United States
        Environmental Protection
        Agency
Great Lakes National Program Office
77 West Jackson Boulevard
Chicago, Illinois 60604
EPA-905-R-04-001
February 2004
&EPA Phase II Investigation of
        Sediment Contamination
        in White Lake

-------
                       PHASE II INVESTIGATION
                    OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION
                            IN WHITE LAKE
                                   BY
Dr. Richard Rediske
Dr. Michael Chu
Dr. Don Uzarski
Jeff Auch
R. B. Annis Water Resources Institute
Grand Valley State University
740 W.  Shoreline Dr.
Muskegon, MI 49441
Dr. Graham Peaslee
Chemistry Department
Hope College
35 E. 12th St.
Holland MI 49423
                             Dr. John Gabrosek
                             Department of Statistics
                             Grand Valley State University
                             1 Campus Drive
                             Allendale, MI 49401
           GREAT LAKES NATIONAL PROGRAM OFFICE # GL975368-01-0
                     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency

                             PROJECT OFFICER:

                             Dr. Marc Tuchman
                     U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                      Great Lakes National Program Office
                            77 West Jackson Blvd.
                           Chicago IL 60604-3590

                               February 2004

-------
                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was supported by grant #GL975368-01-0 from the Environmental  Protection
Agency Great  Lakes National Program  Office (GLNPO) to the Annis Water  Resources
Institute (AWRI) at Grand Valley State University.

Project Team

EPA Project Officer
Dr. Marc Tuchman  USEPA GLNPO

Principal Scientists
Dr. Richard Rediske         AWRI/GVSU              Sediment Chemistry
Dr. Michael Chu           AWRI/GVSU              GIS
Dr. Don Uzarski            AWRI/GVSU              Aquatic Ecology
Jeff Audi                  AWRI/GVSU              Benthic Macroinvertebrates
Dr. John Gabrosek          GVSU                    Statistical Methods
Dr. Graham Peaslee         Hope College              Radiochemistry

Project technical assistance was provided by the following individuals at GVSU and U of M:

       Trace Analytical
       Trimatrix Laboratories
       Eric Andrews
       Betty Doyle
       Gail Smythe
       Al Steinman

Ship support was provided by the crew of the R/V Mudpuppy  (USEPA) and Captain Joe.
Bonem

                                   Disclaimer

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Great Lakes National Program Office
funded the project described here under Grant GL-975207 to Grand Valley State University.
It has not been subjected to Agency review and therefore does not necessarily  reflect the
views of the Agency, and no official endorsement should be inferred.

Reference herein to  any specific commercial products, process  or service by trade name,
trademark, manufacturer or otherwise,  does  not necessarily  constitute  or  imply its
endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government. The views and
opinions of the authors  expressed  herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the
United States Government, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement
purposes.

-------
                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
List Of Tables	iii

List Of Figures	vi

Executive Summary	1

1.0 Introduction	2
       1.1  Summary of Anthropogenic Activities In White Lake	5
       1.2  Project Objectives And Task Elements	7
       1.3  Experimental Design	9
       1.4  References	11

2.0 Sampling Locations	13

3.0 Methods	17
       3.1  Sampling Methods	17
       3.2  Chemical Analysis Methods For Sediment Analysis	18
       3.3  Chemical Analysis Methods For Water Analysis	29
       3.4  Sediment Toxicity	29
       3.5  Benthic Macroinvertebrate Analysis	33
       3.6  Radiometric Dating	33
       3.7  Statistical Analysis	34
       3.8  Contaminant Mapping	34
       3.9  References	35

4.0 Results And Discussion	36
       4.1  Sediment Chemistry Results	36
       4.2  Stratigraphy and Radiodating Results	53
       4.3  Toxicity Testing Results	63
       4.4  Benthic Macroinvertebrate Results	73
       4.5  Chromium Uptake by Aquatic Organisms	87

-------
      4.6  The Environmental Fate and  Significance of Chromium and PCBs in
             White Lake	90
      4.7    Sediment Quality Triad Assessment of Contaminated sediments in
             White Lake	100
      4.8 Summary and Conclusions	101
      4.9 References	102

5.0 Recommendations	106

Appendices   	107
Appendix A.   Quality Assurance Review of the Project Data	108
Appendix B.   Results Physical Analyses On White Lake Sediments, October 2000	115
Appendix C.   Organic Analyses On White Lake Sediments, October 2000	120
Appendix D.   Results Of Metals Analyses For White Lake Sediments,  October
              2000	128
Appendix E.   Summary Of Chemical Measurements For The Toxicity Test With
              Sediments From White Lake, October 2000	133
Appendix F.   Summary Of Benthic Macroinvertebrate  Results For White Lake,
              October 2000	150
                                         11

-------
                                LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1     White Lake Core Sampling Stations	15
Table 2.2     White Lake Stratigraphy Sampling Stations	16
Table 2.3     White Lake PONAR Core Sampling Stations	16
Table 3.1     Sample Containers, Preservatives, And Holding Times	18
Table 3.2.1    Analytical Methods And Detection Limits	19
Table 3.2.2    Organic Parameters And Detection Limits	25
Table 3.2.3    Data Quality Objectives For Surrogate Standards	26
Table 3.2.4    Sediment Detection Limits for PCBs	27
Table 3.3.1    Analytical Methods And Detection Limits For Culture Water	29
Table 3.4.1    Test Conditions For Conducting A Ten Day Sediment Toxicity Test
             WUhHyalellaazteca	31
Table 3.4.2    Recommended Test Conditions For Conducting A Ten Day Sediment
             Toxicity Test With Chironomus tentans	32
Table 4.1.1    Results Of Sediment Grain Size Fractions,  TOC, And Percent Solids
             For White Lake Core Samples, October 2000	37
Table 4.1.2    Results Of Sediment Grain Size Fractions,  TOC, And Percent Solids
             For White Lake PONAR Samples, October 2000	38
Table 4.1.3    Results Of Sediment Metal Analyses For White Lake Core Samples
             (mg/kg Dry Weight), October 2000	40
Table 4.1.4    Results Of Sediment Metal Analyses For White Lake PONAR
             Samples (mg/kg Dry Weight), October 2000	41
Table 4.1.5    Results of Sediment PCB and Semivolatile Analyses for White Lake
             Core Samples (mg/kg Dry Weight), October 2000	42
Table 4.1.6    Results of Sediment PCB and Semivolatile Analyses for White Lake
             PONAR Samples (mg/kg Dry Weight), October 2000	43
Table 4.1.7    Spearman Rank Order Correlations for Chemical and Physical
             Parameters For White Lake Sediments	52
Table 4.1.8    Concentration of Organic Chromium in White Lake Sediments	53
Table 4.2.1    Stratigraphy and Radiodating Results For Core WL-2S Collected
             From White Lake, October 2001	54
Table 4.2.2    Stratigraphy and Radiodating Results For Core WL-7S Collected
             From White Lake, October 2001	57
Table 4.2.3    Stratigraphy and Radiodating Results For Core WL-9S Collected
             From White Lake, October 2001	59
                                         in

