Green Racing  Initiative
                      What is the Goal of Green Racing?
                      The goal of green racing is to use motor sport competi-
                      tion to help rapidly develop cleaner, more fuel efficient
                      vehicle propulsion systems that will eventually be used
                      in consumer vehicles. Technologies initially developed
                      for green race cars can foster faster general introduction
                      of automotive technologies that reduce greenhouse gases,
                      reduce exhaust pollutants, and increase fuel economy.
                      The high level of interest in motor sports could bring this
                      technology to the attention of the public and hasten its
                      acceptance in the new market.
                      Why is Racing a Good Tool to Develop
                      Green Technology?
                                                Historically, racing competition has been in a unique
                                                position to promote the kind of rapid vehicle
                                                technology innovation competitors need to keep
                                                winning. There is a historical precedent of racing
                                                resulting in innovations in safety, durability, per-
                                                formance, tire technology, and more. The speed at
                                                which technology development occurs in racing is
                                                usually much faster than in normal manufacturer
                      product development. Racing also provides the ideal proving ground to demonstrate
                      that technological improvements will be durable under the most demanding condi-

                      Race audiences represent a ready market that can help carry the technological
                      innovations to street vehicles. There are millions of racing fans in the U.S. alone
                      who make purchase decisions that are influenced by what they see on the race track.
                      Manufacturers are already motivated by market pressures and regulation to bring
                      about technological improvements, but motor sports inspire a much greater sense of
United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                       October 2008

urgency and imagination. There is extreme pressure to turn ideas into hardware for the next
racing season. This is an opportunity to harness this motivation for environmental good,
much the same as it has been used to develop vehicle safety technology.

Many racing venues are already moving to go greener. Several racing series have also moved to
using renewable fuels, such as ethanol. Their motivation is both social responsibility and a desire
to make racing more relevant to everyday transportation issues in order to retain or increase the
fan base. Much of racing today is oriented more toward entertainment than technical innova-
tion. There is a movement to return racing to its roots of being a competition among vehicles
that are relevant to street machines.
Who is involved in Green Racing?
The impetus behind Green Racing originated within the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), and developed into a joint effort that includes Argonne National Laboratories along
with the Department of Energy (DOE), vehicle original equipment manufacturers, automotive
suppliers, motor sports sanctioning bodies, motor sports associations, and racing vehicle de-
velopers. These parties were brought together by SAE International to form the Green Racing
Working Group. The Green Racing Protocols, which will be published in 2008 as a SAE technical
document, were developed by a small subgroup within the working group, including represen-
tatives from EPA and Argonne/DOE. The American Le Mans Series (ALMS), along with its
sanctioning body, the International Motor Sports Association, were involved in the working
group and will be the first racing series to implement green racing protocols by conducting the
ALMS Green Challenge™ competition at their Petit Le Mans race on October 4, 2008.
How Does Green Racing Work?
The Green Racing Protocols can be adapted for any racing series. The protocols promote the
development of energy efficient technologies, and the reduction of greenhouse gases and auto
emissions. They also encourage the use of renewable fuels and regenerative energy powertrains
(hybrids). EPA, DOE and SAE International will also provide national awards and recogni'
tion to the auto companies that build the race cars that go the fastest using the least amount of
energy and creating the fewest greenhouse gas emissions.
Elements of Racing Protocols:
The protocols are based on five elements:
    1.   The use of a renewable fuel;
    2.   The use of many different engines, fuels, and propulsion systems in one race;
    3.   The use of regenerative energy powertrain technologies that recover and reuse braking
    4.   The use of energy allocations instead of detailed sporting regulations; and
    5.   The use of exhaust pollution control strategies and systems.

