Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) is continuing to experience significant

                growth. Communities across the country are constantly discover-

                ing the benefits of PAYT programs, and the U.S. is being joined

                by an ever-growing number of domestic and international cities!

                The impetus for this conversion is simple... communities that

                 implement the PAYT program for solid waste disposal Save

                  Money And Reduce Trash!

                   The economic benefits can be realized by both the local government and the citizens.
                   It is an answer to help address soaring municipal solid waste management costs
                    and also to earn the city a stable revenue from recycled materials! Citizens are
                      spared from tax increases and enjoy a more equitable system. PAYT means
                      less waste and more recycling, and that means fewer natural resources need
                       to be extracted. It also means that the greenhouse gas emissions associ-
                       ated with the manufacture, distribution, use, and disposal of products are
                       reduced! With all of PAYT's economic and environmental benefits, it is easy
                       to see why more and more communities are choosing this option for solid
                       waste management.
                       PAYT has also been adopted internationally from Toronto to Taipei. Several
                       countries in the European Union have made significant efforts to research
                       and implement PAYT programs. The Environment Secretary of Scotland,
                       for example, outlined a vision to increase Scotland's recycling of municipal
                      waste to at least 70 percent by 2020!
                      As solid waste efforts increase, the PAYT e-bulletin continues to highlight
                      domestic and global efforts to address environmental and economic sustain-
                      ability of municipal solid waste disposal.

             Massachusetts Makes
             Enormous Strides-
Hamilton Reduces Waste 33% in First
Months of New Program
In March 2008, Hamilton, Massachusetts, a suburban town
north of Boston with approximately 2,500 single family homes,
started a modified Pay-As-You-Throw program. Residents are
allowed to set out one barrel of trash per week and unlimited
recycling (collected every other week) at the town's expense.
Additional trash needs to be put into official Town of Hamilton
blue bags (33 gal) that residents purchase for $1.75 each.
The program was developed during a period in which the
Town was without a DPW Director. The Town's Recycling
Committee led the initiative, with assistance from a Mass-
DEP Technical Assistance Grant. The Recycling Committee
recommended the program, developed publicity materials,
presented it to the Board of Selectmen and Town Meet-
ing, and answered calls made  to a dedicated "Hotline". The
town's hauler, Hiltz Disposal, also provided significant support
and advice in the planning process. In addition, MassDEP
provided $4/household in grant funding to help cover start-up
and publicity costs. The community voted at a Special Town
Meeting in October 2007 to authorize the Selectmen to es-
tablish a fee-based system. In  December, the  Selectmen set
the actual  bag fee and the start date of March 12, 2008.
Prior to the start  date, many residents came into Town Hall
to buy additional recycling bins and/or pick up stickers to
convert a barrel to use as a large recycling container. Orga-
nizations and individuals requested and received in-home
consultations from members of the Recycling  Committee.
The Recycling Committee also arranged for a  local retailer to
sell large rotating composters at cost to residents. The corn-
posters proved so popular  they sold more than two times as
many as they'd anticipated.
As of the end of April, the results were clearly impressive. The
new DPW Director, John Tomasz, remarked on how smoothly
the program  is operating. Residents who were away dur-
ing the winter remarked on the transformation of the trash
habits of everyone in town. The tonnage results speak for
themselves. The month of March and the month of April each
showed a  33 percent reduction in trash tonnage compared
to the same months in the previous year. This translated
Town of Dartmouth
Pay-As-tail-Throw Program
Participants Take Recycliwj
to New Levels!
to a monthly savings of over $5,000 in avoided disposal
costs, which is a significant amount for the Town's budget.
Selectman Dave Carey reported on the results at the Annual
Town Meeting in May 2008 and received applause from the

Increased Recycling Could Mean
$70,000 Savings to Dartmouth
Residents of
Dartmouth, Mas-
sachusetts (pop.
32,293) have
quickly taken to the
(PAYT) program
they implemented
last October. As of
early April, recycling
had increased 55
percent, and solid
waste tonnage sent
to the Crapo Hill
Landfill had decreased 51 percent. The town collects trash
and recycling weekly at the curb from approximately 10,000
households. Residents pay an annual assessment of $95
that covers PAYT solid waste collection, unlimited curbside
recycling, seasonal yard waste removal and Christmas tree
collection. All trash must be placed in official PAYT bags that
are sold at numerous retail outlets. Residents  pay $2.00 for a
33-gallon bag and $1.00 for a 14-gallon bag.
"The Dartmouth town government and the residents of Dart-
mouth should be applauded for making the (PAYT) program
work, and doing so in record time," Virginia
Valiela, executive director of the Greater
New Bedford Regional Refuse Manage-
ment District, said in a memo to
her board members. The reduc-
tion in solid waste buried at the
landfill is about 470 tons
per month, and the
additional recycling
equates to another
70 tons per month,
Ms. Valiela said. The
Refuse District man-
ages an integrated sol-
id waste management
program for the member
communities of Dartmouth
and New Bedford.

