Progress Report 2005
  -.,  I

) Printed on paper containing at least 30 percent postconsumer recovered fiber.

   RCC's National Priority Areas	
          Municipal Solid Waste-Recycling.
          Reusing and Recycling Industrial Materials	13
          Priority and Toxic Chemical Reduction	17
          Green Initiatives-Electronics	20
   Progress	26


    The Resource Conservation Challenge (RCC) is
    now in its fourth year. During our first two
    years, the RCC built on the Environmental
    Protection Agency's (EPA's) tradition of collabo-
    ration and partnerships to achieve common
    environmental goals-reuse, recycling, toxics
    reduction, and resource and energy conserva-
    tion. Through this effort, we are advancing
    environmental stewardship, fostering cradle-
    to-cradle management of materials, and con-
    serving energy and resources. This progress
    report highlights the RCC's achievements, rec-
    ognizes new areas of interest and collabora-
    tion, and lays the framework for the future
    work of the RCC.
    Among other things, we identified four priority
    areas on which to focus: 1) municipal solid
    waste recycling, 2) reusing and recycling indus-
    trial materials, 3) priority and toxic chemical
    reductions, and 4) green initiatives-
    electronics. We welcomed new partners and
    existing partners fulfilled commitments from
    past years. We celebrated new successes,
    issued new challenges, and created new pro-
    grams in areas that were ready to move for-
    ward. These programs  will continue to be a
    core part of the RCC.
The  RCC  on the Move
Since 2003, we have made significant progress
toward our goals and we have laid out ambi-
tious new agendas for the future.
We are focused on four national priority areas.
For each area, we developed specific action
plans that set forth specific projects
and measures of success to meet RCC
The RCC is working to move the
nation's current waste-handling sys-
tem toward a more effective materials
management system. This shift in
approach requires an increased focus
on reusing and recycling materials. At
the same time, it requires a closer look
at the beginning of a product's life
cycle, when waste can be prevented
by designing products to be more
durable, recyclable, and less toxic.
These RCC materials management goals have
been incorporated into the Agency's Strategic
Plan, the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act's (RCRA's) 2020 Vision, and Pollution
Prevention (P2) programs. By working with
business and industry, state and local govern-
ments, and the public, the RCC seeks to reduce
waste, to reuse and recycle more products, to
promote the purchase of recycled and recycla-
ble products, and to reduce toxic chemicals in
waste and in the environment.
 Goals of the RCC
Prevent pollution and
promote reuse and
Reduce priority and
toxic chemicals in
products and waste.
Conserve energy and

RCC7s  National Priority Areas
                     The RCC's four focus areas were selected based
                     on several important factors: they address
                     some of the largest and most significant waste
                     streams; they have potential economic incen-
                     tives that  dovetail with environmental
                     improvements; they meet current and future
                     Agency goals; and they represent significant
                     opportunities for partnerships in resource con-
                     servation. The RCC, a dynamic program,
                     encompasses additional programs and goals,
                     including  energy conservation.
   Municipal Solid Waste-Recycling - Focuses on three key
   municipal waste streams: paper, organics, and packaging and
   containers/ includes a strategy to meet our 2DD8 Agency goal
   of increasing the recycling rate to 35 percent.
   Reusing and Recycling Industrial Materials - Focuses on
   three key industrial nonhazardous waste streams: coal com-
   bustion ash, foundry sands, and construction and demolition
   materials/ identifies targets and measures for safe beneficial
   use of these materials.
   Priority and Toxic Chemical Reduction - Explains our plan
   to reach the Agency goal of reducing the use of priority chem-
   icals by ID percent by 2DD8/ identifies efforts to reduce  the
   use or releases of other toxic chemicals of national concern.
   Green Initiatives—Electronics - Addresses the entire life
   cycle of electronics, including design, operation, reuse, recy-
   cling, and disposal of electronics with a focus on computers,
   cell phones, and televisions.
In May 2005, EPA published the RCC Action
Plan, which describes our specific goals and
objectives. The Action Plan is posted at:

Paper and paper products are produced and
used in large quantities throughout the world.
In the United States, paper makes up 35 per-
cent, or a little over one-third, of the municipal
solid waste stream and provides great opportu-
nities for change. The RCC is focused on mini-
mizing waste and increasing recycling by
developing partnerships between communi-
ties, industry, and government. We are commit-
ted to finding creative ways to increase
collection, recycling, and markets for recycled
paper, and to reduce the use of virgin paper.
In pursuit of this commitment, we convened a
series of scoping meetings and a national
stakeholder meeting to increase the recovery of
paper and the use of recycled paper products.
Stakeholders included: federal, state, and local
governments; paper industry trade associa-
tions; paper mills; waste paper haulers and
dealers; environmental interest groups; paper
market experts; and recycling industry trade
associations. Some  potential actions that
emerged from the scoping and stakeholder
meetings include:
  •  Identifying and linking information
    resources for recycling program coordina-
    tors and recycling officials;
  •  Evaluating the current distinction between
    recovered papers (post-consumer vs. pre-
    consumer) to determine whether it creates
    barriers for using certain recovered fiber in
    paper products; and
The RecycleMania Intercollegiate
Recycling Competition was started in
2001 by recycling coordinators at
Ohio University and Miami University
of Ohio. Private and state colleges
and universities nationwide compete
against each other for the recycling
crown. Participation in the competi-
tion has grown significantly each year as many
colleges and universities across the country
find it to be a successful strategy for generating
excitement about recycling on campus. In fact,
RecycleMania won the National Recycling
Coalition's Outstanding Recycling Innovation
Award in 2004.
RecycleMania collaborated with our WasteWise
program in 2005. WasteWise provides technical
support by tracking data, providing conversion
metrics,  fostering the exchange of innovative
ideas, and  assisting with recruitment. This col-
laboration has been a resounding success, as
RecycleMania 2005 saw record participation
with 47 schools and 198,000 students, up from
17 schools and 83,000 students in 2004.
Students collected 10 million pounds of basic
recyclables, which achieved a reduction of
about 4,406 million metric tons of carbon equiv-
alent (MMTCE). Reducing greenhouse gas emis-
sions by this amount is the same as removing
3,484 passenger cars from the road for one year.
 RCC Paper Goal by 2008:
Increase the recovery of
paper and paperboard
products from 36.7 million
tons in 2001 to 44.1
million tons in 2008.
    Evaluating the supply and demand of
    recoverable paper.

