Caribbean    Currents
  Volume 8, Number 4, October 2000
                                                                 EPA 220-N-00-009

United Nations
 United States
 Protection Agency
Office of
                                         Integrated Pest Management

                                                      written and edited by

                                                 Mary Panke, UNEP-Infoterra/USA
                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
                     Integrated Pest Management, Feature Article
                     World Wide Web Resources
                     Listse rvs
Current Conferences on Integrated Pest Management .......... 10
Guidelines for Submission .............................................. 10
NFP Directory [[[ 11

Tliis issue is the second of two parts on the topic
of pesticide use in the Caribbean. As summarized
in part one, pesticide use lias helped to establish
the agricultural sector as a mainstay of the
Caribbean economy, but environmental and health
concerns have shaken the foundations of
agrochemically -based crop protection.  Chemicals
released into the environment pose a threat to
once-pristine natural resources and, through direct
exposure orbioaccumulation, to the health of living
organisms all the way to the top of the food chain.
Little is understood about what happens to
pesticides once they enter the environment or what
long-term adverse effects they might cause. This
knowledge deficit, together with increased
international concern over growing evidence of
environmental decline lias paved the way for
alternative pest management approaches, most
prevalently, Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
By pairing IPM practices with a policy supporting
sustainable development, new crop protection
measures can exceed the immediate goal of
pesticide use reduction. Implementation of
alternative controls under such a policy will require
institutional innovations and networked
collaborations at local, national and regional levels
which, in the long run, will strengthen die role of
die fanner, and increase production capacity while
protecting fragile ecosystems. This issue of
Caribbean Currents provides a brief history of die
IPM approach to pest control and the challenges
inherent in developing sustainable IPM programs
that move the practice of crop protection at a local
level toward the global imperatives of natural
resource protection and conservation.

In the Caribbean, as elsewhere around the world,
the responses to die problems posed by pesticide
use range from risk reduction programs, designed
to communicate to fanners that diere is a problem,
to organic fanning initiatives capable of competing
in newly developing environmentally-conscious
global markets. Between these two extremes lies
IPM, often refened to as a "continuum" of options,
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Welcome to Caribbean Currents^ Volume Eight, Number Four. This newsletter is edited by UNEP-Infoterra/USA in its capacity as

the Regional Service Center (RSC) for UNTEP-Infoterra National Focal Points (NFPs) in the English- and French-speaking

Caribbean. Although Caribbean Currents is assembled at UNEP-Infoterra/USA, the content belongs to you, the readers. You are

encouraged to send in any questions, comments, problems, or interesting issues relevant to the Region for inclusion in Caribbean

Currents. Please see the "Guidelines for Contributions" on page 8 for more information.

Each issue features a directory of NFPs in the region so that anyone with international environmental questions can contact their

nearest resource. Please feel free to contact one another as well as your RSC for assistance or materials.

Please don't hesitate to share Caribbean Currents with your friends and colleagues, and to make copies as needed. Caribbean Currents

  'ibbean Currents
                                      Volume 8 Number 4
                       designed to optimize pest control while reducing
                       pesticide use and. more recently, to promote
                       sustainable agricultural practices.

                       A Brief History of Integrated Pest Management
                       The term IPM was first coined to distinguish an
                       approach to pest control which offered an
                       alternative to excessive dependence on pesticides.
                       It has since evolved to describe a whole new way
                       of thinking of crop protection, based on
                       ecological principles, in the context of
                       sustainable agricultural development and natural
                       resource management (Consultative Group on
                       International AgriculturalResearch(CGIAR), 1998).

                       The agrochemical era, ushered in by the promise of
                       DDT and other broad spectrum chemicals
                       introduced in the 1940s, has suffered setbacks due
                       to concern over unforseen harmful side-effects that
                       repeatedly surfaced with successive generations of
                       synthetic chemicals. The excitement occasioned
                       by DDT and other organochlorines was grounded
                       in their ability, at low doses, to eradicate almost all
                       insect species. This enthusiasm was quickly
                       tempered by the unanticipated speed
                       with which targeted pests developed
                       resistance and secondary pest
                       outbreaks occurred (Ruttan as in
                       Radcliffe's,2000). Originally referred
                       to as "Integrated Control",  IPM was
                       developed by entomologists at the
                       University of California hi the late
                       1950s in response to these  pesticide-
                       induced outbreaks.  They
 "SARD conserves land.

water, plant and animal


economically viable and

  socially acceptable."
 "integratedpesticide management" (Moore, 1996).
 Ecologically-based IPM regained a foothold as
 global concern over the risks of excessive pesticide
 use mounted.  Pesticides were destroying
 beneficial insects, and concern was growing over
 their indirect effects on wildlife and human health.
 These concerns were galvanized by Rachel
 Carson's Silent Spring (publishedby Fawcett
 Crest, 1964) which sounded an alarm on the
 chemical poisoning of the environment (Ruttan as