In mid-April, Dartmouth's Board of Public Works announced
that the annual assessment of $95 would be lowered to $80
per year, due to the enormous success of the PAYT program
in reducing solid waste disposal costs. The Town recently
took out advertisements in the local newspaper, thanking the
residents of Dartmouth for making the program a success
and reporting on the results of the program to date. The Town
is also conducting a PAYT survey of its residents. The survey
can be found at

Massachusetts DEP Offers
Funding for PAYT
The Department of Environmental Protection in Massachu-
setts continues to offer cities and towns Pay-As-You-Throw
assistance through its Municipal Sustainability Grant program.
Two types of assistance are provided: (1) Technical assis-
tance for PAYT planning, and  (2) Start-up funds for new PAYT
program implementation.
In FY08, 21  communities were each awarded 80 hours of
hands-on technical assistance from one  of MassDEP's six
regional Municipal Assistance  Coordinators (MACs). MACs
assist communities with preparing cost/benefit analyses for
proposed PAYT programs, developing communications  plans
to educate elected officials and the general public about the
benefits of PAYT, and developing detailed PAYT implementa-
tion plans.
In addition, MassDEP awarded six communities at total of
$114,000 in start-up funds to implement PAYT programs in
FY08. The individual grants ranged from $2,000 to $40,600.
Two of the new PAYT programs were implemented in com-
munities that collect trash  and recyclables at transfer stations
(Athol; pop. 11,000 and Duxbury, pop. 15,300). The other
four new PAYT programs were implemented by curbside
trash/recycling communities and include: Shrewsbury (pop.
33,400), Sunderland (pop. 3,700), Dartmouth, and Hamilton
(see adjacent articles).
PAYT start-up grants are awarded at $4  per participating
PAYT household, with a cap of $100,000. Grantees must
also meet the following criteria:
    •   Provide a detailed implementation plan and timeline
    •   Establish a rate structure that recovers
        variable costs (disposal fees) through
        PAYT bag/sticker sales, and fixed costs
        through tax base or  direct assessment.
    *   Document approval  by vote of  the local
        governing body (City Council, Board of
        Selectmen) to implement and operate
        PAYT for a minimum of two years
    •   Provide no more than one free bag, sticker
        or container per household per week, with
        container volume not exceeding 36 gallons.
For more information about MassDEP's PAYT grant program,
go to
and click on Municipal Sustainability Grant application or con-
tact Joseph Lambert
New Hampshire
Embraces  PAYT
An increasing number of cities and towns in New Hamp-
shire are turning to incentive-based recycling programs to
increase participation and avoid expensive waste removal
costs. Exeter and Newmarket are two of the best in the state
at keeping recyclables out of their solid waste streams. Both
have Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) programs, requiring residents
to pay per trash bag collected.
Donald E. Maurer, supervisor of solid waste technical as-
sistance for the state Department of Environmental Services,
said the $75 per ton average cost of disposing of solid
waste is forcing more communities to find ways to decrease
that budget line. Maurer said 47 towns in New Hampshire
have PAYT programs, and 10 more are actively considering
it. Residents of those towns pay an average of $1.50 per
bag,  which provides incentive to use as few as possible and
recycle whatever they can. "We're beginning to see  it more
and more. We've had more towns than ever look at Pay-As-
You-Throw," Maurer said. "It's a positive program because it
encourages people to recycle to save money."
The cost of disposing solid waste has steadily increased
since the 1970's when the price was $15 per ton. Maurer
said New England's rates are higher than anywhere  in the
country because there are fewer landfills. At one point, there
were 500 landfills in the state; now there are 9.

