United States Environmental
 Protection Agency and the
 EPA Region III states of
 Pennsylvania, Maryland,
 Delaware, District of Columbia,
 Virginia and West Virginia
EPA833-F-07-011
Incorporating  Environmentally
Sensitive  Development  Into
Municipal  Stormwater Programs
                                                                                                January 2008
 This document is intended to assist local stormwater managers
 who wish to encourage or require low impact development
 practices to meet stormwater goals.  Managing stormwater
 with low impact site design techniques can help jurisdictions
 meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
 requirements, and the techniques offer construction cost
 savings as well as a variety of other benefits when compared to
 traditional stormwater management approaches.
 / t^t IT O d (A £"t tO >-»

 Consideration of the impacts of construction and land
 development on water resources is becoming increasingly
 important as more undeveloped land is being converted to
 impervious surfaces. The effects of urbanization on water
 resources are well known: degraded habitat, incised channels,
 impaired aquatic life, high pollutant loads, depleted groundwater,
 and higher incidence of flooding, among others. The mid-
 twentieth century approach to stormwater management was to
 dispose of stormwater as quickly as possible using engineered
 systems  of curbs, gutters, pipes, and open channels, resulting
 in unexpected consequences for water quality. Since then,
 new approaches have evolved to mitigate impacts and reverse
 damage caused by existing development. These approaches,
 commonly referred to as Low Impact Development (LID), focus
 on emulating the functions of natural systems to reintegrate
 rainfall into the water cycle rather than disposing of it as a waste
 product.

 LID is an environmentally sensitive approach to stormwater
 management that seeks to manage rainfall where it falls using
 decentralized, small-scale controls that are integrated into a
 site's landscape features. These include open space, rooftops,
 streetscapes, parking lots, sidewalks, and medians. The goal of
 this technique is to mimic a site's predevelopment hydrology by
 infiltrating, filtering, storing, evaporating, and detaining runoff
 close to its source (Low Impact Development Center, 2007).

   Environmentally Sensitive Development (ESD) has many analogous
   terms, such as:
   *   Better site design
   *   Conservation design
   »   LID
   »   Smart Growth
   »   Green infrastructure
   »   Integrated site design
   »   Sustainable development
                                                              An ecoroof in Arlington, Virginia
                                    To incorporate LID at a
                                    neighborhood or watershed
                                    level to fully protect water
                                    resources, communities can
                                    consider employing a wide
                                    range of land use strategies
                                    including building a range
                                    of development densities,
                                    incorporating adequate
                                    open space, preserving
                                    critical ecological and buffer
                                    areas, and minimizing land
                                    disturbance.
ESD offers a number of
advantages over traditional,
engineered stormwater
drainage approaches,
including:
» Addresses stormwater at its source: LID practices seek to
  manage rainfall where it falls, reducing or eliminating the
  need for regional detention ponds and flood controls.
» More protective of streams and watersheds: Because LID
  practices infiltrate rainfall and prevent runoff, they reduce
  pollutant  loads as well as streambank erosion associated with
  peak flows.
» Promotes groundwater recharge: Many LID techniques
  infiltrate stormwater, recharging groundwater aquifers and
  providing baseflow to streams during dry weather. These
  infiltration practices also reduce stream temperature because
  surface runoff is warmer than groundwater.
» Allows for more flexible site layouts: The small-scale,
  dispersed nature of LID practices means that designers can
  include stormwater management in a variety of open spaces
  and landscaped areas—traditional stormwater management
  required large set-asides for ponds and wetlands that
  consumed valuable real estate.
» Enhanced aesthetics and public access/use: Well-designed,
  vegetated practices can provide a visual amenity, particularly
  when compared to hardened drainage infrastructure such
  as pipes,  curbs, gutters, and  concrete-lined channels. Some
  practices can double as park space, offering recreational
  amenities.
» Cost savings: A common myth is that LID costs more than
  traditional stormwater management, but case studies have
  shown the opposite to be true (see Table 1). Typically, cost
  savings arise from a reduction in the size and extent of pipes
  and other infrastructure needed to handle runoff. Savings
  can also arise from the ability to build additional units that
  would not have been feasible using traditional stormwater
  management approaches.