-------
Table 4.2.4   Results of TCP and PIXE Analyses for Chromium in Core WL-9S
             Collected From White Lake, October 2001	62
Table 4.2.5   Average and Corrected Data for Stratigraphy Cores (October 2001)
             Compared to the Results of the Top Core Section From the
             Investigative Survey (October 2000) for White Lake Sediments	62
Table 4.3.1.1  Summary Of Hyalella azteca Survival Data Obtained During The 10
             Day Toxicity Test With White Lake Sediments	64
Table 4.3.1.2  Summary Of Dunnett's Test Analysis Of Hyalella azteca Survival
             Data Obtained During The 10 Day Toxicity Test With White Lake
             Sediments From Shallow Stations	65
Table 4.3.1.3  Summary Of Dunnett's Test Analysis OfHyalella azteca Survival
             Data Obtained During The 10 Day Toxicity Test With White Lake
             Sediments From Deep Stations	65
Table 4.3.2.1  Summary Of Chironomus tentans Survival Data Obtained During The
             10 Day Toxicity Test With White Lake Sediments	67
Table 4.3.2.2  Summary Of Dunnett's Test Analysis Of Chironomus tentans Survival
             Data Obtained During The 10 Day Toxicity Test With White Lake
             Sediments From Shallow Stations	68
Table 4.3.2.3  Summary Of Dunnett's Test Analysis OfChironomus tentans Survival
             Data Obtained During The 10 Day Toxicity Test With White Lake
             Sediments From Deep Stations	68
Table 4.3.2.4  Summary Of Chironomus tentans Dry Weight Data Obtained During
             The 10 Day Toxicity Test With White Lake Sediments	69
Table 4.3.2.5  Summary of Dunnett's Test Analysis of Chironomus tentans Growth
             Data Obtained During The 10 Day Toxicity Test With White Lake
             Sediments From Shallow Stations	70
Table 4.3.2.6  Summary of Dunnett's Test Analysis of Chironomus tentans Growth
             Data Obtained During The 10 Day Toxicity Test With White Lake
             Sediments From Deep Stations	70
Table 4.3.3.1  Summary of Results of Total Chromium, Organic Chromium, and
             Amphipod Survival for White Lake Sediments	71
Table 4.4.1.1  Benthic Macroinvertebrate Distribution In White Lake (#/m2), October
             2000. Mean Number Of Organisms And Standard Deviation Reported
             For Each Station	74
Table 4.4.1.2  Mean Abundance (#/m2) And Relative Densities (%) of Major
             Taxonomic Groups in White Lake, October 2000	77
Table 4.4.2.1  Summary of Diversity And Trophic Status Metrics for the Benthic
             Macroinvertebrates in White Lake, October 2000	80
                                         IV

-------
Table 4.4.2.2  Spearman Rank Order Correlations for Ecological, Chemical, and
             Physical Parameters for White Lake	82
Table 4.4.3.1  Summary Statistics for the Analysis of Individual Benthic
             Macroinvertebrate Samples from White Lake, October 2000	84
Table 4.5.1   Chromium Concentration in Macrophytes and Zebra Mussels in
             Tannery Bay	87
Table 4.5.2   Chromium Concentration in Chironomids from Tannery Bay	88
Table 4.6.1   White Lake Chromium Data	90
Table 4.6.2   White Lake PCB Data	96
Table 4.7.1   Sediment Quality Assessment Matrix for White Lake Data, October
             2000. Assessment Matrix from Chapman (1992)	100

-------
                                LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1    White Lake	2
Figure 1.2    Areas Of Sediment Contamination Identified In White Lake	5
Figure 2.1    White Lake Core and PONAR Sampling Stations	14
Figure 4.1.1   Distribution of Arsenic in Core Samples Collected in Western White
             Lake, October 2000	44
Figure 4.1.2   Distribution of Chromium in Core Samples Collected in Western
             White Lake, October 2000	44
Figure 4.1.3   Distribution of Lead in Core Samples Collected in Western White
             Lake, October 2000	45
Figure 4.1.4   Comparison of Arsenic Concentrations in PONAR Samples and Top
             Core Sections Collected in White Lake, October 2000	45
Figure 4.1.5   Comparison of Chromium Concentrations in PONAR Samples and
             Top Core Sections Collected in White Lake, October 2000	46
Figure 4.1.6   Comparison of Lead Concentrations in PONAR Samples and Top
             Core Sections Collected in White Lake, October 2000	46
Figure 4.1.7   Distribution of Aroclor 1248 in Core Samples Collected in Western
             White Lake, October 2000	48
Figure 4.1.8   Distribution of Chromium in PONAR Samples for White Lake,
             October 2000	49
Figure 4.1.9   Bathymetric plot of White Lake	50
Figure 4.1.10 PCA Analysis of White Lake Physical and Chemical Data	51
Figure 4.2.1   Depth and Concentration Profiles for Chromium, Lead-210, and
             Cesium-137 at Station WL-2S, White Lake, October 2001	55
Figure 4.2.2   Depth and Concentration Profiles for Chromium, Lead-210, and
             Cesium-137 at Station WL-7S, White Lake, October 2001	58
Figure 4.2.3   Depth and Concentration Profiles for Chromium, Lead-210, and
             Cesium-137 at Station WL-9S, White Lake, October 2001	60
Figure 4.3.3.1 Relationship Between Total Chromium and Amphipod Survival for
             Tannery Bay Sediments	71
Figure 4.3.3.2 Relationship Between Organic Chromium and Amphipod Survival for
             Tannery Bay Sediments	72
Figure 4.4.1.1 General Distribution  Of Benthic Macroinvertebrates In White Lake,
             October 2000	78
Figure 4.4.2.1 Summary Of Trophic Indices (Pollution Tolerance) For The Benthic
             Macroinvertebrates In White Lake, October 2000	81
                                          VI

-------
Figure 4.4.3.1 Canonical Correspondence Analysis of Benthic Macroinvertebrate
             Taxa for White Lake, October 2000	83
Figure 4.4.4.1 Plot of CCA Dimension 1 (Macroinvertebrate Taxa) and Chromium
             for White Lake Sediments, October 2000	86
Figure 4.5.1   Chromium Accumulation in Macrophytes and Zebra Mussels in
             Tannery Bay	88
Figure 4.5.2   Chromium Accumulation in Chironomids from Tannery Bay	89
Figure 4.6.1   Chromium Sampling Points in White Lake	91
Figure 4.6.2   Chromium Sampling Points in the Vicinity of Tannery Bay	92
Figure 4.6.3   Chromium Concentration Contours for White Lake Surficial
             Sediments	93
Figure 4.6.4   Generalized  Circulation Pattern for White Lake	94
Figure 4.6.5   PCB Sampling Points in White Lake	97
Figure 4.6.6   PCB Concentration Contours in the Surficial Sediments in the Vicinity
             of the Former Occidental/Hooker Chemical Discharge	98
Figure 4.6.7   PCB Concentration Contours in the Surficial Sediments in White Lake	99
                                         vn