 The IPM - Sustainable Agriculture Link
 Beginning with the 1960s, a period of broadening
 environmental consciousness led to protective
 action at the governing level. Environmental
 regulations were enacted in most developed
 nations and international bodies demonstrated a
 firm resolve to stem the environmental decline that
 was becoming increasingly evident worldwide.
 Beginning with the Stockholm Declaration of the
 United Nations Conference on the Human
 Environment in 1972, international law widened its
 focus from narrowly defined issues to broader
	    efforts seeking to preserve and
             protect the global environment
             (Burnett, 2000). A number of
             subsequent international laws built
             on the Stockholm Declaration's call
             for "governments and peoples to
             exert common efforts for the
             preservation and improvement of the
             human environment" (United
             Nations Educational, Scientific, and

Page 2
                       recommended a new strategy which employed
                       biological and other natural controls to manage
                       rather than eradicate pest populations by reducing
                       the number of pests to an economically acceptable
                       level through reliance on natural enemies (Moore,
                       1996). Cast in an ecological framework, integrated
                       control required extensive knowledge of the target
                       system, gained in part through monitoring and
                       scouting pests, and calculation of action
                       thresholds beyond which backup support would
                       be required (U.S. Environmental Protection
                       Agency (EPA), 1999). Chemicals, assigned this
                       backup role, would be judiciously "integrated" into
                       the control process when biocontrols were
                       determined to be ineffective. Though initially the
                       role of chemicals was diminished and emphasis
                       was on ecologically-based pest control, by the
                       early 1980s the emphasis had clearly shifted toward
                       inclusion of chemicals into a mix of pest control
                       tactics that relied heavily on improved timing of
                       pesticide applications and development of pest
                       resistance management  strategies.  What had
                       begun as an alternative  to pesticide use had
                   i    gradually come to resemble what some termed
            Cultural Organization, 2000). Concepts such as
            "sustainable agriculture and rural development", or
            SARD, gradually found international acceptance
            and support.  Formally defined in 1988 by the
            United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
            (FAO), SARD "conserves land, water, plant and
            animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-
            degrading, technically appropriate, economically
            viable and socially acceptable" (Hansen as hi
            Moore, 1996). SARD'S role was further articulated
            as a part of "a declaration and action agenda for
            replacing chemical-intensive agriculture with more
            sustainable and holistic agricultural production,"
            with an emphasis on farmer and rural community
            participation (FAO as in Moore, 1996). IPM was
            officially linked to sustainable agricultural
            development in 1992 at the United Nations
            Conference on Environment and Development in
            Rio de Janeiro, which reaffirmed the earlier
            Stockhom Declaration. The conference, better
            known as the Earth Summit, "formally recognized
            the threat  posed to human health and the
            environment by excessive pesticide use and, in its
            Agenda 21 action plan for achieving sustainable

 Caribbean Currents
                                                                Volume 8 Number 4
development in the 20th century, declared IPM to
be a key element in sustainable agricultural
development" (CGIAR, 1998),

IPM in the Caribbean
Limited resources, high transportation and
communication costs, lack of economies of scale,
and other economic and ecological vulnerabilities
complicated the task of responding to Agenda 21
forthe Small Island Developing States (SIDS). In
their support of Agenda 21, the Caribbean nations
would benefit as a region by acting collectively to
shape policy, enact legislation, and create
innovative institutional infra structures to
coordinate a reorientation to SARD. With this in
mind, the United Nations convened a Global
Conference for the Sustainable Development of
Small Island Developing States in Barbados in the
spring of 1994. Participants drafted an action plan,
the Barbados Programme of Action for the
Development of SIDS, which set forth policies,
actions,  and measures to be implemented at the
national, regional and international levels in
support  of sustainable development capacity
(United Nations Department of         ^^^^_
Economic and Social Affairs. 2000).
Within a few months,
representatives from 14 Caribbean
nations formulated a series of
recommendations calling for area
governments to adopt a series of
Integrated Pest Management
policies, chief among them, to
"explicitly adopt IPM as national
policy for sustainable agricultural development"
(Deutsch, 1995). In linking adoption of IPM with a
policy of sustainable agricultural development, the
Caribbean agricultural sector could begin to
respond to Agenda 21's call for increased
production to meet food demands projected to
double by the year 2050 (National Resources
Institute (NRI), 2000).  Adoption of SARD-
compatible IPM practices was a viable, if
challenging, route to boosting production without
heavy reliance on agrochemicals. Perhaps the best
way to represent this agricultural reorientation is to
view the function of IPM adoption as a dynamic
process, or "continuum", moving from treatment-
centered, chemically-based fanning practices on
one end to prevention-centered, fanner-
participatory, biointensive approaches on the other
(Lynch, 1998). A fanner's location alongthe
continuum at any given time would depend on a
number of factors including awareness of pesticide
risk, regulatory compliance, access to information
on alternate control techniques, technical and
economic ability to implement new methods, and
   "Releases of cotesia

