United States • Canada
      Air Quality Agreement
5991  1992 1993 1994 1995  1996 1997 199B  1999 2000 2001  2002 2003 2004 2005 2D06

 For additional information on the commitments and obligations in the Canada-United States
 Air Quality Agreement, please consult:

 United States Environmental Protection Agency's website:

 Environment Canada's website:
American spellings are
  used in this report.

   United States • Canada
Air Quality Agreement
     \5 years
   Progress Report

                                                                                    ents           I

                                                                                    r Quality        I
The  International Joint  Commission Requests Your Comments
on This Report
The International Joint Commission is responsible for inviting comment on the Air '
Agreement Progress Report and for providing a synthesis of the comments to governments to
assist them in implementing the Agreement. The Air Quality Committee will have the benefit of
this synthesis as it implements the Agreement and prepares the next Progress Report. Comments
on any aspect of the Agreement would be appreciated.

Written comments on this report should be sent by February 28, 2007 to:
Secretary, United States Section
International Joint Commission
1250 23rd Street NW
Suite 100
Washington, DC 20440

Fax: 202-467-0746
Email: commission@washington.ijc.org
Secretary, Canadian Section
International Joint Commission
234 Laurier Avenue West
22nd Floor
Ottawa, Ontario KIP 6K6

Email: commission@ottawa.ijc.org


                                                    ble o
List of Acronyms [[[ v
Introduction [[[ vii
Section 1: Commitments
Acid Rain Annex
   Overview [[[ 1
   Key Commitments and Progress: Sulfur Dioxide Emission Reductions .............................................. 1
   Key Commitments and Progress: Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reductions ............................................ 3
   Acid Deposition Monitoring, Modeling, Maps, and Trends [[[ 4
   Emissions Monitoring [[[ 6
   Preventing Air Quality Deterioration and Protecting Visibility [[[ 8
   Consultation and Notification Concerning Significant Transboundary Air Pollution ........................... 10
Ozone Annex [[[ 12

Section 2: Related Air Quality Efforts	35
Canada-U.S. Border Air Quality Pilot Projects	35
   Canada-U.S. Emissions Cap and Trading Feasibility Study	35
   Georgia Basin-Puget Sound International Airshed Strategy	36
   Great Lakes Basin Airshed Management Framework	37
New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers	37

Section 3: Scientific and Technical Cooperation  and  Research	39
Emission Inventories and Trends	39
Air Quality Reporting and Mapping	42
Update to the Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment	45
Health Effects	46
   Research in the Great Lakes Basin Airshed	46
   Research in the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound International Airshed	47
   Canadian Air Quality Health Index	48
   Canadian Air Health Indicator	48
   U.S. Report on Health Effects of Ozone	48
   Review of U.S. Ozone and Particulate Matter Air Quality Standards	50
   U.S. Health Research	50
Acid Deposition Effects	51
   Aquatic Effects Research and Monitoring	51
   Terrestrial Effects Research	52
   Critical Loads and  Exceedances	52
   Recovery of Acidified Lakes and Streams	55

Conclusion	59

Canada-U.S.  Air Quality Agreement  Review: Third Comprehensive
Assessment	61
Introduction	61
Issues Raised	62
Conclusion	68

Appendix: U.S.-Canada Air Quality Committee	69

 List  of  Acronyms
ug/m3      micrograms per cubic meter                   NAMS
AHI       Air Health Indicator                         NAPAP
AIRMoN   Atmospheric Integrated Research
           Monitoring Network                        NAPS
AIRS      Aerometric Information Retrieval System       NARSTO
ANC      acid neutralizing capacity
AQA      Air Quality Agreement                       NAtChem
AQHI     Air Quality Health Index                     NATTS
AQMP     Air Quality Management Plan                 NBP
ASI        Algoma Steel Inc.                            NEG/ECP
BDPS      Boundary Dam Power Station
CAC      Criteria Air Contaminants                    NEI
CAIR      Clean Air Interstate Rule                     NMMAPS
CAMR     Clean Air Mercury Rule
CAPMoN  Canadian Air and Precipitation                NO
           Monitoring Network                        NO2
CASTNET Clean Air Status and Trends Network           NOX
CAVR     Clean Air Visibility Rule                      NOy
CCME     Canadian Council of Ministers of the           NPRI
           Environment                               NSPS
GEMS     continuous emission monitoring systems        NTN
CFR      Code of Federal Regulations                  OTC
CI         continuous improvement                     PAMS
CO        carbon monoxide
CO2       carbon dioxide                              PEMA
DEARS    Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study   PERC
EPA       Environmental Protection Agency             PM
           (United States)                              PM2,
EPS       Environmental Protection Service
           (Environment Canada)                       PMW_2,
GIS       geographic information system
GVRD     Greater Vancouver Regional District           PM10
IJC        International Joint Commission
IMPROVE Interagency Monitoring of Protected           ppb
           Vsual Environments                         ppbC
KCAC     Keeping Clean Areas Clean                    PPm
km        kilometer                                   RPO
kt         kilotonne                                   SIP
LTM      Long-Term Monitoring                       SLAMS
MDN     Mercury Deposition Network                 SO2
MOE      (Ontario) Ministry of Environment             SOX
Mt        megatonne                                 STN
MW      megawatt                                   TIME
NAAQS    National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NADP     National Atmospheric Deposition Program      VOC
National Air Monitoring Stations
National Acid Precipitation Assessment
National Air Pollution Surveillance
(formerly) North American Research Strategy
for Tropospheric Ozone
National Atmospheric Chemistry
National Air Toxics Trends Stations
NOX Budget Trading Program
New England Governors and Eastern
Canadian Premiers
National Emissions Inventory
National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air
Pollution Study
nitric oxide
nitrogen dioxide
nitrogen oxides
reactive odd nitrogen
National Pollutant Release Inventory
New Source Performance Standards
National Trends Network
Ozone Transport Commission
Photochemical Assessment
Monitoring Stations
Pollutant Emission Management Area
perchloroethylene; tetrachloroethylene
particulate matter
particulate matter less than or equal to
2.5 microns (micrometers)
particulate matter between 10 and 2.5 microns
particulate matter less than or equal to
10 microns (micrometers)
parts per billion
parts per billion carbon
parts per million
Regional Planning  Organization
State Implementation Plan
State and Local Air Monitoring Stations
sulfur dioxide
sulfur oxides
PM2, Speciation Trends Network
Temporally Integrated Monitoring
of Ecosystems
volatile organic compound


The 2006 Progress Report, prepared by the bilateral
Air Quality Committee, is the eighth biennial report
compiled under the 1991 Canada-United States Air
Quality Agreement. This report highlights actions
undertaken by Canada and the United States in the last
two years to address transboundary air pollution within
the context of the Agreement—namely, acid rain and
ground-level ozone.
Over the last two years, Canada and the United States
have continued to successfully reduce their emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2)
and nitrogen oxides (NOX), the major contributors to acid rain. Both countries
have also made considerable progress in meeting the requirements of the Ozone
Annex to reduce emissions of NOX and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the
precursors to ground-level ozone. Canada and the United States have focused
their actions on reducing these emissions from major sources such as electric
generating units, industrial sources, and on-road and nonroad transportation.
Each country's progress in achieving the requirements of the Acid Rain Annex
and the Ozone Annex is summarized in Section  1 of the report.

The 2006 Progress Report includes the third five-year comprehensive review
of the Air Quality Agreement, which has been organized in a question and
answer format to better address requirements in the Agreement and public
comments on the 2004 Progress Report submitted by the International Joint
Commission. The review responds to several deferred issues from previous
reviews in 1996 and 2002, highlights progress on several topics, and outlines
future areas of potential focus.
In 2006, the Air Quality Agreement marked its 15-year anniversary. This
Agreement has provided important opportunities for collaboration between
Canada and the United States and has produced impressive results, not just in
environmental improvements, but also in diplomacy and working relationships.
Both countries rely on the Agreement as the mechanism to address air pollution
issues and are committed to its continuing viability and relevance as new bilateral
issues emerge. The Agreement's flexibility provides opportunities to go beyond
the challenges identified by the Acid Rain and Ozone annexes, and the Parties
look forward to considering whether and how to address bilateral issues associated
with paniculate matter, mercury, and other air pollutants.



    Acid  Rain  Annex

        The Air Quality Agreement (AQA) established Annex I 'with
        specific sulfur dioxide (S02) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission
    target levels and a timetable for their achievement and made
    commitments to address visibility, prevent air quality deterioration in
    clean areas., and monitor emissions continuously. The commitments are
    based on both countries' acid rain reduction programs, which address
    the different emissions sources in the two countries. Together, we have
    made significant progress in preventing impacts from acid rain and
    reducing the acid rain on  each side of the border. However, recent studies
    in both countries continue  to show that further reductions are necessary
    to restore damaged ecosystems, particularly in the east.

    Key Commitments and Progress: Sulfur Dioxide Emission Reductions
          2.3 million tonne1 cap, even though the cap expired
          in December 1999. Canada's total SO2 emissions have
          decreased about 50 percent since 1980 to 2.3 million
          tonnes in 2004, or 28 percent below the national
          cap of 3.2 million tonnes (see Figure 1).
    Canada has been successful in reducing emissions of
    SO2, a principal contributor of acid rain. In 2003, SO2
    emissions in the seven easternmost provinces, where
    elevated acid deposition continues to damage sensitive
    ecosystems, were 29 percent below the eastern Canada

    1 One tonne is equal to 1.1 short tons.

             Figure 1
             Canadian SO2 Emissions from Acid Rain Sources, 1980-2004


                 3.5  -
               -2 3.0
               1 2.5
               g 2.0  -
               il 1.5


                                                                      National S02 Cap: 3.2 Mt
             Source: Environment Canada

             In the east, where acid rain continues to damage
             sensitive ecosystems, three provinces, Nova Scotia,
             Quebec, and Ontario, developed tighter regulations
             in 2005 to reduce emissions from major acid rain-
             causing sources. Details on these and other provincial
             actions are found at the end of Section 1.

             Despite these efforts, the control of acidifying
             emissions has not occurred to the extent necessary
             to reduce acid deposition below critical loads

                   UNITED STATES
                                                    (harmful levels) and ensure the recovery of aquatic and
                                                    terrestrial ecosystems. A critical load is the maximum
                                                    amount of acidifying deposition an ecosystem can
                                                    tolerate in the long term without being damaged.

                                                    The goal of Canada's acid rain program—to reduce
                                                    acid deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
                                                    to below critical loads for sulfur and nitrogen—is far
                                                    from being achieved.
The United States has succeeded in meeting its
goal to reduce SO2 emissions from all sources by
10 million tons. Created by Title IV of the 1990
Clean Air Act Amendments, the Acid Rain Program
employs a cap and trade mechanism to achieve high
levels of SO2 emission reductions from the highest
emitting SO2 sector, the electric power sector. In
2005, electric generating units in the United States
reduced SO2 emissions by 5.5 million tons, or 35
percent, compared with 1990 levels, and more than
40 percent compared with 1980 levels (see Figure 2).
For further details, including a listing of affected
units and complete emissions and  allowance data
related to the Acid Rain Program, visit http://cfpub.

The Clean Air Act sets a nationwide annual cap on
SO2 emissions from electric generating facilities.
The number of SO2 allowances allocated in a given
year to a particular unit was determined by provisions
in the Clean Air Act and the total allowances allocated
each year must not exceed the national cap. Each
allowance authorizes 1 ton of SO2 emissions. Every
year, each individual source must hold enough
allowances to cover its annual emissions. Unused
allowances may be sold, traded, or banked (saved)
for future use. Banked allowances give sources the
flexibility to determine how they will comply with
program requirements. Many sources chose to
substantially decrease their emissions during Phase I
and to use or sell their banked allowances in the
program's later years. Thus, annual fluctuations in
SO2 emissions are expected as sources move towards
the final cap of 8.95 million tons in 2010.

In 2005, 3,446 electric generating units were subject
to the SO2 provisions of the Acid Rain Program.
Variations in the number of units participating in

the program can result from retirements of some
units and start-up of other units.

In 2005, a total of 9.5 million allowances were
allocated. Sources actually emitted 10.2 million
tons of SO2, decreasing the allowance bank by
0.7 million tons to 6.2 million tons. Over the next
several years, affected sources will continue to
use banked allowances to help comply with the
increasingly stringent requirements of the program.
In addition, some sources in the eastern United
States may also rely on banked allowances to comply
with the lower cap for SO2 under the Clean Air

Figure 2
Interstate Rule (CAIR), promulgated in March 2005
and due to take effect beginning in 2010.

In addition to the electric power generation sector,
other sources achieved reductions in SO2 emissions,
including smelters and sulfuric acid manufacturing
plants. Smelters reduced emissions from 1.84 million
tons in 1980 to 271,000 tons in 2002. The use of
cleaner fuels in residential and commercial burners
also contributed to the 10.6 million ton decline of
SO2 emissions from all sources, compared with the
1980 level of 25.9 million tons. (For more details,
visit the 2002 National Emissions Inventory (NEI)
at www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/trends/.)
U.S. SO2 Emissions from Acid Rain Program Electric Generating Units, 1980-2005
                                                                         AN Affected Electric Generating Units
                                                                         Phase II Sources
                                                                         Phase I Sources
                                                                         Allowances Allocated
Source: EPA
Key Commitments and Progress:  Nitrogen Oxides Emission Reductions
Though Canada has surpassed its NOX emission
reduction target at power plants, major combustion
sources, and metal smelting operations by 100,000
tonnes below the forecast level of 970,000 tonnes, the
country is continuing to develop programs to further
reduce NOX emissions nationwide (see section on
Ozone Annex).

Mobile sources (cars, light-duty trucks, etc.) are
the most significant sources of NOX emissions,
accounting for just over half (51 percent) of Canadian
total emissions, with the remainder caused by power
plants and other sources (see Figure 26, U.S. and
Canadian National Emissions by Sector for Selected
Pollutants, 2004). The Canadian federal government
recently passed stringent standards for NOX emissions
from on-road and off-road sources effective between
2004 and 2009. Details can be found in the Ozone
Annex section of the report.

                  UNITED STATES
             Coal-fired electric utility units affected by the NOX
             component of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act
             Amendments (the Acid Rain Program) continue
             to exceed the annual goal of reducing emissions

             Figure 3
                                                   by 2 million tons below what they would have
                                                   been without the program. In 2005, the 982 NOX
                                                   program-affected units reduced their combined NOX
                                                   emissions to 3.3 million tons (see Figure 3).
            U.S. Title IV Utility Unit NOX Emissions, 1990-2005
                                                                                     NOK program-affected sources
                                                                                     Title IV sources not affected by NOK program
             Source: EPA
             Acid Deposition  Monitoring, Modeling, Maps,  and Trends
Airborne pollutants are deposited on the earth's
surface by three processes: 1) wet deposition (rain and
snow); 2) dry deposition (particles and gases); and 3)
deposition by cloud water and fog. Wet deposition
is comparatively easy to measure using precipitation
samplers, and wet sulfate and nitrate deposition is
regularly used to assess the changing atmosphere as
it responds to decreasing or increasing sulfur and
nitrogen emissions. In Canada, measurements of wet
sulfate deposition are typically corrected to omit the
contribution of sea salt sulfate at near-ocean sites (less
than 62 miles (100 kilometers, or km) from the coast)
to facilitate this comparison.

Figures 4 and 5 show the spatial patterns of wet
sulfate deposition for two separate five-year periods,
1990-1994 and 2000-2004. Figures 6 and 7 present
maps of wet nitrate deposition for the same five-
year periods. No deposition contours are shown in
Canada in Figures 5 and 7, because Canadian experts
judged that the locations of the contour lines were
unacceptably uncertain because of data paucity. This
paucity is related to the following factors: the Province
of Ontario ceased collecting wet deposition data in
1999; at this time, no validated wet deposition data are
available from the Province of Quebec for years after
2002; the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador
closed its monitoring network early in 2004; and
the provinces of British Columbia, Saskatchewan,
and Manitoba do not carry out regional-scale wet
deposition monitoring. As a result,  the five-year
average deposition values in Canada are shown as
colored circles at the locations  of the remaining
federal/provincial/territorial measurement sites.
National experts from both countries are collaborating
to determine consistent common uncertainty limits for
future analyses. The maps for 1990-1994 differ slightly
from those shown in the 2004 Progress Report because

stricter criteria for data completeness and improved

detail were used to develop the new maps shown here.

It can be seen from the maps that wet sulfate deposition

remains highest in eastern North America, and the

gradient follows an axis running from the confluence

of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers through the lower

Great Lakes. A comparison of the 2000-2004 sulfate

deposition map (Figure 5) with the 1990-1994 map

(Figure 4) shows significant reductions in wet sulfate

Figure 4

Mean sulfate wet deposition for 1990-1994, for
comparison with Figure 5
deposition in both the eastern United States and much
of eastern Canada between the two periods.

The pattern for wet nitrate deposition (Figures 6 and
7) shows a similar southwest-to-northeast axis, but the
high-deposition area is more tightly focused around the
lower Great Lakes. Reductions in wet nitrate deposition
between the two five-year periods were more modest
than for wet sulfate. The absence of data for Quebec
and Newfoundland and Labrador precludes any firm

conclusions on deposition trends for those provinces.

Figure 5

Mean sulfate wet deposition for 2000-2004
                                           • 0-5
                                           cm 5-10
                                           "~1 20-25
Note: Sulfate measurements are corrected for sea salt composition where appropriate.

Figure 6                                            Figure 7
Mean nitrate wet deposition for 1990-1994, for     Mean nitrate wet deposition for 2000-2004
comparison with Figure 7
                                          a 0-5
                                           3 10-15
                                          i	1 15-20
                                            a! 20-25
                                           HI 30-35
                                          •• 35-40
                                        • 0-5
                                        ™ 15-20
The foregoing changes in sulfate and nitrate wet
deposition from the first half of the 1990s to 2000
through 2004 are considered to be directly related to
decreases in SO2 and NOX emissions in both Canada
and the United  States. These emission reductions
are outlined in the previous sections dealing with
key commitments and progress on SO2 emission
reductions and NOX emission reductions.

In Canada, wet and dry deposition are measured by the
Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network
(CAPMoN) (www.msc-smc.ec.gc.ca/capmon), and wet
deposition alone is measured by several provinces and
one territory. In the past two years, a few additional
measurement sites were added to CAPMoN in the
more remote regions of Canada in order to provide
more extensive  deposition data. However, the data
available for  2000-2004 in Canada were insufficient
to permit interpolation and contouring.

The United  States has three coordinated acid
deposition monitoring  networks:
1.  The National Atmospheric Deposition
    Program/National  Trends Network (NADP/
    NTN), a collaboration of federal, state, and
    nongovernmental organizations measuring
    deposition chemistry (http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu).
2.  The NADP/Atmospheric Integrated Research
    Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), a subnetwork
    of NADP funded by the National Oceanic and
    Atmospheric Administration (http://nadp.sws.
3.  The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/
    National Park Service Clean Air Status and

Emissions  Monitoring

    Trends Network (CASTNET), which estimates
    dry deposition based on observational data

Wet deposition measurement procedures for all U.S.
and Canadian networks are acceptably comparable,
and the wet deposition data are available from
the individual networks and from a binational
database that is accessible to the public at www.msc.
ec.gc.ca/natchem/index_e.html. Canada and the
United States have developed different methods
for estimating dry deposition based on measured
data and modeled dry deposition velocities. These
methods have improved over the years, and both
indicate the importance of dry deposition as a major
contributor to total deposition in some areas of the
continent. However, the results differ in detail, and
no joint analysis is available at this time. Efforts are
under way between the two countries to reconcile
the different methods and results.

Acid Rain Program Benefits Far Exceed Costs
A recent analysis2 of the U.S. Acid Rain Program
estimates annual benefits of the program in 2010 to
both Canada and the United States at $122 billion and
costs for that year at $3 billion (in 2000 dollars)—a 40-
to-1 benefit/cost ratio. These quantified benefits in the
United States and Canada are the result of improved
air quality prolonging lives, reducing heart attacks and
other cardiovascular and respiratory problems, and
improving visibility. The complete report is available
in volume 77, issue 3, of the Journal of 'Environmental
Management at www.sciencedirect.com/science/
Canada has met its commitments to estimate emissions
of NOX and SO2 from new electricity utility units and
existing electricity units greater than 25 megawatts
(MW) using a method of comparable effectiveness to
continuous emission monitoring systems (GEMS) and
to investigate the feasibility of using GEMS  by 1995.
In Canada, trading of SO2 and NOX emissions is not
currently a driver for electronic data reporting and
GEMS installation. In December 2005, Environment
Canada published an update of its guidelines for
GEMS (Protocols and Performance Specifications for
Continuous Monitoring of Gaseous Emissions from
2  Chestnut, L.G. and Mills, D.M. (2005) Afresh look at the benefits and cost of the US Acid Rain Program. Journal of Environmental
  Management, Vol. 77, No. 3, pp. 252-266.

Thermal Power Generation, Report EPS l/PG/7
(revised)). The report can be viewed at www.ec.gc.
protocols_performance/toc_e.cfm. This update was
based, in part, on experience gained from the use of
40 CFR Part 75 specifications for GEMS in the
United  States. Although GEMS and data reporting
requirements for power plants and industrial sources
involved in emissions trading in the United States are
not fully mirrored in Canada, it has been concluded
that EPS l/PG/7-compliant GEMS  in Canada would
meet Canadian monitoring requirements for domestic
purposes and would achieve accuracy comparable to
that achieved through 40 CFR Part 75.