-------
Executive Summary

A Phase II investigation of the nature and extent of sediment contamination in White Lake
was performed.  Sediment chemistry, solid-phase toxicity, and benthic macroinvertebrates
were examined at  21  locations.  Since chromium was previously identified  as the major
contaminant in the  sediments, experiments were conducted to determine the accumulation of
the metal in zebra mussels, macrophytes, and chironomids. In addition, three  core samples
were  evaluated  using radiodating and  stratigraphy to  assess  sediment   stability  and
contaminant deposition. High levels of chromium were found to cover a majority of the lake
bottom and to extend 8 km from Tannery Bay.  All locations sampled west of Tannery Bay
exceeded the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC). Most of the chromium was found in the
top 51 cm of the core samples.  High concentrations of PCBs were found near  the outfall of
the former Occidental/Hooker Chemical facility.  These levels also exceeded PEC guidelines.
Sediment toxicity was observed in the east bay area and at the Occidental/Hooker Chemical
outfall.  Toxicity near the Occidental/Hooker  Chemical outfall was  probably due to the
presence  of PCBs. No obvious toxicant was present in the sediments from  the east  bay.
While no relationship was previously observed for total chromium and amphipod toxicity, a
significant correlation was found for the organically bound fraction and the metal. Elevated
levels of organic chromium were found in archived sediments from Tannery Bay.  Benthic
macroinvertebrate  communities throughout White Lake were  found to be  indicative of
organically enriched conditions.  The locations in the east bay  were significantly  different
than reference sites, as indicated by a shift to chironomids that were predators and sprawlers.
Chironomid populations in the remainder of the lake were burrowers and detritivores. Higher
densities of nematodes  and reduced tubificids populations were  associated with the stations
with elevated chromium  levels (> 400 mg/kg).  The metal also  was correlated with an
increase in  the trophic status of chironomid  populations.  Chromium  accumulation  was
observed in chironomid populations throughout White Lake.  In addition, macrophytes and
zebra mussels in Tannery Bay were observed to accumulate the metal in their tissue.

All of the stratigraphy cores  showed uniform levels of chromium deposition in the top 10 -
15 cm.  This pattern suggested that a constant source of chromium was present in White
Lake. A standard  exponential  decay pattern was absent in the lower sections of the cores,
indicating that historical changes in sedimentation were caused by episodic events.   These
data coupled with chromium contour maps and the generalized circulation pattern of the lake
were used to elucidate  the fate and transport of the metal. The proximity to the drowned
rivermouth currents at the Narrows and the wind induced resuspension in the  bay provided
conditions that facilitated the advection and dispersion of a sediment plume 8 km from its
source. Higher concentrations  of chromium were found in the three deep deposition basins
(300-500 mg/kg).  In contrast, the PCBs discharged by the Occidental/Hooker Chemical
outfall remained within 100 m of the outfall pipe. The depth of the discharge (15 m) plus the
depositional nature of the discharge zone acted to confine the contaminants to a small area.
The removal of contaminated sediments in Tannery Bay and the Occidental/Hooker outfall
were completed by October 2003.   Both remedial actions are essential for the recovery of
White Lake.  Remediation  at Tannery Bay removed  the  ongoing source  of chromium
contamination while  dredging the Occidental/Hooker outfall reduced the amount of
bioaccumulative compounds in  the lake.

-------
1.0    Introduction

White Lake, Michigan is a 10.2 km2 (4,150 acres) drowned river mouth lake that is directly
connected to Lake Michigan by a navigation channel. The lake has a mean depth of 7.3  m
and an estimated volume of 7.6xl07 m3 (Freedman et al. 1979). Deep deposition zones are
located at Dowies Point (17 m) and Long Point (21 m).  The lake is part of the White River
watershed, which has a drainage basin of 139,279 hectares (2,634 square miles).  The White
River originates in  Newaygo County and flows through  a large marsh/estuary  complex
before entering White Lake. A predominately western flow is maintained through the lake
resulting in a residence time of 56 days. Strong currents are often noted in the region called
the Narrows, where two peninsulas cause  a restriction in the watercourse and produce
riverine flow conditions through  the passage. White Lake functions as a significant fishery
and recreational area in this region  of the Great Lakes and provides an important transition
zone between  the open  waters of Lake Michigan and the estuary/riverine environments
associated with the White River.
                                       1 MILE
                              FIGURE 1.1 WHITE LAKE.

-------
White Lake has a long history of environmental issues  related to water  quality and the
discharge of toxic materials.  The lake was impacted in the mid 1800s when saw mills were
constructed on the shoreline during the lumbering era. During this period, a large portion of
the littoral  zone was filled  with  sawdust,  wood chips, timber wastes, and bark.   Large
deposits of lumbering waste can still be found today in the nearshore zone of White Lake.
The lumbering era was followed in the 1900s by an era of industrial expansion related to the
construction of specialty chemical production  facilities and a leather tanning operation.
Tannery waste from Whitehall Leather was discharged directly into White Lake from 1890-
1973.  Effluents from  Hooker Chemical's (now Occidental Chemical)  chloralkali and
pesticide production were discharged from the 1950-1986 (Evans  1992 and GLC 2000).
Chlorinated organic chemicals from DuPont and Muskegon Chemical (now Koch Chemical)
have also entered White Lake through groundwater and surface water discharges. As a result,
degraded conditions  were  observed  in much  of  the lake,  as well as high  sediment
concentrations of heavy metals and pesticide related chemicals. Evans (1992)  presented a
review of studies that described  extensive areas of oxygen depletion, high quantities  of
chromium in the sediments, thermal pollution, the discharge of industrial wastes with a high
oxygen demand from the tannery  (sulfide and organic matter), tainted fish, frequent algal
blooms, and high nutrient concentrations.  Generally, oligochaetes were the dominant benthic
taxa and  macroinvertebrate  species richness and diversity were low across  the lake (Evans
1976). These factors indicated that eutrophic conditions were prevalent in  1972, especially,
the southeastern portion of the lake.  The International Joint Commission designated White
Lake as an Area of Concern (AOC) because of severe environmental impairments related to
these discharges.  The AOC boundary includes the lake and several small sub watersheds.  In
1973, a state of the art wastewater  treatment facility was constructed and the direct discharge
of waste effluents and partially treated municipal sewage to White Lake was eliminated. The
new facility was constructed near  Silver Creek and utilized aeration, lagoon impoundment,
spray irrigation and land treatment to remove nutrients, heavy metals, and organic chemicals.
While the system was very effective in reducing the  point source load of nutrients to White
Lake, nonpoint contributions from upstream sources increased after construction and a net
reduction in loading was not observed during 1974 and 1975 (Freedman et al. 1979).