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EPA833-F-07-011
Incorporating Environmentally Sensitive Development into Municipal Stormwater Programs
Table 1. Cost Benefits of Low Impact Development Designs
  Project Name and
  Location
                           Description
                 Cost Benefit
  Poplar Street Apartments1
 Aberdeen, NC
                               270-unit apartment complex
                               Most of the curb-and-gutter systems were eliminated
                               Stormwater managed with a variety of LID BMPs
                 $175,000 in savings over conventional
                 Stormwater costs
  Somerset1
  Prince George's County,
  MD
                           »    Residential subdivision
                           »    Most of the site was designed with swales and rain
                               gardens
                           »    Curbs and gutters were eliminated
                 Conventional:     $2,456,843
                 LID Design:       $1,671,461
                 Savings: $785,382
                 »   Able to develop 6 additional lots
                 »   Decreased cost per lot by $4,000
  Gap Creek1
  Sherwood, AR
                           »    Residential subdivision
                           »    Drainage areas preserved
                           »    Greenbelts created for drainage area protection and
                               recreation
                           »    Streets designed to follow land contour
                 »   $2.2 million in additional profit
                 »   Lots sold for $3,000 more than
                     competitors' lots
                 »   Able to develop 17 additional lots
                 »   Decreased cost per lot by $4,800
  Kensington Estates1
  Pierce County, WA
                           »    103-lot residential development
                           »    Decreased roadway width
                           »    Porous paving
                           »    Cul-de-sacs with vegetated depressions in the center
                 Estimated cost savings of 20% of conventional
                 construction costs
  Circle C Ranch 1
  Austin, TX
                           »    Residential subdivision
                           »    Stormwater directed as sheet flow to a stream buffer
                               Four bioretention areas
                 Conventional:     $250,000
                 LID Design:       $65,000
                 Savings: $185,000
                 Additional savings from reduced storm drain
                 pipe size and trenching depth
  Green Roof Density Bonus2
  Portland, OR
                           Portland offers a density bonus of 5,000 ft2 for installation of a
                           green roof on a commercial property
                 An estimated $225 million in additional
                 economic development generated since
                 inception
  Laurel Springs3
  Jackson, Wl
                           »    Residential subdivision
                           »    Developed using a clustered design Open space preserved
                           »    Grading and paving reduced
                 Conventional:     $3,200,081
                 Conservation:     $2,570,555
                 Savings: $629,526
 Sources:' U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005;2 Liptan, 2007;3 Winer-Skonovd et a/., 2006.
NPP£S  "
Addressed
                          LIP
LID can be integrated into a municipal Stormwater program
at a variety of levels in addition to new development and
redevelopment. The following are ways in which LID can help
communities meet NPDES permit requirements.

»  Public Education and Outreach on Stormwater Impacts:
   Municipalities and developers can post signs describing the
   functions and benefits of LID BMPs, including information
   about the impacts of urbanization on water resources.
»  Public Involvement and Participation: Municipalities
   can encourage citizens and community groups to get
   involved in Stormwater management by implementing rain
   gardens and other BMPs at their homes and businesses.
   Municipalities can sponsor workshops and demonstrations
of environmentally friendly landscaping, including rainwater
harvesting and reuse and selection of native plants. The
State of West Virginia conducted several popular rain barrel
workshops in partnership with a local municipality and are
planning more by request from citizens.
Construction Site Stormwater Runoff:  Preservation of
open space reduces the amount of area cleared and
graded, decreasing costs for erosion and sediment control.
Municipalities can include this practice as one of their
required or recommended BMPs for developers and can
incorporate this practice into capital improvement projects.
Post-Construction Stormwater Management in New
Development and Redevelopment: Most NPDES permits
require post-construction Stormwater management practices
that reduce total suspended solids in Stormwater  by 80
percent. Permits also typically dictate performance standards
for volume and peak discharge control  to address channel