   Municipal Solid Waste—Recycl
         •            ^    ^
  America's Marketplace Recycles
   Food Waste
   Power of Change Outreach Campaign
   Make a Difference Schools Campaign
Priority and
Chemical Reduction
  National Partnerships for
  Environmental Priorities
  Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign
  Hospitals for a Healthy Environment
   Green Chemistry
   Design for the Environment
   Recycling Bullets


                   and Recycling
            Industrial Materials
             Coal Combustion Products Partnership
             Construction and Demolition Debris
             Foundry Sands
      Plug-In To eCycling
      Federal Electronics Challenge
Greening the Government

  Goal by 2008
Increase the
diversion of yard
waste from 15.8
million tons in
2DD1 to 1G.8
million tons in
RecycleMania 2005 saw Miami University of
Ohio triumph in the Per Capita Classic, a con-
test measuring pounds collected per student.
California State University San Marcos took the
trophy for the Recycling Rate competition, a
measure of the campus's overall recycling per-
centage. The winners of RecycleMania 2005 are
recognized at WasteWise's Annual Meeting. For
more information about the RecycleMania pro-
gram, or for registration information, please
refer to .

Drganics: Food and Yard Waste
Organic municipal solid waste includes both
yard and food waste and constitutes 24 per-
cent, or almost one-quarter, of the current
waste stream. Most of this waste can be recy-
cled in beneficial ways, such as composting.
RCC partners are working to increase the
amount of organic material diverted from
landfills, to improve the current markets for
composted material, and to identify future
markets where these materials can be used.
                         Municipal Solid Waste Streams
                               P a per
                               Orga nic s
         Environmentally Beneficial Landscaping

Waste reduction, water conservation, and natu-
ral resource conservation are just a few of the
benefits of GreenScapes. Launched in the fall of
2003, GreenScapes had a target of enrolling 25
new members by the end of 2004. The endeav-
or has exceeded its target by over 200 percent,
adding 60 new partners outside the Agency
and two new internal partners: the Office of
Water and the Office of Pesticides. The
GreenScapes program provides information
and technical assistance on "green  landscap-
ing," recruits partners, and recognizes outstand-
ing achievers. A GreenScapes partner commits
to any number of resource-saving efforts, such
as composting yard waste; turning tree waste
into mulch; using native plants to reduce water
and pesticide use; or using recycled materials in

More Jungle, Less Waste
Parrot Jungle is on an island off the coast of
Miami, Florida, that works to conserve the
native plants and animals of the area. It
employs environmentally friendly  practices
and offers a unique opportunity for tourists to
see animals in their natural habitat. As a
GreenScapes partner, the jungle created an 18-
acre garden that was designed with the envi-
ronment in mind. The design includes:

  •  Composting 100 percent of its organic

  •  Using mulch derived from tree trimmings
    and selective pruning practices;

  •  Using integrated pest management with
    biological controls and little pesticide use;

  •  Using indigenous soil and native plants;

  •  Using specially designed sprinklers that
    make large water droplets for less water use.

As a result, 30 cubic yards of green material
and 60 cubic yards of tree trimming materials
are diverted from landfills each week and used
as compost or mulch, diverting about 530 tons
of tree trimmings and green material each
year. Using the compost as a soil amendment
and tree trimmings as mulch also saves money
and water, creates a greener environment, and
makes the island's gardens flourish.

For  more information regarding this project or
GreenScapes, please refer to

Organic material also includes food residue
material or food waste. Food waste is generat-
ed by handling, storing, selling, preparing,
cooking, or serving food. Food waste consti-
tutes 11 percent of the organic waste stream
and approximately 3 percent of the entire
municipal waste stream, which is equivalent to
25 million tons. Therefore, the RCC has target-
ed food waste as a priority focus area. It is ripe
for new partnerships, pilots, and projects to
divert this waste from our municipal landfills.
Massachusetts has been a leader in  this area.
Supermarkets Make
As a result of a WasteWise
campaign, Massachusetts
developed a pilot program in
2003 to encourage supermar-
kets to recycle their organic
waste material and send it for
composting. The pilot consist-
ed of 14 stores from four large
supermarket chains. At the
conclusion of the pilot in
2004, the Massachusetts
Department of Environmental Protection devel-
oped a step-by-step guide and marketing pub-
lication to support the growth of the program.
This pilot was scaled up and membership
reached 55  stores representing six
Massachusetts supermarket chains. These
supermarket chains represent 80 percent of
the grocery industry in that state. As a result of
this program, 6,600 tons of food waste were
composted  and 20,500 tons of cardboard were
recycled. The compost was sold as commercial
compost or used on the composter's property.
  RCC Food Waste Goal by
Increase recycling to 5 per-
cent from the current baseline
of 2.8 percent.
If this goal is met, 287,000
MMTCE will be diverted, the
equivalent of 228,000 pas-
sengers cars being taken off
the  road for one year.
   2005 Progress: Building the Food Waste and Composting
                Infrastructure in Massachusetts
   This program will provide a variety of technical assistance
   methods to enable supermarkets and other large generators
   of food waste to: (1) cost-effectively divert food waste from
   disposal to composting operations/ and (2) assist compost
   operations located on farms and municipal and state lands by
   helping them to improve management practices and increase
   the  cost-effectiveness of their composting operations.

