Emerging Contaminant-
                                 1,2,3-Trichloropropane  (TCP)
                                                                         April 2008
                                                                                    FACT SHEET
At a Glance

* Colorless to straw-colored liquid.

* Not found in nature - completely

* Exposure from industrial settings or
   hazardous waste sites.

* Not likely to sorb to soil and has
   low solubility in water. In the pure
   form, likely to exist as a dense
   nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL).

* Federal maximum contaminant
   level (MCL) not established.

* EPA Region 9 identifies preliminary
   remediation goals (PRGs) for
   various matrices and has
   established a notification level  (NL)
   for drinking water.

* Numerous methods are available
   for TCP detection.

* Remediation technologies available
   to treat TCP contamination in
   ground water and soil include
   granular activated carbon (GAC)
   and soil vapor extraction (SVE),
   among others.
An "emerging contaminant" is a chemical or material that is characterized
by a perceived, potential or real threat to human health or the
environment or lack of published health standards. A contaminant may
also be "emerging" because of the discovery of a new source or a new
pathway to humans, or a new detection method or treatment technology
(DoD 2007).

This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO),
provides a brief summary for 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including
physical and chemical properties; environmental and health impacts;
existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment methods;
and additional sources of information.

TCP is an emerging contaminant that is of interest to the government,
private sector, and other parties. It is recognized by the State of
California  to cause cancer and is a known toxin. This fact sheet is
intended for use by site managers and other field personnel in
addressing TCP contamination at a cleanup site or in a drinking water

What is 1,2,3-TCP?	

* Synonyms include allyl trichloride, glycerol trichlorohydrin, and
   trichlorohydrin (Barbalace 2007).
* TCP is exclusively a man-made chemical (Dombeck and Borg 2005;

* TCP has been used as an industrial solvent, as a cleaning and
   degreasing agent, and in the production of pesticides (NTP 2005;
   TOSC 2007).

* TCP is currently used as a chemical intermediate in the creation of
   other chemicals, including polysulfone liquid polymers and
   dichloropropene, and in the synthesis of hexafluoropropylene.  In
   addition, it is used as a crosslinking agent in the creation of
   polysulfides (NTP 2005).
: TCP is a chlorinated hydrocarbon (Stepek 2003).
   United States
   Environmental Protection
       Solid Waste and
       Emergency Response

EPA 505-F-07-008
      April 2008

                         Exhibit 1: Physical and Chemical Properties of 1,2,3-TCP
                  (NTP 2005; ATSDR 1992; Dombeck and Borg 2005; WHO 2003; OSHA 2007)
CAS Number
Physical Description (at room temperature)
Molecular weight (g/mol)
Water solubility (mg/L)
Boiling point (C)
Vapor pressure at 25C (mm Hg)
Specific gravity
Octanol- water partition coefficient (log KOW)
Soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient
Henry's law constant (atm nfVmol)
Colorless to straw-colored liquid
1,750 (slightly soluble)
1 .98 to 2.27 (temperature dependent)
1.70 to 1.99 (temperature dependent)
4.087 xlO'4
                  Notes: g/mol - gram per mole; mg/L - milligrams per liter; C - degrees Celsius;
                  mm Hg - millimeters of mercury.
What are the                             of 1,2,3-TCP?
*>  TCP is not likely to sorb to soil based on its low
   soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient;
   therefore, is likely to leach from soil into ground
   water (TOSC 2007).
*>  TCP will sink to the bottom of a ground water
   aquifer because it has a density greater than
   water (TOSC 2007). Therefore, in pure form,
   TCP is likely to exist as DNAPL (Stepek 2003).
<  TCP is typically found at industrial or hazardous
   waste sites.

       are the                 of 1,2,3-TCP?
              TCP evaporates from surface soil and water
              (ATSDR 1995).

              When in the atmosphere, TCP is subject to
              photodegradation, with a half-life of 15 days
              (ATSDR 1995).

              Because of its low bioconcentration factor (BCF
              ~ 9.2), TCP is unlikely to become concentrated
              in plants, fish, or other seafood (ATSDR 1992,
    Exposure occurs through vapor inhalation,
    dermal exposure, or ingestion (NTP 2005).

    Exposure is most likely to occur near hazardous
    waste sites where TCP was improperly stored or
    disposed, or at locations that manufacture the
    chemical (ATSDR 1992, 1995).

    TCP is recognized by the State of California as a
    human carcinogen (State of California 2007).
              Animal studies have shown that long-term TCP
              exposure may cause kidney failure, reduced
              body weight, and increased incidences of
              tumors within numerous organs (Stepek 2003;
              NTP 2005; ATSDR 1992).

              Short-term exposure through inhalation of 100
              parts per million (ppm) can cause eye and throat
              irritation (ATSDR 1995) and can affect
              concentration and muscle coordination
              (Stepek 2003).
Are                                                                                for 1,2,3-
*>  The California Department of Health Services
   (DHS) has established a NL of 0.005 parts per
   billion (ppb) for drinking water based on a 10"
   cancer risk (DHS 2006).
               No federal or state MCLs have been set for

\re there any existing fedeial and state guidelines and        standaids for 1,2,3-
TirP*? t^nmf'tnnaill
   The Occupational Safety and Health
   Administration (OSHA) has established a
   permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 ppm
   (OSHA 2007).

   The National Institute of Occupational Safety
   and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended
   exposure limit (REL) of 10 ppm (60 milligrams
   per cubic meter [mg/m3]) and an immediately
   dangerous to life and health (IDLH) level of 100
   ppm (NTP 2005).

   The EPA Integrated Risk Information System
   (IRIS) lists a no observed adverse effect limit
                                                       (NOAEL) of 5.71 mg/kg/day, a lowest observed
                                                       adverse effect limit (LOAEL) of 11.4 mg/kg/day,
                                                       and an oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.006
                                                       mg/kg/day (EPA 2007).

                                                       The American Conference of Industrial
                                                       Hygienists (ACGIH) has set a threshold limit
                                                       value - time-weighted average limit (TLV-TWA)
                                                       of 10 ppm (NTP 2005).

                                                       The Health Effects Assessment Summary
                                                       Tables (HEAST) identifies an oral cancer slope
                                                       factor of 7.0 per mg/kg-day (EPA 1997).
What                                                    are            for 1,2,3-TCP?
:  EPA Method 8260B (based on gas
   chromatography [GC]/mass spectrometry [MS])
   for solid matrices (Stepek2003).
:*  EPA Method 504.1 (based on microextraction
   and GC) for ground water and drinking water
   (Stepek2003; EPA1995a).
<  EPA Method 551.1 (based on liquid-liquid
   extraction and GC with electron-capture
   detection) for drinking water, water being
   treated, and raw source water (Stepek 2003;
   EPA 1990).

What                are              to       1,2,3-TCP?
                                                       EPA Method 524.2 for surface water, ground
                                                       water, and drinking water in any stage of water
                                                       treatment (Stepek 2003; EPA 1995b).

                                                       California DHS has developed a method based
                                                       on liquid-liquid extraction and GC and purge and
                                                       trap GC for trace-level detection of TCP in
                                                       drinking water (DHS 2002a, 2002b).
   Treatment technologies for ground water that
   are available for remediation of chlorinated
   hydrocarbons include pump and treat,
   permeable reactive barriers, in situ oxidation,
   biodegradation, and dechlorination by hydrogen
   release compound (Stepek 2003).

   TCP in water can be removed using GAG
   (Molnaa 2003; Dombeck and Borg 2005).

   TCP in soil may be removed by SVE
   (TOSC 2007).
                                                       Treatment for TCP in ground water has been
                                                       successful using ultraviolet (UV) radiation and
                                                       chemical oxidation with potassium
                                                       permanganate (Dombeck and Borg 2005;
                                                       Stepek 2003).