flavipes...have controlled

  the sugar cane moth

 borer...saving $5 million

      annually. "
 degree of commitmentto SARD-compatible

 In many areas of the Caribbean, the shift toward
 fanner-centered biointensive IPM would have to
 begin with disposal of obsolete pesticides and the
 establishment or upgrading of national pesticide
 registration and control schemes. Post-registration
 activities would involve training, monitoring and
 enforcement of proper pesticide use within IPM
 principles (FAO, 1998).  Such activities are already
 underway. Over the past 5 years, for example,
 Jamaica inventoried and disposed of 8,000 kg of
 obsolete pesticides, began licensing procedures
 for over 80% of local pesticide manufacturers and
 conducted a public awareness campaign on the
 safe handling of pesticides, reaching over 20,000
 people in all of the island's 13 parishes
 (Organization for Economic Cooperation and
 Development, 2000).

 An IPM Toolkit
 Moving along the continuum toward bio-intensive
 IPM practices is a growing inventory of
^^^^_    approaches, some rooted in tradition
             and others derived from advances in
             the biotechnology industry.  All
             require fanner expertise in pest
             identification and a thorough
             understanding of natural enemies
             and crop ecosystem dynamics - not
             entirely unfamiliar ground for the
             Caribbeanfarming community.
^^^^_    Indigenous fanners traditionally used
             biological, cultural and physical
 controls finely tuned over many years to local
 conditions.  Biological control protects crops by
 using beneficial organisms - predators, parasites.
 and diseases - to suppress pest organisms.
 Releases of the larval parasitic cotesiaflavipes, for
 example, have controlled the sugar cane moth borer
 inBarbados, saving $5 million annually. Cultural
 control, by contrast, uses rotations, cultivation,
 sanitation and other farm practices that reduce
 persistent pest problems. A fonn of cultural
 control using IPM methods of plant cover has
 boosted yields and has significantly lowered levels
 of viral infection in the tomato variety Gemstar.
 Physical control, as its name implies, uses barriers,
 traps, trap crops, adjusting planting location or
 timing to evade or diminish pest pressure
 (Pennsylvania IPM Program, (n.d.) & Caribbean
 Agricultural Research and Development institute,
 2000). A remarkably successful application of
 physical control made worldwide headline news
 recently when China publicized the stunning
 results of a new crop protection method that has
 "doubled the yields of their most valuable crop and
                                                                                                                  Page 3

•ibbean Currents
                            Volume 8 Number 4
                   nearly eliminated its most devastating disease -
                   without using chemical treatments or spending a
                   single extra penny." A simple change in planting
                   methods, from growing one large stand of a single
                   kind of rice to growing alternating rows of different
                   kinds of rice in the same field, blocked the airborne
                   spores of rice blast fungus, a disease which
                   ''destroys millions of tons of rice and costs fanners
                   several billion dollars in losses each year" (Yoon,

                   Biocontrols have also been used extensively in Cuba
                   where economic conditions forced a rapid shift along
                   the "continuum" from conventional high-input
                   chemical agriculture to organic or semi-organic
                   fanning. In a matter of 3 years an estimated 56% of
                   Cuban cropland was treated with biocontrols at an
                   annual savings of over $15.5 million. One of the
                   biocontrols on which Cuban researchers have
                   focused is the latest tool in the IPM mix - a promising
                   and potentially  controversial category of
                   unconventional pesticides called biological
                   pesticides (World Resources Institute (WRI), 2000).

                   A high-tech spinoff of the biotechnology industry,
                   biological pesticides, or biopesticides, are pest
                   management techniques derived from naturally
                   occuring beneficial microorganisms such as bacteria,
                   viruses, fungi and protozoa as well as other
                   biologically-based active ingredients. Biopesticides
                   fall into three distinct groups.  The first are
                   biochemical pesticides, which control pest
                   populations through the introduction of growth
                   regulators that interfere with growth or mating, or
                   through pheremones which repel or attract pests.
                   The next group, microbial pesticides, relies on a
                   microorganism, most commonly from the bacterium
                   Bacillus tlntringiensis, or Bt, which contains a
                   protein harmful to specific insects.  The third group,
                   also the one responsible for most of the concern
                   associated  with biopesticides, is plant-pesticides.
                   Plant-pesticides are insect-destroying  substances,
                   manufactured in the plant itself, after genes from a
                   harmful  substance - such as the Bt protein - are
                   introduced into the plant's own genetic material.
                   Using plant-pesticides, fanners avoid the risk of toxic
                   chemical poisoning associated with the handling of
                   conventional pesticides since die toxin is generated
                   within the plant itself. Concern, however, centers  on
                   several potential new risks. Genetically modified
                   plants may. for example "compete or cross with
                   unmodified varieties, they may become weeds, or
                   they may make pests hardier than ever by inducing
                   new resistance to naturally occurring pesticides"
                   (Soiled &Proulx, 1998). Researchers are also
                   evaluating a potential risk to monarch butterflies who
                   may feed on windblown toxic pollen while in the
caterpillar stage. (Yooix 2000).