As laid out in the Canada-U.S. Emissions Cap and
Trading Feasibility Study, if a cross-border emissions
cap and trading system were established,  40 CFR
Part 75 requirements would need to be implemented
in Canada. One major difference between Canada's
EPS l/PG/7 guidance and 40 CFR Part 75 is the
emission data acquisition and reporting requirements
in the United States.

A study is being undertaken to estimate the costs of
upgrading from existing emission monitoring systems
in place at Canadian electric generating units to
GEMS that would be compliant with 40 CFR Part 75.
Preliminary conclusions from this work indicate that
the costs for Canadian electricity generators would
relate to the type of GEMS chosen and to the type of
unit (coal-fired, oil  or gas, peaking, low mass emitter)
in which the monitor would be  installed, with coal-
fired generators being the most affected. As well, all
facilities would be  required to add 40 CFR Part 75
data acquisition and reporting capabilities, and there
would be some incremental control system costs for
each unit in each facility.
Under the Acid Rain Program, affected units
are required to measure and record emissions
using GEMS (usually a concentration monitor in
conjunction with a flow monitor to determine mass
emissions) or an approved alternative  measurement
method and to report emissions electronically on a
quarterly basis. All of the monitoring systems must
pass rigorous quality assurance tests and operate with
a high degree of accuracy and reliability.

In fact, the average percent monitor data availability (a
measure of monitoring systems' reliability) for 2005
was 99 percent for coal-fired units. This number is
based on reported monitor data availability for SO2
monitors (99.5 percent), NOX monitors (97.5 percent),
and flow monitors (99.1 percent). Additionally, in
recent years, new audit capabilities have been added,
including software that performs hourly checks
to catch errors, miscalculations, and oversights in
monitoring and reporting systems. These audits help
ensure the completeness, high quality, and integrity
of emissions data as well as highlight a number of
potential "red flags" that require additional verification.
Accurate emissions monitoring remains the backbone
of trading program integrity. Initially, electronic audits
were conducted on the units that used continuous
emission monitors. Beginning in 2006, EPA increased
its electronic audit capabilities and now conducts audits
on all affected units, regardless of the monitoring
methodology used. For instance, all oil and gas units—
including those that use alternative methods—are also
audited. Results from the audits are promptly sent to
the source, and correction of critical errors is required.
In addition to the electronic audits, targeted field audits
are conducted on sources that report suspect data.
Compliance was virtually 100 percent in 2005, with
only one of 3,446 units out of compliance.

Preventing Air Quality Deterioration and Protecting Visibility
Pollution prevention, continuous improvement (CI),
and Keeping Clean Areas Clean (KCAC) activities are
all part of the Canada-wide Standards for particulate
matter (PM) and ozone to prevent the deterioration
of air quality and address the pollutants involved in
visibility impairment. Visibility (how far an object can
be seen) is often the first perception of smog, since PM
reduces the clarity of what we see when present at high
enough levels in the air.

Clean areas in Canada include our national parks.
Environment Canada and Parks Canada have begun
to informally explore options for air quality
monitoring in  these areas, including a program
for visibility monitoring.

As part of the options being explored, Environment
Canada has made an agreement with EPA and
the U.S. Interagency Monitoring of Protected
Visual Environments (IMPROVE), the program
that supports visibility monitoring in U.S.
national parks and wilderness areas. Under this
agreement, IMPROVE has lent its visibility
monitoring equipment to Environment Canada for
evaluation with comparable equipment designed by
Environment Canada. The IMPROVE equipment
is currently deployed at the Environment Canada
air quality research monitoring station located at
Egbert, Ontario.

The Province of British Columbia continues to
elaborate its approach to addressing CI and KCAC.
For example, the Greater Vancouver Regional
District (GVRD) adopted a new Air Quality
Management Plan (AQMP) in October 2005 to
maintain and improve air quality in the lower Fraser
Valley airshed. The new AQMP aims to minimize
the risk to human health from air pollution, improve
visibility, and reduce the GVRD's contribution
to global climate change.  As the Canada-wide
Standard for PM2 5 (particulate matter less than or
equal to 2.5 microns) is being met throughout the
lower Fraser Valley and the Canada-wide Standard
for ozone is exceeded only in the eastern part,  the
AQMP supports the CI/KCAC provisions of the
Canada-wide Standards. New health-based ambient
air quality objectives, established as part of the
AQMP, are more stringent than the Canada-wide
Standards for ozone and PM2 5. In addition,  CI,
defined as "taking remedial and preventive actions
to reduce emissions from human activities towards
the long-term goal of reducing overall ambient
concentrations and health risks," is a fundamental
principle of the AQMP. The AQMP's emission
reduction actions will reduce direct emissions  of
PM and ozone and PM precursors.
The U.S. Prevention of Significant Air Quality
Deterioration Program protects public health from
adverse effects that may occur from the addition
of new sources of air pollution and ensures that air
quality in many areas of the country remains better
than levels mandated by the National Ambient Air
Quality Standards (NAAQS). The program preserves
and protects air quality in Class I (pristine) areas by
assessing impacts on visibility before construction
permits are issued. Class I areas include national parks
and wilderness areas, such as the Grand Canyon,
Yosemite, and the Great Smokies. The Regional
Haze Program requires states to develop plans to
improve visibility conditions in Class I areas with the
goal of restoring natural visibility conditions in about
60 years. The first set of plans is due in early 2008.
Improvements in visibility for the eastern United States
are also  expected from implementation of the CAIR.

The pollutants that impair visibility by scattering and
absorbing light include sulfate, nitrate, and organic
carbon compounds. Sulfate and nitrate particles  are
the result of SO2 and NOX gases that are transformed
in the atmosphere. Sulfates are generally the largest

contributor to visibility impairment in both the east
and the west, although humidity, organic carbon, and
soil dust also play important roles.

"Standard visual range" is defined as the farthest
distance a large dark object can be seen. This distance
is calculated using fine and coarse particle data
by multiplying concentrations of various types of
particles by their extinction efficiency (how much they
block light), adding those up, then adding the clean
atmosphere extinction (scattering of light from gas
molecules). The extinction calculation is done for each
24-hour period during which particle samples are taken.
Currently,  these samples are taken every third day,
or 121 days per year. Therefore, the annual average
standard visual range is the average of the calculated
standard visual range for these 121 sample days. The
visual range under naturally occurring conditions
without pollution in the United States is approximately

Figure 8
45-90 miles (75-150 km) in the east and 120-180 miles
(2 00-3 00 km) in the west.

Historical data from the IMPROVE network indicate
modest improvement in visibility during the early 2000s.
The level of visibility impairment on the worst visibility
days in the west is similar to the levels seen on the best
visibility days in the east. In 2004, the mean visual range
for the worst days in the east was only 20 miles (32 km),
compared with 85 miles (136 km) for the best visibility
days (see Figure 8). In the west, visibility impairment
for the worst days remained relatively unchanged over
the past decade, with the mean visual range for 2004
(58 miles,or 94 km) nearly the same as the 1992 range
(61 miles, or 98 km). Although the period showed
moderate improvements in some areas, overall visibility
in the eastern United  States is still significantly impaired
in some national parks and wilderness areas, especially
on days of high relative humidity.
Annual Average Standard Visual Range in the Contiguous United States, 2004
Source: National Park Service

 Each state is a member of an independent Regional
 Planning Organization (RPO), which has been
 established to help member states work together to
 develop strategies to address visibility and regional
 haze. The five RPOs are the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast
 Visibility Union, the Visibility Improvement State
 and Tribal Association of the Southeast, the Midwest
 RPO, the Central States Regional Air Partnership, and
 the Western Regional Air Partnership. The RPOs hold
 their own technical work group sessions throughout
 the country to make decisions on joint technical
work. The technical work to support the first round
of state plans has resulted in a better understanding
of transport near the border. The RPOs coordinate
technical information on emissions, ambient
monitoring, and air quality modeling activities. The
RPOs are seeking ways for more involvement by
air quality agencies in Canada in their assessment
of pollutant formation and transport. For more
information  on the U.S. visibility program and
RPOs, see www.epa.gov/air/visibility/index.html.
 Consultation and  Notification Concerning Significant Transboundary
 Air Pollution
            JOINT EFFORTS
Boundary Dam
A binational BDPS Informal Consultation Group was
formed to address transboundary pollution concerns
around Estevan, Saskatchewan, and Burke County,
North Dakota. Partners included representatives
from Environment Canada, EPA, the North Dakota
Department of Health, Saskatchewan Environment,
and SaskPower (the operator of the BDPS). A
transboundary ambient air monitoring network was
established to track air quality changes in the region.

Since that time, SaskPower has completed the
installation of electrostatic precipitators on all of its
units, resulting in the virtual elimination of any visible
PM plume. In 2004, an interim report summarized air
quality trends from 1998 to 2003 and concluded that
no exceedances of either U.S. or Canadian standards
had been observed at any of the monitoring sites.
Performance audits conducted in 2005 noted that
all sites complied with the necessary operational and
quality assurance criteria.

Accordingly, the BDPS Informal  Consultation
Group has proposed a transition plan to conclude
this successful consultation. A report will be presented
to  the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Committee at its
annual meeting in the fall of 2006, detailing the
disposition of the monitoring equipment as well as
summarizing the air quality data gathered in the region
by the transboundary monitoring network.
 Since 1994, Canada and the United States have
 continued to follow an established set of notification
 procedures to identify possible new sources and
 modifications to existing sources of transboundary
 air pollution within 62 miles (100 km) of the border.
 Notifications can occur for new and existing sources
 located outside of the 62-mile (100-km) region if
 governments believe that there is a potential for
 transboundary pollution. Since the last progress
 report in 2004, Canada has notified the United
 States of 7 additional sources, for a total of 44. The
 United States has notified Canada of 13 additional
 sources, for a total of 47.

 Transboundary notification information is available
 on the Internet sites of the  two governments at:


 United States:

 Following guidelines approved by the Air Quality
 Committee in 1998 for consultations requested by a
 Party on transboundary pollution concerns, Canada
 and the United States report ongoing progress on joint
 discussions concerning the  Boundary Dam Power
 Station (BDPS) near Estevan, Saskatchewan, and
 Algoma Steel, Inc. (ASI) in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.

Algoma Steel
The Canada-U.S. Algoma informal consultations
began in 1998 to address concerns regarding local
cross-border pollution. Representatives from the
United States and Canada hold regular discussions
to coordinate monitoring programs in the Sault Ste.
Marie area and to address progress in abating potential
transboundary pollution from the ASI facility in
Ontario. Air quality monitoring on the Canadian side
has been ongoing since the 1960s and on the U.S. side
was initiated by the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan
in 2001. Sampling of fine PM and toxic air pollutants
continues on both sides of the border.

During the last two years, Canadian and U.S.
representatives have continued to meet to  discuss
progress towards reducing emissions from ASI and
to share results of air monitoring studies. The data
analysis subgroup has completed a draft report
summarizing results of the ambient air monitoring
program in the binational area during 2001-2003.
Canadian  and U.S. partners have  agreed that this
draft report should be identified as an "interim"
document, and future reports will update the
monitoring results, including the 2004—2005 data.
The quality assurance/quality control subgroup
continues to evaluate the monitoring equipment and
the methods employed by both countries to ensure
comparability of monitoring results.
Trend data from the consultation indicate that
although emission rates have declined, total steel
production at ASI has increased. The combined
impact of these changes on air quality is not yet
known, and citizen complaints are still being received
by local agencies. The monitoring data also indicate
that there are no exceedances of the NAAQS at
the Michigan monitoring sites. However, several
pollutants, such as total suspended particulates and
coarse particulate matter (particulate matter less than
or equal to 10 microns, or PM10), exceed Ontario air
quality criteria in the west end of Sault Ste. Marie.
The Algoma bilateral consultation group will continue
to monitor and report on this facility.

            Ozone  Annex
                 Tfo Ozo/ze Annex -was added to the AQA in 2000 to address
                 transboundary ground-level ozone. The Annex commits
            Canada and the United States to reducing emissions ofNOx and
            volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the precursors to ground-
            level ozone, a major component of smog. It defines a region in both
            countries,  known as the Pollutant Emission Management Area
            (PEMA),  which includes central and southern Ontario, southern
            Quebec, 18 U.S. states, and the District of Columbia. The states
            and provinces within this region are the areas where emission
            reductions are most important for reducing transboundary ozone.
            It is in  this region in both countries where the emission reduction
            commitments apply.

            Key Commitments and Progress
Vehicles, Engines, and Fuels

New stringent NOX and VOC emission
reduction standards for vehicles, including cars,
vans, light-duty trucks, off-road vehicles, small
engines, and diesel engines, as well as fuels.

Emissions from vehicles, off-road equipment,
and fuels account for over 60 percent of the NOX
emissions and over 30 percent of the VOC emissions
in the Canadian portion of the PEMA. To address
these emissions, the Ozone Annex commits Canada
to controlling and reducing NOX and VOC emissions
from vehicles and fuels through regulation of sulfur
content in gasoline and on-road diesel fuel and new
emission standards for light-duty vehicles and trucks,
heavy-duty vehicles, engines, and motorcycles,
recreational marine engines, small engines such
as lawn mowers, and others.

Canada has  implemented a series of regulations
to align Canadian emission standards for vehicles
and engines with corresponding standards under

the EPA rules. Canada has met all of its regulatory
commitments except for the planned regulations
to address emissions from marine spark-ignition
engines, which are currently under development. By
2020, it is estimated that NOX and VOC emissions
from on-road and off-road vehicles and engines will
be reduced by 55 and 38 percent, respectively, relative
to emissions in 2005.

The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission
Regulations were published in the Canada Gazette,
Part II, on January 1, 2003. The regulations came
into effect on January 1, 2004, and introduce more
stringent national emission standards for 2004 and
later model year new light-duty vehicles and trucks,
heavy-duty vehicles, and motorcycles in alignment
with U.S. federal standards. Going beyond the
commitments in the Ozone Annex, on November 5,
2005, the proposed Regulations Amending the
On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations
were published in the Canada Gazette, Part I. The
regulations propose new requirements for 2006 and
later model year on-road motorcycles to maintain

alignment with more stringent standards adopted
by EPA, and final regulations are being prepared.

The Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission
Regulations were published in the Canada Gazette,
Part II, on November 19, 2003. The regulations came
into effect on January 1, 2005, and establish emission
standards for 2005 and later model year engines found
in lawn and garden machines, light-duty industrial
machines, and light-duty logging machines, in
alignment with U.S. federal standards.

The Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engine
Emission Regulations were published in the Canada
Gazette, Part II, on February 23, 2005. The regulations
came into effect on January 1,  2006, and introduce
emission standards aligned with U.S. federal
standards (Tier 2 and 3) for 2006 and later model
year new diesel engines, such as those typically found
in agricultural, construction, and forestry machines.
Environment Canada plans to amend these regulations
to incorporate the more stringent U.S. Tier 4
standards for the 2008 and later model years.

The proposed Marine Spark-Ignition Engine and
Off-Road Recreational Vehicle Emission Regulations
are being developed to introduce new emission
standards for 2008 and later model years for new
outboard engines, personal watercraft, all-terrain
vehicles, snowmobiles, and off-road motorcycles in
alignment with standards adopted by EPA.

Regulatory initiatives for fuels include the Sulphur
in Gasoline Regulations, which limited the level
of sulfur in gasoline to 30 mg/kg (equivalent to 30
parts per million (ppm)) as of January 1, 2005—a 90
percent reduction from preregulated levels; and the
Sulphur in Diesel Fuel Regulations, which reduced
the level of sulfur in diesel fuel used in on-road
vehicles to 15 mg/kg (15 ppm) as of June 1, 2006.
Beyond the requirements in the Ozone Annex,
Environment Canada has amended the Sulphur
in Diesel Fuel Regulations to reduce the level of
sulfur in diesel fuel used in off-road, rail, and marine
engines to 500 mg/kg (500 ppm) commencing in
2007 and down to 15 mg/kg (15 ppm) commencing
in 2010 for off-road and in 2012 for rail and marine.
Stationary Sources of NOX

Annual caps by 2007 of 39 kilotonnes (kt) of NOX
(as nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) emissions from fossil
fuel power plants in the PEMA in central and
southern Ontario, and 5 kt of NOX in the PEMA
in southern Quebec, aligned with U.S. standards.

In the Canadian portion of the PEMA, the largest source of
NOX emissions from industry is the fossil fuel-fired power
sector. Therefore, Canada's commitment in the Ozone
Annex focuses  on achieving an emission requirement
for this sector in the Canadian portion of the PEMA
comparable to  that in the U.S. portion of the PEMA.

Canada has made substantial progress to meet its
commitment to cap NOX emissions from large fossil
fuel-fired power plants in the Ontario and Quebec
portions of the  PEMA at  39 kt and 5 kt, respectively,
by 2007. Emissions from power plants in the Ontario
portion of the PEMA were approximately 78 kt in
1990 and had decreased by almost half by 2004.
Further action in the province to achieve the cap
includes agreements to purchase power from 19
new renewable energy projects, including three water
power projects, three landfill gas and biogas projects,
and 13 wind farms. To date, Ontario has contracted
for a total of 1,370 MW of clean renewable energy—
enough to power an estimated 350,000 homes.
In April 2005, Lakeview Generating Station closed
(O.  Reg. 396/01), eliminating annual emissions of
approximately  4,000 tonnes of NOx and 15,000
tonnes of SO2 upwind of the  Greater Toronto
Area. Ontario has committed to reducing its own
government's electricity use by at least 10  percent
by 2007.

Emissions data for 2003  show that NOX (as NO2)
emissions from power plants in the Quebec portion
of the PEMA exceeded the 5 kt cap by approximately
10 percent, due mainly to the increase in the hours of
operation of the Tracy power plant.  In 2004, the cap
was met. To ensure that the 5 kt cap continues to be
met, Quebec is now considering introducing a specific
cap of 2,100 tonnes per year for the Tracy plant
through regulations.

Proposed National Guideline on Renewable
Low-Impact Electricity

Control and reduce NOX emissions in
accordance with a proposed national Guideline
on Renewable Low-Impact Electricity.

A notice of a draft Guideline on Renewable Low-
Impact Electricity (Green Power Guideline) was
published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, in 2001.
This guideline is providing national guidance on
environmentally preferable electricity products
and generation in Canada and establishing criteria
for environmental labeling of qualifying electricity
products under the Government of Canada
Environmental Choice Program. Certification criteria
contained in the guideline are already being used for
certification of qualifying electricity products.
Canada intends to monitor these criteria as an
indicator of improvement in the environmental
performance of electricity generation and
distribution sectors. Publication of a final guideline
will be considered with other options to maintain
and enhance continuous improvement in the
environmental performance of this industry. A
list of all certification criteria documents for the
Environmental Choice Program, including the criteria
for renewable low-impact electricity, was published in
the Canada Gazette, Part I, on August 14, 2004.

Measures to Reduce VOCs

Reduction of VOC emissions through the
development of two regulations, one on dry
cleaning and another on solvent degreasing,
and the use of VOC emission limits for new
stationary sources.

The Tetrachloroethylene (Use in Dry Cleaning and
Reporting Requirements) Regulations became law
on February 27, 2003, and the last provision of these
regulations went into effect on August 1, 2005. The
regulations phased out the use of older-technology
dry cleaning machines, which used and released
larger quantities of tetrachloroethylene (commonly
called perchloroethylene or PERC) than the newer-
technology machines. The goal of the regulations was
to achieve a 71 percent reduction of PERC releases
at dry cleaning facilities from 1994 levels by August
2005. Environment Canada will complete an analysis
in fall 2006 to determine whether this goal has been
achieved. PERC has not been produced in Canada
since 1993, and PERC imports to Canada were
reduced by over 40 percent between 1994 and 2004.
The number of dry cleaners using PERC in Canada
also fell by 39 percent between 1994 and 2004.

The Solvent Degreasing Regulations, which came
into force in July 2003, froze the consumption of
trichloroethylene and PERC in cold and vapor
solvent degreasing for three years from 2004 to 2006,
which is to be followed by a 65 percent reduction in
consumption in 2007 and subsequent years.

The Canadian Council  of Ministers of the
Environment (CCME) has endorsed  16 codes,
guidelines and standards, or memoranda of
understanding for solvent use subsectors. These
documents are used to provide guidance to
jurisdictions for reducing VOC emissions from
many industrial/commercial sectors, including
paints, coatings, printing, and storage tanks.

Measures for NOX and VOC Emissions to Attain
the Canada-wide Standard for Ozone

If required to achieve the Canada-wide Standard
for ozone in the PEMA by 2010, measures will
be in place to reduce NOX emissions by 2005 and
implemented between 2005 and 2010 for key
industrial sectors and measures to address
VOC emissions from solvents, paints and
consumer products.

Multi-Pollutant Emission Reduction Analysis and
Foundation documents were published for seven
industrial sectors (pulp and paper, lumber and allied
wood products, iron and steel, base metals smelting,
hot mix asphalt paving, concrete batching, and
electric power generation) that are key to achieving
the Canada-wide Standards for PM and ozone.
Provinces and territories can use the reports in
preparing their jurisdictional implementation
plans. The reports are available at www.ccme.ca.
Jurisdictional implementation plans will outline
more comprehensive actions being taken within each
province and territory to achieve the Canada-wide
Standards for PM and ozone by the 2010 target date.

To provide further information and support to
Canadian provinces and territories in developing
their implementation plans, the following activities
are under way:

•   Iron and Steel: Environmental performance
    standards are being  developed to  address
    releases of PM, NOX, SO2, and VOCs from the
    significant process sources of the iron and steel
    sector. The existing Canadian Environmental
    Protection Act Environmental Codes of Practice
    for integrated and nonintegrated  iron and steel
    mills are being updated in consultation with
    industry, nongovernment stakeholders, and the
    provinces to incorporate these environmental
    performance standards.
•   Base Metals Smelting: A Final Notice requiring
    the  preparation of pollution prevention plans
    by Canadian base metal smelters was published
    in the Canada Gazette, Part I, in April 2006.
    The Final Notice requires the development and
    implementation of a Smelter Emissions Reduction
    Program with facility annual release limit targets
    for 2008 and 2015 and notes the intention of the
    federal Environment Minister to develop base
    metal smelter regulations to  be in effect by 2015.
•   Cement: It is proposed to publish a national
    Environmental Code of Practice for Cement
    Manufacturing Facilities. This environmental
    code of practice is expected  to include
    environmental performance standards to address
    releases of PM, NOX, SO2, and VOCs from
    the significant process sources of the portland
    cement manufacturing sector. This proposed
    environmental code of practice would build on
    existing CCME guidelines for cement kilns.
•   Pulp and Paper: A multistakeholder group (Air
    Quality Forum) undertook a benchmarking
    exercise comparing the performance of Canadian
    mills with that of world leaders in terms of
    emissions performance and best technology. The
    Forum proposes to develop a 10-year agenda for
    the reduction of pulp and paper  mill emissions.

Canada published a "Federal Agenda for the
Reduction of VOC Emissions from Consumer and
Commercial Products" in the Canada Gazette, Part I,
in March 2004. This agenda outlines actions to  be
taken between 2004 and 2010 to reduce emissions
from these sources and emphasizes alignment with
measures in the United States, recognizing the North
American market for many of these products.

The Federal Agenda identifies the development
and implementation of three regulations to reduce
VOC content in products. These regulations focus
on consumer products, architectural  industrial
maintenance coatings, and auto refinish coatings. The
first of these regulations, the architectural industrial
maintenance coatings regulation, is expected to be
published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, in fall 2006
and to be in place in 2007. The development of the
other two regulations will follow.

Actions by the Province of Quebec
Quebec has made progress in meeting its Ozone Annex
commitments byway of several regulatory actions.
The proposed amendments to Quebec's Regulation

 Respecting the Quality of the Atmosphere contain
 stricter standards aimed at reducing NOX emissions
 from new and modified industrial and commercial
 boilers, in accordance with CCME guidelines. In
 addition, when burners on existing units must be
 replaced, the replacements must be low-NOx burners.

 With respect to VOC emissions, the amendments
 to the Regulation Respecting the Quality of the
 Atmosphere are aimed at reducing emissions from
 the manufacture and application of surface coatings,
 commercial and industrial printing, dry cleaning,
 above-ground storage tanks, petroleum refineries,
 and petrochemical plants.

 Pursuant to its Regulation on Petroleum Products and
 Equipment,  Quebec is currently applying provisions
 aimed at reducing gasoline volatility during the summer
 months in the city of Montreal and the Gatineau-
 Montreal section of the Windsor-Quebec City corridor.

 Quebec is also considering amending the above
 regulation in order to address vapor recovery
 initiatives, including gasoline storage, transfer depots,
 and service stations supplying both new and existing
 installations in the Quebec portion of the Windsor-
 Quebec City corridor. The city of Montreal is
 currently enforcing regulatory provisions concerning
 gasoline vapor recovery in its territory.

 Actions by the  Province of Ontario
 Ontario is on track to meet its Ozone Annex
 commitments by 2007, with the following programs,
 regulations, and guidelines:
 •   Ontario's Drive Clean program, a mandatory
     inspection and maintenance program for motor
     vehicles, reduces harmful vehicle emissions by
     identifying vehicles that do not meet provincial
     emission standards and requiring them to be
     repaired. Drive Clean applies to light-duty and
     heavy-duty nondiesel vehicles registered in the
     light-duty program area that extends across
     southern Ontario from Windsor to Ottawa.
     The program also applies to heavy-duty diesel
     vehicles registered anywhere in the province.
     Drive Clean rules and requirements are found
     in Regulation  361/98 under the Environmental
Protection Act and Regulation 628/90 under
the Highway Traffic Act.
An independent analysis of Drive Clean data
indicates that the program reduced smog-
causing emissions (NOX and VOCs) from light-
duty vehicles in the program area by more than
81,200 tonnes from 1999 to 2003. In addition,
it is estimated that Drive Clean has resulted in
reductions of over 690,000 tonnes of carbon
monoxide (CO) and more than 100,000 tonnes
of carbon dioxide (CO2). PM emissions from
heavy-duty diesel vehicles were reduced by
nearly 1,100 tonnes from 2000 to 2002.
The Vehicle Emissions Enforcement Unit (Smog
Patrol) complements the Drive Clean program
by conducting roadside inspections of grossly
polluting heavy-duty and light-duty vehicles.
Since 1998, the Vehicle Emissions Enforcement
Unit has conducted more than 41,000 vehicle
inspections and issued more than 6,500 tickets.
Stage 1 of the gasoline vapor recovery program
(vapor recovery in bulk transfers; O. Reg. 455/94)
has been implemented, and the program
continues today.
The Gasoline Volatility Regulation (O. Reg. 271/91),
which has been ongoing since 1991, sets the limits
of gasoline vapor pressure during the summer.
Mandatory training is required every five
years for at least one full-time employee of
all dry cleaning establishments in Ontario
(O. Reg. 323/94). In November 2001, a new
environmental code of practice was established.
NOX and sulfur oxides (SO,) emissions from new
and modified stationary combustion turbines are
limited under Ministry of Environment (MOE)
Guideline A-5 through Certificates of Approval;
monitoring and record keeping are required.
In 2001, MOE Guideline A-9 imposed a
NOX emission limit on new or modified large
boilers and heaters in industrial installations.
This guideline adopts the National Emission
Guideline for Commercial/Industrial Boilers
and Heaters approved by the CCME in 1998.
Implementation of this guideline is through the
Certificates  of Approval process.

In February 2006, Ontario amended the Airborne
Contaminant and Discharge Monitoring and
Reporting Regulation (O. Reg. 127/01) to effect
the harmonization of Ontario's and Environment
Canada's air emissions reporting systems,
which will reduce duplication of the reporting
requirements of Ontario's industry while
maintaining Ontario's commitment to protect
the environment and public health.

                                                    Beyond the Ozone Annex, Ontario is also taking actions
                                                    to reduce emissions from vehicles and fuels throughout
                                                    the province. For example, southern Ontario's major
                                                    public transit system, GO Transit, has moved to the
                                                    use of low-sulfur diesel fuels year-round in its bus
                                                    fleet. During the traditional smog season from May to
                                                    September, its rail fleet also uses low-sulfur diesel fuels.
                                                    In addition, Ontario is encouraging the use of vehicles
                                                    powered by alternative fuels through the institution of a
                                                    sales tax rebate program for such vehicles.
NOxandVOC Program Updates

• Implementation of the NOX transport emission
  reductions program, known as the NOX SIP
  (State Implementation Plan) Call, in the PEMA
  states that are subject to the rule.
• Implementation of existing U.S. vehicle, nonroad
  engine, and fuel quality rules to achieve both
  VOC and NOX reductions.
• Implementation of existing U.S. rules for control
  of emissions from stationary sources of hazardous
  air pollutants and control of VOCs from
  consumer and commercial products, architectural
  coatings, and automobile repair coatings.
• Implementation of 36 existing U.S. new source
  performance standards, to achieve VOC and
  NOX reductions from new sources.

NOX SIP Call (NOX Budget Trading Program): The
NOX SIP Call Rule, issued by EPA in 1998, requires
affected states to reduce ozone season NOX emissions
that cross state boundaries, forming ground-level ozone
and contributing to ozone nonattainment in downwind
states. The NOX SIP Call does not mandate which
sources must reduce emissions. Rather, it requires states
to meet emission budgets and gives them flexibility to
develop control strategies to meet those budgets.

Under the NOX SIP Call, EPA developed the NOX
Budget Trading Program (NBP) to allow states to meet
most or all of their emission budgets in a highly  cost-
effective manner through participation in a regionwide
cap and trade program for electric generating units and
large industrial boilers and turbines. All 19 affected
                                                states and the District of Columbia with 2003 or 2004
                                                implementation deadlines chose to participate in the
                                                NBP. Fourteen of these states and the District of
                                                Columbia are located in the PEMA.

                                                Figure 9 shows the states affected by the NOX
                                                SIP Call along with implementation deadlines.
                                                Further information on the NOX SIP Call, including
                                                compliance data, can be found at www.epa.gov/
                                                airmarkets/fednox/index.html. Compliance and
                                                emissions data for all NOX budget sources can be
                                                found at http://cfpub.epa.gov/gdm.

                                                Emission Reductions: In 2005, NBP sources
                                                continued to reduce ozone season NOX emissions,
                                                emitting about 530,000 tons of NOX—a 63,000 ton
                                                reduction from 2004. NOX reductions from 2004 to
                                                2005 occurred despite a significant increase in heat
                                                input across the region. NBP sources decreased
                                                NOX emissions nearly 11 percent from 2004, while
                                                increasing total heat input (fuel use) by 7 percent.
                                                Overall, these sources have achieved reductions
                                                of 72 percent from 1990 ozone season NOX levels.
                                                However, the significant decrease in ozone season
                                                NOX emissions of 57 percent from 2000 to 2005
                                                reflects additional reductions associated with NBP
                                                implementation (see Figure 10).

                                                Compliance: Sources achieved over 99 percent
                                                compliance with the NBP in 2005. This success
                                                was achieved through a combination of new control
                                                equipment, banked allowances, and allowance
                                                trading. Only three NBP sources out of 2,570 electric
                                                generating and industrial units did not hold sufficient
                                                allowances to cover their ozone season NOT emissions.

             Figure 9
             NOX SIP Call Program Implementation
             Note: The affected portions of Missouri and Georgia are required to comply with the NOX SIP Call as of May 1, 2007. However, EPA has
             "stayed" the NOX SIP Call requirements for Georgia while it responds to a petition to reconsider Georgia's inclusion in the NOX SIP Call.
             Source: EPA

             Figure 10
             Ozone Season Emissions under the NOX Budget Trading Program
                                                           Ozone Season (May 1 - Sept 30)
Source: EPA
New Source Performance Standards: All of
the 36 categories of new source performance
standards (NSPS) identified in the Ozone Annex
for major new NOX and VOC sources are in effect.
In addition, EPA is currently in the process of
finalizing NSPS for Stationary Compression-
Ignition Internal Combustion Engines that will
help achieve significant reductions of NOX and
VOC emissions from these sources beginning in
2007. Furthermore, in June 2006, EPA proposed

two nationally applicable emission standards: 1)
an NSPS for NOX, CO, and VOC emissions from
new stationary spark ignited internal combustion
engines; and 2) a National Emission Standards for
Hazardous Air Pollutants rule that also addresses
VOC emissions from existing and new reciprocating
internal combustion engines. For more information on
the Spark Ignited Internal Combustion Engine rule,
see www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/nsps/sinsps/sinspspg.html,
and for information on the Reciprocating Internal
Combustion Engine rule, see www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/
rice/ricepg.html. In February 2006, EPA finalized
updates to the NSPS for utility and industrial
boilers and combustion turbines. The updated
standards for NOX, SO2, and direct filterable PM are
based on the performance of recently constructed
boilers and turbines. EPA is currently reviewing the
NSPS for petroleum refineries and for equipment
leaks at chemical plants and petroleum refineries.
The equipment leak standards will be completed in
October 2007. The petroleum refineries standard will
be completed in April 2008.

VOC Controls on Smaller Sources: In 1998, EPA
promulgated national rules for automobile repair
coatings, consumer products, and architectural
coatings. The compliance dates were January 1999,
December 1998, and September 1999, respectively.
From a 1990 baseline, the consumer products and
architectural coatings rules are each estimated to
achieve a 20 percent reduction in VOC emissions,
and the automobile repair coatings rule is estimated
to achieve a 3 3 percent reduction in VOC emissions.
In addition, EPA has scheduled for regulation 15
remaining categories of consumer and commercial
products under section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act.
These categories are to be regulated in three groups,
with deadlines of September 30 of 2006, 2007, and
2008. The current list of remaining categories, which
may change slightly, includes flexible packaging
printing materials; lithographic printing materials;
letterpress printing materials; industrial cleaning
solvents; flatwood paneling coatings; aerosol spray
paints; paper, film, and foil coatings; plastic parts
coatings; metal furniture coatings; large appliance
coatings; fiberglass boat manufacturing materials;
petroleum dry cleaning solvents; auto and light-duty
truck assembly coatings; miscellaneous metal products
coatings; and miscellaneous industrial adhesives.

Controls  on Hazardous Air Pollutants: EPA
has promulgated regulations to control hazardous
air pollutant emissions for all of the 40 categories
of industrial sources listed in the Ozone Annex that
will reduce VOC emissions. Most of the sources are
now required to be  in compliance. Most recently, EPA
has proposed new standards to control hazardous
air pollutants from fuel, passenger vehicles, and
gasoline cans to further reduce emissions of benzene
and other  mobile source air toxics.  By 2030, the
proposed Mobile Source Air Toxic  Regulations and
fuel and vehicle standards already in place will reduce
toxic emissions from passenger vehicles to 80 percent
below 1999 emissions. The proposed Mobile Source
Air Toxic Regulations would take effect in  2009 for
fuel containers, 2010 for passenger vehicles,  and 2011
for fuel requirements.

Motor Vehicle Control Program: To address motor
vehicle emissions, the United States committed to
implementing regulations for reformulated gasoline;
reducing air toxics from fuels and vehicles; and
implementing controls and prohibitions on diesel fuel
quality, light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, highway
heavy-duty gasoline engines, and highway heavy-duty
diesel engines. EPA has fully phased in requirements
for reformulated gasoline in nonattainment areas;
requirements for diesel fuel quality (including sulfur);
standards for highway heavy-duty engines; and vehicle
standards for light-duty cars and trucks, including on-
board refueling for control of evaporative emissions.

Nonroad  Engine  Standards: EPA has applied
engine standards in all five nonroad engine categories
identified in the Annex: aircraft, compression-ignition
engines, spark-ignition engines, locomotives, and
marine engines. Nonroad diesel fuel will have 99
percent less sulfur by 2010. In addition, EPA has
promulgated more  stringent (Phase 2) standards for
compression-ignition engines  and spark-ignition
engines. The Phase 2 standards are in effect for
compression-ignition engines, and  the Phase 2
standards for spark-ignition engines will be fully
phased in by 2007.

 Anticipated Additional  Control  Measures and  Indicative  Reductions
 This section describes additional control measures
 that each country currently implements or anticipates
 implementing beyond the specific obligations of
 the Ozone Annex. It also provides NOX and VOC
emission reduction estimates for the PEMA from
implementation of both the specific obligations and
the additional measures.
 National Reductions
 Air quality monitoring across Canada between 2001
 and 2003 showed that approximately half of Canadians
 were living in communities with three-year averages
 above the Canada-wide Standard air quality target for
 ozone of 65 parts per billion (ppb). British Columbia,
 Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Prince Edward Island,
 and Newfoundland and Labrador had no three-year
 averages above the target; the remaining provinces,
 however — Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick,
 and Nova Scotia — each had at least one monitoring
 station with three-year averages above the target.

 Air pollution represents a  serious threat to human
 health, the environment, and the competitiveness of
 Canada's economy. Canadians consistently identify
 air pollution as the most important environmental
 issue and a key health concern. To address the need
 for further reductions of the emissions of ozone and
 its precursor pollutants, Canada intends to develop a
 new Clean Air Act.

 Area-Specific Reductions
 To further reduce emissions of NOX and VOCs in the
 PEMA, Ontario and Quebec are each taking action on
 pollutant sources that are of concern in the provinces.
 In particular, Ontario has  completed its Industry
 Emission Regulation (O.Reg. 194/05), which focuses
 on the emissions from key industrial sectors, including
 iron and steel, cement, petroleum refining, pulp and
 paper, and nonferrous smelting. In Quebec, the
 provincial Draft Air Quality Regulation was announced
 in November 2005 for comment. This draft regulation
 is an overhaul of the Regulation Respecting the Quality
 of the Atmosphere, which entered into force in 1979.
 The draft regulation aims to reduce and control
contaminants with a view to further protecting the
quality of the atmosphere and, consequently, human
health and ecosystems. This legislation makes it
possible to achieve Quebec's objectives in the fight
against smog, acid precipitation, and toxic atmospheric
pollution. It also seeks to reduce and control
contaminants that may be the origin of local and
regional problems associated with bad air quality.

Quantitative Estimates
In the Ozone Annex, Parties provided NOX and
VOC emission reduction estimates for 2010
associated with applying the control measures
identified under Part III of the Annex. In every
biennial progress report, the Parties further agreed
to update these reduction forecasts to demonstrate
that the commitments are being implemented
and to ensure that the quantitative estimates
reflect any emission estimation methodology
improvements. The projected reduction of NOX
emissions that will be seen in the transboundary
region in Ontario and Quebec (the PEMA) in 2010
with the implementation of the commitments for
fossil fuel electric power generators and vehicles
and fuels regulations is 43 percent by 2010 from
1990 levels. For VOC emissions in the region, the
implementation of the regulations for dry cleaning,
degreasing, and fuels will achieve a reduction of
54 percent by 2010 from 1990 levels. The largest
source of NOX and VOCs in the region comes
from transportation, and the completion of the
new vehicle standards and fuel regulations, as
demonstrated by Figure  11,  will have a very
significant impact on the overall NOX and VOC
emissions in the ozone transboundary region.

Figure 11
Canadian NOX and VOC PEMA Emissions and Projections from Transportation Sources, 1990-2020
                                        -Total On-8 Off-road NOX
                                        -Total On-8 Off-road VOCs
                                        - On-road NOX
         - Off-road NOX
          On-road VOCs
          Off-road VOCs
Source: Environment Canada

Overall, however, there continue to be sources
of pollution in the PEMA that are increasing,
as demonstrated by the fact that NOX and VOC
emissions in the PEMA are expected to decrease from
1990 levels by 34 percent and 29 percent, respectively,
by 2010 (see Figure 12). In addition to increases that
are being forecast for such sources as residential fuel
wood combustion, air transportation, and certain
industrial sources such as cement  and concrete,
these updated forecasts reflect recalculations of the
emissions inventories and forecasts presented in the
2004 Progress Report. The recalculations incorporated
better information on vehicle kilometres traveled and
vehicle populations and better estimations for certain
industrial emissions.
Figure 12
Canadian NOX and VOC PEMA Emissions and
  .1   800,000
                                                        Note: 2010 reflects all emission categories including those
                                                        committed in the specific obligations in Part III of Annex 3 Specific
                                                        Objectives Concerning Ground-Level Ozone Precursors.
                                                        Source: Environment Canada

                  UNITED STATES
National Reductions
In December 1999, EPA finalized new Tier 2
tailpipe emissions and low-sulfur fuel standards
for light-duty vehicles. The emission standards will
be fully phased in for the passenger cars and other
small light-duty vehicles in 2007 and for the heaviest
light-duty vehicles in 2009. The Tier 2 low-sulfur
standards phase-in began in early 2004 and was fully
phased in on January 1, 2006. These standards now
apply equally to all passenger cars and light-duty
trucks, including sport utility vehicles, minivans, pick-
up trucks, and vans. When these standards are fully
implemented, they will require passenger vehicles
to be 77-95 percent cleaner than Tier 1 passenger
vehicles (in effect from 1994 to 2004) and reduce the
sulfur content of gasoline up to 90 percent. Further
information on these standards can be found at

In December 2000, EPA finalized a comprehensive
program that regulates the highway heavy-duty
engine and its fuel as a single system. As a result of
the Highway Diesel Rule, sulfur levels in diesel fuel
will be reduced by more than 97 percent, from  500
to 15 ppm. Refiners started producing the cleaner-
burning diesel fuel, ultra-low-sulfur diesel, for use
in highway vehicles beginning June 1, 2006. The
highway heavy-duty engine emission standards
will begin with the 2007 model year  and will be
fully phased in by 2010. The program will reduce
emissions of NOX and nonmethane hydrocarbons
by 2.6 million and 115,000 tons per year by 2030,
respectively (95 percent below Tier 1 levels). Further
information on this program can be found at

With stringent controls in place for highway sources,
nonroad engines powering farm and construction
equipment contribute a higher fraction of the
remaining inventory of pollutants. Since 1996, EPA
has published a number of rules applying standards to
engines in many nonroad categories.

The Tier 3  nonroad standards were published in
October 1998 and take effect between 2006 and
2008, depending upon engine size. EPA has also

                                                               published Tier 4 standards. These stringent standards
                                                               will achieve at least 90 percent reductions in NOX
                                                               and PM, starting in 2008, through use of advanced
                                                               exhaust aftertreatment technologies and ultra-low
                                                               sulfur levels (15 ppm) in nonroad diesel fuel. Further
                                                               information on these standards can be found at

                                                               EPA published regulations for recreational
                                                               vehicles in November 2002. The regulations cover
                                                               snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles, and off-highway
                                                               motorcycles. Phase-in of the emission reductions
                                                               began with the 2006  model year, and full emission
                                                               reductions will be achieved by the 2010 model year.
                                                               Further information  on these rules can be found at

                                                               Area-Specific Reductions
                                                               EPA is implementing NOX and VOC control measures
                                                               in specific areas as required by applicable provisions
                                                               of the Clean Air Act. The measures include NOX
                                                               and VOC reasonably available control technology
                                                               (RACT); marine vessel loading; treatment storage
                                                               and disposal facilities; municipal solid waste landfills;
                                                               onboard refueling; residential wood combustion;
                                                               vehicle inspection and maintenance; reformulated
                                                               gasoline; cement kilns; internal combustion engines;
                                                               large nonutility boilers and gas turbines; fossil fuel-
                                                               fired utility boilers; and additional measures needed
                                                               to attain the NAAQS.