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                                                                                                           EPA833-F-07-011
           Incorporating Environmentally Sensitive Development into Municipal Stormwater Programs
   stabilization and flooding. LID practices have been shown to
   remove pollutants beyond the 80 percent standard and are
   highly effective at maintaining or restoring a site's hydrology
   to protect stream channels.
»  Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping for Municipal
   Operations: The use of native plants in landscaping reduces
   the need for municipal crews to irrigate or use pesticides,
   herbicides or fertilizers. Municipalities can incorporate selection
   of native plants into its landscaping guidelines and can train its
   maintenance crews to use integrated pest management.

  State Requirements feature "Green Technology" and
  "Environmental Site Design"
  The State of Delaware requires that "Green Technology
  BMPs" be considered first for water quality protection for
  development projects. Other practices can  be considered
  only after these "Green" BMPs have been eliminated
  for engineering or hardship reasons as approved by
  the plan reviewer. See www.swc.dnrec.delaware.gov/
  SedimentStormwater.htm for more information.

  The State of Maryland passed the Stormwater Management
  Act of 2007 (http://mlis.state.md.us/2007RS/billfile/
  SB0784.htm), which requires the implementation of
  environmental site design for new development and
  redevelopment projects. Under the new legislation, local
  jurisdictions are tasked with reviewing and modifying existing
  codes and ordinances that would impede environmental site
  design. Also, developers are tasked with demonstrating that
  environmental site design is implemented to the maximum
  extent practicable at their site. Traditional Stormwater
  controls are only allowed where absolutely necessary. The
  legislation also includes a groundwater recharge standard
  (100 percent of the predevelopment volume) and references
  Maryland's Model Stormwater Management Ordinance,
  which can be downloaded at www.mde.state.md.us/assets/
  document/sedimentstormwater/model_ordinance.pdf.
            of UP
LID is a flexible technique that can be applied to nearly any site,
including both infill/redevelopment sites and new development.
Neighborhood or regional level techniques such as compact
development and open space preservation further mitigate the
impacts of development. When used in combination with site
techniques, these regional-level techniques can reduce runoff
and associated pollutants across a watershed.

»  Disconnected impervious surfaces: Runoff from  rooftops,
   sidewalks, driveways, and roads can be  directed to
   landscaped areas or porous pavement to promote infiltration
   and reduce Stormwater volumes.
»  Preservation of open space/natural features: Areas of a
   development site that will not contain buildings or other
   infrastructure can be protected from clearing, grading, and
   other construction-related impacts, reducing the  amount of
   disturbed land and maintaining mature vegetation.
»  Bioretention: Also known as rain gardens, biofilters,
   bioswales, and bioinfiltration practices, these are landscaped
   depressions that collect runoff and manage it through
   infiltration, evapotranspiration, and biological uptake of
   nutrients and other pollutants.
»  Flow-through planters and tree boxes: Planters and tree
   boxes enhance streetscapes and courtyards with attractive
   vegetation and shade and also provide pervious areas for
   rainfall interception and Stormwater infiltration.
»  Porous pavement: A variety of paving surfaces have been
   developed that contain pore spaces that store and infiltrate
   runoff. Pavement types include porous concrete, porous
   asphalt,  and interlocking pavers.
»  Water harvesting (rain barrels, cisterns): Rainfall from
   rooftops can be collected via downspouts and stored for
   reuse. Rain barrels are typically used to store water for
   landscaping, and cisterns, which offer more storage volume,
   can store water for toilet flushing, landscape irrigation,  or
   other gray water applications.
»  Ecoroofs: Also known as green roofs, ecoroofs consist of a
   layer of soil and plants installed on a roof surface. Ecoroofs
   provide Stormwater retention, reducing Stormwater volumes
   and promoting evaporation and transpiration. Ecoroofs have
   been shown to have energy-saving benefits and help to
   reduce the heat-island effect in urban areas.
»  Low-input landscaping: Choosing native plants that are easy
   to maintain and adapted to local climate and soil conditions
   decreases or eliminates the need for watering, fertilizers, and
   pesticides.
           f or
Municipalities