                     Building on this accomplishment, a new goal
                     was set for the future of this program. We hope
                     to enroll 35 more stores and two new super-
                     market chains within a year. Ultimately, our
                     goal is to include all supermarket stores in New
                     England in a voluntary program to divert
                     organics from their stores by 2008.
                     For more information on this program and a
                     copy of the step-by-step guide, please refer to
                     < www. wa steca p.o rg/wa steca p/Prog ra ms/s roi/

                     Packaging and Beverage Containers
                     Packaging  materials and beverage containers
                     make up approximately one-third of the
                     municipal solid waste stream. This stream con-
               RCC Packaging Goals by 2008
Paper folding cartons: Increase the recovery/diversion of paper
folding cartons from 0.48 million tons in  2001 to 0.8 million
tons in 2008 (an increase from 8.7 percent to 14.0 percent).
These figures are included in the paper and paperboard figures.
Wood packaging: Increase the recovery/diversion of wood pack-
aging from 1.25 million tons in 2001 to 2.0 million tons in
2008, a 9.0 percent increase from current rates.
Plastic wraps: Increase the recovery/diversion of plastic wraps
from 0.17 million tons in 2001 to 0.5 million tons in 2008, a
12.0 percent increase from current rates.
Beverage containers: Increase the recovery/diversion of bever-
age containers from 2.93 million tons in 2001 to 4.36 million
tons in 2008, a 13.0 percent increase from current rates.
tains plastic, glass, and metal beverage con-
tainers, corrugated cardboard, and wood. To
reduce this large waste stream, we drafted a
plan to work with industry, coalitions, and
think tanks to foster development of sustain-
able packaging, including material standards,
recycling strategies, secondary markets, and
innovative design.

Cradle-to-Cradle Packaging Design Challenge
In 2004 the winners were announced from the
RCC/McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry
partnership challenge. The design challenge
focused on e-commerce packaging and ship-
ping design. The goal of this challenge was to
encourage industrial designers, design stu-
dents, and packaging professionals to use
cradle-to-cradle principles to design environ-
mentally sound packaging and to develop the
systems needed for product recovery.
This design challenge has had a positive effect
on the shipping industry. The winning profes-
sional design has been adopted by the compa-
ny that designed it and is currently in use.
Other companies are also working to develop
a cradle-to-cradle packaging envelope that will
work with their existing processes.

Professional Winner: The Bevelope
The Bevelope is a reusable packaging enve-
lope. The key feature in the design of the
Bevelope is the'bevels'that help the package
expand to accommodate products with differ-
ent thicknesses. A few cleverly placed scores
creating the bevels make it possible to adjust
the Bevelope's thickness to accommodate the
slimmest paperback book, a molded DVD case,
or a very thick manual. Made out of 100 per-
cent recycled material and biodegradable ink,
the Bevelope can be both reused and com-
posted at the end of its useful life. In addition,
the Bevelope is lightweight, reducing costs to
the user.

Student  Winner:  Keep It Nature Friendly
The winning design used Japanese cloth as a
flexible way of wrapping and transporting
goods. The cloth is wrapped around the pack-
age using strong  paper corner protectors to
guard against damage. These corner guards,
made of the kenaf plant, are versatile in that
they can accommodate any number or size of
books. The entire assembly is then wrapped to
secure the items in one parcel using a gelatin-
based adhesive.
After the customer receives the package, the
wrapping materials are given a second life. The
customer can choose to assemble the protec-
tive corners and use it as a germinator and
plant pot. A bookmark that contains kenaf
seeds and instructions to convert the corner
protectors into a pot for growing them is
included with the ordered goods. All compo-
nents are safely and easily compostable.
For more information,  please refer to the 2005
RCC Action Plan posted at 
the impact that diverted waste has on the envi-
ronment. WasteWise is one such program.
WasteWise is a voluntary partnership in which
members reduce municipal solid waste and
select industrial wastes through  carefully
designing their own waste reduction programs.
WasteWise targets the reduction of municipal
solid waste, such as office paper and corrugat-
ed containers, by providing their partners with
management support, waste assessments,
employee education, measurement, and report-
ing and program maintenance. WasteWise part-
ners include large corporations; small- and
medium-sized businesses; schools; colleges;
universities; hospitals; state and  local govern-
ments; tribes; and other institutions.
More than 1,600 organizations are WasteWise
partners. In 2004, these partners diverted near-
ly 5 million tons of waste from landfills, which
equals a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions
of about 4 million metric tons of carbon equiva-
lent, the equivalent of removing over 3 million
passenger cars from the roads for one year.
For more information, please refer to
Education and Outreach Programs
To be successful, recycling initiatives need full
public participation. The RCC has created a
number of outreach campaigns to educate the
public about how they can play a role in con-
serving resources in their own communities.

Making a Difference in Schools
Our "Make a Difference"
campaign was launched in
2003 to help middle-school-
aged kids understand their
relationship with, and
impact on, the environ-
ment. Since then, we have
brought this important
environmental message
into more than 10,000 class-
rooms with our "Make a
Difference" kit, called Your
Life, Your World, Your Choices.
In May 2004, EPA joined with the
Mechanicsburg (Pennsylvania) Middle School to
sponsor an "Environmental Challenge Day."We
joined more than 300 students, teachers, and
parent volunteers who participated in this all-
day event. Through these activities, students
learned about reducing, reusing, and recycling
waste as a way to conserve natural resources.
We continue to promote the "Make a
Difference"campaign at national conferences,
through educational organizations and associa-
tions and on the Web.
To get copies of this material, please refer to

The Pf Change:
Helping Older Americans Conserve
For the first time, the RCC
targeted older or retired
Americans with a cam-
paign called "The Power
of Change.'The campaign
helps older Americans
learn more about waste
in the environment, and
how they can use their
"power" to change their
lifestyles in order to preserve the environment
now and for future generations. The corner-
stone of the crusade is a free kit, which con-
tains a number of innovative resources
explaining how to make simple, everyday
changes to reduce waste, conserve our natural
resources, and save energy. It includes educa-
tional material to help people make better
environmental decisions when they move,
travel, or use home health products. It also
contains information to help community lead-
ers organize or get more involved in local con-
servation or waste  reduction projects.
The "Power to Change" campaign was
announced in San Francisco at the 2004 Joint
Conference of the American Society on Aging
and the National Coalition on Aging. Since
then, we have distributed nearly 100,000 kits.
More information about the "Power to Change"
is available at: .
Erik Estrada Reaches Hispanic Listeners
In 2004, the RCC developed a public service
announcement (PSA) to complement the
Hispanic Used Motor Oil campaign and to
reach a broader audience. Erik Estrada, who
gained fame as a motorcycle cop in the 1970s
television series CHiPs, worked with us to pro-
duce two PSAs aired in some of the country's
largest Spanish-language radio markets. The
ads were recorded in both Spanish and
English. We estimate the printed campaign
and the radio messages reached about 14 mil-
lion listeners and 144,000 readers.
The Hispanic Used Motor Oil campaign is part
of the National Hispanic Outreach Strategy and
is directed toward members
of the Hispanic community
who own service stations or
automotive repair shops, or
who change their own oil.
The campaign helps to
enhance awareness of, and
participation in, environ-
mental issues. The specific
goal of this program is to
improve management of
used oil and reduce haz-
ardous waste contamina-
tion of our land and water.
The bilingual materials in
the "You Dump It, You Drink
It,"campaign are successful-
ly spreading the message of
proper management of
used motor oil to the
Hispanic population.
                                             Potential Benefits of the Hispanic
                                                 Used Motor Oil Campaign
                                            Benefits from this campaign are
                                            based on two estimates-amount of
                                            used oil disposed of improperly and
                                            number of people being reached by
                                            the campaign. Estimates show that
                                            25 percent of people who change
                                            their own oil dispose of it improperly.
                                            Potential benefits include the follow-
                                            •  Recovery of 709,000 gallons of
                                               used motor oil/
                                            •  Reduction of 585 pounds of
                                               wastewater emissions/ and
                                            •  Conservation of nearly 15 million
                                               gallons of crude oil when replaced
                                               by the recycled used oil.

On Earth Day 2005, we launched a program
with Advance Auto Parts® called "Bring Every
Quart Back."This program targets do-it-your-
selfers who change their own oil, and specifical-
ly aims to keep oil out of the Potomac River
Basin. Advance Auto Parts® spreads the mes-
sage through internal communication channels
and when they sell oil to customers. The part-
nership plans to produce a media kit, posters,
and public service announcements in both
Spanish and  English.
For more information on the Hispanic  Used
Motor Oil Campaign, please refer to
. The guide can be
found at 
Reusing and  Recycling
Industrial Materials
Industrial waste is one category of waste residu-
als that holds a number of unexplored opportu-
nities. Millions of tons of secondary materials,
which can be safely and effectively reused, are
sent for disposal every year. The RCC has devel-
oped partnerships with industries that produce
coal ash, foundry sands, and construction and
demolition debris. These materials are generat-
ed in large volumes and readily lend themselves
to reuse and recycling.

Industrial Materials
The reuse and recycling of industrial materials
can result in environmental benefits such  as less
use of virgin  products, reduced greenhouse gas
emissions, less energy and water use, and less
waste. To meet these goals, the RCC is working
with industry partners.

Coal Combustion Products Partnership
In 2004, the American Coal Ash Association esti-
mated a 3 million ton increase in the use of coal
ash in cement and other products. The use of
coal ash in construction products reduced
greenhouse gas emissions by 670,000 metric
tons of carbon equivalent (MTCE).The Coal
Combustion  Products Partnership (C2P2) is
responsible for these changes. C2P2 is a cooper-
ative partnership between the RCC, the
American Coal Ash Association, the Utility Solid
Waste Activities Group, the Federal Highway
Administration, and the U.S. Department of
This partnership looks for ways to increase
the safe use of coal ash in building and man-
ufacturing materials or other applications.
Using coal ash not only eliminates a waste,
but also increases the durability of concrete,
saves energy, decreases greenhouse gas emis-
sions from cement production,
and decreases the use of virgin
resources. As a first step in pro-
moting the safe use of coal ash,
the RCC published Using Coal Ash
in Highway Construction: A Guide
to Benefits and Impacts. This report
explains the potential benefits of
the use of coal ash in highway
projects and provides guidance to
ensure that the material is used
Goals of the C2P2 Program:
 Increase the use of coal
 ash in concrete from 12
 million metric tons in 2001
 to 20 million metric tons in
 Increase the overall use  of
 coal combustion products
 to 45 percent by 2DD8.
C2P2 partners were recognized for
their achievements in April 2005. The "Overall
Achievement"award went to WE Energies for its
leadership in expanding markets for coal com-
bustion products and for reusing 98 percent of
its coal ash. The "Enhanced Utilization" award
went to the Lower Colorado River Authority for
its Fayette Power Project, which resulted in all of
its current coal  combustion products being
recycled and the use of old stockpiles to satisfy
the needs of their customers.
For more information, please refer to:

                                Waste Turns into Road
   Originally built in the 1920s, Wacker Drive is a major two-level viaduct in downtown
   Chicago that had to be rebuilt because of heavy use and deterioration. To provide
   increased strength, improved workability, and extra resistance against future corrosion,
   10,000 tons of fly ash were added to the concrete used in the new cast-in-place road-
   way. This type of concrete can double the life of roads compared to conventional pave-
   ments. By using fly ash instead of Portland cement, 19,000 barrels of crude oil were
   saved. Additional benefits of using fly ash include producing less greenhouse gas emis-
   sions, preserving virgin resources, conserving landfill space, and creating a more
   durable roadway with a service life of 75 to 100 years.
   For more information and to obtain a copy of the guide, please refer to
Construction and Demolition Debris
By reusing materials from construction and
demolition (C&D) projects, we conserve mate-
rials, reduce the environmental impacts from
manufacturing new products, and save landfill
space. Plus, we have the added benefit of
reducing building costs by reusing products
that would have otherwise been waste. As a
result of these benefits, C&D is another area of
focus for the RCC.