Neither strictly biocontrol nor chemical control,
biopesticides are uniquely conferred with benefits
and concerns that relegate them to their own distinct
category. Like biocontrols, they are inherently less
harmful than conventional pesticides, they pose no
apparent risk of toxic exposure, they can affect a
single pest or a narrow spectrum of pests, and they
decompose quickly. Nevertheless, like conventional
pesticides, they are subject to rigorous reviews in
the U.S. and many require EPA registration. EPA
cautions that "microbial pesticides need to be
continuously monitored to ensure they do not
become capable of harming non-target organisms,
including humans" (EPA 1999). More a customized
tool than an all-purpose instrument biopesticides
are valuable for situations where pesticide
resistance, niche markets, or environmental
concerns make use  of chemical pesticide products
unacceptable (International Biopesticide Consortium
forDevelopment, 2000).

Institutional Frameworks
Widespread adoption of SARD-compatible IPM
practices will require increased collaboration,
cooperation and innovation among the islands of
the region. The approach of Agenda 21 is to
strengthen existing national plans and build on
current institutional capacity  (United Nations
Development Program (UNDP), 2000). With help
from support systems and frameworks coalescing on
an international scale in response to the Earth
Summit mandates, the Caribbean has already begun
to reshape its networks and programs in support of
sustainable development objectives.  Under the
guidance of the UN's Capacity 21 program, an
initiative specifically created to assist with
sustainable development programs hi developing
countries, 31 national consultations were held in the
islands between 1994 and 1998. "New policy and
operational frameworks for national development
strategies were called for, as well as identifying
means for capacity  building that would strengthen
links between and within sectors. A Sustainable
Development Council (SDC) was set up in each
country....and a sustainable development network
was set up to facilitate  sharing information, human
resources and valuable experiences (UNDP, 1999)".

The groundbreaking efforts of such networks
improve the agricultural sector's prospects for
establishing successful SARD-compatible IPM
programs. Networks create new channels for
broadening public awareness of the issues, for
general consensus-building and for improving
communications among fanners, researchers,
extension staff and government and commercial
agents. They can also foster the growth of crop

 Caribbean Currents
Volume 8 Number 4
protection science by aiding in the development of a common methodological framework for gathering and
uniformly presenting environmental data, currently incompatible and inaccessible, from among the island
nations. That data is key to formulating the various social, economic and environmental indicators necessary
for shaping policy, directing the course of research, and measuring progress toward sustainability. Other
computer-based resources can also accelerate progress along the IPM continuum.  Pest identification
databases, online training modules, decision support software and local electronic networking will all improve
access to information on crop protection practices.  Many of those practices must be adapted to local
conditions, and farmers, extension staff, and government and commercial agents will require training in their
use.  As new solutions become necessary, research in the laboratory and the field will continue to require
appropriate dissemination and training (NRI. 2000).

Development of resources, networks and partnerships has been ongoing at all levels as local, national, regional
and international communities contend with issues so pervasive they have received global recognition and
support. Referring to a recently published global assessment of the state of the environment at the turn of the
millenium, World Resources 2000-2001 (WRI, 2000), Klaus Toepfer, Executive Director of the UnitedNations
Environment Programme, reiterated the pressing need to address harmful environmental practices:
"Every measure used by scientists to assess the health of the world's ecosystems tells us that we are drawing
on them more than ever and degrading them at an accelerating pace. We depend on ecosystems to sustain us,
and their continued good health depends, in turn, on how we take care of them."

The magnitude of the problem is matched only by the multitude of responses set in motion by the action
agendas and global agreements created through the Earth Summit. Implementing sustainable Integrated Pest
Management practices is only one small component of Agenda 21's ambitious program.  But within the growing
framework of innovative partnerships, collaborations, and networks forming in support of sustainable
development, farmers will be better positioned to meet the challenge  of advancing the practice of crop
protection at the local level toward the global imperatives of increased food production,  natural resource
protection and conservation in the 21st century.
Burnett, Anne. (2000, October 6). International environmental law. ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for
Internationa I Law. Retrieved October 20,2000, from the World Wide Web:

Caribbean Agricultural Research & Development Institute (CARDI). (2000, February 14). Technology products
and services. Research for Development. Retrieved October 20,2000, from the World Wide Web: http://