In addition to the cost avoidance of removing recyclables
from the waste stream, Maurer said communities can take
a chunk out of their budgets by selling the recyclables to
vendors. Exeter has made residents pay per trash bag for 16
years to promote recycling and save money. "Exeter was on
the cutting edge of Pay-As-You-Throw," Town Manager Rus-
sell Dean said. "I think it's been a very successful program. I
think the residents have really bought into it. There's always
been a lot of attention paid to recycling in Exeter."
Maurer said PAYT has proven most effective because it does
not force people to recycle. "People with mandatory recycling
tend not to like it,"  he said. "And then trash becomes a bit of
a sensitive issue."
Recycling Revenue in
Epping on the Rise
Recycling revenues in Epping, New Hampshire were $48,000
higher than expected last year, and Solid Waste Manager Jim
Freeman said he expects that number to grow this year.
Freeman said the math is easy when figuring out why recy-
cling is beneficial to the town. He said  that not only is the
town paid for recycling that it sends out, but the more people
recycle, the less trash the town has to ship out.
"The simplest way to put it is this," Freeman said. "We spend
$80 per ton to have trash taken out. But, we bring in $80 a
ton just on paper, recycling. That is $160 per ton of paper
that we recycle rather than throwing away." He said the
increased revenues and decreased expenditures allowed him
to come in 4  percent under budget, and allowed him to lower
his request in this year's budget by 3 percent.
"I'm a firm  believer that if we get 100 percent cooperation
we could have the facility running in the black. It's just getting
people to go along with  it." Freeman, who has been on the
job just over a year, said his biggest challenge is educating
the public on the benefits of recycling.  "Once people realize
the benefits,  I'm able to  'convert' a lot  of them," Freeman
said. "People know it is good for the environment, but some-
times that doesn't get through to them. Once they see that it
can help lighten their tax burden, they  tend to get on board."
Freeman is also looking into options that would allow the
town to recycle styrofoam, which would further increase
income while decreasing costs. "I have heard of a company
that pays for  styrofoam, so I'm trying to get in contact with
them," Freeman said.  He said his next goal is to get into the
schools and educate children, and incorporate a strong recy-
cling program within the schools.
Bath and Brunswick
Reaping Benefits from
Recycling Efforts
Both Bath and Brunswick, Maine, are reporting drastic
changes in the recycling habits of residents over the past
year. Pay-per-bag trash removal and single-stream recycling
have significantly reduced the amount of trash disposed in
landfills by increasing recycling.

"Curbside single-stream recycling has nearly doubled since Pay-
As-You-Throw started," said Bath city manager William Giroux.
"The average total tons recycled have gone up approximately 50
percent and curbside trash collection has been cut in half."
While five-bag rolls of the signature blue trash bags cost
between $6.25 and $10-for 15-gallon and 33-gallon bags,
respectively—curbside recycling pickup is free in Bath. "If you
drive around on recycling day, you'll see a lot more stuff than
you used to," said Lee Leiner, deputy director of the Bath
Public Works department.  "There  are more bins and more
houses with bins. It's a point of pride for people. They'll say
'I only use one bag every two weeks.' It's like a challenge for
some people. It has them look closely at what  they buy and
what they throw away, which is precisely the behavior we
were hoping for."
Specifically, the average amount of residential material
recycled in Bath over the nine months prior to the October
1, 2007, implementation of Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) was
40.33 tons per month. Since then, the average monthly
tonnage has been 74.09 tons. Curbside trash pickup has
dropped from 209.12 tons per month to  111.96 tons per
month in the same time.

PAYT has had about a year and a half to  take hold in neigh-
boring Brunswick, and has seen the amount of trash col-
lected decrease by 36.58 percent, according to Craig Worth,
Brunswick's deputy director of public works. That's more
than 4 million pounds. The town has also seen an increased
recycling rate of 61 percent.
"We're very happy with the results,"  Worth said. PAYT has de-
ferred the closing of the Graham Road landfill-anticipated to cost
$6 million to $8 million-by decades,  Worth said. "Because we're
burying less, the landfill will now be open 22 to 25 years further."