                                                       Laboratory-scale use of an oxidation process
                                                       (HiPOx) using ozone and hydrogen peroxide for
                                                       removal of TCP from ground water has been
                                                       successful (Dombeck and  Borg 2005).
Where     I                           about 1,2,3-TCP?
   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
   Registry (ATSDR). 1992. "Toxicological Profile
   for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane."  Atlanta, Georgia:
   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
   Public Health Service.
                                                       ATSDR. 1995.  ToxFAQs-
                                                       Barbalace, Kenneth. 2007. Chemical Database
                                                       yog i/chemicals/cn/1.2,3-Trichloropropane.html.


Where can I             information about 1,2,3-TCP? (continued)
   California Department of Heath Services (DHS).
   2002a. Determination of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane
   in Drinking Water by Continuous Liquid-Liquid
   Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass

   DHS. 2002b. Determination of 1,2,3-
   Trichloropropane in Drinking Water by Purge
   and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass

   DHS. 2006. Drinking Water Notification Levels
   and Response Levels:  An Overview.

   Department of Defense (DoD).  2007.  Emerging

   Dombeck, Glenn, and Charles Borg.  2005.
   "Multi-contaminant Treatment for 1,2,3
   Trichloropropane Destruction Using the HiPOx
   Reactor." Reprinted from the Proceedings of the
   2005 NGWA Conference on MTBE and
   Perchlorate: Assessment, Remediation, and
   Public Policy with permission of the National
   Ground Water Association Press. Copyright
   2005. ISBN #1-56034-120-3.

   Molnaa, Barry. 2003. "1,2,3-TCP California's
   Newest Emerging Contaminant" PowerPoint
   Presentation, ENTECH 2003.

   Occupational Safety and Health Administration
   (OSHA).  2007.  "OSHA/EPA Occupational
   Chemical Database."  .

   State of California.  2007. "Chemicals Known to
   the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive
   www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65 list/files/0601

   Stepek, Jan. 2003. "Ground Water Information
   Sheet 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)."  SWRCB
   - Division of Clean Water Programs, Ground
   Water Special Studies Unit.
Technical Outreach Services for Communities
(TOSC). 2004. "Hazardous Substance Fact
Sheet 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)."
Western Region Hazardous Substance
Research Center Oregon State University.
February. Available on-line at

U.S. Department of Health  and Human Services.
2005.  "Substance  Profiles  Report on
Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition." Public Health
Service, National Toxicology Program (NTP).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
1990.  Method 551.1, Determination of
Chlorination Disinfection Byproducts,
Chlorinated Solvents, and Halogenated
Pesticides/Herbicides in Drinking Water by
Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Gas
Chromatography with Electron-Capture

EPA.  1995a.  Method 504.1, 1,2-
Dibromoethane (EDB), 1,2-Dibromo-3-
chloropropane (DBCP), and 1,2,3-
Trichloropropane (123TCP) in  Water by
Microextraction and Gas Chromatography.
National Exposure  Research Laboratory, Office
of Research and Development.

EPA.  1995b.  Method 524.2, Measurement of
Purgeable Organic Compounds in Water by
Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometry. National Exposure Research
Laboratory, Office of Research and

EPA.  1997.  "Health Effects Assessment
Summary Tables (HEAST) FY 1997 Update".
EPA 540/R-97-036-PB97-921199.  Office of
Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

EPA.  2007.  Integrated Risk Information System
(IRIS). 1,2,3-Trichloropropane.

World Health Organization  (WHO). 2003.
"Concise International Chemical Assessment
Document 56, 1,2,3-Trichloropropane."
If you have any questions or comments on this fact sheet, please contact: Mary Cooke, FFRRO, by phone at
(703) 603-8712 or by e-mail at cooke.marvt@epa.gov.