Deutsch, A.E. (ed.). (1995, October) Caribbean workshops urge IPMadoption. IPM News, 22 October 1995.
Retrieved October 20,2000 from the World Wide Web: WS

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). (1998). Integrated pest management and
the SP-fPM. System- Wide Program on IPM. Retrieved October 17,2000 from the World Wide Web: http://

Cruz, Carlos and Alejandro Segarra. (2000). Potential for biological control of crop pests in the Caribbean. InE.
B. Radcliffe and W. D. Hutchison [eds.]. Radcliffe 'sIPM World Textbook. University of Minnesota, St. Paul,
MN. Retrieved October 24,2000 from the World Wide Web:

Ehler, Lester E., and Dale G. Bottrell. (2000). The Illusion of Integrated Pest Management. Issues in Science and
Technology Online. Retrieved June 2, 2000 from the World Wide Web: http://bob.nap.edU/isues/16.3/eliler.htni

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and The Netherlands (FAO), Ministry of Agriculture,
Nature Management and Fisheries. (1991). The Den  Bosch declaration and agenda for action on sustainable
agriculture and rural development: report of the conference. Rome: FAO, 1991. 60 p. Conference: FAO
Netherlands Conference on Agriculture and the Environment (15-19 April, 1991: 'S-Hertogenbosch,The

   nbhean Currents

                                                                             Volume 8 Number 4

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and The Netherlands (FAO), Plant Protection Service,
Pesticide Management Unit. (1998). Prevention and disposal of obsolete pesticides. Retrieved October 24 from
the World Wide Web:

Hansen, Michael. (1993). Sustainable agriculture and rural development: FAO at the Crossroads, Consumer
Policy Institute, Consumer Union/PAN.

InternationalBiopesticideConsortiumfor Development (IBCD). (2000). Biopesticides. Retrieved October28,
2000 from the World Wide Web:

Lynch, Sarah. (July, 1998). Measuring Progress in the Transition to Biologically-Based IPM. Presentation to
the OECD/FAO IPM and Pesticide Risk Reduction Conference, Neuchatel, Switzerland. Pest management at the
crossroads: IPM and the marketplace: WWF-WPVGA potato IPM project. Retrieved October 20,2000 from the
Worldwide Web:

Moore, Monica. (1996). Redefining integrated pest management: fanner empowerment and pesticide use
reduction in the context of sustainable agriculture. In: Barbara Dinham (ed.). Growing food security:
challenging the link bet\veen pesticides and access to food. pp. 79-88. London: The Pesticides Trust.

Natural Resources Institute (NRI), University of Greenwich. (2000). Integrated pest management. Retrieved
November 10,2000 fromthe World Wide Web:

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Environmental Health and Safety, Pesticide
Programme. (2000, April 6). Pesticide risk reduction - countries' updates.  Retrieved October 20,2000 from the
World Wide Web:

Pennsylvania IPM Program (PA IPM). (n.d.) The changing face of integrated pest management, PA IPM 1994-
95: A report to the citizens of Pennsyvania. In National IPM network: integrated management in the
northeast: the integrated pest management approach. Retrieved October 20,2000 from the World Wide Web:
http://www.ny saes. html#anchorl43007

Ruttan, Vernon W. 1999. The transition to agricultural sustainability. InE.B. Radcliffe and W.D. Hutchison
(eds.). Radcliffe 'sIPM World Textbook. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. Retrieved October 25,2000 from
the World Wide Web:

Soiled, Albert and David Proulx. 1998. Global contamination, wildlife health and biotechnology: biosubstitution
and integrated pest management. BioTech Resources  Web Project, Institute for Cellular and Molecular
Biology. Retrieved October 20,2000 from the World Wide Web:

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN/ES A). (2000). Economic and social
development, sustainable development. Retrieved October 20,2000 from the World Wide Web: http://

United Nations Development Pro gram (UNDP). (1999). Capacity 21 Programme: Annual Reports: 1999:
Caribbean. Retrieved October 20,2000 fromthe World Wide Web:

United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2000). Capacity 21 Programme: Programme Information:
Caribbean Region 21.  Retrieved November 2,2000 fromthe Worldwide Web:

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, International Association of Universities
(2000) Tlie Stockholm  Declaration on the Human Environment Retrieved October 20,2000 from the World
Wide Web:

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Pesticide Programs. (1999, November 17).
Biopesticides. Retrieved October 20,2000 from the World Wide Web:

 Caribbean Currents

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Pesticide Programs. (1999, November 17).
Integrated pest management (1PM) and food production. Retrieved October 20, 2000 from the World Wide

World Resources Institute. World Resources 2000-2001, People and Ecosystems: The Fraying Web of Life. A
joint publication of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), The World Bank, and the World Resources Institute. Retrieved November 3,2000) from
the World Wide Web: html