           Legislative Action in Iowa
           Leads to Widespread
           Implementation of PAYT
In the late 1980's Iowa passed legislation requiring counties
and cities to reduce their land filled solid waste 25 percent
by 1994 and 50 percent by 2000. This rigorous goal re-
quired large efforts by solid waste planners and community
members, and the mandated reduction in 1994 was largely
a success. However, it was clear that to achieve the 2000
benchmark, significant changes to the waste management
programs would be necessary.
With the growing waste reduction success of Pay-As-You-
Throw (PAYT) programs throughout the U.S., the Iowa Gen-
eral Assembly in 1994  mandated that all communities imple-
ment a PAYT program  if they failed the 25 percent reduction
benchmark. This requirement enabled many communities to
reevaluate their unsuccessful waste management programs
and design new unit-based waste practices.
As a result PAYT programs have become widespread; nearly
60 percent of Iowa communities in 2006 were using a PAYT
program. In Cedar Rapids, lowa-a city of 120,000-the average
household disposes of less than 40 pounds per week and the
entire city diverts nearly 9,000 tons of waste a year. The same
success has also occurred in Monticello, Iowa where the aver-
age residence recycles 761 pounds during the year.
The PAYT program has fostered vast environmental and
economic benefits and has spread throughout the entire state
of Iowa. For more information about Iowa's PAYT program
please visit the Iowa Department of Natural Resources at
Two teachers in Hawaii ponder the possibility of a PAYT
program for the island state. "Right now, individuals and
families have no reason to conserve or recycle," they write.
They believe PAYT may be the answer! Read their thoughts at
                From Toronto
                AT-    -I
                to Taipei!
Garbage Amnesty Deemed
Too Costly in Toronto

A plea for a special garbage amnesty for Toronto residents on
Christmas Day or moving day has been rejected. After a brief
debate, committee members took the advice of city staff that
sparing residents from even a day or two of normal recycling
efforts on potentially high-volume days could cost the city up
to $10 million in lost revenue.
"Those [municipalities] that have amnesty days rue the day they
offered them," said budget chief Shelley Carroll. "It is a very
expensive proposition." Ms.  Carroll also feels that any extra relief
would make it harder for the city to reach its aggressive target to
divert 70 percent of garbage from landfills by 201 0.
Toronto approved a plan last year that will implement a new
user-pay garbage collection system later this year based on
the volume of trash left at the curb (see Fall 2007 PAYT Bul-
letin for the complete story).

Taipei's PAYT Helps Taiwan
with Zero-Waste Goal

In 2006, Taiwan-an island of 23 million equivalent in size to
the states of Maryland and Delaware  combined- reported a
daily per capita garbage volume of 0.6 kg, down from 1 .1
kg per capita in 1997. The  island's waste rates are strikingly
lower than those of mainland China, where urban residents
generate an average of 1 .2 kg per day.
Part of this reduction is
due to the heavy emphasis
placed on recycling by the
Taiwanese government.
According to Taiwan's
Environmental Protection
Administration (EPA), the
island reported a recycling
rate of 39 percent in 2007,
up from  6 percent in 1998.

After a 15-year period of sporadic efforts to educate the pub-
lic and encourage recycling that began in 1990, the govern-
ment launched a ten-county pilot project in 2005 requiring
citizens to sort garbage into recyclables, food waste, and
refuse. The policy became mandatory nationwide in 2006,
and citizens now face fines of up to $181 if caught mixing
recyclables with household trash.
Taiwan's success can also be traced to Taipei's per-bag
trash collection fee, introduced in 2001. The fee has reduced
daily domestic waste in the city by one-third and increased
recyclable material collection three-fold. Citizens are required
to purchase government-issued trash bags at convenience
stores and supermarkets. Local trash collectors will only ac-
cept waste in city-approved bags and can identify potential
recyclables through the translucent plastic.
To achieve its long-term goal of zero waste, Taiwan's EPA has
set overall waste reduction targets at 25 percent, 40 percent
and 75 percent of the waste volume reported in 2001 (8.3
million tons) for the years 2007, 2011, and 2020, respectively.
The target for 2007 was met at the end of 2006.

Recycling Trends Continue
in the European Union

The Environment Secretary of Scotland, Mr. Richard Loch-
head, announced an ambitious plan to recycle 50 percent of
country's municipal  waste by 2013 and at least 70 per-
cent by 2025. "Prior to the Scottish Parliament, Scotland's
record was dreadful," Mr.  Lochhead comments, "we were a
throwaway society,  burying our waste out of sight and out
of mind and recycling barely 5 percent of household waste.
As everyone acknowledges, we need to move away from
landfills." The Zero Waste plan will greatly increase recycling
efforts, limit waste incineration and minimize waste disposal
throughout the entire country.
Recycling and waste management plans similar to that
of Scotland  may  provide large benefits if adopted by the
European Union as  a whole. Recent research completed by


We want to hear about your  PAYT program!
E-mail us at to let us know
what you have found to be successful.
You may read  about your story in the
next issue of this E-bulletin!
Okopol has shown that the European Union-with stringent
targets for solid waste recycling-could save up to 144 million
additional tons of carbon dioxide each year. The European
Union's average recycling rate is 37 percent and currently
saves around 160 million tons of carbon a year. The current
European recycling leader is The Netherlands, which has set
a 65 percent recycling rate for 2020. With new ambitious
recycling programs throughout the European Union, vast en-
vironmental benefits will be achieved through the elimination
of large quantities of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide.