Providing  Assistance and Measuring Success
Through an EPA grant, the Construction
Material Recycling Association provides techni-
cal assistance, education, and training to pub-
lic and private institutions, corporations, and
companies to help them implement C&D recy-
cling. Three WasteWise Building Challenge par-
ticipants were selected to serve as models for
the benefits of diverting C&D debris from land-
fills and taking advantage of the existing mar-
kets for recycled C&D materials:
  •  City of Claremont, California - Village
  • Target Stores - Eureka and Southbay,
  •  New Jersey Public Schools, Newark, New
    Jersey - Newark First Avenue School ware-
    house demolition.
Based on actual tonnage recycled and dis-
posed of by these Building Challenge Projects,
over 17,000 tons of materials were, or will be,
diverted from landfills-about an 87 percent
diversion rate, which is well above the targeted
rate of 75 percent. In addition, the grantee pre-
pared a set of master specifications for C&D
recycling, which are available free of charge to
individuals and organizations requesting them
for future projects. A guide is available at:

  From Rubble Comes New Material
  The U.S. Army estimates it will generate 23 mil-
  lion tons of C&D debris over the next 15 years.
  To reduce the environmental impacts, we have
  been working with the Army Corp of
  Engineers'Construction Engineering Research
  Laboratory and the University of Florida Center
  for Construction and Environment to conduct
  training for the Army in C&D  recycling. The
  training was site-specific with an emphasis on
  deconstruction techniques to increase reuse
  and recycling of demolition debris. Workshops
  were conducted at Fort Lewis, Washington;
  Fort Hood, Texas; and Fort Bragg, North
  Implementation of the training is an integral
  component of this project. Fort Lewis is now
  initiating a six-building deconstruction pilot
  project. Fort Hood is developing a deconstruc-
  tion strategy for roughly 100  World War II
  buildings and is incorporating deconstruction
C&D Workshops included:
• Assessment of buildings to be removed/
• Deconstruction processes: techniques, and
• Conditions for successfully implementing
• Regulatory and policy constraints/
• Action plan to implement deconstruction
  on a pilot basis/ and
• Diversion of lumber and organic material
  from landfills and displacing virgin lumber.
into their Residential Communities Initiative
(RCI) program. Similar results are anticipated at
Fort Bragg.
For more information, please refer to

Reusing and Recycling Tires
Tires pose significant public health and envi-
ronmental risks if not disposed of properly.
When tires are stockpiled, they can
become breeding grounds for a  vari-
ety of pests, including mosquitoes
that can carry dangerous viruses. Tire
stockpiles can ignite, creating fires
that are difficult to extinguish and
can burn for months, generating
unhealthy smoke and toxic oils. The
environmental impacts of a stockpile
fire can be far-reaching and the after-
math frequently includes costly
Markets exist for approximately 80
percent of the roughly 300 million
scrap tires discarded annually. Challenging
national goals have been set and action plans
developed by the RCC Scrap Tire Workgroup to
increase the usage of tires in different markets
and to reduce tire piles. This Workgroup is
composed of 51 members from states, indus-
try, and EPA who are focused on increasing the
reuse, recycling, and energy recovery of scrap

Market development and support is critical to
diverting tires from stockpiles and landfills.
Tire Reuse and
Recycling Goals
• Divert 85 percent of
  newly generated scrap
  tires to  reuse, recycling,
  or energy recovery by
  the end of 2DD8/ and
• Reduce by 55 percent
  the number of tires in
  existing stockpiles by the
  end of 2DD8.

                                Recalled Tires Put to Use
  Recently, Ford Motor Company replaced 13 million tires on its automobiles. Ford has
  ground over 6.5 million of these tires into 125 million pounds of crumb rubber product.
  Crumb rubber is used for playground surfaces and rubberized asphalt in roadways. To
  date, it has distributed the crumb rubber to 130 projects in 27 U.S. states and three
  Canadian provinces.
These markets include rubberized asphalt for
highways, surfaces for playgrounds and other
sports facilities, rubber mats, new tires, mold-
ed/extruded products, sealants, and septic
tank drainage fields. Since tires produce the
same amount of energy as oil and have 25 per-
cent more energy than coal, tires can also be
used as fuel when appropriate air controls are
in place. EPA has recognized this as a viable
alternative to the use of fossil fuels, particularly
because it results in lower nitrogen oxide emis-
sions when compared to many U.S. coals, par-
ticularly the high-sulfur coals. The tire-derived
fuel policy was an important accomplishment
of EPA this year and can be found at:
Innovative alternatives to disposal are being
explored  and used by EPA, states, and the
scrap tire industry.
        U.S. Scrap Tire Deposition
     Electric Arc
     Furnaces   Export   Landfill
         Ground Rubber
For more information, please refer to

Landfill Methane Outreach Program, a voluntary
assistance and partnership program that pro-
motes the use of landfill gas as a renewable,
green energy source. For more information,
please refer to .

Priority  and Toxic Chemical
Toxic chemicals make up a small, but trouble-
some, portion of the nation's waste stream. The
RCC's priority chemical reduction priority area
focuses on toxic and persistent chemicals, mini-
mizing their use throughout a product's life
cycle-during manufacture, in products, and as
waste-to better protect human health and the
environment. By substituting and,  in some cases,
eliminating certain chemicals, companies produce
less waste and lower their production costs. The
RCC's chemicals work focuses on the 31 most per-
sistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals. In
addition, the RCC is working to set criteria that will
help identify other toxic chemicals of national
importance. The National Partnership for
Environmental Priorities (NPEP) is one of the pre-
mier programs that the RCC has in place to
achieve priority chemical reductions.

National  Partnership for
Environmental Priorities
NPEP uses voluntary partnerships to reduce the
use and release of priority chemicals.
This program  has enabled the United States to
make significant progress in reducing the release
of priority chemicals. Partners commit to reduc-
tion goals that they set and they are formally rec-
ognized for meeting those goals. NPEP partners
have reduced or eliminated nearly 3 million
pounds of priority chemicals such as lead,
mercury, naphthalene, and dioxins. Nearly
100 companies are now NPEP partners.
Getting the Lead Out
A number of NPEP partners are work-
ing toward or have reached their first
reduction goals this year.