Yoon, Carol Kaesuk. (2000, August 22). New data in duel of biotech com vs. butterflies. The New York Times,

Yoon, Carol Kaesuk. (2000, August 22). Simple method found to increase crop yields vastly. The New York
                                IPM in the Caribbean - WEB RESOURCES

Ail Island Network
Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI)
University Campus, St. Augustine
Trinidad. West Indies
Phone: (868)645-1205 Fax: (868)645-1208
CARDI is the primary  agricultural research and development organization in the Caribbean. In existence since 1975,
CARDI provides technical assistance, technology development, and technology transfer in many areas including plant
pathology, virology, nematology. Design, testing and validation of production and marketing systems are conducted in a
series of CARDI Research Centers. Demonstration and Training Centers, located in each CARDI country, perform tests
and demonstrations of the commercialized systems and protocols before releasing them to the fanning community for
further improvement. Linked through collaborative work with over 50 regional and international research and development
groups, CARDI is also the Executing Agency of PROCICARIBE, whose Executive Secretariat is located at CARDI

Trinidad, West Indies
Phone: (868) 645-1205 Fax: (868) 645-1208
At the heart of the region's network for agricultural science and technology, PROCICARIBE coordinates and integrates
agricultural research at the national and regional levels with rinks to international organizations. Institutional strengthening,
research coordination and resource mobilization are some of its primary activities. The network operates among public and
private agricultural groups and NGO's. Its aim is to further international competitiveness and sustainable development of
the Caribbean's agricultural sector while ensuring food security, poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability.
Administered by the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, PROCICARIBE answers to a Board of
Govemors made up of the Ministers of Agriculture of Caribbean member states.
  Volume 8 Number 4
Caribbean IPM Network (CIPMNet)
Trinidad, West Indies
Phone: (868) 645-1205 Fax: (868) 645-1208
CIPMNet is one of several National Network Committees within PROCICARIBE that focus on the generation, validation
and transfer of technology and information nationally and regionally with links to regional and international strategic
alliance partners. Their aim is to improve agricultural productivity and marketability while sustaining the natural resource
base. The CIPMNet website provides a regional forum for discussion as well as communication of work program priorities
and updates. CIPMNet joins together with the other networks at a regional level under a Regional Coordinator who is
responsible for finding program funds, for forming links between national IPM programs and PROCICARIBE, and for
helping to ensure the technical integrity of the networks activities. The Regional Coordinator also maintains a close
working relationship with the Technical Advisory Committee, comprised of members of several regional and national

    nbhean Currents                                                                                             Volume 8 Number 4

                        Caribbean Agricultural Information System (CAIS)
                        Not yet fully funded and implemented, the Caribbean Agricultural Information Service will provide PROCICARIBE's
                        system of networks with targeted help toward integrating information and communication management capabilities at the
                        national and regional level. CAIS will undertake a broad information inventory as well as link to Agrolnfo and other
                        international information systems and networks.

                        Caribbean Agricultural Technical Assistance Service (CTAS)
                        see http://www.procicaribe. org
                        Not yet fully functional, CTAS was established by PROCICARTBE to tap a considerable variety of experts throughout
                        the region who are capable of resolving technological difficulties in production, post harvest, marketing and agro-
                        processing matters. Resource persons from a network of participating insitutions respond with short term, quick
                        response, "fire-fighting" assistance with technological problems anywhere in the region.


                        EU-CARIFORUM Caribbean Agriculture & Fisheries Programme (CAFP)
               page at http:/
                        11, LA Dere Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
                        Phone: (868) 623-2708/9 Fax: (868) 624-4903
                        The objective of the CAFP Integrated Pest Management sub-programme is to address significant plant pest problems in
                        specified areas of the Caribbean, using IPM techniques.  The overall aim is to contribute to the regional agricultural sector
                        development through the implementation of IPM programs in selected CARTFORUM countries based on the most
                        significant economic returns on the intervention to that country. Current areas of priority include the whitefly-gemini virus
                        complex in the Dominican Republic, the citrus  blackfly in Trinidad  and Tobago, the papaya mealybug in St. Kitt's and
                        Nevis and weed control in Guyana.

                        Caribbean IPM Working Group
                        Dr. Janice Reid or Dr. L.E. Chinnery
                        Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
                        University Campus, Box 113, Mona. Kingston 7, Jamaica
                        A working group of the Caribbean Mycorrhizal Network (CARIVAM). The network aims to encourage collaboration, to
                        share research results and to provide access to relevant literature.  The group also aims to educate agriculturalists,
                        horticulturalists and the general public on the benefits of mycorrhizae and sustainable agriculture, incuding integrated pest

                                                              INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES

                        Centre for Pest Information and Technology Transfer (CPITT)
                        http://www. ctpm. uq. edu. au/CPITT/Default.htm
                        CPITT is a center within the University of Queensland, Australia which develops innovative tools for training and
                        decision support for a wide audience.  CPITT's products are aimed  primarily at those involved in IPM or Natural
                        Resource Management although their  software  can be used for virtually any purpose requiring information dispersal.

                        Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP) and IPMNet
                        CICP was formed in 1978 by a group  of U.S. universities. Its principal purpose is to assist developing nations reduce
                        food crop losses caused by pests while also safeguarding the environment. CICP's basic goal is to advance economically
                        efficient and environmentallly sound protection practices in developing countries and to ensure the health of rural and
                        urban communities. IPMNet is a network of organizations and resources administered by CICP. IPMNet includes a
                        database of IPM resources, bibliographies, and links to IPM and other crop protection resources.

                        Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)
                        http.'ffwww. cgiar. org'
                        CGIAR's mission is to contribute to food security and poverty eradication in developing countries through research,
                        partnership, capacity building, and policy  support.  The  CGIAR promotes sustainable agricultural development based on
                        the environmentally sound management of natural resources. The World Bank, the Food and Agricultural Organization of
                        the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations  Development Programme (UNDP),  and the United Nations Environment
                        Programme (UNEP) are cosponsors of CGIAR.

                        Gateway to Online IPM Resources
                        http://-www. ippc. orst. edu:80/CICP/Gateway/
  p   8              • A web index of enomology, plant pathology. agricultural, and pest management web resources.

 Caribbean Currents

National Biological Control Institute (NBCI)
4700 River Road Unit 5, Riverdale, MD 20737-1229
Phone: (301)734-4329 Fax: (301)734-7823
From the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Information Service (APEHS), NBCI provides
technical advice and information; develops and maintains computerized databases; initiates, coordinates and monitors
projects in cooperation with other agencies and institutions; organizes and facilitates focus groups and workshops to
deal with specific issues of importance to biological control and IPM; suports biological control projects through and
Implementation Grant Program; supports education/information needs, meetings, and conferences through a
Facilitation Grant Program; supports systematics through a Postdoctoral Program in Systematics; and identifies and
supports other needs of customers. A Customer Advisory Group (consisting of 12 leading biological control scientists
and administrators) and Visiting Scientists (for specific projects) help NBCI refine its activities.

National Integrated Pest Management Network (NIPMN)
http:/Avww., agsys/nipnm
NIPMN is the result of a U.S. federal-state extension partnership dedicated to making the latest and most accurate
pest managment information available on the World Wide Web. Participating institutions have agreed to a set of
standards which ensure science-based, unbiased pest management information. This site contains information on IPM
by commodity, pest, region, and pest control tactic.

Pesticide Action Network (PAN)
49 Powerll St., Suite 500, San Francisco, CA 94102
Phone: (415) 981-1771 Fax: (415) 981-1991
E-mail: (North American office)
PAN is a network of over 600 participating nongovernmental organizations, institutiions and individuals in over 60
countries working to replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound alternatives. Its projects and
campaigns are coordinated by five autonomous Regional Centers.

Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook
http://ipmworld. umn. edu/
This site aims to provide 1.) a venu for easily maintaining and updating "state of the art" information from the world's
leading experts on all aspects of IPM, 2) a resource economically deliverable anywhere in the world that can be freely
downloaded and used by students, teachers, and IPM practitioners, 3) a forum for the international presentation of
practical information and theory on IPM, 4) links to the vast and rapidly growing IPM resources available on the
Internet including photographs and decision-support software.

Virtual Center for Integrated Pest Management (CTPM)
CIPM is a National Science Foundation sponsored Industry/University Cooperative Research Center, which works to
support and further IPM through the evaluation of emerging technologies, information management and dissemination,
environmental stewardship, estimation of economic consequences, resistance management tools and systems,  and
integration of disciplinary expertise. CIPM  fosters the development and implementation of pest management
programs based on a high level of knowledge of pest biology coupled with choices of monitoring tools and control
technology, resulting in economically sound, environmentally compatible, and sociologically responsible integrated
crop protection.
                                           IPM Listservs
Subscription address:  Send messages to:
PANUPS, the Pesticide Action Network Updates Service, is a weekly news service featuring updates about
pesticides and sustainable agriculture. PANUPS also includes the Resource Pointer, which summarizes and
gives ordering information for recent publications. To subscribe, send a message to with the message reading "subscribe PANUPS firstname lastname".