PAYT is the Answer for EU, UK,
says the Adam Smith Institute
In March of 2008, the Adam Smith Institute released a report,
The Waste of Nations, arguing that Pay-As-You-Throw is the
best way to encourage recycling and should be adopted by
the UK government. "The evidence from around the world
is clear: the best way to increase recycling is to introduce
(PAYT) waste charges," Gordon Hector writes in the report.
"A study of 7100 such schemes in the USA found an average
16-17% reduction in landfill,  a 50% increase in recycling, with
a source reduction in waste  of around 16%."
According to the  report, this effort would minimize the need
for landfills and incinerators and stimulate millions of tones
per year in emissions savings.
Read the full PDF of the report at http://www.adamsmith.

The  Costs of e-Cycling
Although recycling is generally received as an environmentally
beneficial service, researchers from Germany and Spain have
found that recycling programs require careful  analysis as to
the environmental impact of  recycling electronic goods.  Long
distance travel of electronics to recycling centers may result
in negative environmental impacts as compared to disposing
the items at local landfills.
Researchers have found that proximity to a recycling center is
vitally important. Distances beyond 113 km for washing  ma-
chines, 262 km for refrigerators, 364 km for television sets,
and 346 km for computers produce negative environmental
results when recycled. Because of the limitations to recycling,
it is recommended that items are reused, given to charity, or
resold before placing in the recycling process.
The continual improvement in  technology and relatively short
life-cycle of electronic products has made waste management of
electronics a major concern. The cost and  benefits of recycling
and landfill disposal create a delicate balance and requires careful
study to achieve the greatest environmental benefit for unwant-
ed electronic products.

We understand that there are questions about PAYT including
the various aspects and benefits of the program. Please sub-
mit your questions to us and we can address any concerns
or questions you may have.
 Will unit pricing require us to
 "completely reinvent our solid
 waste agency?

1 It does require a significant review of your
 agency's goals and structure. But this
 examination of new needs and existing
 employees could lead to the discovery of
 some previously untapped skills in your
          How did you con duct your
          "outreach for Pay-As- You- Throw?
' The way we introduced the program
 (this takes a lot of leg work but is
 extremely important) is that we contacted
 neighborhood and civic associations,
 as well as our recycling block leaders....
 We produced an 8-minute video on
 unit pricing and played the video at the
 neighborhood meetings. We  had real
 people talking about what was about
 to happen. We got a lot of feedback by
 showing that tape. We carried out two
 focus group surveys, including one on
 larger families, an issue that  many people
 want to hear more about. We [also]
 experimented with soliciting  feedback
 [using] a telephone voicemail system."
                                                  " ...It is absolutely key to put yourself on the
                                                   firing line with the customers. They pay the
                                                   fees. When we went to the community we
                                                   assured them, 'We're not taking anything
                                                   away from you. We are giving you the
                                                   opportunity to have more control over your
                                                   costs. You cut your trash down, you cut
                                                   your trash bill down.' You need to listen....
                                                   Once the people actually experience the
                                                   program, they become converts, they
                                                   don't want to go back. Either you take the
                                                   time up front to educate, or you take it
                                                   later with operational difficulties once the
                                                   program is underway."
                                                   PASADENA, CA
                                                            What are some effective
                                                            enforcement strategies?
' Enforcement efforts can be made more
 cost effective through publicity. It only
 takes one enforcement instance along
 with a lot of big publicity to send a loud
 message to people who might be thinking
 about illegally dumping. In Maine, we had
 a very large investigation of private haulers
 who were hauling to other municipal
 landfills with lower fees. The investigation
 was blown up in the press, with nightly
 TV coverage. It stopped a lot of the illegal
 dumping in other communities."
                                                  MARK YOUR
                                                  Don't miss the 2008 WasteWise & NPEP Annual Confer-
                                                  ence - October 29-30, 2008 at the Doubletree Hotel Crystal
                                                  City, Virginia. More details about the agenda and registra-
                                                  tion will be coming soon on-line at
                                                      United States
                                                      Environmental Protection
                                                               Office of Solid Waste (5305P)
                                                               June 2008