Quantitative NOV and VOC Emission Reductions      Figure 13
In the Ozone Annex, the United States provided NOX
and VOC emission reduction estimates associated
with the application of the control strategies identified
under Part III and Part IV of the Annex. EPA has
updated these estimates using national data sets that
were completed in October 2002. The new estimates
show greater VOC and NOX reductions by 2010 than
originally projected.

The specific emission reduction obligations (see
Figure 13, 2010) are now estimated to reduce annual
NOX emissions in the PEMA by 51 percent from
1990 levels and to reduce annual VOC emissions in
the PEMA by 49 percent from 1990 levels by 2010.
U.S. NOX and VOC PEMA Emissions and
                                                                    NO,               VOCs
                                                                 2010 includes specific obligations in Part III and Part IV.
Reporting PEMA  Emissions
                                                   Source: EPA
Provide information on all anthropogenic NOX
and all anthropogenic and biogenic VOC emissions
within the PEMA from a year that is not more
than two years prior to the year of the biennial
progress report, including:

• Annual ozone season (May 1 to September 30)
  estimates for VOC and NOX emissions by the
  sectors outlined in Part V, Section A, of the
  Ozone Annex.
• NOX and VOC five-year emission trends for the
  sectors listed above as well as total emissions.

Canada and the United States have complied with
emission reporting requirements in the Ozone
Annex. In Canada, the National Pollutant Release
Inventory (NPRI) list of substances was expanded in
2002 to include precursors of ground-level ozone and
components of smog, such as NOX, VOCs, SOX, total
PM, PM10, PM2 5, and CO. Facilities are required
to report their annual emissions to Environment
Canada by June 1 of the following year. The reported
information by facility is now publicly available on the
Environment Canada website (www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/npri).
In 2003, the NPRI was further expanded to require
reporting of 60 additional VOC species to support
the requirements of both Canadian and U.S. air
quality models. Facilities that meet the reporting
requirements for these additional VOC species
have reported their 2003 and 2004 emissions to
Environment Canada.

The compilation of the comprehensive 2002 Criteria
Air Contaminants (CAC) emissions inventory has
been completed. This latest emissions inventory for
Canada coincides with the 2002 emissions inventory
that was issued in February 2006 in the United States
The 2002 emissions inventories will become the new
baselines for air quality modeling and the development
of emission reduction strategies in the two countries
for the coming years.

Comprehensive CAC emission inventories for the
years 2003  and 2004  are also being compiled in
Canada and should be available in 2006.

In the United States, the NEI has been developed
by EPA as a comprehensive national  emissions
inventory covering emissions in all U.S. states for

             point sources, nonpoint sources, on-road mobile
             sources, nonroad mobile sources, and natural sources.
             The NEI includes criteria pollutants and hazardous
             air pollutants. The 2002 NEI is the most recent
             year for which actual emissions data are available.
             The emissions data included in this 2006 Progress
             Report are projections to 2003 and 2004 of the 2002
             NEI emissions data (except for sources reporting
             emissions under the U.S. Acid Rain and NOX Budget
             Table 1
      Trading Programs, which provide actual measured
      data through 2005). The U.S. regulations require that
      states report emissions from all sources once every
      three years; the next comprehensive U.S. emissions
      inventory will be for 2005 and will be issued in 2008.

      Table 1 shows preliminary Canadian and U.S.
      emissions in the PEMA for 2004 for NOX and VOCs.
      Figures 14 and 15 show U.S. emission trends in
             PEMA Emissions, 2004
                                                                2004 Annual
                              2004 Ozone Season
                              NO,        VOCs
                  Emission Category
(1000   (1000   (1000   (1000   (1000   (1000   (1000   (1000
Tons)  Tonnes)  Tons)  Tonnes)  Tons)  Tonnes)  Tons)  Tonnes)

Industrial Sources
Non-Industrial Fuel Combustion
Electric Power Generation
On-Road Transportation
Nonroad Transportation
Solvent Utilization
Other Anthropogenic Sources
Forest Fires
TOTALS without Forest Fires and Biogenics


U.S. PEMA States: Annual and Ozone Season Emissions
Industrial Emissions
Non-Industrial Fuel Combustion
Electric Power Generation
On-Road Transportation
Nonroad Transportation
Solvent Utilization
Other Anthropogenic Sources
Forest Fires*
TOTALS without Forest Fires and Biogenics
                 *U.S. estimates for Forest Fires and Bioeenics emissions based on 2002 data.
             Source: EPA and Environment Canada

these areas for 1990-2004. The trend in the PEMA
states is similar to the U.S. national trend. For NOX,
most of the emission reductions come from on-road
mobile sources and electric utilities. Over this same
period, the reductions in VOC emissions are primarily
from on-road mobile sources and solvent utilization.
VOC emissions from non-industrial fuel combustion
increased after 1998 and then returned to a downward
trend by 2000, but saw a  significant spike upwards in
2001. The rise in non-industrial VOC emissions from
2001 to 2002 is due to residential wood combustion.
Figure 14
Figures 16 and 17 show Canadian NOX and VOC
PEMA emission trends for 1990-2004. For NOX,
most of the reductions come from on-road mobile and
industrial sources, with increases in the non-industrial
combustion and nonroad sectors. VOC emissions
reductions and increases were observed similarly,
though increases are only in the nonroad sector. NOX
emissions from electric power generation increased
after 1999. Over this same period, the reductions in
VOC emissions are primarily from on-road mobile and
non-industrial fuel combustion sources.
U.S. NOX Emission Trends in PEMA States, 1990-2004

f 3,000-
"^ 2 500-
| '
| 2,000-
a 1,500-
1 1 00(H

	 -^ 	 ' 	 > 	

	 • 	 * 	 *~^._ *— — . ^



b^^_* --« 	 1-

1990 1991 1992 1993 1

994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

*• On-road transportation 4 Industrial sources
• Electric power generation ^ Non-industrial fuel combustion
• Nonroad transportation * Other anthropogenic sources

•2,500 |
•2,000 1
•1,500 i.
•1,000 8

2001 2002 2003 2004
Note: The scales in Figures 14-15 and 16-17 are significantly different.
Source: EPA
Figure 15
U.S. VOC Emission Trends in PEMA States, 1990-2004

V 3 000-
missions (thousar
• _ • i

^ """"--.

1990 1991 1992 1993 1

>>1*'" 	 •=• 	

994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
in icaes a a no aval a
• Solvent utilization — * — Non-industrial fuel combustion
— A — On-road transportation —Q — Other anthropogenic sources
— • — Nonroad transportation 0 Industrial sources

' ' J
-• 	 » 	 . 	
•2,500 |
-2,000 |
-1,500 €.
1-1,000 S
2001 2002 2003 2004
Note: The scales in Figures 14-15 and 16-17 are significantly different.
Source: EPA

           Figure 16
           Canada NOxEmission Trends in the PEMA Region, 1990-2004

400 •

3 300 •
1 250-

•m 150 •


1990 1991 1992 1993

^---*- 	 '-

" * " *

. « 	 •— 	 • 	 » — • '

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
— ^ — On-road transportation — • — Electric power generation
—9 — Nonroad transportation * Non-industrial fuel combustion
+ Industrial sources 9 Other anthropogenic sources

	 — • 	 .__
. -^ 	 t

2002 2003 2004


•250 _
•200 —
•150 i
•100 a
•50 m

—9 — Nonroad transportation * Non-industrial fuel combustion
+ Industrial sources • Other anthropogenic sources

Mote: The scales in Figures 14-15 and 16-17 are significantly different.
Source: Environment Canada
Figure 17
° Canada VOC Emission Trends in the PEMA Region, 1990-2004

350 •
~i 300 •

i5 100 •

fc==^J^^-* 	 • 	 **_ ^^_ 	 • 	 •
*""""•*• 	 ' 	
» . 	 I • • I TV>>>>^11 	 • •
^ — 7^ .j-ir-t
* — , 	 , 	 	 — - ^

1990 1991 1992 1993
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
— • — Solvent utilization + Industrial sources
— A — On-road transportation • Other anthropogenic sources
» Nonroad transportation — * — Non-industrial fuel combustion

-300 _
-250 J
-200 1
-100 »

2002 2003 2004
            Note: The scales in Figures 14-15 and 16-17 are significantly different.
            Source: Environment Canada
            Reporting Air Quality for All Relevant Monitors within 500  km of the  Border
            between  Canada and  the United States
                      JOINT COMMITMENT
Both the United States and Canada have extensive
networks to monitor ground-level ozone and its
precursors. Both governments prepare routine reports
summarizing measurement levels and trends. The
latest complete, quality-assured data set is for 2004.
Ambient Levels of Ozone in the Border Region
Figure 18 illustrates ozone conditions in the border
region in the metrics of national standards. The
reference period is 2002-2004. Only data from sites
within 500 km (310 miles) of the Canada-U.S. border

that met data completeness requirements were used
to develop these maps.

Figure 18 shows that higher ozone levels occur in the
lower Great Lakes-Ohio Valley region and along the
U.S. east coast. Lowest values are generally found in
the west and in Atlantic Canada. Levels are generally
higher downwind of urban areas, as can be seen in
the western portions of lower Michigan, though the
full detail of urban variation is not shown. Locally
higher levels in the complex terrain of the Georgia
Basin-Puget Sound area are also not well resolved in
this map, though they are lower than in the east. For

Figure 18
ozone, the data completeness requirement was that
a site's annual fourth highest daily maximum 8-hour
concentration (parts per billion by volume) be based
on 75 percent or more of all possible daily values
during the EPA-designated ozone monitoring season
(May 1-September  30).

Ambient Concentrations  of Ozone,  NOX, and  VOCs
Annual ozone levels over time are presented in
Figure 19, based on information from longer-term
eastern sites within  500 km (310 miles) of the Canada-
U.S. border. Ozone levels have decreased over the period.
Ozone Concentrations along the Canada-U.S. Border (Three-Year Average of the Fourth Highest Daily
Maximum 8-Hour Average), 2002-2004
            The apparent decreasing trend in ozone levels from
            2002 is in part due to the cool, rainy summer of 2004
            in eastern North America. There is also a complex
            regional pattern in ozone level variations, which is
            not evident from the graph shown in Figure 19.

            Figure 19
            Annual Fourth Highest Maximum 8-Hour Ozone
            Concentration for Sites within 500 km of the
            Canada-U.S. Border, 1995-2004
                                                  Figure 20
                 1995  1996   1997  1998
                                       2000  2001  2002  2003  2004
Source: EPA and Environment Canada

Figures 20 and 21 depict the annual levels of ozone
precursors NOX and VOCs in the eastern United
States and Canada. These measurements represent
information from a more limited network
of monitoring sites than is available for ozone:
Figure 22 shows the network of monitoring sites
actually used to create the trend graphs in
Figures 19-21. More rigorous data completeness
criteria were used in site selection  for these graphs
than was the case for the 2004 Progress Report. As
a consequence, the graphs in the two reports cannot
be compared directly. Further, while the patterns of
change over time shown in the national graphs here
are considered comparable, the actual national values
shown cannot be directly compared, as the site groups
are considered to be too different.

The  data in  Figures 20 and 21 represent
measurements for the "ozone season" (i.e., May
through September). The data indicate a decline in
the ambient levels of both pollutant families. The
limited correspondence between composite ozone and
precursor trends could reflect the regional complexity
of the problem as well as network limitations.
                                                  Ozone Season 1 -Hour NOX Concentration for
                                                  Sites within 500 km of the Canada-U.S. Border,
                                                                   1995  1996  1997
                                                                                     1999  2000   2001  2002  2003  2004
                                                               Source: EPA and Environment Canada
                                                               Figure 21
                                                   Annual Average 24-Hour VOC Concentration for
                                                   Sites within 500 km of the Canada-U.S. Border,

c in .
i M
§ 20-


"a. gO •
•£ 60 •
840 .



^B,.,. _ 	 _

— •— United Sta es

7 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 20
^» 	 ^
^^-—^ 	 *\

0 Canada

7 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 20


                                                               Source: EPA and Environment Canada

Figure 22
Network of Monitoring Sites Used to Create Ambient Levels of Ozone, NOX, and VOC Graphs
                                                                                Site Data Used in Report


                                                                                • NO,


                                                                                • Ozone 8 NOX

                                                                                & Ozone 8 VOCs

                                                                                . NOX 8 VOCs

                                                                                i  Ozone, NO,, VOCs
Source: EPA and Environment Canada

The 2004 Progress Report showed NOX and VOC
emission trends through 2002. Since 2002, NOX
emission reductions due to EPA's NOX SIP Call
have accelerated in the eastern United States. EPA
has published an annual report since August 2004,
providing an evaluation of ozone control programs in
the eastern United States with a focus on the effects
of the NOX SIP Call and the NBP. The full reports
can be found atwww.epa.gov/airmarkets/cmprpt/
index.html. It is useful to include some of the findings
from the most recent report here because emission
reductions in the eastern United States also impact
areas in eastern Canada.

Effects of the NOX SIP Call can be seen in Figure 23.
While the NBP achieved an 11  percent overall
decrease in NOX emissions from 2004 to 2005,
Figure 23 shows that emission reductions varied at
a state-by-state level. These years were selected to
analyze changes coinciding with the period of NOX
reductions attributable to the Acid Rain Program
(1990), the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC)
NOX Budget Program (1999 through 2002), and
the implementation of the NOX SIP Call (starting
in 2003 in eight states and in 2004 in 11 additional
states). Given that 2005 was the first full ozone
season compliance period for states outside the OTC,
those states saw the most significant reductions from
2004. In addition, the increase in electricity demand
in 2005, together with a large bank of available
allowances, likely influenced individual source and
company compliance decisions.

            Figure 23
            Ozone Season NOX Emissions for 1990, 2000, 2004, and 2005, and 2005 Trading Budgets in the NOX
            Budget Trading Program Region
                                                                                             1990 Emissions
                                                                                             2000 Emissions
                                                                                             2004 Emissions
                                                                                             2005 Emissions
                                                                                             2005 State Trading Budget
             Note: The non-OTC states are shaded in gray; OTC states are shown in yellow.
             Source: EPA
Figure 24 shows the relationship between reductions
in power industry NOX emissions and reductions in
ozone after implementation of the NBP. Generally,
there is  a strong association between areas with
the greatest NOX emission reductions (such as the
Midwest) and downwind sites exhibiting the greatest
improvement in ozone levels. This suggests that
NOX transport has been reduced in the eastern
United States. While EPA does not attribute all
ozone reductions after 2002 to the NBP, it does
show that the NBP has played a major role in
reducing ozone concentrations.
Note that 8-hour ozone levels in Figure 24
were adjusted for meteorological impacts. Daily
temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed can
affect ozone levels. In general, warm dry weather
is more conducive to ozone formation than cool
wet weather. Because weather varies over space and
time, EPA uses a statistical model to account for
weather-related variability and makes meteorological
adjustments to normalize weather conditions across
the region. These adjustments provide a better
estimate of the underlying ozone trend and the
impact of emission changes.

Figure 24
Reductions in Ozone Season Power Industry NOX Emissions and 8-Hour Ozone, 2002 vs. 2005
           Ozone Season NOX Emissions 2002 us. 2005 (tons)
       Increase Less Than 1,000      • Decrease Between 50,000 and 75,000
       Decrease Less Than 25,000      Decrease Between 75,000 and 105,000
       Decrease Between 25,000 and 50,000
     Percent Change in Seasonal 8-Hour Ozone, 2002 to 2005 (Adjusted for Meteorology)
     0 Increase Between 15% and 22%     • Decrease Less Than 5%
     • Increase Between 5% and 15%      • Decrease Between 5% and 15%
     • Increase Less Than 5%         Q Decrease Between 15% and 23%
                   Margin of error is ±5%
Note: States affected by the NOX SIP Call are shaded light green in the Percent Change in Seasonal 8-Hour Ozone, 2002 to 2005 (Adjusted
for Meteorology) map.
Source: EPA
EPA expects that NOX and VOC emissions will
continue to decrease as a result of these control
programs. In addition, EPA's CAIR (www.epa.gov/cair/)
will help reduce ozone further in the eastern United
States. This landmark rule, issued March 10, 2005,
will permanently cap power industry emissions of SO2
and NOX in the eastern United States, achieving
significant reductions of these pollutants. The CAIR
will build on the ozone season emission reductions
from the NOX SIP Call and, by 2009, reduce NOX from
electric generating units by an  additional 216,000 tons
in the CAIR region, or 28 percent from 2005 levels.
 New Actions on Acid  Rain,  Ozone, and Particulate Matter
In eastern Canada, where acid rain continues
to damage sensitive ecosystems, three provinces,
Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario, developed tighter
regulations in 2005 for major acid rain-causing
emission sources. In 2005, new regulations to reduce
SO2 and NOX emissions were promulgated by Ontario
for seven industrial sectors and by Nova Scotia for
the electric power sector. Nova Scotia's Air Quality
Regulations require a 2 5 percent reduction in the
SO2 emission cap for the province's largest SO2
emitter (Nova Scotia Power Inc.) beginning in 2005,
a further 25 percent reduction in 2010, and a cap on
NOX emissions by 2009, reducing emissions by 20
percent from 2000 levels. Ontario's Regulation 194/05

 (Industry Emissions - Nitrogen Oxides and Sulfur
 Dioxide) will lead to incremental reductions of SO2
 and NOX emissions from facilities in seven industrial
 sectors. By 2015, this Regulation will result in a 46
 percent reduction of SO2 emissions from 1994 levels
 and a 21 percent reduction of NOX emissions from
 1990 levels from the regulated facilities. In Quebec,
 SO2 emissions are already below the province's ceiling.
 New Brunswick is fulfilling its commitment to SO2
 reductions under the Acid Rain Strategy for Post-
 2000, primarily through emission reductions that are
 under way in the electric power generating sector.

 In April 2006, Canada published the Final Notice
 requiring the preparation of pollution prevention
 plans by Canadian base metal smelters (see also Ozone
 Annex under Section 1). The Final Notice requires the
 development and implementation of a Smelter Emissions
 Reduction Program with facility annual release limit
 targets for 2008 and 2015 and notes the intention of
 the federal Environment Minister to develop base
 metal smelter regulations to be in effect by 2015.

 The Canada-wide Standards for PM and ozone
 commit jurisdictions (federal, provincial/territorial)
to the development of jurisdictional implementation
plans. In 2004, Ontario's Clean Air Action Plan:
Protecting Environmental and Human Health
was published, which outlines the province's
implementation plan in meeting the Canada-wide
Standards, including a mix of regulations, economic
incentives, and nonregulatory initiatives.

The federal government published its Interim Plan
on PM and Ozone in 2001, which outlined initial
strategies that the government will pursue to reduce
levels of PM and ozone and meet the targets under the
Canada-wide Standards process. A follow-up progress
report was published in 2003 that discussed actions
taken by the federal government to reduce PM and
ozone, such as improvements to monitoring networks
and reductions in emissions from vehicles and fuels.
The Canada-wide Standards include a Reporting on
Progress provision, which requires that all jurisdictions
report annually on the achievement and maintenance
of the standards beginning in 2011  and provide
a comprehensive report on progress towards all
provisions of the standards every five years, with the
first jurisdictional comprehensive reports due in 2006.
 Revised Ozone Standards and Implementation
 In 1997, EPA set 8-hour ozone standards to protect
 against longer exposure periods of concern for human
 health and the environment. The 8-hour ozone
 standards are set at a level of 0.08 ppm and are met
 when the three-year average of the annual fourth
 highest daily maximum 8-hour concentrations is
 less than 0.08 ppm. After a lengthy legal battle, EPA
 published rules for implementation of the 8-hour
 ozone standard in two phases—the first on
 April 30,  2004, and the second on November 29, 2005.
 On April 30, 2004, EPA designated 126 areas as
 nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone standard based on
 three recent years of air quality data. The designations
 became effective on June  15, 2004, for all but 14
 areas, which received deferrals of their designations
based on their entering into "Early Action Compacts"
in which they agreed to develop and implement
an early plan to attain the standard by the end of
2007. All but 17 of the 126 areas are located in the
eastern United States. The nonattainment areas are
required to develop and implement control plans to
reduce emissions of ozone-causing pollution. The
implementation rule—based on requirements of the
Clean Air Act—provides for attainment dates ranging
from 2007 to 2021, based on the severity of an area's
air quality problem. Phase 1 of the rule provided for
the classification system for nonattainment areas, the
timing of emission reductions needed for attainment,
the revocation of the 1-hour standard,  and anti-
backsliding provisions for areas with responsibilities
under the 1-hour standard. The Phase 2  rule provided
the remaining guidance and provisions for

implementation of the 8-hour standard, including
those related to the attainment demonstration and
modeling, reasonably available control technology,
reasonable further progress towards attainment,
new source review under the 8-hour standard,
and revisions to the reformulated gasoline rule.
Information on the 8-hour ozone designations and
implementation rulemakings can be found at www.epa.

Particulate Matter Standards and Implementation
To provide additional protection from the adverse
health effects of particles, in 1997, EPA issued
NAAQS for PM2 5. The annual standard was set at
15 micrograms per cubic meter (ug/m3) and is met
when the three-year average of the annual arithmetic
mean PM2 5 concentrations does not exceed 15 ug/m3.
The 24-hour standard is set at 65 ug/m3 and is met
when the three-year average of the 98th percentile
of 24-hour concentrations does not exceed 65 ug/m3.

The Clean Air Act requires EPA to review each air
quality standard and related new scientific studies
every five years. The current review of the PM
standard is under way and is scheduled for completion
in fall 2006. In January 2006, EPA proposed to
maintain the annual PM2 5 standard at 15 ug/m3 and
to establish a more protective 24-hour standard at
3 5 ug/m3 (both with the same three-year form as the
1997 standards). EPA also proposed to revise the
24-hour PM10 standard, in  part by establishing a new
24-hour standard for coarse PM using a new indicator
for thoracic coarse particles (particles between 10
and 2.5 micrometers in diameter,  or PM10_25). The
proposed 24-hour standard for PM10_2 5 is 70 ug/m3.
Additional information on the 1997 PM standards,
the recent scientific review, and the revisions to be
finalized in  2006 can be found atwww.epa.gov/air/

In April 2005, EPA designated 39 areas in the United
States as not attaining the 1997 fine particle standards.
Thirty-six of these areas are in the eastern United
States (including Chicago, Detroit, and Cleveland,
located on the Great Lakes), two are located in
California, and one area (Libby Montana) is located
in the northwestern United States. States have until
April 2008 to submit SIPs to EPA, which include
strategies and regulations for reducing emissions
of fine PM and its precursors. Attainment of the
standards is to be as expeditious as practicable, with
a presumptive attainment date (April 2010) within
five years of designation. However, EPA can grant
an attainment date extension of one to five years
if a state provides a demonstration showing  that
attainment within five years is not practicable  based
on the severity of the air quality problem or the
feasibility of emission controls.

A number of programs have been established to
reduce emissions of fine particles and precursor
pollutants from important sources such as on-road
and nonroad vehicle engines and  power plants. The
Clean Air Nonroad Diesel Rule, finalized in May
2004, and the CAIR, finalized in March 2005, are two
important federal regulations that will lead to future
reductions in particle pollution. Under the Clean Air
Nonroad Diesel  Rule, standards for new engines will
be phased in from 2008 to 2014, leading to significant
public health benefits as older nonroad engines are
replaced. The sulfur content in fuel will be reduced by
99 percent to 15  ppb by 2010.

             The Clean Air Interstate Rule

             On March 10, 2005, EPA issued the final CAIR,
             which will result in the deepest cuts in SO2 and
             NOX emissions in more than a decade in the United
             States. The rule focuses on states whose power
             plant emissions are significantly contributing to fine
             particle and ozone  pollution in other downwind states
             in the eastern United States. In an action signed
             on March 15, 2006, EPA included two additional
             states (New Jersey and Delaware) in the CAIR with
             respect to fine particle pollution. The CAIR requires
             28 states in the eastern half of the nation and the
             District of Columbia to reduce emissions of SO2
             and/or NOX. The CAIR establishes SO2 and NOX
             cap and trade programs for power plants that states
             can adopt to achieve the emission reductions in a
             highly cost-effective manner. On March 15, 2006,

             Figure 25
EPA also issued Federal Implementation Plans for
the CAIR as a backstop to ensure that the emission
reductions required by the CAIR will be achieved on
schedule. The EPA established SO2 and NOX trading
programs as the control strategy for the Federal
Implementation Plans. EPA will withdraw the federal
control requirements in a state once the state has an
EPA-approved state plan in place for the CAIR.

The CAIR cap and trade programs will reduce power
plant SO2 emissions by 4 million tons by 2010 and
by 5.1 million tons by 2015 and will reduce annual
NOX emissions by 1.4 million tons by 2009 and by
1.6 million tons by 2015 from 2005 levels for affected
sources in the CAIR region.

See Figure 25 for  emission reductions at full
implementation of the CAIR compared with
other recent major EPA rules.
             Clean Air Interstate Rule and Other Major Air Pollution Rules since 1990: Annual Emission
             Reductions at Full Implementation
                                     Nonroad Large
                                   Spark-Ignition Engines
                                  and Recreational Engines
                                     (Final Rule 9/02)
             Note: *These reductions are calculated from 2003 levels and do not reflect the full phase-in of the Acid Rain Program. Full implementation
             for mobile source rules is 2030. Full implementation for the CAIR is between 2020 and 2025.
             Source: EPA

                                              Quality   Effor
                the overall level of the emission reductions and
                consequent benefits.
             •   Second, faced with mandatory requirements to
                reduce emissions of SO2 and NOX, it is cheaper
                for the electricity sector to achieve the emission
                caps with trading as an option than without
                trading. The results mirror those seen in the
                United States, where the SO2 and NOX cap and
                trade programs have set emission reduction caps
                for electricity generators and provided sources
                with the opportunity to trade.

             Based on the analysis done during this study, a cross-
             border emissions cap and trade program  could be
             feasible, but certain critical program elements would
             be necessary:
             •   In Canada, enforceable SO2 and NOX emission
                caps for the electric power sector—and other
                sectors, as appropriate—that are comparable in
                stringency to emission reduction requirements
                in the United States.
                                                   •   A commitment by the United States and Canada,
                                                      including provinces, to pursue implementation of
                                                      cross-border SO2 and NOX cap and trade.
                                                   •   In both countries, legislative and/or regulatory
                                                      changes to give the allowances in each country
                                                      equivalency so that they could be traded freely
                                                      and used for compliance in either country.
                                                   •   Development in Canada of the regulations that
                                                      would provide the basis for cross-border trading
                                                      and in particular the emissions monitoring and
                                                      reporting requirements for electric generating
                                                      units, as well as development of the electronic
                                                      tracking systems for emissions and allowances.

                                                   The United States and Canada have agreed to
                                                   pursue additional modeling and analysis. The full
                                                   report can be found on the EPA website at
                                                   and also on Environment Canada's website at
                                                   Trading_Feasibility_Study-WS 105E2 511 -l_En.htm.
             Georgia Basin-Puget Sound International Airshed  Strategy
This initiative, led by Environment Canada (Pacific
and Yukon Region) and EPA (Region 10), addresses
regional transboundary air quality issues. Other
partners include Health Canada and representatives
of state, provincial, and regional governments, as well
as the Tribes and First Nations.

Work is proceeding in seven areas of cooperation:
marine emissions, clean fleets and fuels, agricultural
emissions, residential wood heating, notification of
major new sources, communications and outreach,
and transboundary science and data (emissions,
population exposure, and health impacts). This
work advances the goals of coordinating technical
assessments, maintaining good air quality in the
Georgia Basin-Puget Sound airshed, protecting
ecosystems and human health, meeting the
continuous improvement goals of the Canada-wide
Standards, and improving visibility. In November
2005, the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound International
Airshed Strategy partners met to review progress
on implementation of the strategy. At this meeting,
partners focused on linking actions in these seven
areas to the long-range Georgia Basin-Puget
Sound International Airshed Strategy goals and
identification of the projects with the best potential
for environmental and human health benefits.
Major efforts in 2005 and 2006 targeted on-road
emission reductions by encouraging installation
of technology to reduce diesel exhaust. This work
was initiated in Puget Sound, communicated to
partner agencies through the Georgia Basin-Puget
Sound International Airshed Strategy process, and
subsequently implemented in the Georgia Basin.

Additional details, including  a more complete
description of the transboundary cooperation results,
are located at www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/caol/

Great Lakes Basin Airshed Management Framework
The goal of the Great Lakes Basin Airshed Management
Framework pilot project was to explore the feasibility
of a coordinated air quality management approach in
the Southeast Michigan-Southwest Ontario region.
The project focused on the ground-level ozone and
fine particle (PM2 5) pollution problems that impact
the cities of Detroit, Windsor, London, Sarnia, and
Chatham, as well as the surrounding areas.

To date, representatives from federal, provincial,
state, and local governments have come together
to share information on current initiatives and
priorities related  to PM and ozone and to establish
a structure of work groups for jointly investigating
specific aspects of the two countries' current air
quality management systems. In particular, the work
groups focused on airshed characterization (emission
inventory, modeling, monitoring), policy needs,
human health studies, voluntary/early actions, and

A report summarizing findings of work undertaken
over the past two  years, along with recommendations
for coordinated airshed management in this border
region, was completed in October 2005. All three
levels of government in Canada and the United States
and the International Joint Commission (IJC) worked
cooperatively on the joint investigations that were
undertaken and presented within this report. The
report can be found on Environment Canada's website
at www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/caol/canus/great_
lakes/index_e.cfm and also on EPA's website at www.

The report contains a general recommendation that a
coordinated approach is desirable and feasible in the
border region and that there may be applicability to
other areas within the Great Lakes basin. The partners
also recognized value in continuing their cooperation
and dialogue. To that end, they will continue to work
together over the next year in implementing some of
the recommendations contained within the  report.

In March  2006, EPA and Environment Canada
representatives met in Vancouver, British Columbia,
to discuss commonalities between the Border Air
Quality Strategy projects in the Great Lakes and
Pacific Northwest and the development of an air
quality management template that could be applied
to other cross-border areas.

             Through its Acid Rain and Air Quality Steering
             Committee, the activities of the NEG/ECP continue
             to provide an important regional coordinating
             mechanism for addressing air quality and acid rain
             issues, including transboundary air pollution. Recent
             efforts are focused on the following:
             •   Completion of the forest critical load mapping
                project to include all jurisdictions of the
             •   Continued support of the web-based
                near-real-time ozone and PM2 5 mapping.
             •   An assessment of outdoor wood-fired boiler
As well, individual jurisdictions within the
organization are involved in a wide range of
initiatives, the results of which are shared within the
organization. These initiatives cover issues such as
air toxics, residential wood combustion, mercury, and
diesel emission cleanup programs.

An NEG/ECP  environmental website is under
development to provide easy access to reports and
products for public education and outreach purposes.
This site is now online but still under development at

                                ection  3:

                                           and  Technical
                                           and  Research
Emission  Inventories
and  Trends
The United States and Canada have updated and
improved their emission inventories and projections to
reflect the latest information available. These emission
inventories were also processed for U.S. and Canadian
air quality models to support the technical assessment
of air quality problems. In the United States, the most
recent emission inventory data are for the year 2002.
The 2003 and 2004 emissions data in this report were
developed by interpolating between 2002 emissions and
2010 projections developed to promulgate the CAIR.

Both countries were active participants in the NARSTO
(formerly North American Research Strategy for
Tropospheric Ozone) emission inventory assessment,
which was completed in the summer of 2005. The
final report is titled Improving Emission Inventories for
Effective Air Quality Management across North America.
This report includes recommendations for the long-
term improvement of the emission inventory programs
in both Canada and the United States as well as in
Mexico, the third participant in NARSTO.
Emissions data for
both countries for
2004 are presented in
Figures 26, 27, 28, and
29. Figure 26 shows
the distribution of
emissions by source
category grouping for
SO2, NOX, and VOCs. The following observations can
be made from Figure 26:
•  SO2 emissions in the United States stem primarily
   from coal-fired combustion in the electric power
   sector. Canadian SO2 emissions come mostly from
   smelters in the industrial sector, with fewer
   emissions from the electric power sector, due
   to the large hydroelectric capacity in Canada.
   The distribution of NOX emissions in the two
   countries is similar, with nonroad and on-road
   vehicles accounting for the greatest portion of
   NO,, emissions in both countries.

                     VOC emissions are the most diverse of the
                     emission profiles in each country. The most
                     significant difference is that most VOCs come
                                    from the industrial sector in Canada. This is the
                                    result of the proportionately higher contribution
                                    of oil  and  gas production in Canada.
                Figure 26
                U.S. and Canadian National Emissions by Sector for Selected Pollutants, 2004
                         U.S. Emissions-2004
                           Sulfur Dioxide
                       Total: 14.7 million tons/year
                        13.3 million tonnes/year
- Nonroad 3%
- Solvents <1%
- Other <1%
                                                                   Non-Industrial 4%
                                Units 70%
                         U.S. Emissions-2004
                          Nitrogen Oxides
                       Total: 19.1 million tons/year
                        17.3 million tonnes/year
                                                                 Non-Industrial 4%
                               On-road 39%
                         U.S. Emissions-2004
                      Volatile Organic Compounds
                       Total: 16.0 million tons/year
                        14.6 million tonnes/year
                                 Total: 2.6 million tonnes/year
                                    2.9 million tons/year
                                                                                                Jther 20%^
                                  Canadian Emissions-2004
                                      Sulfur Dioxide
                                 Total: 2.3 million tonnes/year
                                    2.5 million tons/year
                                                                                    Non-Industrial 2%
                                                                                                                           Industrial 69%
                                  Canadian Emissions-2004
                                      Nitrogen Oxides
                                  Total: 2.5 million tonnes/year
                                    2.8 million tons/year
Solvents <1%
Other <1%
                                                                                              On-road 22%
                                                                                                                             Non-Industrial 3%
                                                                                                                         Electric Generating
                                                                                                                         Units 10%
                Source: EPA and Environment Canada

The emission trends, shown in Figures 27, 28, and
29 for SO2, NOX, and VOCs, respectively, show the
relative contribution in emissions over the 1990-2004
period. In the United States, the major reductions in
SO2 emissions came from electric power generation
sources. For NOX, the reductions came from on-road
mobile sources and electric power generation sources.
For VOCs, the reductions were from on-road mobile
sources and solvent utilization. For all three pollutants
during this time period, the United States generated
substantially more emissions than Canada. At the same
time, while both countries have seen major reductions
in SO2 emissions, the United States has shown greater
emission reductions than Canada for VOCs and NOT.
Figure 27
SO2 Emissions in the United States and Canada, 1990-2004
    15 - -
                                                                               • Canada  • United States
                                                                                                 - 15  _
      1990    1991     1992    1993    1994    1995    1996    1997    1998     1999    2000     2001    2002    2003    2004
Source: EPA and Environment Canada
Figure 28

          Figure 29
          VOC Emissions in the United States and Canada, 1990-2004
               1990   1991    1992   1993    1994   1995    1996   1997
                                                                1999    2000   2001    2002   2003
          Source: EPA and Environment Canada
          Air  Quality  Reporting
          and  Mapping
                    JOINT EFFORTS
          Each country is responsible for ensuring instrument
          calibration and comparability of measurements
          of ozone and PM. Since 2001, the jurisdictions in
          the United States and Canada have collaborated
          on contributing to the EPA-led AIRNow program
          (www.epa.gov/airnow). Since 2004, the website
          has been expanded to provide information on PM
          and ozone measurements  on a continental scale
          year-round (see Figures 30 and 31). Canadian
          efforts continue to improve mapping by combining
          measurements with numerical forecasts from the
          operational air quality forecasting model. In each
country, air quality
forecasting services
are being improved.
Canada and the
United States are
collaborating in
the continuing
development of
national air quality forecast models. Jurisdictions
consult in preparing routine forecasts for border
regions and in developing communications materials
for the public.

Figure 30
AIRNow Map Illustrating Real-Time
Concentrations of Ground-Level Ozone
(1-Hour Average Peak Concentration)
                                   Figure 31
                                   AIRNow Map Illustrating Real-Time PM2 5
                                   Concentrations (3-Hour Average)
   United States
   Monday, July 11,2006
^B 0-60 ppb
   61-79 ppb
   80-99 ppb
   100-110 ppb
  • 111-124 ppb
H 125+ ppb
 S Data not available
                                                       Eastern Canada- Eastern U.S.
                                                       Friday, February 10, 2006 12:21 PM EST
I >91 pg/rn3
I 46-90 pg/m3
 36-45 pg/rn3
 21-35 pg/m3
I 0-20 pg/m3
! Data not available
                                                    Source: EPA
Source: EPA
Environment Canada is continuing to expand and
refurbish federal and provincial/territorial networks
of monitoring stations across the country. Canada
maintains two national ambient air quality monitoring
networks, the National Air Pollution Surveillance
(NAPS) network and CAPMoN. The NAPS network
is a joint federal, provincial, territorial, and municipal
network established in  1969. It is primarily an urban
network, with over 260 air monitoring stations located
in over 170 communities. The augmented CAPMoN
is a rural network with  30 air monitoring stations in
Canada and one in the United States.

The NAPS network gathers measurements on the
components of smog (i.e., ozone, PM, SO2, CO, NOX,
VOCs). Between 2002 and 2005, Environment Canada
invested significantly in new equipment for the NAPS
network, including 58 new and replacement ozone
monitors, 36 new and replacement NOX monitors, 11
new VOC samplers, 76 continuous PM2 5 monitors
(tapered element oscillating microbalances (TEOMs)
and beta attenuation monitors (BAMs)), and eight new
                                   PM filter-based samplers. In addition, Environment
                                   Canada started a chemical speciation sampling program
                                   in December 2002 to characterize PM. Twelve sites
                                   are now operating across Canada. The agency also
                                   built two new laboratories to support this work and
                                   equipped them with an inductively coupled plasma-
                                   mass spectrometry instrument for metals analysis and
                                   an organic carbon/elemental carbon analyzer. Overall,
                                   since 2004, the network has expanded from 240 to 260
                                   air monitors and now covers over 170 communities.

                                   The ozone monitors at 18 CAPMoN sites continue to
                                   gather data in real time, in support of the Air Quality
                                   Prediction Program and for distribution to the U.S.
                                   AIRNow program. Integrated PM2 5 and PM10 mass
                                   measurements, PM2 5 speciation measurements, and
                                   VOC measurements are being made at five CAPMoN
                                   sites (within 500 km (310 miles) of the border). Reactive
                                   nitrogen compounds (including nitric oxide (NO),
                                   NO2, and NOy) are being continuously measured at
                                   three sites—the Centre for Atmospheric Research,
                                   Egbert, Ontario; Kejimkujik, Nova Scotia; and Saturna
                                   Island, British Columbia.

                  UNITED STATES
The majority of air quality monitoring performed
in the United States is carried out by state and local
agencies in five major categories of monitoring
stations—State and Local Air Monitoring Stations
(SLAMS), National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS),
Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations
(PAMS), PM2 5 Speciation Trends Network (STN),
and air toxics monitoring stations. In addition,
ambient air monitoring is performed by the federal
government (EPA, National Parks Service, and the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration),
Tribes, and industry. A detailed description of current
ambient air monitoring in the United States, as well as
future plans, can be found in the December 2005 draft
National Ambient Air Monitoring Strategy (www.epa.

The primary purpose of the SLAMS/NAMS network
is to determine compliance with the NAAQS for
ozone, PM2 5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and lead. Ozone
is monitored at approximately 1,200 locations in
the United States.  Ambient monitoring for PM2 5
is conducted at more than 1,100 SLAMS using the
filter-based Federal Reference Method and at over 260
continuous PM2 5 stations. Measurements of PM10, CO,
SO2, NO2, and lead are currently made at approximately
1,000, 400, 500, 400, and 200 sites, respectively.

Chemically speciated PM2 5 data are collected at 54
urban trends sites and over 160 supplemental speciation
sites as part of the  STN. Speciated PM data are also
collected at more than  50 rural sites and approximately
180 Class I areas as part of the IMPROVE Network
(http://vista.cira.colostate.edu/improve). In addition,
five urban sites are operating continuous chemical
speciation technologies for nitrates, sulfates, and
carbon. EPA and states will use the results from
these five sites to consider whether these continuous
measurement technologies will be used at additional
locations. A new network of PM10_2 5 monitoring is
planned for monitoring compliance with the recently
proposed PM10_2 5 NAAQS. This network is expected
to replace most of the existing PM10 network.

The PAMS network measures ozone and its precursors
in the most severe ozone nonattainment areas. These

data are used to aid in control strategy development,
emissions reduction tracking, and improvements to
ozone modeling and forecasting. These sites also
provide information on pollutant transport and local
meteorology. In 2005, over 100 PAMS sites were in
operation in five regions of the United States: the
Northeast, the Great Lakes area, Georgia (Atlanta
area), five areas in Texas, and seven areas in California.

Toxic air pollutants are monitored at over 200 sites,
including 23 National Air Toxics Trends Stations
(NATTS) sites. The NATTS network is intended
to provide long-term monitoring data for certain
priority air toxics, including organic chemicals
and metal toxics, across representative areas of
the country in order to establish overall trends
for these pollutants. The PAMS program also
contributes a significant number of data on certain
organic toxics. To complement NADP's Mercury
Deposition Network (MDN), EPA is supporting a
planned ambient speciated mercury network that will
provide information on status and trends in mercury
concentrations as well as dry deposition estimates.
The effort will utilize the NADP committee structure
as a platform for initiation and continued growth.

The NADP operates three monitoring networks
for the purpose of determining geographical and
temporal trends  in precipitation chemistry. The
largest and oldest of these is the NADP/NTN, which
was established in 1978 and now operates over 230
precipitation monitoring sites across the nation. The
network is a cooperative effort between the State
Agricultural Experiment Stations, U.S. Geological
Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and
numerous other governmental and private entities.
The precipitation at each station is collected and then
sent to the NADP Central Analytical Laboratory,
where it is analyzed for hydrogen (acidity as pH),
sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and base cations
(i.e., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium).
Comprehensive quality assurance programs ensure
that the data remain accurate, precise, and comparable
from year to year.

The NADP has also expanded its sampling to two
additional networks. The NADP/MDN, currently

with over 90 sites, was formed in 1995 to determine
trends of mercury in precipitation. Weekly samples of
precipitation are collected in specially treated sampling
vessels for shipment to the NADP Mercury Analytical
Laboratory. All samples are analyzed for total mercury,
and samples from participating locations are also
analyzed for methyl mercury. Another network,
NADP/AIRMoN, was formed for the purpose of
studying precipitation chemistry with greater temporal
resolution. Precipitation samples are collected daily
from a network of nine sites and analyzed for the same
constituents as the NADP/NTN samples.

EPA operates CASTNET, a long-term monitoring
program established in 1988 to assess the effectiveness
of SO2 and NOX emission reductions (www.epa.
gov/castnet). CASTNET's objectives are to detect
and quantify temporal and geographic trends in
regional air quality and deposition for the United
States. CASTNET currently comprises 88 regionally
representative sites that measure ground-level
ozone and weekly concentrations of total sulfur-
and nitrogen-containing PM and precursor gases
SO2 and nitric acid. In addition, each site measures
meteorological parameters for use in an inferential
model to estimate dry deposition rates at the sites.
The CASTNET program is currently evaluating an
automated semicontinuous monitoring instrument that
measures both gaseous (SO2, nitric acid, ammonia)
and aerosol components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate,
chloride, and other base cations).

One key aspect of the draft National Ambient Air
Monitoring Strategy is the proposed introduction of a
new multipollutant monitoring network referred to as
NCore. Monitors at NCore  multipollutant sites will
measure particles (PM2 5, speciated PM2 5, PM10.2 5),
ozone, SO2, CO, NOX (NO/NO2/NOy), and basic
meteorology. It is anticipated that ammonia and nitric
acid measurements will  also be made at these sites in the
future. Sites will be located in broadly representative
urban (about 55 sites) and rural (about 20 sites)
locations throughout the country. In many cases, states
will likely collocate NCore sites with PAMS or NATTS
sites to further promote multipollutant measurements.
The objective of this network is to gather additional
information needed to support emissions and air quality
model development, air quality program accountability,
and future health studies. In January 2006, EPA
proposed revisions to the ambient air monitoring
regulations to reflect NCore, which are expected to
be finalized in late 2006. Information on the notice of
proposed rulemaking for these revisions can be viewed
at www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/40cfr53 .html.

Update  to  the Transboundary
Particulate  Matter  Science
In addition to the work carried out under the Transboundary PM Science
Assessment (published in 2004), additional model scenarios have been carried out
through the Canadian Meteorological Centre in Dorval, Quebec. For example, the
CHRONOS model was applied for the summer of 2003 to determine the extent of
the influence that Canadian emissions have on ambient PM in the United States.
Using the 0.2 ug/m3 limit as a guide (it is used under the U.S. CAIR) to determine
if one jurisdiction contributes significantly to another's nonattainment of the
average annual PM2 5 standard, the work demonstrates the influence of Canadian
emissions on U.S. PM2 5 levels. The influence of Canadian emissions on the United States extends significantly into
the entire east coast of the United States as well as the Midwest and to a lesser extent the west coast (Figure 32).

 Figure 32
 Composite Map of the Influence of Canadian Emissions (U.S. Emissions Zeroed Out) on PM2 5 Levels
 in the United States during the Summer of 2003
 Source: Environment Canada
 Health  Effects
 Health Canada has launched two research programs to characterize air
 pollution exposure and human health issues under the Canadian portion of
 the Border Air Quality Strategy, coordinated with research in the United
 States. Work has also continued on development of air health indicators,
 both for real-time reporting (Air Quality Health Index (AQHI)) and for
 development of a method for tracking health improvements due to changing
 air quality in the border  area.
 Research in the Great Lakes Basin Airshed
            Health-related research activities in the Great Lakes
            basin airshed include the following:
            •   Windsor Children's Respiratory Health
FQN           Study: This three-phase study targets a sensitive
               population in an area with relatively high air
               pollution. The first phase (December 2004) was
               a baseline questionnaire survey of approximately
               20,000 Windsor elementary school students.
                                                    The second phase (June 2005) involved cross-
                                                    sectional tests of children's lung function and
                                                    inflammation, and the third (December 2005)
                                                    involved month-long daily lung function tests
                                                    of 200 asthmatic children for correlation with
                                                    outside air pollution. Data analyses are under way.
                                                    Windsor Exposure Assessment Study:
                                                    This project has two components.  The first

    is a spatial air pollution assessment study
    (2004-2007), which determines community
    levels of air pollutants such as PM, NO2, SO2,
    ozone, nitrate, elemental carbon/organic carbon,
    VOCs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and
    acid vapor. The data from this study are used
    in support of the health research being carried
    out in the area. Methods for analysis include
    the geographic information system (GIS),
    which maps the area of influence for different
    pollutants. The second component of the project
    is to monitor personal exposure to air pollution,
    which matches the protocol of the EPA's Detroit
    Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS)
    in methodology. Healthy and non-smoking adults
    (2005) and school children (2006-2007) have
    been recruited to monitor air pollution levels
    in their indoor and outdoor environments and
    their personal exposure levels. The last test is
    scheduled for summer 2007.
    Long-term Exposure to Air Pollutants  and
    Mortality and Morbidity Rates including
    Cancer: Mortality and morbidity rates for
    Windsor, Sarnia, and London since the late 1970s
have been compared with Ontario provincial
rates; the association with air pollution is now
under investigation using GIS techniques.
Cardiovascular Effects of Air Pollution on
Diabetic Patients: The Windsor Diabetic Patients
Panel study involves following diabetic patients for
seven weeks to monitor their personal exposure to
PM10 and their cardiovascular health markers. The
results suggest that an acute exposure to particulate
air pollution may be linked to an impaired
cardiovascular function in diabetic patients.
Seniors' Health Study: The Windsor Seniors'
Health Study is investigating day-to-day indoor and
outdoor  exposure to varying levels of air pollutants
and the influence on their cardiovascular function.
Pregnant Women and Birth Outcomes Study:
This is a feasibility study of pollution exposure
and health and birth outcomes for 10 pregnant
women in the area of Ottawa, Ontario.
In Vitro Toxicology Study: The cytotoxicity
of components of PM to human epithelial cells
is studied, using particle samples from specific
Windsor locations.

Research  in the Georgia Basin-Puget  Sound International Airshed
The research is being carried out by the University
of British Columbia, the University of Victoria,
and the University of Washington. The  research is
coordinated through a partnership between Health
Canada and the British Columbia Centre for Disease
Control and includes the following studies:
•   Establishment of a Childhood Disease
    Cohort: A birth cohort of 120,000 children
    born in the Georgia Basin airshed was established
    to evaluate the relationship between air pollution
    exposure and respiratory disorders. Preliminary
    analyses have shown an association  between air
    pollution and bronchiolitis.
•   Birth Outcomes in the GVRD: British Columbia
    Perinatal Database Registry and the British
    Columbia Linked Health Database are being used
    to relate maternal air pollution exposure during
    pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes.
Personal Exposures and Activity Patterns
of Pregnant Women and Infants: Data have
been collected on personal exposure, activity
information, and exposure to traffic for 20
pregnant women (with a target of 40) as a
function of stage of pregnancy and season.
Cardiovascular Cohort Study: The British
Columbia Linked Health Database is being
used to enumerate a cohort of adults over the
age of 45 in the  Georgia Basin, to investigate
the relationship between air pollution and
cardiovascular disease among age groups
independent of predisposing condition and
among high-risk populations.
Walkability Study: This GIS study will integrate
land use and transportation network information
to link walkability and emissions exposure, for
ultimate application to Vancouver and Seattle.

•   Data Inventory and Consolidation: A
    data inventory website has been developed
    (www.geog.uvic.ca/AIR) linking existing
    GIS information to facilitate estimation of
    individual exposure to air pollution. Data gaps
    and opportunities for improvement of data
    utilities have been identified.
•   Regional Infiltration Modeling: Building
    characteristics from property assessment data
    are being used to develop a model of indoor
    versus ambient PM2 5 levels for exposure
    assessment, validated by a monitoring
•   Modeling PM2.5 with MODIS: Satellite
    aerosol measures will be used to study temporal
    and spatial levels of PM2 5.

Canadian Air Quality Health Index

In 2006, a comprehensive proposal for a new AQHI
will be presented for approval of a multistakeholder
steering committee.  The AQHI is intended to
replace existing indices for public reporting in use
across Canada, all of which are based on a design
from 1976, which does not reflect the current
understanding of short-term health effects of air
pollution. The index  employs a linear, no-threshold

Canadian Air Health Indicator

A health indicator was proposed in May 2005, which
may be used as a measure of progress in air quality
management over time. The Air Health Indicator
(AHI) is defined as the percentage of the number of
daily deaths attributable to exposure to the pollutant
of interest.  The AHI is proportional to the level of

U.S. Report on Health  Effects of Ozone

The health and welfare effects of ozone are
documented and critically assessed in the EPA Ozone
Criteria Document and EPA Ozone Staff Paper.
At the end of February 2006, the final draft  of the
revised Ozone Criteria Document was released to the
public. The final Ozone Criteria Document can be

                                                                Modeling Population Exposure: A
                                                                probabilistic model of personal exposures will
                                                                be developed using GIS and randomly selected
                                                                time-activity patterns, to assess errors in cohort

                                                                Enhanced Assessment of Exposure to Traffic
                                                                and Wood Smoke: Related technologies
                                                                including GIS and monitoring campaigns were
                                                                used to develop modeled and validated exposure
                                                                estimates to the urban neighborhood scale for
                                                                health studies and air quality management.

                                                                Particulate Matter Exposure and Infant
                                                                Health in Puget Sound: This study involves
                                                                monitoring of a birth cohort for traffic and
                                                                woodsmoke pollution using individualized
                                                                geospatial exposure estimates to relate birth
                                                                outcomes and air pollution.
                                                             concentration-response relationship of short-term
                                                             health risks from multiple pollutants, expressed in a
                                                             0-10+ scale. Work to develop the AQHI started in
                                                             2001 in a multistakeholder context and has involved
                                                             surveys and focus groups in 2004 and 2005 to develop
                                                             communications messaging and more recent pilot
                                                             testing of the proposed new index.
                                                             risk, estimated using an appropriate statistical model,
                                                             and the level of the pollutant of interest. The AHI
                                                             may be used to evaluate spatial and temporal trends
                                                             of air pollution and the related health risk in Canada
                                                             since 1981. More analyses are being conducted to
                                                             refine the methodology.
found at http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.

The purpose of this revised document, titled Air
Quality Criteria for Ozone and Other Photochemical
Oxidants, is to critically evaluate and assess the latest

scientific information published since the last review
of the ozone NAAQS, completed in 1996. This
new 2006 review focuses on useful new information
that has emerged in the last decade and is pertinent
in evaluating health and environmental effects
data associated with ambient air ozone exposures.
A separate EPA Ozone Staff Paper, prepared by
EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
will draw upon key findings/conclusions from this
document, together with other analyses, to develop
and present options for consideration by the EPA
Administrator regarding review and possible revision
of the ozone NAAQS.

There has been new research that suggests additional
health effects beyond  those that had been known when
the 8-hour ozone standard was set in 1997.  Since 1997,
more than 1,700 new health and welfare studies relating
to ozone have been published in peer-reviewed journals.
Many of these studies have investigated the impact of
ozone exposure on such health effects as changes in
lung structure and biochemistry, inflammation of the
lungs, exacerbation and causation of asthma, respiratory
illness-related school  absence, hospital and emergency
room visits for asthma and other respiratory disorders,
and premature mortality.

Ozone can irritate the upper and lower respiratory
system,  causing cough, throat irritation, and/or
discomfort (e.g., pain) in the chest. Ozone can reduce
lung function, cause  wheezing, and make  it more
difficult to breathe deeply. During exercise, breathing
may become more rapid and shallower than normal,
thereby limiting a person's normal activity. Ozone
can also aggravate asthma, leading to more asthma
attacks that require a doctor's attention and/or the
use of additional medication. In addition, ozone can
inflame and damage the lining of the lungs, which may
lead to permanent changes in lung tissue, irreversible
reductions in lung function, and  a lower quality of
life if the inflammation occurs repeatedly over a long
period. People who are particularly vulnerable to
ozone exposures include children, the elderly, and
adults who are active outdoors (e.g., outdoor workers).

Aggravation of existing asthma resulting from
short-term ambient ozone exposure was reported
prior to setting the 1997 ozone standard and has
been observed in studies published subsequently. In
addition, a relationship between long-term ambient
ozone concentrations and the incidence of new-onset
asthma in adult males (but not females) was reported.
Subsequently, an additional study suggested that
incidence of new diagnoses of asthma in children is
associated with heavy exercise in southern California
communities with high ozone concentrations. This
relationship was documented in children who played
three or more sports and thus spent more time
outdoors. It was not documented in those children
who played one or two sports. Previous studies have
shown relationships between ozone and hospital
admissions in the general population. A study in
Toronto reported a significant relationship between
1-hour maximum ozone concentrations and
respiratory hospital admissions in children under the
age of two. Given the relative vulnerability of children
in this age category, there is particular concern about
these findings. Increased rates of illness-related school
absenteeism have been associated with  1-hour daily
maximum and 8-hour average ozone concentrations
in studies conducted in Nevada. These studies suggest
that higher ambient ozone levels may result in
increased  school absenteeism.

The air pollutant most clearly  associated with
premature mortality is PM, with dozens of studies
reporting such an association. However, repeated
ozone exposure is a possible contributing factor
for  premature mortality, causing an inflammatory
response in the lungs that may predispose elderly
and other sensitive individuals to become more
susceptible to other stressors, such as PM. The
findings of other recent analyses provide evidence that
ozone exposure is associated with increased mortality.
Most recently, new analyses of the 95 cities in the
National Morbidity, Mortality,  and Air Pollution
Study (NMMAPS) data sets showed associations
between daily mortality and the previous week's ozone
concentrations, which were robust to adjustment
for  PM, weather, seasonally, and long-term trends.
Although earlier analyses undertaken as part of the
NMMAPS did not report an effect of ozone on
total mortality across the full year, the NMMAPS
investigators in those earlier studies did observe an


            effect after limiting the analysis to summer, when
            ozone levels are highest. Another recent study from
            23 cities throughout Europe also found an association
            between ambient ozone and daily mortality.
                                                   Numerous recent epidemiological studies have
                                                   reported associations between acute ozone exposure
                                                   and mortality, as summarized in the Ozone Criteria
            Review of U.S. Ozone and  Particulate  Matter Air Quality Standards
EPA is currently reviewing the NAAQS for ozone;
more information, including supporting documents,
can be found atwww.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/

EPA reviewed the  NAAQS for PM. PM is the generic
term for a broad class of chemically and physically
diverse substances that exist as discrete  particles
(liquid droplets or solids) over a wide range of sizes.
Particles may be emitted directly or formed in the
atmosphere by transformation  of gaseous emissions
such as SOX, NOX, and VOCs. Exposure to PM has
been associated with premature morbidity as well as
indices of morbidity, including respiratory hospital
admissions and emergency department visits, school
absences, work loss days, restricted activity days,
effects on lung function and symptoms, morphological
changes, and altered host defense mechanisms.

The nation's air quality standards for PM were first
established in 1971 and were significantly revised
in 1987, when EPA changed the indicator of the
standards to regulate inhalable  particles smaller than
or equal to  10 microns in diameter (PM10). In 1997,
EPA revised the PM standards, setting separate
standards for fine particles, defined as PM less than
or equal to  2.5 microns (PM2 5).

Recent epidemiological studies have continued to
report associations between short-term exposures to
fine particles and effects such as premature  mortality,

U.S.  Health Research

Health research in the United States has focused
primarily on PM  in  recent years. EPA has a well-
established health  research program, consistent with
the recommendations of the National Research
Council's Committee on Research Priorities for
Airborne Paniculate Matter. The air health research

                                                               hospital admissions or emergency department visits
                                                               for respiratory disease, and effects on lung function
                                                               and symptoms. In addition, recent epidemiological
                                                               studies have provided some new evidence linking
                                                               short-term fine particle exposures to effects on the
                                                               cardiovascular system, including cardiovascular
                                                               hospital admissions and more subtle indicators of
                                                               cardiovascular health. Long-term exposure to PM2 5
                                                               and sulfates has also been associated with mortality
                                                               from cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer and
                                                               effects on the respiratory system, such as decreased
                                                               lung function or the development of chronic
                                                               respiratory disease.

                                                               Epidemiological studies have also continued to
                                                               support a relationship between short-term exposure
                                                               to thoracic coarse particles and respiratory morbidity,
                                                               with effects ranging from increased respiratory
                                                               symptoms to hospitalization for respiratory diseases.
                                                               New data also suggest associations with effects on the
                                                               cardiovascular system and possibly with mortality.

                                                               There are several groups that may be susceptible
                                                               or vulnerable to PM-related effects. These include
                                                               individuals with preexisting heart and lung disease,
                                                               older adults, and children.

                                                               The final revisions to the NAAQS for PM strengthen
                                                               the short-term fine particle standard and retain
                                                               the 24-hour PM10 standard for coarse particles.
                                                               Information on the standards can be found at
program is directed towards two main objectives:
reducing uncertainties in setting standards for
protection of human and ecological health, and
linking health effects to specific source types and
PM attributes through an integrated multipollutant

Characterizing the hazardous component of PM is
critically important to reducing uncertainties in setting
future air quality standards and implementing those
standards. Studies of the health effects associated with
ambient and surrogate PM provide insights into the
relative toxicity and mechanisms that relate to specific
sources. Multi-city epidemiological and toxicological
studies coordinated with the National Ambient Air
Monitoring Strategy frame a systematic approach
that integrates laboratory and field data to assess the
health impacts of mixed components  and sources.
Research focuses on identifying susceptible groups with
cardiovascular disease and diabetes and related animal
models to address specific  risk attributes (e.g., gene-
environment, debilitation).  EPA research efforts include
a new cohort study to evaluate the long-term effects
of ambient fine particles, currently responsible for the
largest measurable benefits of PM regulation. Research
to characterize mobile source roadway exposures and
risks and reduce uncertainties associated with complex
atmospheres (e.g., PM hazardous components, source
attribution, co-pollutants, etc.) is under way.

There are several research studies taking place in the
Detroit-Windsor area, coordinated with Canadian
research efforts. They include DEARS, children's
health studies focusing on characterizing the effects of
environmental pollutants on asthma, and toxicological
particle studies to characterize PM effects. These
efforts are aimed at linking health effects to specific
source types and PM attributes.
Acid  Deposition  Effects
Aquatic Effects Research  and Monitoring
An assessment of the most recent information available
on acid deposition effects on aquatic chemistry
and biota in Canada was recently completed and
summarized in the 2004 Canadian Acid Deposition Science
Assessment} The assessment reveals a decreasing trend
in lake sulfate levels in southeastern Canada in response
to reductions in SO2 emissions; however, many of these
lakes are still acidified, and many do not meet a pH
condition of >6, a key threshold for the sustenance
offish and other aquatic biota. Some of the factors
believed  to be mitigating changes in surface water
quality include the widespread decline in base cations
from watershed soils, the release of stored sulfur from
soils (i.e., drought induced), and the impairment of
within-lake alkalinity generating processes.

Overall improvements in the capacity of many
lakes to support aquatic biota are being observed.
For instance, a general increase in the number of
breeding fish-eating waterbirds was observed in lakes
in Ontario, Quebec,
and Newfoundland,
particularly those
in close proximity
to reduced emission
sources. At the
same time, algae,
invertebrates, and
waterbird food
chains in many lakes
in this region continue to show acidification impacts
(i.e., direct effects of acidification, metal toxicity, loss
of prey species, and reduced nutritional value of
remaining prey), particularly in lakes and rivers where
fish communities have been impacted. Atlantic salmon
populations in rivers of the Southern Upland region
of Nova Scotia  continue to be severely impacted
and will likely become extinct if adult survival rates
remain at current low levels and pH recovery continues
to be delayed.


  Jeffries, D.S., McNicol, O.K., and Weeber, R.C. (2005) Chapter 6: Effects on aquatic chemistry and biology. In: 2004 Canadian Acid
  Deposition Science Assessment [CD-ROM]. Available from Environment Canada.

Biological recovery is very complex; therefore,
complete community recovery will lag behind
chemical improvements, possibly by several decades.
It is also likely that lakes will recover to a state that is

Terrestrial Effects  Research

The effects of acid deposition on soils and forests
were also assessed and summarized in the 2004
Canadian Acid Deposition Assessment:" The net loss
of base cations from forested catchments in eastern
Canada has slowed down in response to declines in
sulfate deposition, yet widespread net losses are still
occurring. Weathering inputs of base  cations are
not sufficient to balance leaching losses, particularly
for calcium. Also, there is mounting evidence
regarding the relationship between the  size of base
cation reservoirs in forested watersheds and the
acidification of surface waters as well as the lack
of recovery of pH levels. Also, the negative effects
of decreased fertility on tree vitality are becoming
increasingly supported by recent studies. The threat
to the productivity of eastern Canadian forests that
are located in poorly buffered soils is of concern.
Quantifying the relationship between acid  deposition,
base cation depletion, and forest health is difficult
due to a number of confounding factors related to site
conditions. Further research is needed to elucidate
this relationship.