National Integrated Pest Management Network
Address to Subscribe/Unsubscribe: listproc@)
Message body to subscribe: subscribe NIPMN-L Your Name
Message body to unsubscribe: unsubscribe NITPMN-L
Email to Group:
  Volume 8 Number 4


'ibbean Currents
Volume 8 Number 4
                                      Current Conferences  on Integrated  Pest Management

                  Contact: A. Herrmann, K-IPM Conf., Inst. of Geog. and Geoecol., Tech. Univ. Braunschweig, LangerKamp 19c,
                  D-3 8106 Braunschweig, GERMANY
                  Web :h ftp:/Avww. html

                  21-23 March - 2001 AN INTERNATIONAL WEED OD YS SEY, "An International Invasive Exotic Species
                  Athens, GA, USA.
                  Contact: C. McCormick, Mst. of Ecol.,Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA30602, USA
                  Phone: 1-706-542-2968 Fax: 1-706-542-4819
                  Web:  http://www.ecology,

                  20-24 May -15TH NEMATOLOGICAL CONGRES S, "Integrated Neniatode Control in the New Millennium,"
                  Skukuza, SOUTH AFRICA
                  Contact: M. Daneel, ARC-ITSC, Private BagXl 1208, Nelspruit 1200, SOUTH AFRICA
                  Phone: 27-13-753-2071 Fax: 27-13-752-3854
                                     Guidelines for Contributions to CARIBBEAN CURRENTS

                  Any organization or individual operating or involved in the English and French-speaking Caribbean Region is welcome to
                  contribute to the newsletter.  Contributions should be addressed to:

                          Caribbean  Currents Coordinator
                          U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
                          Headquarters Library,  3404
                          401  M Street, S.W.
                          Washington,  D.C. 20460
                          UNITED STATES
                          Telephone:   (202) 260-5917; Fax:  (202) 260-3923

                  Please note that submissions should meet the following criteria:

                      •   They are relevant to environmental issues
                      •   They must be of interest to or directly involve the Region
                      •   They must not endorse or recommend any product or commercial service, explicitly or implicitly
                      •  They must be received by the  posted deadline (see below)

                  Please feel free to contact the CARIBBEAN CURRENTS coordinator if you are interested in submitting an article.  Write to:
          Please note that once your article is submitted, it is subject to editing as needed.  Final decisions on
                  editing and inclusion of any contributions are left to the UNEP-Infoterra/USA Manager. CARIBBEAN CURRENTS is available
                  on the Internet at

                                     DEADLINE  FOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO Vol. 8 No. 5: December 1, 2000

 Caribbean Currents
                                                 Volume 8 Number 4
                                About the NFP Directory
This directory reflects changes and additions to the UNEP-Infoterra Directory of National Focal Points
distributed by INFOTERRA/PAC, dated November 1998.  Please check this information to verify that it is
correct and up-to-date. If you have any changes or corrections, please notify the RSC as soon as
possible.  We will be happy to relay the information to the PAC.
Ms. DiannBlackLayne
Conservation Officer II
Ministry of Planning, Implementation, and
Cecil Charles Building
St. John's
Telephone: (268)463-0907 FAX: (268)462-9338

Mrs. LynnHolowesko
The Bahamas Environment, Science & Technology
Office of the Prime Minister
P.O.BoxCB 10980
Telephone: (242)3274691 FAX: (242) 327-4626

Mrs. Atheline Mayers
Permanent Secretary (Environment)
Ministry of Environment, Energy, and Natural
4thFloor, Sir Frank Walcott Building, Culloden
St. Michael, BARB ADOS
Telephone: (246)431-7680 FAX: (246)437-8859

Jaime Jeffery Villanueva
Fisheries Department. Ministry of Agriculture and
Princess Margaret Drive, P.O. Box 148
Belize City
Telephone: 501-2-44552   FAX: 501-2-32983

Mr. Ashton Lugay
Forestry and Wildlife Division
Ministry of Agriculture, Botanical Gardens
Telephone: (767)448-2401,ext.417 FAX: (767)

Mr. BalgobinParsand
lASTBuilding, U.G. Campus, Turkeyen
Greater Georgetown, GUYANA
Telephone: (59222)5784,2277,2231 Fax: (59222)
M. Dalberg Claude
Ministere de 1'Agriculture et des Resources
Naturelles et du Developpement Rural
P.O.Box 1441
Telephone: 509-1-21867   FAX: 509-1-23599

Ms. Yolanda N. Mittoo
Natural Resources Conservation Authority
10 Caledonia Avenue
Kingston 10
Telephone: (876)754-7546 FAX: (876)754-7595

Mr. Edsel Daniel
Physical Planning Officer
Ministry of Finance, Development, and Planning
Charlestown, Nevis
Telephone: (869)465-2521 FAX: (9712)466-7398

Mrs. Vanesta Moses-Felix
Government Documentalist
Government Information and Documentation
Resource Centre
Office of the Prime Minister
Telephone: (758)453-1951 FAX: (758)453-1614
Regional Sen ice Centre (RSC):
Ms. Seema Schappelle
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, MC 3404
Washington, DC 20460
Telephone: (202)260-5917 FAX: (202)260-3923

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