach with 4 computational elements was set up in QUAL2K. An equivalent 4 segment network was set up with WASP7. Each segment and computational element had a depth of 0.5 m and a volume of 5000 m3. The advective flow was set to 1 mVsec, giving a hydraulic residence time of 83 minutes per segment. Upstream boundary concentrations for NH4, NOs, and PC>4 were set to 0.1 mg/L, 1 mg/L, and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. Model constants and coefficients from Table 6 were used in this test. A diel temperature function (Figure 10) was specified with a daily average equal to 22.63 °C to match the previous analytical solutions. Setting up comparable incident solar radiation in the two models proved to be problematic, since QUAL2K calculates light internally. The site location of 42.5 N, 72 W was specified, and the simulation date was set to August 5. The WASP7 diel light function, illustrated in Figure 10, averages 519 Ly/d, with a peak of 1830, which is typical of clear skies at 40 N during late summer. The light function in Figure 10 is adjusted for surface reflectance loss, which is assumed to be 10%. 23 ------- Peritest D 27 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 Tli'i agrees C Ly/ — ^ ^-^^^ / / , / .' ^-^ __ ., — "~ "^ S • ""-x^ \ "X^ ^••s^ 0:(0 Thu MM Thn 12:00 Thn IBM Fii 0 July 2004 - August 2004 jay 2000 1500 woo 508 0 0:00 Figure 10 WASP Diel Temperature and Light Functions Starting with nutrient and biomass initial conditions of zero, QUAL2K was run for a period of 60 days to assure a steady-state initial solution. WASP7 was run for 28 days with initial benthic algal densities set to 10 gD/m2. Algal densities and cell nutrient concentrations converged to a repeating diel solution within 3 to 4 weeks. Simulation results for the two models are illustrated in the following figures. Results are illustrated from midnight to midnight (hour 0 to 24 in QUAL2K, time 00:00 to 00:00 in WASP7). For the specified incident light, WASP7 reproduced the QUAL2K diel biomass trend well, with minimum and maximum values higher by 2.4% and 1.0%, respectively (Figure 1 1 and Figure 12). Cell nutrient dynamics were also reproduced well, with WASP7 exceeding QUAL2K by 4% for the diel minimum and 2.4% for the diel maximum (Figure 13 and Figure 14). Finally, the diel dissolved oxygen dynamics in Figure 15 and Figure 16 compare favorably. The small percentage differences could be due to slightly different model inputs, specifically including incident light. Nevertheless, this case study basically confirms that the new WASP7 benthic algae routines have been implemented correctly. Crmmk - ttmmmli 4 fmtmmmmt 2) 180 110 140 120 100 10 so 40 20 0 -f 0 10 15 20 25 30 j—"Bat Alcpe (mgAftnZ} • BotAIg (mgA/in2| data Figure 11 QUAL2K Periphyton Biomass Diel Results 24 ------- Peritest Creek. 150 MO 130 120 110 11)0 "10 rim ~ — — — -^^_ _— — ' — , — ~~~ ^ "" — "" — ^-^^ 0:(l) Thu KM Thn 12:00 Thn IBM Fii 0 August 2004 ffi JUpui Figure 12 WASP7 Periphyton Biomass Diel Results Pmntmmt Greek - Msssli 4 {&/emettt 2) 30 - 21 - 20 - 15 - 10 - 5 - Q_ ---~~~~~~^~ ~— — — . ^^^!s™*SSss«(™sssiaaaaasiss^ ^-— — — " 0 5 10 15 20 25 31 — Int N (mgNAngA) hit P (miP/mgA) Figure 13 QUAL2K Cell Nutrient Diel Results Pel itest Creek. Figure 14 WASP7 Cell Nutrient Diel Results ' -II N, Cull P, 25 ------- 10 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 - 1 0 Peritest Creek (S/5/2OO4) - Reach 4 (element 2) -DO|rng'L| • DO(mg'L| data DOsat Irng.LJ 25 Figure 15 QUAL2K Diel Dissolved Oxygen Results 8 6 4 2 0 Tim ^ •• W-M Thu 0«:00 Thu 12:00 Thu 1«:00 Fil 0 August 2004 id, ™ilL n Figure 16 WASP7 Diel Dissolved Oxygen Results 26 ------- |