Recent and historical studies have indicated extensive contamination of sediments in White
Lake. Elevated levels of chromium,  lead, arsenic, and mercury were  detected in  the
northeastern section  of the  lake in 1982 during a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(U.S.EPA) funded study conducted by the West Michigan Shoreline Regional Development
Commission  (WMSRDC   1982).  This  study  also  found  evidence  of  heavy  metal
contamination in several locations along the  northwest shore.  In  a more recent study
conducted in the summer of 1994 by  U.S.EPA/Michigan Department of Environmental
Quality (MDEQ), elevated concentrations of these metals were detected in an area of the
northeast shore of White Lake (Bolattino and Fox 1995). This area (Tannery Bay) was the
historical discharge point for tannery  effluent from Whitehall  Leather.  The chromium levels
found in  the sediments of this area (4,500 mg/kg) were some of the highest concentrations
reported from any site in the Great Lakes.  In a recent investigation, Rediske et al. (1998)
determined the distribution of chromium in western White Lake and evaluated the toxicity

and stability of sediments in Tannery Bay. Key findings of the investigation were as follows:

-------
    >  Sediments in Tannery Bay were acutely toxic to amphipods and midges.
    >  Chromium concentrations in Tannery Bay ranged from 1000 mg/kg to 4,500 mg/kg.
       No  correlation was found  between  solid  phase toxicity  and  total chromium
       concentrations.
    >  The highest degree of toxicity was found in the bay located to the east of Tannery
       Bay. Chromium levels were low (100 mg/kg - 200 mg/kg) at this location.
    >  Benthic macroinvertebrates in Tannery Bay and the east bay were lower in diversity
       and contained more pollution tolerant organisms than an  uncontaminated control
       location.
    >  Profiles of 210Pb showed that mixing was occurring in the top 20 cm  of sediment in
       Tannery Bay.
    >  Chromium levels  approaching  900 mg/kg were found 2.4 km  (1.5 miles) down
       gradient of the discharge point.
    >  High levels of PCBs (100 mg/kg) were detected in the sediments near the discharge
       of the former Occidental Chemical facility (Dowies Point).

The extent of chromium and PCB contamination in western White Lake was not investigated
in the previous study. While we know that high levels of chromium are  present in the  near
surface zone in many areas of eastern  White Lake, the toxicity of these sediments has not
been evaluated.  In  addition, contaminant sediment profiles, toxicity evaluations, and an
assessment of the macroinvertebrate community have not been performed  in section of White
Lake from Dowies Point to the Lake Michigan channel.  The  presence  of contaminated
sediments and ecological impairments in the eastern half of the lake coupled with westerly
flow  of water  through  the  lake  underscore  the importance of conducting  a more
comprehensive assessment of the system.

This investigation expanded the historical data and addressed critical data gaps related to the
distribution of chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the western half of White Lake
and the toxicity of sediments outside of Tannery Bay. The investigative sampling focused on
regions of sediment contamination in areas near the shoreline and in  deeper deposition zones.
A series of 10 sediment cores and 20  PONAR samples were analyzed for heavy metals,
semivolatiles,  PCBs,  and  physical characteristics.   PONAR samples  were analyzed for
benthic macroinvertebrates  and sediment toxicity.    Chromium  levels  in  the  benthic
macroinvertebrates were also examined. In addition, three cores from deposition zones were
dated using 210Pb and 137Cs. These  cores were analyzed for chromium and radionuclides to
determine the  depositional patterns and contaminant flux in the lake. The  study protocol
followed the sediment quality triad approach (Canfield 1998)  and focused on sediment
chemistry,  sediment toxicity,  and the status of the  in  situ benthic  macroinvertebrate
community.  The information from  this investigation will be important in the determination
of areas that may require further delineation and the prioritization of remedial action and
habitat restoration activities. Additionally, these data will further our understanding of the
ecological significance of sediments that are mobile and subject to resuspension in drowned
river mouth systems.

-------
1.1 Summary Of Anthropogenic Activities In White Lake

Areas and sources of contained sediments were recently inventoried as part of the Remedial
Action Plan (RAP) update for White Lake (Rediske 2002). Locations and sources are shown
in Figure  1.2.   Wastes discharged  by Whitehall Leather from 1890-1973 have impacted
eastern White Lake. Wastewater and sludge from tanning operations based on a tree bark
process were discharged into the east bay and Tannery Bay from 1890 to 1945.  The process
was changed to a chromium-based system in 1945 and wastewater containing heavy metals,
hide fragments, and animal hair was discharged directly into the bay. Arsenic and mercury
were added to the  process as preservatives. In addition to heavy metals, the wastewater
contained high levels of organic nitrogen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and sulfide.
                                  Occidental
                                   Chemical
                                  Discharge
  DuPont
  Chemical
Groundwater
   Plume
Tannery
  Bay
                                                             Koch
                                                           Chemical
                                                       0.5    0    0.5     1  Miles
    FIGURE 1.2   AREAS OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IDENTIFIED IN WHITE LAKE

-------
Solid wastes, dredged  materials from the lagoons,  and process sludge  were disposed in
landfill areas adjacent to the shore. Local residents  frequently reported problems with the
erosion of the solid waste materials. Recent and historical studies have indicated extensive
contamination of sediments in this region of White Lake. High levels of chromium (4,000 -
60,000 mg/kg),  mercury  (1 -15  mg/kg), and arsenic (10 - 200  mg/kg)  were reported
(Bolattino and Fox 1995, Rediske et al.  1998).  The sediments  were found to be subject to a
high degree of mixing in the bay and they also were  toxic in laboratory bioassays. Internal
resuspension plus the presence of high surface zone  chromium concentrations 2.4 km  from
the discharge point suggested that the sediments were subject  to transport by lake currents.
Based on this information, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Michigan Department
of Environmental Quality conducted a feasibility study and developed a remediation plan for
Tannery Bay that involved the removal of 85,000 cubic yards of contaminated sediment. The
dredging began in September 2002  and was  completed   in 2003.   A  contaminated
groundwater plume exists on site and is currently being treated.  The treatment system will
have to remain  in place to prevent future sediment contamination.   A large amount of
contaminated soils is also present on site and needs to stabilized or removed to prevent future
sediment contamination by erosion and runoff.

The sediments in the bay area  east of Tannery Bay were found to be contaminated  with
chromium slightly above the Probable Effect  Concentration (PEC) in 1997  (Rediske et al.
1998).  This location is on the  shoreline of the Whitehall Leather facility and is also in the
discharge zone of the former City of Whitehall wastewater treatment plant. Sediments  were
found to be highly toxic in laboratory bioassays and the diversity and total  number of benthic
macroinvertebrates were reduced.  The toxicant in the sediments could not be identified.  In
consideration of the high toxicity and the degree of impact to the benthic community,  further
investigation and toxicity evaluations need to be performed in the east bay.

