United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
      <
Ground Water  Rule  Compliance
Monitoring:  A Quick  Reference  Guide
Overview of the Rule
Title
Purpose
General
Description
Utilities
Covered
Ground Water Rule (GWR) 71 FR 65574, November 8, 2006, Vol. 71 , No. 216 I
Correction 71 FR 67427, November 21 , 2006, Vol. 71 , No. 224
Reduce the risk of illness caused by microbial contamination in public ground
water systems (GWSs).
The GWR establishes a risk-targeted approach to identify GWSs susceptible
to fecal contamination and requires corrective action to correct significant
deficiencies and address source water fecal contamination in all public GWSs.
The GWR applies to all public water systems (PWSs) that use ground water,
including consecutive systems, except that it does not apply to PWSs that
combine all of their ground water with surface water or with ground water
under the direct influence of surface water prior to treatment.
                       Purpose of Compliance Monitorin:
                          Compliance monitoring ensures that GWSs that provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses
                          using chemical disinfection, membrane filtration, or a State-approved alternative treatment
                          technology are consistently and effectively achieving this level of treatment.	

                       When is Compliance Monitoring Required?
   GWSs that provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses as a corrective action must conduct
   compliance monitoring.
   GWSs that provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses at or before the first customer
   using chemical disinfection, membrane filtration, or a State-approved alternative treatment
   technology and do not conduct GWR triggered source water monitoring must notify their
   State in writing that they provide treatment and begin compliance monitoring.
   The compliance dates for systems that provide 4-log treatment in lieu of GWR triggered
   source water monitoring are as follows:
     GWSs with existing ground water sources must notify the State by December
      1, 2009, that they provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses and begin compliance
      monitoring.
     GWSs with new ground water sources placed into service after November 30, 2009,
      must notify the State that they provide at least 4-log treatment of viruses and begin
      compliance monitoring within 30 days.	
                       What are the Compliance Monitoring Requirements for Chemical
                       Disinfection?
                       GWSs Serving 3,300 or Fewer
                          GWSs using chemical disinfection and serving 3,300 or fewer persons must monitor for the
                          residual disinfectant concentration and meet the State specified minimum concentration
                          at or before the first customer.
                          GWSs must monitor on a daily basis and collect a grab sample during the hour of peak flow
                          or at another time specified by the State.
                           If any daily grab sample is less than the minimum disinfectant residual concentration,
                            the system must take follow-up samples every four hours until the residual meets or
                            exceeds the State-specified minimum concentration.
                           These systems also have the option to monitor continuously.
                                   If the GWS monitors continuously, the system must meet the monitoring
                                   requirements for GWSs serving greater than 3,300 persons (see below).
                          GWSs must monitor at a State-approved location.	

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GWSs Serving Greater than 3,300 Persons
   GWSs using chemical disinfection and serving greater than 3,300 persons that conduct compliance monitoring must monitor
   for the residual disinfectant concentration and meet the State specified minimum concentration at or before the first
   customer.
     GWSs of this size must monitor continuously and record the lowest residual disinfectant concentration each day that
      water from the ground water source is served to the public.
   GWSs must monitor at a State-approved location.	
 Failure of Continuous Monitoring Equipment
   In the event of equipment failure for continuous monitoring, provisions are available for all GWSs serving greater than 3,300
   persons and GWSs serving 3,300 persons or fewer who opt to monitor continuously.
     If there is a failure in continuous monitoring equipment, the ground water system must conduct grab sampling every
      four hours until the continuous monitoring equipment is returned to service.
     The system must resume continuous residual disinfectant monitoring within 14 days.	
What are the Compliance Monitoring Requirements for Membrane Filtration?
   GWSs that use membrane filtration systems to achieve 4-log virus treatment to meet GWR requirements must:
     Operate the process in accordance with State-specified compliance requirements.
     Monitor the membrane filtration process in accordance with all State-specified monitoring requirements.
     Verify that the integrity of the membrane is intact.
   The frequency and location of samples for systems conducting membrane filtration will be determined by the State.
What are the Compliance Monitoring Requirements for Alternative Treatment?
   GWSs that use alternative treatment systems to achieve 4-log virus treatment to meet GWR requirements must:
     Operate the process in accordance with State-specified compliance requirements.
     Monitor the process in accordance with State-specified monitoring requirements.	
Compliance Monitoring and Validation Testing for Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection
   GWSs using UV disinfection as an alternative technology to meet GWR requirements should:
     Monitor for UV intensity, as measured by a UV sensor, flow rate and UV lamp status and any additional State-specified
      parameters.
     Verify the calibration of UV sensors, and recalibrate in accordance with a State-approved protocol, at least monthly.
   UV reactors should undergo validation testing to determine the operating conditions under which the reactor delivers the UV
   dose corresponding to the virus log removal credit received. See "Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance for the Final Long Term
   2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule" (http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/disinfection/lt2/pdfs/guide_lt2_uvguidance.pdf) for
   more information.
Summary
    The following table summarizes the compliance monitoring requirements for systems providing 4-log virus treatment in
    lieu of triggered source water monitoring or as a corrective action under the GWR.
System Type
GWSs serving < 3,300 using
chemical disinfection
GWSs serving > 3,300 using
chemical disinfection
GWSs using membrane filtration
GWSs using State-approved
alternative treatment
Monitor For
Residual disinfectant concentration
(must meet State minimum)
Membrane filtration process
effectiveness
Alternative treatment effectiveness
Frequency
Daily or continuous
Continuous only
Sample Location
State-approved
location(s)
Consult State for specific information
   If operation according to the criteria or requirements for compliance monitoring (minimum residual disinfectant concentration,
   membrane operating criteria or membrane integrity, alternative treatment operating criteria, etc.) is not restored within four
   hours, a GWS must notify the State as soon as possible.
   For all GWSs conducting compliance monitoring, failure to conduct required compliance monitoring (Sec.  141.403(b))
   requires a Tier 3 public notice.
   If any GWS wishes to discontinue 4-log treatment of viruses before or at the first customer, the GWS then becomes subject
   to the GWR triggered source water monitoring requirements.
     See "Ground Water Rule Factsheet: Monitoring Requirements" and "Ground Water Rule Triggered and Representative
      Monitoring: A Quick Reference Guide" for more information.	
Office of Water (4606)
EPA815-F-08-008
www.epa.gov/safewater
July 2008

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