Critical  Loads and Exceedances

The critical load of acid deposition is defined as the
maximum deposition that an ecosystem can assimilate
without significant long-term harmful effects.
Deposition of both nitrogen and sulfur compounds
can contribute to  a critical load exceedance, which
has been used in Canada as the primary indicator
of potential long-term environmental damage. For
the first time in North America, new and combined
critical load estimates have been generated for
                                                                more dilute (lower ion concentrations and therefore
                                                                more sensitive) than their preacidification state, and
                                                                biological communities will be permanently altered.4
                                                                The assessment also reveals that eastern Canadian
                                                                watersheds are exhibiting releases of sulfur
                                                                from soils in excess of deposition. Two internal
                                                                catchment sources, sulfate desorption and release via
                                                                decomposition of organic matter, are considered the
                                                                likely causes for the budget imbalance. The release of
                                                                this extra sulfur acts as an additional acid load for soils
                                                                and downstream waters and may be partly mitigating
                                                                the recovery of surface waters in eastern Canadian
                                                                forested watersheds.

                                                                Nitrogen, on the other hand, is an essential nutrient
                                                                for tree growth that is often limiting in eastern
                                                                Canadian ecosystems; thus, nitrogen saturation does
                                                                not appear to be a problem in most eastern Canadian
                                                                watersheds. Some signs of nitrogen saturation have
                                                                been observed in watersheds in Ontario, which
                                                                highlights the importance of continuing to monitor
                                                                changes in nitrogen concentrations. In eastern
                                                                Canadian watersheds, sulfate continues to be the
                                                                primary acidifying agent.
                                                                sulfur and nitrogen acid deposition for both sampled
                                                                surface waters and upland forest soils using steady-
                                                                state models (Figure 33). Since sulfur and nitrogen
                                                                have different atomic weights, the combined critical
                                                                load cannot be expressed in mass units (kilograms per
                                                                hectare per year, or kg/ha/yr); instead, it is expressed
                                                                in terms of ionic charge balance as "equivalents per
                                                                hectare per year" (eq/ha/yr). Twenty kilograms of
                                                                sulfate per hectare per year is the same as 416 eq/ha/yr.
              Weeber, R.C., Jeffries, D.S., and McNicol, O.K. (2005) Chapter 7: Recovery of aquatic ecosystems. In: 2004 Canadian Acid Deposition
              Science Assessment [CD-ROM]. Available from Environment Canada.
              Houle, D. (2005) Chapter 5: Effects on forests and soils. In: 2004 Canadian Acid Deposition Science Assessment [CD-ROM]. Available
              from Environment Canada.

Figure 33
Critical Loads of Acid Deposition for Canada
                                                        Terrestrial or Aquatic Critical Loads
                                                         (SMB, Expert or SSWC models)
Note: Critical (maximum) loads of combined total sulfur and nitrogen acidity for Canada in equivalents/hectare/year calculated using a model
appropriate to the receptor. The value for each grid cell  represents the lowest of either the 5th percentile lake value or the 5th percentile soil
polygon value. The index map (lower left) indicates which model was used for the grid cell value (red = Expert, yellow = Steady State Water
Chemistry (SSWC), green = Simple Mass Balance (SMB)).
Source: Jeffries, D.S. and Ouimet, R. (2005) Chapter 8: Critical loads: Are they being exceeded? In: 2004 Canadian Acid Deposition Science
Assessment [CD-ROM]. Available from Environment Canada.
Exceedance calculations confirm that 21-75
percent of the mapped area in eastern Canada,
corresponding to approximately 0.5-1.8 million
square kilometers, continues to receive levels of acid
deposition in excess of critical loads according to
best- and worst-case assumptions of nitrogen-based
acidification, respectively. The optimistic end of
the range (Figure 34) estimates the current (minor)
level of nitrogen-based acidification, whereas the
pessimistic end of the range (Figure 35) offers a
long-term view by assuming steady-state conditions
in which  all sulfur and nitrogen deposition is
acidifying; in other words, nitrogen uptake no
longer  occurs due to  ecosystem saturation.

 Figure 34
 Current Critical Load Exceedances for Canada
                                                             N-Leacnmg Exceedances
                                                             for Forest Soils or Lakes
                                                           (SMB, Expert or SSWC models)
                                                               -600 to  -300
                                                               -300 to  -100
                                                               -100 to   0
                                                                 0 to  100
                                                                100 to  300
                                                                300 to
 Note: Exceedance of critical loads of acidic deposition (eq/ha/yr of sulfur and nitrogen combined) based on current levels of nitrogen-based
 acidification. A negative exceedance indicates that the estimate of current deposition is less than the grid cell critical load. A positive
 critical load is indicative of ongoing environmental damage. Details as in Figure 33.
 Source: Environment Canada
 The Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM)
 modeling results6 show that a further 75 percent
 reduction in SO2 emissions is required to meet sulfur
 critical loads for aquatic ecosystems, as published in
 the 1997 Acid Rain Assessment. Similar results are
 not yet available in terms of reductions needed to
 achieve new critical load values (Figure 3 3); however,
 given that new critical load estimates are lower than
 1997 estimates in many areas and higher in a few
 areas, a reduction of 50-75 percent could be required
 to meet the newer critical loads.

 Since the development of the above maps, new
 critical load and  exceedance estimates have become
 available for forests in the provinces of Manitoba and
 Saskatchewan, funded by the CCME Acid Rain Task
 Group. Similar calculations for the Georgia Basin
 (British Columbia) and Alberta are in progress.
 6 Moran, M.D. (2005) Chapter 4: Current and proposed emission controls: How will acid deposition be affected? In: 2004 Canadian Acid
   Deposition Science Assessment [CD-ROM]. Available from Environment Canada.

Figure 35
Long-term View of Critical Load Exceedances for Canada
                                                         Steady-State Exceedances
                                                         for Forest Soils or Lakes
                                                        (SMB, Expert or SSWC models
Note: Exceedance of critical loads of acidic deposition (eq/ha/yr of sulfur and nitrogen combined) calculated using estimated current
deposition and grid cell critical loads recomputed using the steady-state assumption of nitrogen saturation. In most areas, the environmental
capacity to absorb nitrogen is not yet exhausted. A positive exceedance indicates that current deposition either is causing environmental
harm or will do so eventually if it continues at the same level. Details as in Figure 33.
Source: Environment Canada
Recovery of Acidified Lakes and Streams
Acid rain is only one of many large-scale
anthropogenic effects that are affecting lakes and
streams in the United States. Climate variability,
forest maturation, biological disturbances (e.g., pest
outbreaks), and land use change can have an impact on
ecosystems that are also affected by acid deposition.
Nonetheless, scientists have demonstrated measurable
improvements in some lakes and streams resulting
from the Acid Rain Program. Scientists studied lakes
and streams in four regions—New England, the
Adirondack Mountains, the northern Appalachians
(including the Catskill Mountains), and the southern
Appalachians (including the Blue Ridge)—and found
signs of recovery in many, but not all, of those areas
(see Figure  36). These signs of recovery include
reductions in sulfate and aluminum concentrations
(see Table 2) and decreases in acidity. For example,
48 out of 49 monitored Adirondack lakes showed
reductions in sulfate concentrations that correlate with
reductions in atmospheric concentrations of sulfur.
These reductions in sulfate, as well as reductions in
nitrate concentrations that do not appear to be due
to changes in atmospheric deposition, have resulted
in increased pH and acid neutralizing capacity (ANC,
an indicator of aquatic ecosystem recovery) as well as
reductions in the amount of toxic inorganic aluminum
in Adirondack lakes.

Increasing ANC was evident in two of the regions
studied (Adirondacks and northern Appalachians).
One-quarter to one-third of lakes and streams in these
regions previously affected by acid rain are no longer
acidic at base flow conditions, although they are still
highly sensitive to future changes in deposition.

             Figure 36
             Regional Trends in Lake and Stream Acidification, 1990-2004
                                                                         Adirondack Lakes (n=49)
                                                                         New England Lakes (n=21)
                                       So. Appalachian Streams (n=65)
                                       No. Appalachian Streams (n=9)
             Note: Bars show the magnitude of the regional trend for each variable in each region.

             Table 2
             Results of Regional Trend Analyses on Lakes and Streams, 1990-2004

I Concentrations (ueq/L per Year)

Sulfete Nitrate ANC C^tio'n Hydrogen Organic Acids Aluminum

New England Lakes (n=21)
Adirondack Lakes (n=49)
Northern Appalachian Streams (n=9)
Southern Appalachian Streams (n=65)
insufficient data
insufficient data
insufficient data
insufficient data
*Except for aluminum (ug/L per year).

             Note: Values show the slope of the regional trend (the median value for the trends in all of the sites in the region). Regional trends that are
             statistically significant are shown in bold.
Improvements in Surface Water
Long-term monitoring networks provide information
on the chemistry of lakes and streams, which allow
us to look at how water bodies are responding to
changes in emissions. The data presented here show
regional trends in acidification from 1990 to 2004
in areas of the eastern United States. For each lake

or stream in the network, measurements of various
indicators of recovery from acidification were taken.
These measurements were plotted against time,
and trends for the given lake or stream during the
15-year period were then calculated as the change in
each of the measurements per year (e.g., change in
concentration of sulfate per year). Using the trends
calculated for each water body, median regional

changes were determined for each of the measures of
recovery. A negative value of the "slope of the regional
trend" means that the measure has been declining
in the region, whereas a positive value means it has
been increasing. The greater  the value of the trend,
the greater the yearly change in the measurement.
Movement towards recovery  is indicated by positive
trends in ANC and negative trends in sulfate, nitrate,
hydrogen ion, and aluminum. Negative trends in base
cations and positive trends in organic acids can balance
out the decreasing trends in  sulfate and nitrate and
prevent ANC from increasing.

A summary of the findings of this analysis follows:
•   Sulfate concentrations are declining substantially
    in all but one of the regions. Lakes and streams
    in the southern Appalachians show increasing
    concentrations of sulfate. This area is unusual,
    because its soils can store large amounts of the
    sulfate that is delivered by deposition. After
    large amounts of sulfate  have accumulated in
    the soils, stream water sulfate concentrations
    begin to increase. The southern Appalachians
    is the only region where atmospheric deposition
    chemistry and the chemistry of lakes and
    streams are "decoupled."
•   Nitrate concentrations are decreasing significantly
    in all of the regions, although the magnitude of
    these changes is small, especially in New England.
    It should be noted, however, that this does not
    appear to reflect changes  in emissions or deposition
    in these areas and is likely a result of ecosystem
    adjustments that are not yet fully understood.
•   As a result of declining sulfate (and to  some
    extent nitrate), the acidity of lake and stream
    water is  decreasing in three of the four regions.
    In the Adirondacks and northern Appalachians,
    ANC is increasing. In New England, ANC
    appears  to be increasing  only slightly and is not
    significant, but hydrogen ion concentrations are
    declining. Declining hydrogen ion concentrations
    represent an increase in pH, which is increasing
    significantly in the Adirondacks.
•   Base cations are important, because they buffer
    the impact of sulfur and nitrogen deposition.
    Base cation concentrations in lakes and
    streams are expected to decrease when rates of
    atmospheric deposition decline; if they decrease
    too much, however, they limit recovery in pH
    and ANC. The high rates of base cation decline
    in the northern Appalachians may be of concern
    but do not currently seem to be preventing
    recovery. However, this indicator will bear
    watching in the future.
•   Organic acids are natural forms of acidity. Lakes
    and streams vary widely in how much natural
    acidity they have, and increases in organic acids
    over time, like declining base cations, can limit
    the amount of recovery we observe. Organic acid
    concentrations are currently increasing in many
    parts of the world,  but the cause is still being
    debated. Of the regions monitored by EPA, only
    the Adirondacks is showing  significant increases
    in organic acids, and their increase may be
    responsible for 10-15 percent less recovery (in
    ANC) than expected.
•   Most of the regions do not have sufficient
    aluminum data to estimate trends. Aluminum
    is a critical element, because it increases when
    lakes and streams acidify and is very toxic to
    fish and other wildlife. The  one region where
    good aluminum data exist, the Adirondacks, is
    showing strong declines in the most toxic form
    of aluminum (inorganic monomeric aluminum).
•   As mentioned above, the southern Appalachians
    is unusual, in both its physiography and its
    response to changing atmospheric deposition.
    Because sulfate is increasing strongly in this
    region, many of the other chemical variables (e.g.,
    ANC and pH) show trends typical  of acidifying
    conditions, rather than recovery.

Long-Term Environmental Monitoring at EPA
EPA's Temporally Integrated Monitoring of
Ecosystems (TIME) and Long-Term Monitoring
(LTM) programs are designed to detect trends in the
chemistry of regional populations of lakes or streams
and to determine whether emission reductions have
had the intended effect of reducing acidification.
TIME/LTM monitor a total of 145 lakes and 147


            streams, representing all of the major acid-sensitive
            regions of the northern and eastern United States
            (New England, Adirondack Mountains, northern
            Appalachian Plateau (including the Catskill
            Mountains), and the Ridge/Blue Ridge Provinces
            of Virginia). TIME/LTM measure a variety of
            important chemical characteristics, including
            ANC, pH, sulfate, nitrate, major  cations (e.g.,
            calcium and magnesium), and aluminum. While the
            representativeness of the TIME/LTM network is
            somewhat limited, the TIME program is the most
            coherent individual regional data set for this kind
            of analysis. In addition, the U.S. Geological Survey
            has been measuring surface water  quality at several
            research watersheds throughout the United States,
            where sample collection during hydrologic events
            and ancillary data on other watershed characteristics
            have  been used to assess the watershed processes
            controlling acidification of surface waters.

            As described elsewhere in this report, implementation
            of the Acid  Rain Program has successfully and
            substantially reduced emissions of SO2 and NOX
            from power generation sources in the United States.
            As described in the National Acid Precipitation
            Assessment Program (NAPAP) 2005 Report
to Congress (www.al.noaa.gov/AQRS/reports/
napapreport05.pdf), however, recent modeling and
many published articles indicate that SO2 and NOX
emission reductions achieved under Title IV are now
recognized as insufficient to achieve full recovery
or to prevent further acidification in some regions.
The studies described above support that conclusion,
showing that environmental improvements have
been slow in many sensitive areas and that  signs
of recovery still are not evident in some areas.
The NAPAP Report to Congress concluded that
additional SO2 and NOX emission reductions from
power plants and other sources are necessary to
decrease deposition and further reduce the number
of acidic lakes  and  streams in many regions of the
United States.  Additional emission reductions will
be achieved through implementation of existing and
future regulations to address transport of ozone  and
fine particles and mercury deposition, including the
NOX SIP Call in the eastern United States; Tier 2,
Tier 3, and diesel rules affecting mobile sources;
SIPs to achieve the  ozone and fine particle NAAQS;
and the  recent Clean Air rules to reduce interstate
transport of fine particles and ozone, mercury, and
regional haze from power plants.

Canada and the United States work to fulfill the
obligations set forth in the Air Quality Agreement.
Both countries' efforts to reduce acid rain and control
ground-level ozone through the Agreement have been
significant. However, both countries recognize that
additional efforts are necessary to address ongoing human
health and environmental problems, particularly in highly
sensitive areas and within the Canada-United  States
transboundary region.
The Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement has been in place for 15 years and has
proven to be a flexible and dynamic mechanism for bilateral environmental
cooperation in reducing transboundary air pollution. The initial focus of the
Agreement was on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides,
the major contributors to acid rain. Both Canada and the U.S. have surpassed
the emission reduction requirements in the Agreement. The Ozone Annex was
added to the Air Quality Agreement in 2000 to address the transboundary flows
of ground-level ozone and precursor pollutants, NOX and VOCs. Both countries
are on track to meet their emission reduction  obligations in the Ozone Annex
as outlined in the 2006 Progress Report.

A hallmark of the Agreement's organization is its two subcommittees, one to
manage program monitoring and reporting and the other to oversee scientific
and technical cooperation and research. Projects and efforts undertaken by
these groups foster greater integration of methods and shared ideas between
the two countries. Relationships spawned by the opportunities of technical
staff to interact have produced more complete emission inventories, new air
quality models, research reports, and regular discussions and collaboration.
The importance  of these relationships in the  effectiveness of the Air Quality
Agreement cannot be overstated.
The Air Quality Agreement will continue to serve as the primary mechanism
to pursue further efforts to improve transboundary air quality, such as the
consideration of a Paniculate Matter Annex, including the geographic scope of
such an annex; examination of cross-border emissions cap and trade; and joint
modeling and analyses to support many of these areas.

           Canada-U.S.  Air Quality
           Agreement  Review:
The purpose of the Air Quality Agreement (AQA or
Agreement) Article X, "Review and Assessment of
the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement,"
is to ensure that the Parties periodically review
and assess the Agreement to determine whether
it is accomplishing its intended goals and whether
it remains a practical and effective instrument to
address shared concerns regarding transboundary
air pollution. It requires the Parties to "conduct
a comprehensive review and assessment of [the]
Agreement, and its implementation, during the fifth
year after its entry into force and every five years

The first AQA Assessment, conducted in 1996,
addressed the question of whether the AQA was a
good mechanism for fulfilling transboundary air
obligations and outlined strengths and weaknesses
of the Agreement in an article-by-article review.
The first review also provided a summary of public
comments from two 1995 meetings sponsored by the
IJC for the purpose of soliciting public input on the
biennial progress reports.
The second AQA
Assessment, in
2002, occurred
subsequent to
the negotiated
contained in the
Ozone Annex.
These amendments
had already
addressed key issues
in the Agreement
of interest to the Parties. Therefore, the second AQA
Assessment attended to the issues raised in the first
review and outlined where progress had been made,
while indicating where challenges continued to exist.

This third AQA Assessment responds to several
deferred issues from previous reviews, in addition to
highlighting progress on several topics and outlining
future areas of potential focus. The review will also
summarize and address comments made by the
public and provided to the IJC in response to the
2004 Progress Report.

             Issues  Raised
1.  What is the purpose of the Agreement? Have
    the Parties been successful in fulfilling their
    obligations under the Agreement and attending
    to its mission?

The U.S.-Canada AQA was signed in 1991 to serve
as a dynamic mechanism for binational environmental
cooperation to address transboundary air pollution.
The Air Quality Committee (Committee) is made
up of members of several federal agencies from both
countries as well as state and provincial representatives
and includes two subcommittees: the Subcommittee
on Program Monitoring and Reporting and the
Subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation. Acid Rain
and Scientific Cooperation annexes were part of the
original Agreement, as Annexes 1 and 2, created in
1991, and the Ozone Annex was added in 2000 as
Annex 3.

The Agreement continues to function as the primary
vehicle for transboundary cooperation on air issues,
and both Parties are committed to honoring the
obligations negotiated therein. The Agreement has
made substantial progress in reducing emissions and
deposition of acid rain and ozone  precursors in the
border region (see  Section 1: Commitments, Acid Rain
Annex and Ozone Annex of this 2006 Progress Report
for details) and maintains the flexibility to address
additional  concerns. As of 2005, the United States has
reduced total SO2  emissions by 11.3 million tons, or
44 percent, from 1980 levels, and  power plant SO2
emissions by 5.5 million tons, or 35 percent, since  1990.
Similarly, as of 2004, Canada has reduced SO2 emissions
by 2.3 million tonnes, or 50 percent, since 1980.

These significant reductions are a result of programs
in both countries to control emissions and mirror
the commitments  made by both Parties in the Acid
Rain Annex of the AQA. Canada continues to keep
national SO2 emissions below the  3.2 million tonne
cap, while power industry facilities in the United
States are  well on  their way to meeting the 8.95
million ton cap by 2010.

As new issues emerge and new assessments of specific
pollutants are made, the Agreement has provided an
effective mechanism
to tackle these air
pollution issues
With a firm
foundation based
on joint scientific
assessment of
ozone and PM, the
establishment of
the Ozone Annex
in 2000 and the ongoing discussions regarding a
potential PM annex are examples of the success of
the Agreement as a mechanism to effectively consider
and address transboundary air issues.

In addition to the commitments negotiated in the
Agreement, the Committee is dedicated to assisting
regional and issue-specific organizations working to
reduce transport of air pollution in the United States
and Canada. The Committee supports several projects
along the border by providing resources and expertise
and by organizing information-sharing opportunities,
such as the recent "Symposium on Ecosystem
Response and Recovery" held at the Ecological
Society of America's annual conference in Montreal.

While the Agreement has achieved success on
many fronts, continued collaboration between the
two Parties will achieve further progress in health
and ecosystem protection, regional and geographic
concerns, data and monitoring issues, public
involvement, visibility protection, and innovation.
2.  Are current sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides,
    and ozone objectives sufficient for the
    protection of human health and for recovery
    of ecosystems?

The first AQA Assessment in 1996 questioned the
ability of objectives in the Agreement to adequately
protect human health and ecosystems, with a specific
focus on the effects of ozone. The Committee
responded by conducting a joint scientific assessment
of transboundary ozone and consequently negotiated
and finalized an Ozone Annex in 2000.

Even with the creation of the Ozone Annex
and the substantial emission reductions in both
countries, concern was expressed again in the
second assessment in 2002, and in public comments
in response to the 2004 Progress Report, that the
Agreement did not go far enough to reduce SO2
and NOX emissions to protect human health and
to ensure ecosystem recovery.

Recent analyses show that much progress has
been achieved, but that work remains to be done
to reduce the harmful effects of SO2, NOX, and
ozone. The 2004 Canadian Acid Deposition Science
Assessment synthesizes Canada's acid deposition
science and provides a comprehensive examination
of atmospheric and ecosystem responses to the
reductions in SO2 emissions.  This report concludes
that while much has been accomplished to reduce the
impact on human health and the environment,  the
problem of acid deposition is not yet fully resolved.

Regarding ecosystem protection in the United States,
the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
(NAPAP) 2005 Report to Congress: An Integrated
Assessment described recent modeling and numerous
published articles that show that SO2 and  NOX
emission reductions achieved under Title IV are
insufficient to achieve full recovery or to prevent
further acidification in some regions. The NAPAP
report concluded that additional SO2 and  NOX
emission reductions from power plants and other
source sectors are necessary to decrease  deposition
and further reduce the number of acidic lakes and
streams in many regions of the United States.

In 2000, the federal and provincial/territorial
governments endorsed the Canada-wide Standards
for PM and ozone in recognition of the  significant
adverse effects on health and the environment
associated with these pollutants. The Canada-wide
Standards were recognized as a first step towards  the
long-term goal of minimizing the impacts of these
pollutants on human health and the environment.
The Canada-wide Standards establish  numeric
targets for ambient levels of fine particles (PM2 5) and
ozone that jurisdictions have committed to achieve by
2010. PM2 5 and ozone are pollutants for which there
are no lower ambient levels that are entirely without
health effects. This means that any reduction in the
ambient levels of these pollutants provides
an associated reduction in population health risk.

Among the provisions in the Canada-wide Standards,
the federal and provincial/territorial governments are
to participate in a review of the standards in 2005 and
2010 and to revise the standards, if appropriate, for
years beyond 2015. The first review of the Canada-
wide Standards was completed by 2005 and concluded
that no revision to the standards was required.

In recognition of the need for further protection
of human health, EPA revised the NAAQS for PM
in September, 2006, to strengthen the short-term
fine particle standard. Recent epidemiological
studies have continued to report associations between
short-term exposures to fine particles and effects
such as premature mortality, hospital admissions or
emergency department visits for respiratory disease,
effects on lung function and symptoms, and effects on
the cardiovascular system.

Moreover, both Canada and the United States have
promulgated new regulations to further reduce SO2,
NOX, and ozone. These include tighter regulations
for major acid rain-causing emission sources in
several eastern provinces (Nova Scotia, Quebec, and
Ontario) in Canada and the new emission reductions
associated with the CAIR, the Clean Air Mercury
Rule (CAMR), and the Clean Air Visibility Rule
(CAVR) in the United States.

Potential areas of work for the Committee include
examining the use of critical loads in the United
States, particularly for assessment purposes, as
mentioned in the 1996 assessment, as well as revised
ecological goals (particularly to assess the role of
NOX emissions in transboundary pollution issues),
as requested in the 2002 assessment. Finally, several
commenters in 2004 noted that there is a discrepancy
between the emission reduction accomplishments
made by both countries and the actual experience
of their citizens, as the number of ozone days
increases in major cities and asthma rates climb.
The Committee continues to find opportunities to
further reduce emissions to address these health and
ecological problems as well as to study the correlation
between reduction and effects and communicate that
more clearly to the public.

 3.   Will the Agreement expand its purview to
     include commitments to reduce particulate
     matter and mercury emissions?

 Both the 1996 and 2002 reviews, as well as numerous
 commenters on the 2004 Progress Report, have
 called for additional efforts to address transboundary
 contributions of PM and air toxics, notably mercury.

 Under the Agreement, both Parties have begun to
 consider developing the role of the AQAin guiding
 the binational effort to address transboundary
 contributions of PM. Discussions among the
 Committee members and stakeholders on whether
 or not to create a PM Annex prompted the
 creation of the Joint Plan of Action for Addressing
 Transboundary Air Pollution in 1997. After a series
 of binational workshops, 2004 marked an exciting
 and unique accomplishment. The Subcommittee
 on Scientific Cooperation completed the first joint
 U.S.-Canadian transboundary science assessment
 of PM. Like  the joint ozone assessment in  1998,
 this joint assessment of PM provides a scientific
 foundation for Committee consideration of a PM
 Annex to the Agreement. Discussions of the potential
 for negotiating a PM Annex will continue through the
 Committee's 2006  annual meeting this fall.

 Currently, mercury is being addressed through several
 national and international initiatives. National
 initiatives in the United States include the recent
 promulgation of the CAMR (a regulation reducing
 mercury emissions by nearly 70 percent at full
 implementation, in part through co-benefits from the
 CAIR), and in Canada, the Canada-wide Standards
 for mercury. Both countries are also part of the
 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement's Toxics
 Strategy, which includes mercury. Individual states
 and provinces also collaborate through the NEG/
 ECP Mercury Action Plan. Finally, both countries
 participate in several international and regional
 initiatives, including the Heavy Metals Protocol of the
 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
 Convention  on  Long-Range Transboundary Air
 Pollution, the Arctic Council Action Plan's mercury
 project, and  the United Nations Environment
 Programme's global mercury program.
4.  The Agreement seems to focus primarily on
    the eastern portions of Canada and the United
    States. How is the agreement working to deal
    with air pollution issues along other parts of
    the border, including the western parts of both
    countries? What initiatives are in place to deal
    with region-specific issues?

Historically, the damaging effects of acid rain have
been concentrated in the eastern areas of Canada
and the United States. Both emissions and ambient
levels of SO2 and NOX are highest in the east, and,
while ozone is a problem in urban areas across
North America, ozone concentrations are highest
in the eastern portions of the United States and
Canada. Consequently, the Ozone Annex created a
PEMA, which included 18 states and the District of
Columbia in the eastern sections of the United States
and portions of Ontario and Quebec in Canada. The
areas in the United  States and Canada included in the
PEMA are home to approximately 40 percent of the
U.S. population and over 50 percent of the Canadian
population. The areas where emission reductions
are focused were deemed the most important for
transboundary ozone because they exceeded the
ozone standards in either country and/or contributed
to ozone transport.

Under current standards for PM in the United States,
the only western state with a significant PM problem
is California. The Committee has acknowledged
recent research regarding the regional effects of PM.
As mentioned previously, a joint PM assessment
was completed in 2004, which indicates that the
transport of PM and PM precursors can be significant
enough in some regions to potentially compromise
the attainment of national standards. The regions
studied did not include the prairie regions of either
country, but the report did provide evidence that the
prairie regions are an area where transboundary flow,
particularly related to visibility, should be monitored.
The option of a new PM annex will be discussed by
the Committee, including how far to extend the
coverage of affected states and provinces.

Additionally, the Committee supports several
regional initiatives and organizations working on
air pollution issues  specific to particular areas along

the border. Groups such as the NEG/ECP as well as
several pilot projects created under the Border Air
Quality Strategy announced in 2003 are examples of
this local collaboration. These pilot projects include
the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound International
Airshed Strategy and the Great Lakes Basin Airshed
Management Framework. Other groups, such as the
BDPS Consultation Group, and discussions among
Canadian and U.S. representatives regarding the ASI
facility continue to address specific, localized, and
regional air pollution issues.

Finally,  a U.S.-Canada Emissions Cap and Trading
Feasibility Study, developed under the  auspices of the
Agreement, was finalized in July 2005, analyzing the
feasibility of a binational cap and trading program
between the two Parties for SO2 and NOX emissions.
The Committee's sponsorship of this study, as well as
its support of various local and regional air pollution
initiatives along the border, demonstrate both
countries' commitment to an evolving, diverse, and
multi-tiered response to transboundary air pollution.

Over  the years, the Committee  has received
comments regarding the creation of regional
transboundary air quality committees. The Parties
agree  that this is not necessary at the current time,
considering the various international localized efforts
already under way and the regional representation
on both sides of the border that the Committee
enjoys. That being said, efforts in both the United
States and Canada are ongoing to communicate
more  clearly about the Agreement, its goals, and its
work  throughout the transboundary region to foster
greater  cooperation and continued improvements in
border air quality.
5.  What is being done to assess the impacts to
    human health from emissions in the border

In February 2006, EPA released the Ozone Criteria
Document, summarizing the findings of the 1996
Ozone Criteria Document and critically assessing
more  than 1,700 new studies investigating the health
effects of ozone (see Section 3: Scientific and Technical
Cooperation and Research, U.S. Report on Health
Effects of Ozone in this 2006 Progress Report for
more  details). Canada and the United States issued the
first bilateral transboundary PM science assessment
in 2004, as described in question 3, and have each
conducted extensive research on PM, as discussed
in the Health Effects section of this 2006 Progress
Report. In addition, EPA is currently reviewing
the NAAQS for ozone and PM. These standards
are essential to protecting human health, as they
establish national limits for pollutants to which states
must adhere. There are financial and resource-based
incentives for states to meet these ambient pollutant
levels and consequences for nonattainment areas.

A recent study  (Chestnut and Mills, see page 6) released
in September 2005, analyzing the costs and benefits
of Tide IV (Acid Rain Program) of the Clean Air Act,
showed annual health benefits reaching upwards of
$114 billion (U.S.  2000 dollars) for Canada and the
United States, while total health and ecosystem benefits
totaled more than $122 billion (Canada received more
than $6.4 billion in annual health benefits, while the
United States received over $108 billion). The study
reported that the U.S. Acid Rain Program  and  the
subsequent reductions in SO2, NOX, PM, and ozone
resulted in  decreased incidences of mortality, heart
attacks, asthma exacerbations, bronchitis, and upper
and lower respiratory symptoms for adults and children
in both the United  States and Canada.

Finally, although not under the auspices of the
AQA, a unique cross-border initiative called the
Tribal LifeLine Project, a risk assessment software
capturing exposures and risks for Indigenous peoples
who practice subsistence lifestyles, represents an
innovative collaboration  among EPA and Health
Canada as well as other Canadian governmental
6.  How is the Agreement working to improve
    the quality, timeliness, comparability, and
    accessibility of U.S. and Canadian emissions,
    deposition, mapping, and modeling data?
    Is there a  long-term strategy for building
    monitoring and tracking networks?

Concerns regarding the accessibility and accuracy of
data related to  transboundary air pollution have long
been discussed under the auspices of the Agreement.
Both Parties remain absolutely committed  to the
requirements in Annex 2, "Scientific and Technical

 Activities and Economic Research." Under this
 annex, the United States and Canada have committed
 to share information and data related to monitoring
 networks, the effects of atmospheric pollution on
 human health and ecosystems, modeling, emission
 reduction technologies, market-based mechanisms,
 and other relevant topics. Furthermore, the annex
 specifically obligates both Parties to coordinate
 their deposition monitoring activities and emission
 reporting activities in order to improve these
 systems in both countries and to more readily
 share compatible information.

 The United States and Canada continue to
 collaborate in several data-sharing projects, including
 the EPA-led AIRNow program, which provides
 real-time maps depicting ozone and PM levels
 on a continental scale.

 In August 2005, NARSTO released its investigation
 and analysis of the current emission inventories
 for Canada, the United States, and Mexico. The
 final report, entitled Improving Emission Inventories
 for Effective Air Quality Management Across North
 America: A NARSTO Assessment, also provided
 recommendations to enhance existing emission
 inventories in the three countries. While the
 Agreement was not directly involved with this effort,
 the results of the assessment will likely be used to
 guide future emission-related data-sharing projects.

 The Committee intends to focus in the future on
 efforts  to enhance joint modeling initiatives, as
 sophisticated analyses of emission reduction scenarios
 using reliable and accurate models can assist in creating
 the best possible pollution reduction strategy.

 The Committee will seek progress on tracking
 and reporting emission reductions. The United
 States continues to be concerned with ensuring that
 facility-specific emissions data from both Parties are
 publicly accessible.

 Effective monitoring networks are crucial to our
 understanding and verification  of the success of
 the various programs responsible for reducing
 SO2, NOX, ozone, PM, and other pollutants in
 Canada and the United States. In fact, deposition
 monitoring is one of the most essential components
of the highly successful U.S. Acid Rain Program.
Without substantial atmospheric deposition
monitoring networks, it would be impossible to
accurately track compliance, and programs would
be unable to confirm that air quality improvements
are actually taking place. As pollution control
technologies improve, legislation is passed, and new
regulations are promulgated, human health and
ecosystems will experience great benefits as pollutant
emissions decrease. However, it is essential to
design, implement, and, most critically, maintain
a system for providing an accurate account of the
influence of such controls and regulations. As such,
the Committee has expressed interest in developing
requirements for the long-term maintenance and
enhancement of monitoring networks in the United
States and Canada.

Timeliness of data and the difference between U.S.
and Canadian data set years are often highlighted
in public comments. Transparency in program
accomplishments and public access to information
are vital to the U.S. Acid Rain Program. The
United States and Canada make every effort to use
the most recent data possible in order to honor the
commitment of providing public access to timely
and accurate data. However, the United States and
Canada differ in the process of data approval, and this
often translates to differences in when each country is
able to publish its data.

In 2001, EPA and Environment Canada entered
into a cooperative agreement to establish a common
cooperative Canada-U.S. deposition database,
analysis, and mapping capability, including a web-
based data access system. Progress has been made
under this agreement, including the development
and deployment of an interactive, web-based tool
for sharing a joint North American database of air
quality and deposition-related data as well as the
testing and deployment of ammonia monitoring
instrumentation at U.S. and Canadian monitoring
sites. The cooperative agreement has been extended
until December 2007, and the United States and
Canada will continue to work together to further the
understanding of North American air quality through
shared monitoring data and the joint development of
monitoring methods.

7.   Does the Committee plan on expanding
    the role of the IJC?

The role  and responsibilities of the IJC were discussed
at the 2005 fall meeting of the Air Quality Committee.
The Committee agreed that the IJC can best assist in
implementation of the Agreement by continuing to
solicit and synthesize public comments on the progress
reports and report back in a timely manner.
8.   What initiatives exist to improve the outreach
    and communication methods of the Agreement?

The Committee has long been interested in
transparency of its activities and of the programs
it supports, as well as ensuring that the work
accomplished through the Agreement is successfully
communicated to the public. Outreach and
communication materials have changed dramatically
over the past few years, as evidenced by the release
of the 2004 Progress Report, a shorter and highly
accessible document with informative graphics and
concise text. Public comment regarding the new
layout and format of the progress report was very

The relevance of this topic continues today, and
the Committee has expressed renewed interest in
developing its ability to communicate effectively
to the public and involve them in the process of
protecting air quality. Specifically, the Committee
has committed to enhancing its ability to effectively
communicate to the public "without borders" on
ozone air quality and sulfur and nitrogen deposition
as well as emerging issues, particularly fine particles
in the near term and mercury in the long term.

Several commenters in 1996 requested that
stakeholders  from environmental groups, industry,
academia, and those with technical expertise be
more involved with the AQA. A requirement
was built into the 2000 Ozone Annex calling for
the Air Quality Committee to assess progress on
implementation of the obligations of the annex.
In June 2004, Canada held a bilateral meeting
in Quebec City at which stakeholders from
environmental nongovernmental organizations,
health nongovernmental organizations, and industry,
as well as state, provincial/territorial, and federal
representatives, offered their comments and review
of progress on implementation of the Ozone Annex.
9.  Are there any new developments or programs
    to prevent air quality deterioration and
    improve visibility in the United States
    and Canada?

Protection of visibility is an important area of concern
under the Agreement. In the United States, states and
Tribes are working through their Regional Planning
Organizations to implement the new amendments to
the Regional Haze Rule. These amendments make up
the new CAVR, promulgated by EPA in June 2005.
This new rule will improve visibility in U.S. national
parks and wilderness areas and will likely provide
improvements to air quality in Canada.

Since the second AQA Assessment, the Canadian
Council of Ministers of the Environment has held
national workshops to develop guidance to ensure
common principles and consistency in implementing
measures to continuously improve ambient air
quality in areas where concentrations of PM and
ozone are or were brought below the Canada-wide
Standards levels, and to ensure that areas not affected
by local air pollution remain clean. As highlighted in
Section  1, options are explored to address the issue
in Canada's national parks, while British Columbia
is engaged in a new comprehensive Air Quality
Management Plan to minimize risk to human health
from air pollution, improve visibility, and reduce its
contribution to global climate change in the lower
Eraser Valley airshed.

Several federal initiatives to curb emissions
have also largely contributed to continuous
improvement, whether in terms of regulations
or as emissions guidelines, codes of practice, or
pollution prevention planning.

The United States continues to be concerned about
Canada's lack of comparable regulations preventing
the deterioration of air quality and  the protection
of visibility.

In terms of collaborative efforts, U.S. Regional
Planning Organizations are looking into
opportunities to work with Canadian air quality
agencies to assess emissions and transport of
air pollution.

            10. How does the Agreement stay current with
                new and innovative programs and ideas?

            Innovation is a key component to the success of any
            cooperative effort. Keeping up to date with new
            technology and innovative ideas has been a useful
            by-product of the networking and collaboration
            that occur on the subcommittees and through
            various Agreement projects. For instance, the
            Committee's interest in marine vessel emissions has
            become a regular feature of annual meetings. In
            addition, the cap and trading feasibility study was an
            innovative and bilateral response to the question of
            the feasibility of an international trading program.
                                                  Furthermore, voluntary programs in both countries
                                                  continue to provide new and unique strategies
                                                  in pollutant reduction efforts. Though much
                                                  remains to be done, exploring issues such as these
                                                  demonstrates a willingness to work collaboratively
                                                  on emerging topics and to  find new ways to protect
                                                  human health and the environment in the United
                                                  States and Canada.

                                                  The Committee will continue to foster the
                                                  relationships built through  cross-border cooperation,
                                                  which are a hallmark of the Agreement, and will
                                                  actively look for new ways  to involve stakeholders
                                                  to encourage innovation.
The United States and Canada continue to
successfully meet the obligations set forth in the
Agreement. Both countries' efforts to reduce acid
rain and control ozone through the Agreement
are particularly notable and are summarized in the
2006 Progress Report. The Agreement continues to
serve as a highly effective vehicle through which to
coordinate international and cross-border regional/
local efforts to address transboundary air quality.

Through its binding commitments to reduce and
cap pollutants, monitor emissions, and regularly
report on actual changes in emissions, air quality,
and the environment, the AQA provides a long-term
framework and mechanism for making real progress in
transboundary air quality and addressing the harmful
effects of SO2, NOX, and ozone on human health and
ecosystems in the United States and Canada. In
addition, through direct sponsorship of initiatives and
scientific studies, by providing support to binational
organizations, and through international information
                                                              sharing, the
                                                              Agreement has
                                                              become a valuable
                                                              tool in examining
The AQA remains
poised to serve
as the primary
federal vehicle to pursue further efforts to address
transboundary air quality, such as consideration of a
PM Annex, including the geographic scope of such an
annex; development, maintenance, and enhancement
of monitoring programs; examination of cross-border
emissions cap and trade; joint modeling to support
many of these areas; and, finally, enhancing our
capacity to communicate "without borders."

U.S.-Canada Air Quality  Committee
^United States  Members
United States Co-Chair:

Daniel A. Reifsnyder
Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Environment
U.S. Department of State


Richard S. Artz
Air Resources Laboratory
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

G. Vinson Hellwig
Air Quality Division
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality

Brian McLean
Office of Atmospheric Programs
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Steve Rothblatt
Air and Radiation Division
Region 5
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

David Moses
Office of Policy and International Affairs
U.S. Department of Energy

Margo T. Oge
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Steve Page
Office of Air Quality Planning & Standards
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Bruce Polkowsky
Air Resources Division
National Park Service

David Shaw
Division of Air Resources
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation


           Subcommittee on Program Monitoring and Reporting Co-Chair:
           Brian McLean
           Director, Office of Atmospheric Programs
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

           Subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation Co-Chair:
           Bill Russo
           Assistant Laboratory Director, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory
           Office of Research and Development
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                Canadian  Members
Canada Co-Chair:

Cecile Cleroux
Assistant Deputy Minister
Environmental Stewardship Branch
Environment Canada


Randy Angle
Environmental Policy Branch
Environmental Assurance
Alberta Environment

Marc-Denis Everell
Meteorological Service of Canada
Environment Canada

Peter Fawcett
United States Relations Division
Foreign Affairs Canada

Susan Fletcher
Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch
Health Canada

Jennifer Hooper
Air Policy and Climate Change Branch
Ontario Ministry of the Environment

Glenn MacDonell
Energy and Environment Industries Branch
Industry Canada

Kimberly MacNeil
Environment and Natural Areas Management Division
Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour

Nick Marty
Domestic Environment Policy Division
Energy Policy Branch
Natural Resources Canada

Robert Noel de Tilly
Air Policy Branch
Quebec Department of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks

Gord Owen
Clean Air Directorate
Environmental Stewardship Branch
Environment Canada

Hu Wallis
Water, Air and Climate Change Branch
British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection

Subcommittee on  Program Monitoring and  Reporting Co-Chair:

Jane Barton
Chief, North American Smog
Transboundary Air Division
Environmental Stewardship Branch
Environment Canada

Subcommittee on  Scientific Cooperation Co-Chair:

Keith Puckett
Director, Air Quality Research
Science and Technology Branch
Environment Canada


To Obtain Additional  Information, Please  Contact:
In the United States:
Clean Air Markets Division
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Mail Code6204J
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20460
In Canada:
Transboundary Air Division
Environment Canada
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
llth Floor, Place Vincent Massey
Gatineau, Quebec K1A OH3

www.ee. gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/Pol I utionjssues/

             United States Environmental Protection Agency
                  Office of Air and Radiation (6204J)
                      1200 Pennsylvania Avenue
                       Washington, DC 20460

                          September 2006

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