The Occidental  Chemical facility  discharge  zone near Dowies Point received chemical
production  wastes from chloralkali  and  pesticide intermediate production operations  from
1954 to 1977. Levels of chromium and lead  that exceeded PEC values were found in the
sediments at  this location in previous  investigations (West Michigan Shoreline Regional
Development Commission 1982, Evans  1976).  Rediske et al. (1998) determined that the
deep water zone off Dowies  Point functioned as  a  deposition  area  for contaminated
sediments that were transported from Tannery Bay.  This determination  was based  on the
presence of high chromium concentrations and mats of animal  hair in the surficial zone.  A
core sample collected from the area revealed  the presence of high  levels of PCBs  (> 100
mg/kg)  and  chlorinated pesticide  byproducts at sediment  depths  of  1-3 ft.   Further
investigations  conducted  by  Earth  Tech (2000) found a 30  x  100  m   area that  was
contaminated with PCBs above the PEC value.  The area was localized in the former effluent
discharge zone and followed the  prevailing  lake currents to the  west. The Earth  Tech
investigation  also  revealed  an  elliptical 30  m  zone  that  was  devoid  of  benthic
macroinvertebrates.  Because of the high  level of PCBs present in the sediments and the
potential for bioaccumulation in the local fish

-------
populations, Occidental  Chemical and the EPA have agreed to remove the contaminated
sediments by dredging.  The removal operations were completed in the fall of 2003.  A
groundwater treatment system is in place that prevents a plume of contaminants  from
reaching White Lake. This system will  remain in operation to protect the sediments after
remediation.

The E.I. DuPont Chemical groundwater discharge zone is located between Long Point and
the sand dunes on  the  Lake Michigan  shore.  The groundwater discharge is  related to
infiltration  of  lime  wastes that contain low levels of heavy metals, high pH levels, and
thiocyanate (EPA 2002). PCBs and chromium were detected at levels exceeding the PEC
guidelines during an investigation in 1981 (West Michigan Shoreline Regional Development
Commission 1982).  These chemicals may have originated from Tannery Bay and/or Dowies
Point since they are not related to the groundwater plume.

The Muskegon/Koch Chemical facility is located near Mill Pond Creek. The Creek drains
into an impounded  area, Mill Pond, and then discharges into White Lake on the southern
shore.  The Muskegon/Koch  Chemical facility operated from 1975-1986  and produced a
variety of specialty chemicals.  The facility is a Superfund Site (EPA 2002) because the area
groundwater and  soil are  contaminated  with chlorinated solvents  and chlorinated ethers
(several compounds are classified as  carcinogenic).  As part of a consent agreement, a
groundwater treatment system was installed 1995 that intercepts contaminants and prevents
them from reaching  Mill Pond Creek. The Creek passes through a residential  area and  there
is no information available on the presence of contaminated sediments.  In consideration that
some of the groundwater contaminants are carcinogenic, a more detailed assessment of the
area  is ranked  with  a high priority.  Chlorinated ethers were not observed in the discharge
zone of Mill Pond Creek in White Lake (Rediske et al. 1998). Mill Pond Creek and the pond
were not investigated in this project.

Evans (1992) summarized historical water quality and biological data for White Lake.  Prior
to  the 1973 wastewater diversion, nuisance algal blooms, fish tainting problems, excessive
macrophyte  growth, winter  fish  kills, and oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion  were
common.  Average sediment concentrations of total phosphorus and  total  nitrogen  were
3,258 mg/kg and 7,180  mg/kg respectively.  Benthic macroinvertebrate communities  were
dominated by pollution tolerant oligochaetes and chironomids. While ambient water quality
improved significantly by the mid  1980s, the  composition  of the  benthic community
remained similar due to  persistent sediment contamination. The only area where pollution
intolerant organisms such as Hexagenia sp. were found was in the eastern section of White
Lake near the river mouth (Evans 1992, Rediske et al. 1998).
1.2 Project Objectives And Task Elements

The  objective of this investigation  is to conduct a Category  II assessment of sediment
contamination in White Lake.  Specific objectives and task elements are summarized below:

-------
  Determine the nature and extent of sediment contamination in western White Lake.

     - A Phase II investigation was conducted to examine the nature and extent of sediment
      contamination in western White Lake.  Core samples were collected to provide a
      historical  perspective of sediment contamination. The investigation was directed at
      known sources of contamination in the lake and provided expanded coverage in the
      area  of the  old  Occidental  Chemical facility  outfall  and  the DuPont lime pile
      groundwater plume.   Arsenic, barium, cadmium,  chromium, copper,  lead, nickel,
      zinc,  selenium, mercury, TOC, and grain size were analyzed in all core samples.
     - Surface sediments were collected from western White Lake with a PONAR to provide
      chemical data for the sediments used in the toxicity evaluations and for the analysis
      of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities.  The PONAR samples were analyzed
      for the same parameters as the sediment cores in addition to PCBs and semivolatile
      organics.
    - Critical  measurements were the  concentration   of arsenic, barium,  cadmium,
      chromium, copper,  lead, nickel, zinc,  selenium, mercury, PCBs,  and semivolatile
      organics in sediment samples. Non-critical measurements were total organic carbon,
      and grain size.

  Evaluate the toxicity  of sediments from sites in White Lake.

     - Sediment toxicity evaluations were performed with  Hyalella azteca and Chironomus
      tentans.
     - Toxicity measurements in White Lake sediments were evaluated and compared to
      control locations.  These  measurements  determined the  presence and  degree  of
      toxicity associated with sediments from White Lake.
     - Critical measurements were the determination of lethality during the toxicity tests and
      the monitoring of  water  quality indicators  during exposure (ammonia, dissolved
      oxygen, temperature, conductivity, pH, and alkalinity).

  Determine the abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrates in White Lake.

     - Sediment samples were collected with a PONAR in White Lake
     - The abundance and diversity of the benthic invertebrate communities were evaluated
      and compared to control locations.
     - Critical measurements included  the abundance and species composition  of benthic
      macroinvertebrates.

  Determine the bioavailability of chromium in the sediments of eastern White Lake

     - Sediment samples were collected with a PONAR in White Lake
     - Benthic macroinvertebrates were removed from the sediment and analyzed  for total
      chromium.
     - The sediment was analyzed for total and organic chromium.
     - Critical measurements were the determination of total and organic chromium.

-------
  Determine the uptake of chromium by aquatic macrophytes and zebra mussels (Dreissena
   polymorpha) in Tannery Bay.

     - Benthic  samples containing zebra mussels and  macrophytes were collected from
       Tannery bay and a control location near the mouth of the White River.
     - Zebra mussels  and macrophytes were  removed from the  sediment  and washed
       thoroughly with lake water.
     -Critical measurements included the analysis of chromium in sediment and plant,  and
       zebra mussel tissue.

  Determine the depositional history and stability of selected sediments in White Lake.

     - Sediment samples were collected with a piston core in White Lake.
     - The profiles of radioisotopes and chromium were determined in the sediment cores.
     - Critical  measurements  include the concentrations  of total  chromium  and  the
       radioisotopes (210Pb, 214Bi, and 137Cs).
1.3 Experimental Design

This investigation was designed to examine specific sites of possible contamination as well
as provide an overall assessment of the nature and extent of sediment contamination in White
Lake. This bifurcated approach allowed the investigation to focus on specific sites based on
historical information in addition to examining the broad-scale distribution of contamination.
To determine the nature and extent of sediment contamination in western White Lake, 11
core samples were  collected from locations that  have been impacted by anthropogenic
activity.  Four cores were taken from deep depositional  zones near Dowies Point, Long
Point, Sylvan Beach, and Indian Bay. Seven additional  cores were collected from shallow
areas along the  south shore (2), down  gradient from  Occidental Chemical  (3),  and the
DuPont ground water plume (2).  These core samples were analyzed for heavy metals
(arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper,  lead, selenium, and mercury), semivolatile
organics, PCBs,  and physical characteristics (grain size distribution,  TOC, and percent
solids).  PONAR samples were collected at the  same locations.  An additional group of 10
PONARs were collected in areas of eastern White Lake.  Two PONARs were collected from
the cove area between Whitehall Leather and the White Lake Marina.  This location had the
highest level of amphipod toxicity in the NOAA/GVSU investigation (Rediske et al., 1998).
Eight additional PONAR samples were collected from control sites (4) and locations outside
of the Tannery Bay remediation area (4). The latter locations corresponded to  Stations E-5,
E-6,  E-7, and E-9 in the Rediske et al.  (1998) report.  High levels of chromium were found in
the near surface zone sediments at these  locations.   While  we  know  that  chromium
contaminated sediments were exported from Tannery Bay,  information on their toxicity  was
unknown.   PONAR  samples were analyzed for the  same  parameters as  the cores plus
sediment toxicity and organic chromium (Walsh and O'Holloran, 1996).  Organic chromium
complexes  have  been identified in sediments contaminated with  tannery wastes and may
exhibit a higher toxicity than inorganic  chromium.  Two sets of benthic macroinvertebrate

-------
samples  were  also  collected  at  the  PONAR  sites.    One  set  was  analyzed  for
macroinvertebrate community composition and the second was analyzed for total chromium
to assess the potential for bioaccumulation. A final series of four PONAR samples was used
to evaluate the uptake of chromium by zebra mussels and aquatic macrophytes in Tannery
Bay.  Plant material and zebra mussels were removed from the PONAR and washed on site
with lake  water to  remove attached sediment.  Three locations in Tannery Bay and  one
location at the control site were  examined.  Sediment and tissue samples from the aquatic
macrophytes  and zebra mussels were  lyophilized  and analyzed  for total chromium.  A
complete listing of locations and sample types is provided in Section 2.0

The final location of the core and PONAR samples was determined in cooperation with the
MDEQ  and USEPA.  Core samples at the above  locations  were collected by  VibraCore
techniques using the R/V Mudpuppy.  This part of the project provided both historical and
current information related to the  nature and extent of sediment contamination in White
Lake.  The benthic macroinvertebrate  and toxicity  evaluations were used to  support this
information  and for the  evaluation of ecological effects and  the prioritization areas for
remediation.  Analytical methods were performed according to the protocols  described in
SW-846 3rd edition (EPA 1999a).   Chemistry data were then supplemented by laboratory
toxicity  studies  that utilized  standardized exposure regimes  to evaluate the  effects of
contaminated sediment on test organisms. Standard EPA methods (1999b) using Chironomus
tentans and Hyalella azteca were used to determine the acute toxicity of sediments from the
PONAR samples.

In addition to the above scope of work,  an investigation of sediment deposition and stability
was conducted using radiodating and detailed stratigraphy.  Radiodating profiles were used
to define annual deposition rates and directly  reflect sediment stability (Appleby et al. 1983,
Schelske et al. 1994).  In consideration of the effluent diversions that occurred in the early
1970s, heavy metal flux into White Lake has  changed dramatically over the last 25 years. If
the sediments are stable and not subject to resuspension, lower levels of heavy metals should
be encountered in the surface strata.  To help assess the stability and deposition  of sediments
in White Lake, two box cores from deep deposition zones and one piston core from a near
shore location were collected and dated using  210Pb and 137Cs.  Each core was analyzed for a
target list  of heavy metals at 2  cm intervals in order to develop a  detailed  stratigraphic
profile.   Radionuclide and  heavy metal profiles in the near  shore  areas were used to
determine  if the sediments are stable or mixed by wave action.  Data from the  deeper cores
were used to assess the mobility of sediments in the lake.  If the near shore sediments were
subject to mixing,  contaminated materials from historic discharges may be moved to the
surface and result in a long term impairment of ecological conditions. These data along with
the biological and  toxicological  studies discussed above  will provide a technically sound
basis for the development of remediation alternatives and  restoration plans for  White Lake.
This project  will  also provide  information  on the fate  and  transport  of contaminated
sediments  in drowned river mouth systems.
                                           10

-------
1.4 References

                                                    210
Appleby, P. G. and F. Oldfield. 1983.  The assessment of  Pb data from sites with varying
       sediment accumulation rates. Hydrobiologia 103: 29-35.

Bolattino, C.  and R. Fox. 1995. White Lake Area of Concern: 1994 sediment assessment.
       EPA Technical Report. Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago.

Canfield,  T.  J., E.L  Brunson, and FJ Dwyer, 1998.   Assessing sediments from upper
       Mississippi  River navigational pools  using  a benthic invertebrate community
       evaluation and the sediment quality triad approach.  Arch. Environ. Contain. Toxico.
       35 (2):202-212.

Earth Tech 2000.  Corrective Measures Study for White Lake Sediment near Dowies Point
       for  the  Former  Occidental  Chemical  Corporation   Site  Montague,  Michigan.
       Submitted  to  the U.S. Environmental  Protection  Agency.  Region V,  Chicago,
       Illinois.

EPA 1995. White Lake Area of Concern: Division Street Outfall, 1994 sediment assessment.
       EPA Technical Report. Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago.  48 pp.

EPA  1999a. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods.   U.S.
       Environmental Protection Agency. SW-846, 3rd Edition.
EPA  1999b.  Methods for  Measuring  the  Toxicity and  Bioaccumulation of  Sediment-
       Associated Contami
       EPA/600/R-99/064.
Associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates. 2nd Edition. EPA Publication
EPA 2002.  National Priority Fact Sheets for Michigan.  U.S. Environmental Protection
       Agency. Region V Superfund Division. Chicago, Illinois. 45 pp.

Evans, E. 1976. Final report of the Michigan Bureau of Water Management's investigation of
       the  sediments  and benthic communities  of Mona,  Muskegon, and White  Lakes,
       Muskegon County, Michigan, 1972.

Evans, E.D. 1992. Mona, White, and White Lakes in White County, Michigan The 1950s to
       the  1980s.  Michigan Department of Natural Resources.   MI/DNR/SWQ-92/261.
       91pp.

GLC. 2000. Assessment of the Lake Michigan monitoring inventory: A report on the Lake
       Michigan tributary monitoring project. Great Lakes Commission, Ann Arbor, MI

Rediske,  R.,  G. Fahnensteil,  T. Nalepa, P. Meier,  and C.  Schelske  1998.  Preliminary
       Investigation of the Extent and Effects of Sediment Contamination in White Lake,
       Michigan.  EPA-905-R-98-004.
                                          11

-------
Rediske, R., 2002.  White Lake Area of Concern Contaminated Sediment Update. Remedial
       Action Plan Update for the White Lake Area of Concern. 34 pp.

Schelske,  C.  L., A., Peplow, M.  Brenner, and C. N.  Spencer.   1994.  Low-background
       gamma counting:  Applications for 210Pb dating of sediments. J. Paleolim. 10:115-
       128.

Walsh, A.R.  and  O'Halloran, J.  1996. Chromium  speciation in  tannery effluent  -  II.
       Speciation in the effluent and in a receiving estuary. Water Res. 30(10):2401-2412.

West Michigan Shoreline Regional Development Commission.  1982.  The White County
       Surface Water Toxics Study. Toxicity Survey General Summary. 153 pp.
                                          12

-------
2.0    Sampling Locations
Sampling  locations for  the  assessment  of contaminated  sediments  in  White Lake  were
selected based on proximity to potential point and nonpoint sources of contamination.  The
locations of these sites were determined by review of historical records. Sediment samples
were collected in areas of fine sediment deposition.  Samples from areas containing rubble
and sand were excluded. A total of 10  locations were selected for the collection  of core
samples and 24 locations were selected for PONAR samples.  The sampling locations are
listed below and displayed on Figure 2.1.  GPS coordinates, depths, and  visual descriptions
are included in Tables 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 respectively, for sediment core, stratigraphy core, and
PONAR samples.
Core and PONAR Identification
WL-1 andWL-2
WL-3, WL-4, WL-10, WL-1 3
WL-5, WL-7,
WL-6, WL-8, WL-9, WL-1 3, WL-21
WL-11, WL-12, WL-14, WL-15
WL-22, WL-23, WL-24
WL-1 6 and WL-1 7
WL-18, WL-19, WL-20
Description
DuPont Groundwater Plume
Western White Lake Deposition Basin
Long Point Deposition Basin
Occidental Chemical Outfall Area
Central White Lake Deposition Basin
Tannery Bay
East Bay
Control Locations
                                          13

-------
                                                             WL-23
Figure 2.1 White Lake Core and PONAR Sampling Stations.  (PONARs collected at
        all stations. Cores collected at stations WL-1 - WL-10 and WL-21.)
                                    14

-------
TABLE 2.1 WHITE LAKE CORE SAMPLING STATIONS.
Station

WL-1



WL-1 Duplicate



WL-2



WL-3



WL-4


WL-5



WL-6



WL-7



WL-8



WL-9



WL-10



WL-21



Sample ID


White Lake 1 Top
White Lake 1 Middle
White Lake 1 Bottom

White Lake ID Top
White Lake ID Middle
White Lake ID Bottom

White Lake 2 Top
White Lake 2 Middle
White Lake 2 Bottom

White Lake 3 Top
White Lake 3 Middle
White Lake 3 Bottom

White Lake 4 Top
White Lake 4 Bottom

White Lake 5 Top
White Lake 5 Middle
White Lake 5 Bottom

White Lake 6 Top
White Lake 6 Middle
White Lake 6 Bottom

White Lake 7 Top
White Lake 7 Middle
White Lake 7 Bottom

White Lake 8 Top
White Lake 8 Middle
White Lake 8 Bottom

White Lake 9 Top
White Lake 9 Middle
White Lake 9 Bottom

White Lake 10 Top
White Lake 10 Middle
White Lake 1 0 Bottom

White Lake 21 Top
White Lake 21 Middle
White Lake 21 Bottom
Date

10/24/2000



10/24/2000



10/24/2000



10/24/2000



10/23/2000


10/23/2000



10/24/2000



10/23/2000



10/23/2000



10/23/2000



10/23/2000



10/24/2000



Depth to Core
m
15.0



14.9



20.3



16.5



14.4


11.9



21.5



10.8



12.32



9.73



14.35



15.11



Depth of Core
cm
183
0-51
51-102
102-152
191
0-51
51-102
102-152
229
0-51
51-102
102-152
188
0-51
51-102
102-152
120
0-51
51-102
201
0-51
51-102
102-152
191
0-51
51-102
102-152
147
0-51
51-102
102-152
185
0-51
51-102
102-152
170
0-51
51-102
102-152
196
0-51
51-102
102-152
155
0-51
51-102
102-152
Latitude
N
43 22.58'



43 22.58'



43 22.46'



43 22.41'



43 22. 27


43 22. 73'



43 22. 95'



43 22. 60'



43 23. 01'



43 23. 27



43 22. 18'



43 23. 16'



Longitude
W
86 24.56'



86 24.56'



86 24. 16'



86 24.81'



86 24. 16'


86 23. 50'



86 22. 88'



86 23. 28'



86 22. 53'



86 22.44'



86 24.61'



86 22. 57



Description


Black silt
Black silt
Brown clay

Black silt
Black silt
Brown Black silt

Black silt
Black silt
Black sand to Beach sand

Black silt
Black silt
Brown silt

Sand Black Silt with Hydrocarbon odor
Sandy Black silt

Fine Black silt
Black silt
Brown silt

Black silt with clay
Black silt
Grey clay

Black silt
Black silt
Brown silt plastic

Fine Black silt no odor
Black silt Brown clay
Black silt Brown clay

Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Brown peat plastic

Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt

Red, Yellow, Black chemical odor
Black silt no odor
Black silt no odor
                     15

-------
TABLE 2.2 WHITE LAKE STRATIGRAPHY SAMPLING STATIONS
Station

WL-2S
WL-7S
WL-9S
Date

10/25/00
10/25/00
10/25/00
Depth to
Sediment
M
20.32
21.46
15.11
Latitude
N
43 22.45'
43 22.61'
43 23. 27'
Longitude
W
86 24. 15'
86 23. 27'
86 22.43'
TABLE 2.3 WHITE LAKE PONAR CORE SAMPLING STATIONS
Station

WL-l-P
WL-2-P
WL-3-P
WL-4-P
WL-5-P
WL-6-P
WL-7-P
WL-8-P
WL-9-P
WL-10-P
WL-ll-P
WL-12-P
WL-13-P
WL-14-P
WL-15-P
WL-16-P
WL-17-P
WL-18-P
WL-19-P
WL-20-P
WL-21-P
WL-22-P
WL-23-P
WL-24-P
Date

10/25/00
10/25/00
10/25/00
10/25/00
10/26/00
10/26/00
10/26/00
10/26/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
10/24/00
10/24/00
10/24/00
10/24/00
10/24/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
10/27/00
Depth to Sediment
m
15.04
20.32
16.54
14.35
11.89
21.46
10.85
12.32
9.73
14.35
14.30
16.15
10.90
8.76
8.48
3.43
4.14
3.18
3.78
2.74
15.11
3.66
2.44
3.20
Latitude
N
43 22.58'
43 22.45'
43 22. 41'
43 22.27'
43 22.73'
43 22.95'
43 22.61'
43 23.01'
43 23 .27'
43 22. 18'
43 23. 54'
43 23. 62'
43 23. 08'
43 23. 69'
43 23. 87'
43 24. 16'
43 24.20'
43 24.39'
43 24.32'
43 24. 51'
43 23. 15'
43 23. 99'
43 24.02'
43 24.02'
Longitude
W
86 24. 5 5'
86 24. 15'
86 24.77'
86 24. 16'
86 23. 50'
86 22.86'
86 23 .27'
86 22. 53'
86 22.43'
86 24.61'
86 22.25'
86 21. 97'
86 22.33'
86 21. 63'
86 21. 83'
86 21. 15'
86 21. 25'
86 21. 26'
86 21. 14'
86 21. 22'
86 22.57'
86 21. 28'
86 21. 26'
86 21. 30'
Description
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Sand Black Silt with Hydrocarbon odor
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
Fine Black silt
                        16