Update development standards and pass ordinances with LID
incentives
»  Evaluate transportation design specifications, plumbing
   codes, landscaping requirements, and other standards that
   might prohibit the use of LID practices. Identify language that
   may be incompatible with LID and work with other municipal
   departments to discuss the changes and identify alternatives.
   It is important to address the other departments' concerns
   about safety, cost, etc. to ensure their buy-in.
»  Depending on how new requirements are codified in your
   community, develop new code language, propose changes to
   the zoning or development ordinance, or develop a separate
   Stormwater ordinance that outline the new standards. The
   town  of Warsaw, Virginia, and Stafford County, Virginia,
   incorporated LID into their  ordinances, the text of which
   can be viewed at the Publications page of the Friends of the
   Rappahannock website (www.riverfriends.org).
»  Identify possible incentives that can be offered to encourage
   LID implementation. Incentives can be in the form of density
   bonuses, reduced size of required drainage infrastructure,
   discounted utility fees, and tax credits.

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EPA833-F-07-011
Incorporating Environmentally Sensitive Development into Municipal Stormwater Programs
   Provide guidance for implementing the new standards. Develop
   a standards manual or adopt your state manual if it meets
   your needs. Wherever possible to conserve resources, adapt
   existing resources to local situations. Prince George's County,
   Maryland, developed two design manuals with technical
   specifications for LID practices: Low-Impact Development
   Design Strategies: An Integrated Design Approach and Low-
   Impact Development Hydrologic Analysis, both of which are
   available on EPA's website atwww.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid.
   Implement demonstration projects and monitor them
   for effectiveness and suitability of design. Municipalities
   should take the initiative to experiment with BMP designs
   and identify those that work well in local conditions.
   Demonstration projects show developers and citizens the
   potential associated with attractive stormwater BMPs and
   instill confidence in their performance.
   Evaluate constraints (areas of high groundwater, poorly
   drained soils, etc.) and inform the development community
   about where the new BMP requirements apply and where site
   constraints prohibit LID  implementation.


  Bringing Developers Up to Speed on New Requirements

  The City of Philadelphia implemented a new stormwater ordinance
  with performance-based requirements that allow developers
  more flexibility in meeting stormwater, combined sewer overflow
  abatement, and flood control standards. To aid engineers and
  developers in adapting to the new policies, the City does not charge
  for plan reviews. They have brought in on-site contractors in addition
  to regular staff to review and suggest revisions to submissions. As
  time has passed they have seen a substantial drop in resubmissions.
Require LID for capital improvement projects
A municipality can set a good example, show confidence in the
use of new technology, and demonstrate success with pilot
projects in the public right-of-way. Municipalities have jurisdiction
over development activities in the right-of-way and on public
lands, which allows greater design flexibility and more reliable
maintenance using municipal crews. LID projects adapt well to
linear applications (streetscapes, courtyards, medians, etc.)
and small-scale open spaces. Work with facilities  management
and landscaping crews because maintenance of vegetated LID
practices sometimes requires special handling, such as hand-
weeding and prohibiting heavy equipment and pesticide use.
Also, consider adopting Leadership in Energy and  Environmental
Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System standards for all
municipal building and development projects (see "Expanded
Stormwater Guidelines for the LEED Green Building Rating
System" sidebar for more information).

Educate developers and maintenance crews
Allow time and dedicate staff resources for bringing design
engineers and landscape architects up to speed on  new
requirements. Provide checklists to help ensure compliance
with new procedures. Develop locally based coefficients where
Curb cuts allow water from the
street to flow into bioretention
areas
appropriate in order to
streamline sizing calculations
and include example
calculations to ensure
consistency and transparency
in project submittals. Hold
periodic training sessions on
LID applications, and request
that plan reviewers provide
specific comments when
submitted designs do not
meet standards.

Establish a maintenance
tracking system
Determine whether property
owners or the municipality
will be  responsible for
maintenance. If property
owners will be responsible,
there are a number of ways in which the municipality can assure
maintenance:
»  Require maintenance agreements, which are recorded with
   the  property deed, for new and existing BMPs.
»  Require a performance bond for new BMPs.
»  Perform spot inspections to identify maintenance problems
   and check maintenance records.
»  Require that property owners submit maintenance records or
   other evidence that maintenance was performed as prescribed.

Municipalities should consider a balance between compliance
assistance and enforcement mechanisms to ensure that
property owners uphold their maintenance responsibilities.

Maintain a database or geographic information system (GIS)
of locations of all LID BMPs. This database is needed for
maintenance assurance and can also be used for other efforts,
such as watershed modeling, stormwater master planning, and
inspection programs. Publicly owned BMPs should be tracked for
maintenance purposes as well as for asset inventories required
under Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB)
Statement No.  34 (www.gasb.org).

Quantify the benefits of LID
Present case studies showing the water quality and community
benefits of LID, whether modeled or measured. Good examples
and reliable data will help to make a case for  changes in
development standards by describing potential cost savings and
other amenities offered by LID. This information can be part of
a larger effort to educate municipal decision makers, such as
city councils, the mayor, commissioners, etc., about the benefits
of LID and to dispel any myths and misconceptions surrounding
"green" infrastructure. These studies can also be used to gain
buy-in from state permitting authorities and to quantify stormwater
management benefits in terms of volume reductions and pollutant
removal. One tool that can be used to estimate the benefits of
LID and conservation practices is the Center for Neighborhood

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                                                                                                             EPA833-F-07-011
            Incorporating Environmentally Sensitive Development into Municipal Stormwater Programs
Technology's (2007) Green Values Stormwater Calculator
(http://greenvalues.cnt.org/calculator), which allows users to
input site development characteristics and green practices and
returns financial and hydrologic outcomes for different scenarios.

  Modeling Tangible Benefits of Stormwater Retrofits:
  The Green Build-Out Model
  The Casey Trees Foundation (Deutsch et al., 2007) used the Green
  Build-Out Model to estimate how the addition of just two BMPs,
  tree cover and ecoroofs affected Stormwater runoff volumes in
  Washington, DC. Researchers modeled two scenarios: a "green
  build-out" scenario, in which trees and green  roofs were placed
  wherever possible, and a "lowend" scenario where trees and
  green roofs were placed wherever practical. Using a continuous
  wet weather simulation based on an average  year with a 1 -year,
  6-hour design storm, the two scenarios showed the following
  reductions in Stormwater entering the sewer system and discharges
  to Washington's streams and rivers. A follow up analysis is being
  conducted that adds several of the most commonly used LID
  practices and is expected to show a significant increase in flow
  reduction higher than figures listed below.
Result
Stormwater prevented
from entering the sewer
system
Reduction in discharges
Low-End
Scenario
310 million
gallons
282 million
gallons
High-End
Scenario
1.2 billion
gallons
1 billion
gallons
  Other key findings: green roofs were found to offer more storage
  than trees per unit area, trees are more beneficial when they
  overhang impervious areas, and larger tree boxes provide greater
  benefits by reducing imperviousness and allowing more tree growth.
Grant credit for LID and conservation measures
Communities can offer incentives to developers to preserve open
space, protect or plant trees, and implement LID site design
techniques by offering Stormwater credits. The goal of the credits
is to reduce the required capacity (and therefore the cost) of
Stormwater treatment practices using non-structural site design
and conservation measures. Credits can also be used to reduce
the Stormwater utility rate or user fee, if applicable. A number of
municipalities across the nation offer some form of Stormwater
credit, and some states have developed guidance to encourage
municipalities to adopt a credit system. For example, the State
of Minnesota (2006) describes six types of credits that local
jurisdictions can adopt:
»  Natural area conservation
»  Site reforestation or prairie restoration
»  Drainage to stream, wetland or shoreline buffers
»  Surface impervious cover disconnection
»  Rooftop disconnection
»  Grass channels
Minnesota also identifies four factors necessary for successful
establishment of a credit system:
»  Interest in and experience with LID techniques
»  A review process in which Stormwater management is
   discussed prior to initial site layout
»  Communication between plan reviewers and design
   consultants
»  Field verification of BMP efficacy by both parties

To establish  a Stormwater credit system, local jurisdictions
should choose which credits to offer based on local feasibility
factors, encourage designers to evaluate credit applicability early
in the design process, have  plan reviewers ensure that credits
are applied properly, and inspect sites after construction to
ensure that Stormwater features are in place and functioning as
intended.

Developers

Review new requirements and standards
Obtain and review new BMP standards and requirements from
the municipal planning department, including technical design
manuals, sample review checklists, and other educational
materials. Send design staff to any training workshops offered by
the municipality or any other organization that offers this kind of
training (e.g., the Center for Watershed Protection).

Get early buy-in for Stormwater BMP plans
During the conceptual design stage, meet with a representative
from the municipal planning department to discuss ways in which
LID can be incorporated into the site to avoid multiple design
iterations. Identify areas that are especially well-suited to LID
BMPs, such  as areas with well-drained soils, stands of mature
trees and other mature vegetation, and natural depressions
or low-lying areas of the site. Attempt to site buildings, roads,
and other infrastructure around these features if possible.
Arendt (1996) describes in detail a methodology for evaluating
a development site to maximize open space, reduce impervious
surfaces, and optimize Stormwater management. Delaware's
(1997) Conservation Design for Stormwater Management
(www.dnrec.state.de.us/DNREC2000/Divisions/Soil/
Stormwater/New/Delaware_CD_Manual.pdf) provides additional
guidance on designing low-impact site layouts, including case
studies comparing the impacts of different designs.
Space for BMPs is more limited in infill developments, though
many options are still available, such as the use of flow-through
planters in courtyards and along sidewalks, ecoroofs, and
narrow swales along the site's perimeter. Porous pavers can be
substituted for traditional pavement, and cisterns can be used to
store roof runoff for reuse.

Design for long-term maintenance
Developers should design BMPs with maintenance in mind.
Native plants should be selected wherever possible to reduce
chemical inputs and eliminate the need  for watering. Limited

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EPA833-F-07-011
Incorporating Environmentally Sensitive Development into Municipal Stormwater Programs
access areas or those that require special maintenance can
be set off from the surrounding landscape using low walls with
cuts to allow stormwater to enter, a row of stones, or other
physical or visual barriers. Access should be provided for periodic
maintenance that might require heavy equipment.

Developers should include detailed guidance on BMP
maintenance with the property deed, including prescribed
maintenance activities, inspection schedules and checklists,
plant lists, and guidance on how to recognize problems or
malfunctions. The maintenance information should distinguish
between inspections and maintenance activities that require
special expertise versus those that can be performed by
homeowners or laborers.

Phase construction activities and practice site fingerprinting
When planning construction activities, developers should
identify ways to minimize the amount of earth disturbed at any
one time. This can be accomplished by phasing construction
activities so that only a portion of the site is cleared and graded
at one time. The remainder of the site can be left undisturbed
to reduce erosion. Also, developers should make every effort to
disturb as little of the site as possible. This practice, called "site
fingerprinting," involves clearing only the areas of a site that will
contain buildings or infrastructure, leaving open spaces in a
natural condition and preserving existing vegetation.

Revise corporate policies to promote LID
Developers can choose to implement LID and other
environmentally friendly business practices across the board
by adopting a corporate policy to require site analyses for all
development projects that identify opportunities for "greening"
developments. Because consumers are becoming more aware of
the impacts of development on the environment, developers who
regularly incorporate environmentally sensitive features into their
projects can market their properties as "environmentally friendly"
to appeal to this increased level of awareness.
Arendt, R. 1996. Conservation Design for Subdivisions: A Practical Guide to
   Creating Open Space Networks. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Center for Neighborhood Technology. 2007. Green Values Stormwater
   Calculator, http://greenvalues.cnt.org/calculator.

Delaware DNRECand the Brandywine Conservancy. 1997. Conservation
   Design for Stormwater Management: A Design Approach to Reduce
   Stormwater Impacts from Land Development and Achieve Multiple
   Objectives Related to Land Use. Delaware Department of Natural
   Resources and Environmental Control, Dover, DE, and the Environmental
   Management Center of the Brandywine Conservancy, Chadds Ford, PA.

Deutsch, B., H. Whitlow, H. Howard, M. Sullivan, and A. Savineau. 2007.
   The Green Build-out Model: Quantifying Stormwater Benefits of Trees &
   Greenroofs in Washington, DC. Project Overview as of January 30, 2007.

Kansas City, Missouri. 2006.10,000 Rain Gardens, www.rainkc.org.

Liptan, T. Promoting Low Impact Development for Retrofits—What Works
   and at What Cost. Presented at the Annual ACWA Stormwater Summit,
   April 4, 2007, Eugene, OR.

Low Impact Development Center. 2007. Introduction to Low Impact
   Development (LID), www.lid-stormwater.net/background.htm.

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. 2006. State of Minnesota Stormwater
   Manual, Version 1.1. www.pca.state.mn.us/water/stormwater/
   stormwater-manual.html.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. Low Impact Development Pays
   Off. Nonpoint Source News-Notes 75: 7-10.

Winer-Skonovd, R., D. Hirschman, H.Y. Kwon, and C. Swann. 2006.
   Memorandum: Synthesis of Existing Cost Information for LID vs.
   Conventional Practices. Chesapeake NEMO.
  Expanded Stormwater Guidelines for the LEED Green
  Building Rating System
  The U.S. Green Building Council developed The Leadership in Energy
  and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System™
  as a nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction,
  and operation of high performance green buildings. The LEED
  rating system includes "points" or credits for onsite stormwater
  management, including construction site pollution prevention,
  protecting/restoring habitat, maximizing open space, controlling
  stormwater quantity and quality, and using water-efficient
  landscaping. The Council has recently developed a Neighborhood
  Development Rating System that integrates the principles of smart
  growth, urbanism, and green building into a national standard for
  neighborhood design. This rating system provides greater specificity
  related to water quality enhancement, offering up to 5 points for
  a comprehensive stormwater management plan that infiltrates,
  re-uses, or evapotranspirates runoff from impervious surfaces. Infill
  development has less stringent requirements than new development.
  See www.usgbc.org for more information about the LEED rating
  system.
Manuals and Reports
Rooftops to Rivers: Green Strategies for Controlling Stormwater and
Combined Sewer Overflows
   www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/rooftops/rooftops.pdf (PDF, 3.0 MB,
   54 pages)
   Provides policy guidance for decision makers and includes nine case
   studies of cities that employed green techniques successfully.

The Practice of Low Impact Development (LID)
   www.huduser.org/Publications/PDF/practLowlmpctDevel.pdf (PDF,
   3.31 MB, 131 pages)
   Provides a brief introduction LID and discusses conventional and
   alternative techniques and technologies that developers can integrate
   into their existing land development practices. Focuses on technologies
   that affect both the cost impacts and environmental issues associated
   with land development.

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                                                                                                                      EPA833-F-07-011
             Incorporating Environmentally Sensitive Development into Municipal Stormwater Programs
Conservation Design for Stormwater Management
   www.dnrec.state.de.us/DNREC2000/Divisions/Soil/Stormwater/New/
   Delaware_CD_Manual.pdf (PDF, 9.7 MB, 228 pages)
   Provides guidance for incorporating conservation into site designs,
   including six case studies comparing conservation designs to traditional
   designs.

Delaware Green Technology BMPs
   www.swc.dnrec.delaware.gov/SedimentStormwater.htm
   Delaware's Sediment and Stormwater Program website contains
   links to Delaware's resources for green technology, including a Green
   Technology Best Practices Brochure and Standards & Specifications for
   Green Technology BMPs.
Growing Greener: Conservation by Design
   www.natlands.org/uploads/document_33200515638.pdf (PDF, 1.63
   BM, 20 pages)
   A statewide community planning initiative designed to help communities
   use the development regulation process to their advantage to protect
   interconnected networks of greenways and permanent open space. The
   booklet can be downloaded in PDF format at.
Better Site Design: A Handbook for Changing Development Rules in Your
Community
   www.cwp.org/pubs_download.htm (available for purchase)
   Outlines 22 guidelines for better developments and provides a detailed
   rationale for each principle. Also examines current practices in local
   communities, details the economic and environmental benefits of better
   site designs, and presents case studies from across the country.
Conservation Design for Subdivisions: A Practical Guide for Creating Open
Space Networks
   www.amazon.com/Conservation-Design-Subdivisions-Practical-
   Creating/dp/1559634898
   A plain-language, illustrated guide for designing open space subdivisions
   (available for purchase).
Low-Impact Development Design Strategies: An Integrated Design
Approach
   www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/lidnatl.pdf (PDF, 9MB, 150 pages)
   This document was prepared by the Prince George's County Maryland
   Department of Environmental  Resources Programs and Planning
   Division, with assistance from EPA.
Low-Impact Development Hydrologic Analysis
   www.epa.gov/owow/nps/lid/lid_hydr.pdf (PDF, 2MB, 45 pages)
   This document was prepared by the Prince George's County Maryland
   Department of Environmental  Resources Programs and Planning
   Division, with assistance from EPA. The design charts from the
   appendices of this document are not available in PDF format.

Websites
EPA LID Website
   w w w. e pa. go v/o wow/n ps/l i d
   A compilation of a number of resources, with links to Web sites, a
   literature review, fact sheets, and technical guidance.
Low Impact Development Center Website
   www.lowimpactdevelopment.org
   A nonprofit organization whose goal is to promote water resource and
   environmental protection through proper site design techniques that
   replicate preexisting hydrologic site conditions. Their website contains
   a variety of technical resources and case studies exemplifying LID
   techniques.
Center for Watershed Protection  Website
   www.cwp.org
   A nonprofit organization that provides technical tools for protecting water
   resources to local governments,  activists, and watershed organizations.
   The Center has developed a number of excellent publications pertaining
   to site design and watershed protection.
    Rain barrels are appropriate for residential settings.


Green Values Stormwater Toolbox
   http://greenvalues.cnt.org
   This site by the Center for Neighborhood Technology contains an
   overview and definition of green infrastructure practices and hosts
   the "Green Values Stormwater Calculator" that allows users to select
   "green interventions"  and enter site characteristics, returning hydrologic
   and financial outcomes for each scenario. It also includes a pocket
   guide called Water: From Trouble to Treasure, A Pocket Guide to Green
   Solutions.

Ordinances
Maryland Model Stormwater Management Ordinance
   www.mde.state.md.us/assets/document/sedimentstormwater/
   model_ordinance.pdf (PDF, 2.1MB, 28 pages)

Stafford County, Virginia, Low Impact Development Subdivision Ordinance
Amendments
   www.riverfriends.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=qm80RtwjwGO%3d&
   tabid=86&mid=425(PDF, 137KB, 6 pages)

Stafford County, Virginia, Low Impact Development Stormwater Code
Amendments
   www.riverfriends.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=tcM6iE7Ko3l%3d&tabid
   =86&mid=425(PDF,  226 KB, 32 pages)

Warsaw, Virginia, Low Impact Development Ordinance Amendments
   www.riverfriends.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=VlaUwo%2fvYtQ%3d&
   tabid=86&mid=425(PDF, 104 KB, 3 pages)

Permits
Ventura, California, MS4  Permit
   www.swrcb.ca.gov/rwqcb4/html/programs/stormwater/
   venturaMs4.html
•  U.S. EPA-Paula Estornell
   estornell.paula@epa.gov
•  West Virginia—Sherry Wilkins
   swilkins@wvdep.org

   NOTE: This document is not law or regulation; it provides
  recommendations and explanations that MS4s may consider in
  determining how to comply with requirements of the CWA and
  NPDES permit requirements.

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