The Challenge and Cup Awards:
The protocols define two award levels of green racing. The first is the green racing "Challenge"
level that is based on the first three elements. The second and highest level of green racing is
the green racing "Cup" level, based on elements 1 through 5. The main differences are the Cup
requires the use of energy allocations and some form of emission control. A shift away from de-
tailed engine specifications to energy allocations (fuel restrictions) could fundamentally change
racing. For the better part of the 100-plus years of motor racing, racing rules to foster competi-
tion, increase safety, and limit costs have been based on a combination of engine displacement
and rigid engine specifications. The shift to energy allocations will help influence the develop'
ment of more energy-efficient propulsion systems. The eventual use of emission control strate-
gies in race cars to win the Cup will be unprecedented in major racing competition. Reducing
air pollutant emissions from race cars will hopefully spur the development of more durable and
effective emission control systems (such as catalytic converters) that could eventually be used in
street cars. This will also reduce the pollution emitted at racing events, thereby improving local
air quality during the events and protecting the well-being of fans.
The American Le Mans Series (ALMS) Green Challenge™
The American Le Mans Series will be the first racing se-
ries to incorporate the green racing Challenge elements
identified in the green racing protocols that will be pub-
lished by SAE International. The ALMS is partnering
with EPA, DOE, and SAE International to conduct the
first ALMS Green Challenge™ race as a part of their
Petit Le Mans race in Braselton, Georgia on October 4,

The ALMS conducts twelve road races per year through-
out the United States and Canada. Each race features four classes of sports cars: including two
Prototype classes and two GT classes that include multiple engine and fuel types. The Prototype
class vehicles use production-based engines, but are exotic purpose-built race cars that may
include advanced technology. The GT class vehicles are more production-based but are highly
modified for racing. All of the race cars have direct links to production vehicles, and many are
capable of speeds exceeding 200 miles per hour. In 2009, the American Le Mans Series will
incorporate the Green Racing Protocols  into a  season-long Green Challenge™ Championship.
The award will be given to the team with the lowest Green Racing Challenge score in both the
LMP and GT classes. ALMS is considering incorporating the Green Racing  Cup levels as well.

Technologies in the ALMS race cars  include conventional gasoline engines,  direct injection
gasoline engines, diesel engines, and hybrid assist technology. Fuels used include gasoline with
10% ethanol (E10), E85 ethanol made using cellulosic  processes, and ultra-low sulfur diesel
with a portion of synthetic diesel made from a gas-to-liquid process. More information about the
American Le Mans Series can be found at:

At the end of the ALMS Petit Le Mans race EPA, DOE, and SAE will present two Green Challenge™
awards. One of the awards will go to the Green Challenge™ winner of the Prototype class, and
one of the awards will go to the Green Challenge™ winner of the GT class. The award determi-
nation is summarized as follows:
Green Challenge Ranking System:
The International Motor Sports Association, Argonne National Laboratory, and EPA developed
the ranking system to be used in the ALMS Green Challenge™. Cars are ranked by the amount
of energy they use, greenhouse gases they produce and fossil fuels they consume. These rank-
ing factors are compiled into a single weighted number representing each car's environmental
performance. Race cars that use less energy and fossil fuels and produce fewer greenhouse gases
(GHGs) get a higher score. All measurements are from well-to-wheel (life cycle analysis) using
a model called GREET, which stands for Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use
in Transportation. The GREET model calculates all the energy consumed and the GHGs created from
the time the oil is pumped out of the ground, the corn seeded in the field or the wood waste is
harvested to its use in the car. For more information see GREET.

The realities of racing must also be factored in to make valid energy use comparisons among
cars. These include speed, distance traveled and weight. Faster cars and heavier cars use more
energy and produce more GHGs than comparable slower or lighter cars. Cars that  go farther
during a race also need more energy. Argonne and IMSA created normalizing factors for each
variable so that they could accurately compare the environmental  performance of each car in
the race. These calculations were compared with previous races to check their validity. In some
cases the  cars that win the race will also get the highest score, but that will not always be the

An ALMS press release about the ALMS Green Challenge™ event can be found at: