November 2004
The following
information represents
projects that are
currently being
undertaken by CMB.
In addition to the
tasks assigned  to the
team members, we
also provide support
to other scientists
with peer review of
documents, and work
cross functionally with
groups both internal
and external.Team
members also provide
technical support
to several different
agencies  and clients on
an as needed basis.
                             U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure
                           Research Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Las Vegas, NV
        The Characterization and Monitoring Branch
         (CMB) consists of a diversified group of
           scientists and support personnel. CMB supports
           the EPA's mission by providing research,
            development, and the expertise across a wide
             range of disciplines focusing on technologies
              (equipment and techniques) that contribute
              to cost-effective environmental data
              acquisition and interpretation required
               to address environmental issues. The
                broad scope of this mission encompasses
                all stages of the experimental and
                measurement process.
                This includes:

                 • Sampling design optimization.

                 • Sampling and subsampling
                    equipment and techniques.

                 • Field and laboratory analytical methods.

                 • Quality assurance and control procedures.

                • Statistical data analysis and estimation methods.

                •  Optimal decision-making procedures.

                • Geophysical analysis.

               These efforts focus on the measurement and evaluation of
              contamination in various media, with current emphasis on soils,
              sediments, and ground water.
Soil sampling at Boarhead
    Superfund site
             In addition to the basic and applied research programs described above,
            CMB, under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE)
           program, actively seeks out new technologies to evaluate their performance
          under the most realistic conditions possible with the goal of providing a
         non-biased assessment of each technology's capability. CMB also provides
        Superfund support to EPA's Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and On-
      Scene Coordinators (OSCs) through the Superfund Technical Support Center
     (TSC) for Monitoring and Site Characterization. The diversity of expertise
   available through our TSC allows us to work with the RPMs and OSCs throughout
  a site characterization event from planning and design through analysis and data
                                     For more information on current and
                                   past projects of CMB, visit our website at

                          Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication,
                                 it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

         ite Characterization Librar
In order to assist site characterization field teams, the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the Office
of Research and Development (ORD), released a CD-ROM
entitled "Site Characterization Library 2.5." This CD-ROM
was designed to allow those in the field to have instant access
to documents and software programs without having to access
the Internet or carry a large amount of reports to the site. An
updated version of the CD is currently under development
with enhanced new features.
Documents were grouped into categories for easy access
to the different stages of site characterization. Below is a
listing of the categories.
    •   Project Planning and Data Quality
       RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery
       Act)/Superfund Site Assessment Guidance
    •   Field Operations and Standard Operating
       General Site Assessment Guidance
    •   Other Site Assessment Topics: Geophysics, NAPLs
       (non-aqueous phase liquids), Karst, and Ecological
       Soil, Vadose Zone, Sediment, and Hazardous
       Waste Sampling/Monitoring
    •   Ground-Water Sampling and Monitoring
       Risk Assessment
    •   Data Analysis
The CD-ROM can be ordered by visiting the CMB website.
Research is being conducted to evaluate and develop new
approaches designed to improve soil and sediment sampling
techniques, measurement design, and data analysis using
chemometric and robust statistical methods. Improvements
in sampling soil or other heterogeneous particulate solids
are being investigated in order to obtain more representative
subsamples and to reduce errors that commonly occur during
sample collection and handling. The sampling research will
evaluate the Pierre Gy particulate sampling theory for both
laboratory and field subsampling practices. Robust statistical
methods are being developed to better analyze and interpret
data, and to reduce data uncertainty.
The overall objective of the program is to examine and
evaluate the statistical procedures and methods used in
the measurement process (sampling design, sampling,
experimental design, quality control, data collection, data
analysis, validation, and decision analysis). These procedures
and methods will then be improved by investigating,
developing, and evaluating statistical methods and
software in order to reduce data uncertainty and to assure
that scientifically defensible decisions for assessing and
characterizing risks to human health and the environment can
be made.
Inadequate site character-
ization and a lack of knowledge
of subsurface contaminant
distributions, particularly of
non-aqueous phase liquids
(NAPLs), hinder our ability
to make good decisions on
remediation options and to
conduct adequate cleanup
efforts at contaminated sites.
Research is being conducted
by CMB to improve and
evaluate the resolution of a
variety of geophysical methods      Running lab tests at
including: complex resistivity          Las Ve9as Fadlity
(CR), natural potential (NP), electromagnetic (EM),
seismic, and ground penetrating radar (GPR) for the
detection of subsurface NAPLs.
To conduct this research, a small 8-foot diameter spill
testing tank was installed in Richmond, CA. The
first dense non-aqueous phase  liquid (DNAPL) spill
simulation experiment has been conducted in this tank,
with personnel from the EPA,  the U.S.  Geological
Survey, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
of the Department of Energy.  Testing will evaluate
geophysical methods before, during, and after the
DNAPL injection. Current research is evaluating the use
of geophysical methods for monitoring the remediation
of the DNAPL.
A site for a second larger characterization test cell (CTC)
(30' by 40' by 10' deep) with the ability to simulate
ground water flow has been identified at Naval Base
Ventura County in Port Hueneme, CA. A Memorandum
of Understanding between the Navy and EPA, along
with an Interagency Agreement, are being put in place
to proceed with the constructing of this cell. The CTC
will be constructed to allow for research on ground
water sampling and characterization, soil sampling for
DNAPLs, and large-scale evaluation of geophysical
techniques, before, during, and after the DNAPL
injection and remediation efforts.
In addition to the DNAPL spill experiments, efforts
are underway to evaluate a relatively new surface
geophysical technique, the proton resonance sounding
(PRS) method, for determining subsurface water content
and permeability. This technique will be evaluated
by conducting a field test in Southern Nevada and
comparing the results to borehole cores, geophysical
logging, and standard borehole aquifer permeability
measurements. These results will provide a better
understanding of the capabilities and limitation of the
PRS method for subsurface site characterization.

There are five Technical Support Centers (TSC), in five laboratories,
operated by ORD and funded by the Office of Superfund
Remediation and Technology Innovation and the Technical
Support Project (TSP). Each TSC is dedicated to serving the EPA
by supplying high-quality, quick-response technical support services
when the scope of work is beyond that which is available to the
Regions. The Environmental Sciences Division (BSD) in Las Vegas,
NV, operates the Technical Support Center for Monitoring and Site
The Las Vegas TSC began in 1987 and specialized in Superfund
support to EPA's RPMs and OSCs.  Since 1991, limited RCRA
technical support has also been available. The diversity of
expertise available through our TSC allows us to work with the
RPMs and OSCs throughout a site characterization event, i.e.,
from planning and design to analysis and data interpretation.
Examples of the types of technical support provided are shown
    •    Analytical Chemistry - specialized chemical analysis,
        QA support, data audits.
    •    Statistical Analysis - consultation, UCL (upper
        confidence level), UTL (upper tolerance level),
        calculations, background vs. site concentrations,
        spatial analysis/mapping, sampling and sample design,
        multivariate analysis, ProUCL software.
    •    Groundwater/Subsurface Support - geophysics,
        bioremediation assessment/monitoring, contaminant
        pattern recognition/fingerprinting.
    •    Air Monitoring/Modeling.
    •    Document Reviews - RI/FS (Remedial Investigation/
        Feasibility Study), monitoring/sampling designs,
        statistical approaches, QAPPs (Quality Assurance
        Project Plans), characterization and measurement

         Visit the TSC website for more information at:
Performance verification of innovative environmental
sampling, monitoring, and measurement technologies is
an integral part of the regulatory and research mission
of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
To address this need, the Superfund Innovative
Technology  Evaluation (SITE) Program was established
by EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency
Response and the Office of Research and Development.
The overall goal of the Program is to conduct
performance verification studies and to promote the
acceptance of innovative technologies that may be
used to achieve long-term protection of human health
and the environment. The program is designed to meet
three objectives: 1) to identify and remove obstacles
to the development and commercial use of innovative
technologies; 2) to demonstrate promising innovative
technologies, and gather reliable performance and cost
information; and 3) to develop procedures and policies
that encourage the use of innovative technologies at
Superfund and other hazardous waste sites.

    Visit the SITE website for more information at:
                                                                              Sampling for PCBs in Lake Michigan
Sampling is perhaps the major source of error in the measurement
process and, potentially, is an overwhelming source of error for
heterogeneous particulate materials, such as soils and sediments.
Current approaches and devices used to characterize volatile
organic compounds (VOCs) in soils can result in the loss of 100%
of the detectable VOCs present.  Research is underway to improve
sampling approaches and devices to reduce the loss of VOCs in
soils during sampling events.
A new initiative is underway to address the vapor intrusion
problem that occurs at many contaminated sites in which VOCs
move from ground water through the soil and into homes.
Investigations are underway to look at the spatial and
temporal variability influences on indoor air quality
as well as exploring geostatistical approaches to vapor
intrusion issues.
Disturbance of contaminated sediments during dredging
or large storm events often leads to their resuspension and
subsequent deposition downstream. Research to improve
the collection of undisturbed surface sediments so that
the effect of these recent events can be identified and
quantified is being conducted.

The Order of the Addition of a Preservative/Extractant to
a Soil Sample: Influence on Recovery of VOCs.
Effects of Soil Disturbance on VOC Emissions From Aged,
Contaminated Soil.
Collection of Undisturbed Surface Sediment Samples.
Composite Sampling for Soil VOC Analysis.
Reevaluation of the Relationship Between Collocated Soil
and Vapor Sample of VOC Concentrations.
Evaluation of an Innovative Soil Sampler.

In-Vial Preservation of Soil VOCs.
Site Characterization Library, Version 3.0.

Statistical Sampling and Data Analysis.
Ground-Water Sampling and Geophysical Methods
Development and Evaluation.
Plan and Conduct a Field Demonstration of XRF
Analyzers for the Determination of Target Elements in
Soil and Sediment Samples.
Prepare Final Reports on the Performance Verification of
Technologies for the Measurement of Dioxin and Dioxin-
Like Compounds in Soil and Sediment.
RARE - Development of a Systematic Approach to
Accurately Measure Trace Levels  of VOCs in Soils.
RARE - Preliminary Evaluation of the Use of the  High
Volume Water Sampling Method  for Dioxin Analysis
During Site Characterzation.
RMI - Reevaluation of Sample Holding Times.
                                Technologies for the Determination of Mercury in Soil and
                                Sediment. Metorex's S-MET®.  (EPA/600/R-04/028).
                                May 2004.
                                Technologies for the Determination of Mercury in Soil
                                and Sediment. Milestone Inc.'s Direct Mercury Analyzer
                                (DMA)-SO. (EPA/600/R-04/012). May 2004.
                                Technologies for the Determination of Mercury in Soil
                                and Sediment. MTI Inc.'s PDV 6000 Anodic Stripping
                                Voltammetry. (EPA/600/R-04/028). May 2004.
                                Technologies for the Determination of Mercury in Soil
                                and Sediment. NITON's Xli/XLt 700 Series X-Ray
                                Fluorescence Analyzers. (EPA/600/R-03/148). May 2004.
                                Technologies for the Determination of Mercury in Soil
                                and Sediment. Ohio Lumex's RA-915+/RP-91C Mercury
                                Analyzer. (EPA/600/R-03/147). May 2004.
                                Literature Review and Report: Surface Sediment Sampler
                                Database. (EPA/600/R-03/115). December 2003.
                                Guidance for Obtaining Representative Laboratory
                                Analytical Subsamples from Particulate  Laboratory
                                Samples. (EPA/600/R-37/027). November 2003.
                                Potential Environmental Impacts of Dust Suppressants.
                                Avoiding Another Times Beach. (EPA/600/R-04/031).
                                May 2004.

                                Fingerprint Analysis of Contaminant Data: A Forensic
                                Tool for Evaluating Environmental Contamination.
                                (EPA/600/R-04/054). May 2004.

                                ProUCL Version 3.0 Software and Users Guide.
                                (EPA/600/R-04/079). April 2004.
Jan A. Contreras
Office Manager

Stephen Billets
Research Chemist

Evan J. Englund
Math Statistician

Steven P. Gardner
Res. Environmental Scientist

Aldo T. Mazzella

John M. Nocerino

J. Gareth Pearson
Environmental Scientist
(702) 798-2383

(702) 798-2232
billets, stephen@epa.gov

(702) 798-2248
englund. evan@epa.gov

(702) 798-2580

(702) 798-2254


(702) 798-2270
Brian A. Schumacher
Branch Chief

J. Jeffrey van Ee
Electronics Engineer

D. Dale Werkema
Environmental Scientist

John H. Zimmerman
Res. Physical Scientist

SEEP Support Staff

Marion Edison
TSC Support

Dan Tucksen
Marketing Specialist
(702) 798-2242

(702) 798-2367

(702) 798-2263

(702) 798-2385
zimmerman .j ohnh@epa.gov
(702) 798-2202

(702) 798-2365