  •  Bowling Green State University
    set an NPEP partnership pro-
    gram goal to collect and reclaim
    uncontaminated sources of ele-
    mental mercury at a rate of 3,000
    pounds over a three-year period.
    The university selected mercury
    because of its potential adverse
    health effects if released into the
    environment. Since its launch in
    2004, Bowling Green has already
    removed over 4,150 pounds of
    elemental mercury for recycling.
  •  Wirerope Works,  Inc. manufac-
    tures rope, structural strand, and
    related products for use in  lifting
    and stabilizing applications. It
    has reengineered its production
    process and thus reduced its
    annual use of lead by 27,000
For more information on the NPEP
program, please refer to:

      Old Car Battery Roundup
On Earth Day, the Automobile
Association of America held its sec-
ond annual Great Battery Roundup
and collected 7,6 DO car batteries.
Each car battery contains approxi-
mately 2 \ pounds of lead that can be
recycled for use in another
vehicle-resulting in 160,000 pounds
of lead being recycled. The roundup
is designed to educate and encourage
motorists to recycle old car batteries
for reuse.
Other Priority and Toxic Chemical
Reduction Efforts

Schools Chemical Cleanout Campaign
Every year, hundreds of thousands of dollars
are spent on school incidents involving chemi-
                    cal spills and fires. These
                    incidents involve poten-
                    tially dangerous chemi-
                    cals that, in some cases,
                    had been unused for
                    decades. In addition to
                    the potential  health
                    dangers and clean-up
                    costs, these spills also
                    cause school closures
                    that result in a loss of
                    valuable education
                    The Schools Chemical
                    Cleanout Campaign
                    (SC3) addresses this issue
                    by cleaning out excess,
legacy, unused, and improperly stored chemi-
cals and implementing preventive measures in
schools. Thoughtful chemical purchasing and
proper chemical use and management (storage,
labeling, and disposal) are critical for reducing
chemical exposures and costly accidents that
ultimately affect student learning and atten-
In 2004, we launched SC3 to facilitate imple-
mentation of programs that promote removal
of existing stocks of dangerous chemicals from
schools, encourage safe chemical manage-
ment, and raise national awareness. Ten pilot

                                                                                                    a  ;/
projects were imple-
mented across the
country. Through
these programs, over
75,000  pounds of
dangerous chemicals
were safely removed
and properly dis-
posed of, thus, creating an environmentally
safe learning environment for over 400,000

For more information, please refer to

Hospitals for a Healthy Environment
EPA and the American Hospital Association
have a  Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
for pollution prevention in health care facili-
ties. The objectives of this MOU are to do the

  •  Virtually eliminate mercury-containing
    waste from health care facilities'waste
                                                                                                  JOT a
    Reduce the overall
    volume of waste (both
    regulated and non-
    regulated waste) by 33
    percent by 2005, and 50 percent by 2010;

    Identify hazardous substances for pollu-
    tion prevention and waste reduction
    opportunities, including hazardous chemi-
    cals and persistent bioaccumulation and
    toxic (PBT) chemicals.

As of June 2005, the Hospitals for a Healthy
Environment program had enrolled 1,027 part-
ners representing 4,337 facilities, including
hospitals, clinics, and nursing homes. Of the
enrolled partners, 56 of them have indicated
that their facilities are now mercury-free.

With the end of 2005 in sight, Hospitals for a
Healthy Environment is working to tally its
results from its partners to confirm that their
goals were met. One partner that has made
great strides is St. Elizabeth's Medical Center in
Edgewood, Kentucky, which stopped using
ethylene oxide in its sterilization process due
to its carcinogenic risk to human health. The
facility switched to a closed-system steriliza-
tion process that takes  less time and operates
at a lower temperature to sterilize medical
devices-reducing both human exposures and
energy use.

In addition, the 2005 Environmental Leader
Award was given to a hospital that collected
over 125 pounds of mercury in one facility
                       alone; saved 480,000
                       gallons of water;
                       recycled or diverted
                       3,295 tons of waste;
                       and saved over
                       $323,000 in waste
                       disposal and other
                                               Developing More Environmentally
                                               Friendly Products
The RCC seeks to
increase solid waste
reduction, reuse, and
recycling through
Hospitals for a
Health Environment,
focusing on mercury,
paper, packaging,
electronic equipment,
food scraps, and
yard trimmings.
                       For more informa-
                       tion, please refer to:
Design for the Environment and Green
These two EPA programs are complementary
approaches to pollution prevention. More than
a decade ago, manufacturers started thinking
of "design for" qualities or traits in their prod-
ucts and processes. At the same time, views on
risk management began shifting from regula-
tory to voluntary efforts that promote risk
reduction through pollution prevention and
source reduction.
Product designers make many important deci-
sions about the environmental impacts of the
products they design. Our Design for the
Environment Program has partnered with the
Industrial Designers Society of America (IDSA)
to educate designers and students about how
to create more environmentally responsible
products and to award designs that demon-
strate superior environmental performance.
Designers are involved in the creation of every
product that people use in their homes, at work,
and in their daily lives, such as electronic equip-
ment, tools, lighting systems, household fix-
tures, toys, apparel, vehicles, and furniture.
Throughout its life cycle, every product creates
different amounts and various kinds of environ-
mental impacts. The choices designers make
influence the type and magnitude of these

Green Alley at Digital
Edge Expo
September 2DD4 - At the
NBC-4 Digital Edge Expo
in Washington, DC, EPA's
partner Dest Duy collect-
ed 144,000 pounds of
electronic materials for
recycling. This one col-
lection event has the
potential  to save 300
cubic feet of landfill
To help designers make the best environmen-
tal choices, IDSA organized a partnership pro-
gram to support the creation of more
ecologically friendly products. This partnership:
  • Educates design students and practicing
    designers about improving the ecological
    performance of products;

  • Identifies and provides ecodesign informa-
    tion that is most needed by product
    designers; and
  • Rewards green  product design via the
    BusinessWeek Industrial Design Excellence
    Awards (IDEA).

Educators and ecodesign strategists developed
a curriculum for students of product design.
The curriculum is organized into four areas of
study: 1) understanding environmental
impacts, 2) ecodesign  strategies to generate
new designs, 3) impact assessment, and 4) pro-
        fessional practice. This curriculum has
        been disseminated to more than 40
        product design schools in North
        America. Additionally, the IDEA
        Partnership Team is developing mate-
        rials for practicing  designers. The
        materials will be available by the end
        of 2005.
        The partnership also improved the
        ecodesign criteria used to judge the
        annual IDEA program. The new
        process places increasing emphasis
        on environmental impacts as a vital
        aspect of a successful design solu-
        tion. In addition, they provide "Dos &
        Don'ts"in the entry instructions of
things to consider when providing ecodesign
documentation. To better recognize and pro-
mote efforts being made in the design field, a
new ecodesign category has been approved
for launch in the 2006 IDEA competition.
Information about submissions to the
Ecodesign category will be posted with the
IDEA requirements for 2006.
For more information, please refer to:

Green  Initiatives-
The National Safety Council predicts that by
2010, 250 million computers will be obsolete
(see ). In 2005, Americans discarded
about 130 million cell phones, which translates
to 65,000 tons of trash. The main challenge for
this priority area is to get industry, consumers,
and state and local governments to work
together to create a future plan for electronics.
These plans include reducing the amount of
toxic chemicals used in electronics, reducing
the amount of e-waste produced  every year,
and providing a future  infrastructure for reuse
and recycling. By targeting all phases of elec-
tronic equipment's life cycle, the RCC is:
  •  Creating relationships with equipment
  •  Educating the consumer population;
  •  Working with state and local governments
    to support their efforts; and

  •  Harnessing the purchasing power of the
    federal government to increase the use
    and acquisition of more environmentally
    sustainable electronics.
These four goals are being  met through some
of the efforts described  below.

Plug-In To eCycling
Plug-In To eCycling has had
success in attracting new part-
ners to help provide opportuni-
ties to safely, conveniently, and
affordably recycle old electronics equipment.
This program also promotes safe recycling
practices that minimize  impacts on the envi-
ronment. Reusing or recycling old electronics
conserves natural resources by prolonging the
useful life of products or recovering valuable
material. Plug-In To eCycling currently has 20
partners, with Good Guys, Office Depot,
Samsung, Philips, Pioneer, eBay's Rethink
Initiative, and NEC joining in 2004.
Plug-In To eCycling has made significant
strides in recycling electronics this year. In
2004, members conducted pilot programs and
workshops to collect and recycle used elec-
tronics. In each of the pilot programs, tons of
electronics were collected.
  •  Office Depot and Hewlett Packard's pilot
    program collected and recycled approxi-
    mately 10.5 million  pounds of obsolete
    electronics, saving 36,350 cubic feet of
    landfill space.
  •  Good Guys, one of the largest domestic
    specialty retailers of high-end entertain-
    ment electronics, collected and safely
    recycled over 4,000 TVs, diverting 16,000
    pounds of lead away from landfills.
  •  AT&T Wireless collected 450,000 pounds of
    cell phones, batteries, and PDAs for reuse
    and resale.
  •  Dell collected 3 million pounds of unwant-
    ed computer equipment for safe recycling.
  •  Hewlett Packard recycled 9 million pounds
    of products per month.
  •  Lexmark collected 5,800 pounds of old
    electronics from their own employees.
  •  Panasonic diverted 5.6 million end-of-life
    products from landfills.

EPEAT-How Green Are Your Electronics?
One example of how we evaluate the environ-
mental performance of electronic products is
through the Electronics Product Environmental
Assessment Tool (EPEAT). Large institutions can
use EPEAT to rate how green their electronic
purchases are.
The tool grants the equipment a point range
depending on  how environmentally friendly
the product is. Based on the total  number of
points, the product qualifies for a  bronze, sil-
ver, or gold rating. The tool, which was devel-
oped  through a multi-stakeholder process,
promotes continuous improvement in prod-
ucts, addresses the entire product life cycle,
and aims to provide market advantage for
green electronic products. We are currently
identifying an organization to conduct a public
review of the draft criteria and manage this

                     new tool. For more information, please refer to:

                     The Federal Electronic Challenge (FEC)
                     The FEC is a voluntary effort by federal agen-
                     cies to buy greener electronics and to mange
                     used electronics in an environmentally respon-
                     sible way.
                     On November 15, 2004, 11 federal agencies
                     and the Executive Office of the President made
                     a formal commitment to join this challenge
                     and improve their life cycle electronics stew-
                     The program plans to complete a baseline sur-
                     vey, set goals, and implement an action plan to
                     improve management of electronic assets in
                     three areas-acquisition and procurement,
                     maintenance and operation, and disposal. The
                     FEC will provide member federal agencies with
                     tools and technical assistance to implement
                     activities and help them achieve bronze-, sil-
                     ver-, or gold-level recognition. To help federal
                     agencies properly dispose of and recycle old or
                     excess equipment to meet their FEC commit-
                     ments, we awarded contracts for Recycling
FEC Federal Partners
The Executive Office of the President/ the Departments
of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, Health and Human
Services, Homeland Security, Interior, Justice,
Transportation, and Veterans Affairs/ the
Environmental Protection Agency, and the General
Services Administration.
Electronics and Asset Disposition (READ). READ
will provide federal agencies with a way to
safely recycle and, if necessary, dispose of out-
dated equipment to meet their commitments.
For more information, please refer to:

EPA's Design for the Environment Assessment:
Switching to Lead-Free Alternatives
The electronics industry is facing legislative
and market pressure to
phase out the use of
tin/lead (SnPb) solders and
switch to lead-free alterna-
tives. Due to these pres-
sures, industry
approached the Design for the Environment
(DfE) Program for assistance. In 2002 alone,
estimates of SnPb solder used worldwide were
over 176 million pounds.
The DfE Lead-Free Solder Partnership conduct-
ed a study of life-cycle environmental impacts
of SnPb and several lead-free solder alterna-
tives. The study provided an objective analysis
of the life-cycle environmental impacts of lead-
ing candidate alternatives and identified envi-
ronmental concerns along with the
traditionally evaluated parameters of cost and
performance. This assessment describes ways
to redirect efforts towards products and
processes that reduce solders'environmental
footprint, including energy consumption,
releases of toxic chemicals, and potential risks

to human health and the environment. For
more information on this study please visit:
To view this project or to order the summary
booklet, please refer to: .

Other Key Green Initiatives

Greening the Government
Though electronics has been targeted as a
national priority area under the RCC umbrella,
a number of other initiatives are very impor-
tant to reach the goals of the RCC. For exam-
ple, the Greening the Government initiative
provides a vision for our role in implementing
future waste prevention, recycling, and federal
acquisition programs across the federal gov-
ernment, and the Green Buildings program is
working to reduce the environmental footprint
of buildings across our nation.
The goal of this initiative is to establish a feder-
al program that brings together all green pro-
grams into one-green procurement of
products and services, green  building and
landscaping, and waste prevention and recy-
cling. The joint impact of federal agency activi-
ties will enable the government to exercise
greater influence over market development for
green products and services.

Government Purchases Environmentally
Preferable Products
"Green" procurement is the acquisition of prod-
ucts or services that have a lesser or reduced
effect on human health and the environment
when compared with competing products or
services that serve the same purpose. This
includes products that are made with recycled
content, are energy efficient, or have other
environmentally preferable attributes, such as
ease of recycling or reduced toxicity.The pur-
chase of products made with recycled content
is promoted through the Comprehensive
Procurement Guidelines (CPG) program.

Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines
Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines were
created to encourage the use of materials
recovered from the solid waste stream and
thereby help to conserve resources, reduce
energy usage, and reduce the amount of waste
disposed in landfills or incinerators. Section
6002 of the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act (RCRA) requires EPA to designate
products that can be made with recovered
materials and to recommend practices for buy-
ing the products. It also requires federal agen-
cies to purchase these designated items.
Procuring agencies include all federal agencies
and any state or local agency or government
contractor that uses appropriated funds.
Through CPG, we have designated 61 items,
including seven designated on April 30, 2004.
The seven items designated were bike racks,
  Federal agencies continue to purchase millions of dol-
  lars worth of products containing recycled content.
  Over the last decade, the federal government has pur-
  chased more than $3.6 billion of such products.
  Procuring agencies now buy more than 60 types of
  products made with recycled materials designated by
  the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

blasting grit, modular threshold ramps, non-
pressure pipe, rebuilt vehicular parts, office fur-
niture, and roofing materials. To view our
recommended recycled content products and a
supplier's database, please refer to:

EPA "LEED"s on  Green Buildings
To serve as a model with healthy workplaces that
minimize environmental impacts, we strive to
make all of our buildings as energy efficient and
sustainable as possible. Using the Leadership
Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green
Building Rating System, we require our newly
constructed buildings to achieve at least a LEED
Silver certification. LEED is a voluntary, national
standard for developing high-performance, sus-
tainable buildings. In 2004, we began construct-
ing four new green buildings that will have at
least a LEED Silver rating.

LEED ratings range from Bronze to Gold and are
based on a rating system where points are given
for sustainable and environmentally friendly
design. Examples of some of the rating criteria
are public transportation access, water efficient
landscaping, renewable energy, green power,
and C&D debris reuse.
For more information, please refer to:

Federal Green Construction Guide
Collaborating with the Office of the Federal
Environmental Executive and the Whole Building
Design Guide, EPA has drafted the Draft Federal
Guide for Green Construction Specs to assist fed-
eral agencies in greening their buildings. The
draft guide is available at:

Covering over 60 building materials and meth-
ods, the online tool is being developed to allow
federal building professionals to "cut and paste"
their way to greener office, residential, laborato-
ry, and other buildings. Specifically, the draft
guide, organized according to the Construction
Specifications Institute's MasterFormat™, will
help agencies meet their project-specific envi-
ronmental goals and mandates.
 Headquarters, Arlington, VA: In May 2004, G5A signed a lease
 for a 422,000 square-foot building that will house programs
 located in Crystal City. The building will have a minimum  of a
 LEED Silver rating, but hopes to achieve an environmental per-
 formance rating of Gold. The developer is pursuing the use of
 30-35 percent slag cement (an industrial byproduct) below grade,
 and the architectural finishes will comply with CPG. The building
 should be completed  in 2006 and will achieve the Energy Star
 Building label, using  22 percent less energy than the industry
            Boston Regional Oiiice: In July 2004,
            EPA met with GSA to discuss the
            restoration of the McCormack Court
            House and Post Office Building. We will
            occupy the building when renovations
            are complete in 2007/2008. We
            requested that GSA make the building
            LEED Silver, at a minimum, and
            achieve an Energy Star Building label.
 Cincinnati Annex #2: We are designing an addition to the
 AWBERC facility in Cincinnati. The addition will be at a minimum
 LEED Silver and achieve an Energy Star Building label with
 energy use 30-35 percent below industry baseline. Construction
 start is expected in late FY 2005.
            Denver Regional Oiiice: In June 2004,
            we met to discuss the new Denver
            Regional Office. The building will be at
            least LEED Silver, and we expect the
            design to result in an LEED Gold build-
            ing. The building will have energy use
            39 percent below the industry standard.

                     EPA will continue to work with its current part-
                     ners and identify new partners who will assist
                     us in achieving the program's goals and tar-
                     gets. We will document progress, sharpen our
                     focus, and reward success. As we advance
                     toward our goals, we will refine them and set
                     new targets that better reflect the ongoing
                     work of the RCC.
                     Within each national priority area, we will con-
                     tinue to identify projects that can, and should,
                     be scaled up to the national level, with each
                     region being given an opportunity to expand
                     the program further. We will continue, through
                     the RCC, to work and gather the necessary
                     data, so that benefits of the program can be
                     clearly articulated and communi-
                     cated. As always, we will continue
                     to report the programs successes
                     and identify how they relate to
                     the set goals.
The RCC will continue to communicate with
the public broadly about its areas of focus. We
will continue to provide, develop, and seek out
new tools that can help us achieve our goals.
Building expertise and providing technical
assistance will continue to be a strong element
of the RCC.
Finally, we will continue to educate the
American people about the impacts of pur-
chasing decisions on the environment. With
everyone working together, material and
resource conservation will become the norm
for all of us, not the exception.


Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20460

December 2005