-------
3.0    Methods

3.1 Sampling Methods
Sediment and  benthos  samples were collected using  the  U.S. EPA  Research Vessel
Mudpuppy.  VibraCore methods were used to collect sediment cores for chemical analysis.
A 4-inch aluminum core tube with a butyrate liner was used for collection. A new core tube
and liner were  used at each location. The core samples were measured and sectioned into
three  equal  segments corresponding  to top, middle,  and bottom. Each  section was then
homogenized in a  polyethylene pan and split into sub-samples.  The visual appearance of
each segment was recorded along with the water depth and core depth.

PONAR samples  were collected  for toxicity testing,  sediment  chemistry, and  benthic
macroinvertebrates. For sediment chemistry and toxicity testing, a standard PONAR sample
was deposited into a polyethylene pan and split into sub-samples. The PONAR was washed
with water in between stations.  A petite PONAR was used for the collection of benthic
macroinvertebrates.  Three replicate grabs were taken at each of the  sites and treated as
discrete samples.  All material in the grab was washed through a Nitex  screen with 500 |j,m
openings and the residue preserved in buffered formalin containing rose bengal stain.

GPS system coordinates were used to record the position of the  sampling locations. Since
the core and PONAR samples were collected on different days, some variation in the location
may have occurred.

3.1.2  Sample Containers, Preservatives, And Volume Requirements

Requirements for sample volumes, containers, and holding times are listed in Table 3.1.
All sample  containers  for sediment  chemistry  and  toxicity testing  were  purchased,
precleaned, and certified as Level II by I-CHEM Inc.
                                          17

-------
        TABLE 3.1 SAMPLE CONTAINERS, PRESERVATIVES, AND HOLDING TIMES
Hold Times
  Matrix       Parameter
  Sediment
  Sediment
  Sediment
  Sediment
  Sediment
   Water
  Culture
   Water
   Metals
    TOC
Semi-Volatile
  Organic s

 Grain Size
  Toxicity
Semi-Volatile
Organics and
 Resin Acids

  Alkalinity
  Ammonia
  Hardness
Conductivity
     pH
    Container     Preservation  Extraction    Analysis
  250 mL Wide    Cool to 4C             ^ months,
  Mouth Plastic                            Mercury-28
                                             Days
  250 mL Wide    Freeze -10C
  Mouth Plastic
  500 mL Amber
      Glass
Cool to 4C    14 daYs
 1 Quart Zip-Lock  Cool to 4C
   Plastic Bag

4 liter Wide Mouth  Cool to 4C
      Glass

 1000 mL Amber   Cool to 4C    14 days
      Glass
  250 mL Wide
  Mouth Plastic

  250 mL Wide
  Mouth Plastic
                                               Cool to 4C
                                               Cool to 4C
6 months


 40 days


6 months


 45 days


 40 days



 24 hrs.


 24 hrs.
3.2 Chemical Analysis Methods For Sediment Analysis
A summary of analytical methods and detection limits is provided in Table 3.2.1.  Instrument
conditions and a summary  of quality assurance procedures are provided in the following
sections.
                                         18

-------
             TABLE 3.2.1 ANALYTICAL METHODS AND DETECTION LIMITS
Parameter
Arsenic, Lead,
Selenium, Cadmium
          SEDIMENT MATRIX

Method Description


Arsenic-Graphite Furnace
Analytical
Method

70601
3 0511 Digest! on
Barium, Chromium,    Inductively Coupled Plasma      60101,
Copper, Nickel, Zinc   Atomic Emission Spectroscopy   30521 Digestion
Mercury
Grain Size
Mercury Analysis of Soils,        7471 \ Prep
Sludges and Wastes by Manual    Method in 7471l
Cold Vapor Technique
Wet Sieve
Total Organic Carbon  Combustion/IR
WRI Method
PHY-010

90601
USEPA
Semivolatiles
Solvent Extraction and  GC/MS  82701,
analysis                        35501 Extraction
Detection
Limit

0.10 mg/kg


2.0 mg/kg


0.10 mg/kg



1%


0.1%

Table 3.2.2
1 - SW846 3rd. Ed.  EPA 1994.

3.2.1 Sample Preparation For Metals Analysis

For aluminum, arsenic, barium, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium,
manganese, nickel,  lead, selenium,  and zinc  analysis,  sediment  samples were digested
according to a modified version of EPA SW-846 method 3052 "Microwave Assisted Acid
Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, Soils and Oils". Samples were air-dried prior to digestion.
A Questron (Mercerville, NJ) Q-4000 microwave system  was used. The system provided a
controlled temperature  and  pressure in  each digestion vessel.  Approximately  0.25 g of
sediment was  weighed into a Teflon  liner.   4 mL Type 1  deionized water, 3  mL of
concentrated nitric acid, 6 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid, and 4 mL of hydrofluoric
acid were added to each sample. Vessels were then capped and placed into the microwave
cavity. The program was set to raise the temperature inside the vessels to 200C for 20.0
minutes.   After completion  of the run, vessels were  cooled and vented.  Then  15  mL of
saturated boric acid was added to each sample in place of hydrogen peroxide. The  vessels
were recapped and placed into the  microwave cavity.  The program was set to raise  the
temperature inside the vessels to 180C  for 15.0 minutes.  After completion  of the  second
run, the  vessels  were  cooled and  vented.  The contents  were  transferred  into  50  mL
                                          19

-------
centrifuge tubes and brought up to  50 mL with Type I deionized  water.  Samples were
centrifuged for 5 minutes at 3000 rpm before analysis. For every batch of 20 samples at least
one set of the following quality control samples was prepared:

   Method Blank  (4 mL  of Type 1 deionized water, 3 mL of nitric acid and 6 mL of
   hydrochloric acid);
   Laboratory Control Spike (Blank Spike);
   Matrix Spike;
   Matrix Spike Duplicate.

For determining total mercury the samples were prepared by EPA SW-846 method 7471 A,
"Mercury in  Solid  and Semisolid Waste".  Approximately  0.2  g  of wet sediment was
weighed into a 50 mL centrifuge tube. 2.5 mL of Type I deionized water and 2.5 mL of aqua
regia were then added  to  the tube.  Samples were heated in  a water bath at 95C for  2
minutes.  After cooling, the volume  of the samples was brought up  to 30 mL with Type I
deionized water. Then 7.5 mL of 5% potassium permanganate solution was added to each
sample, the samples were mixed, and the centrifuge tubes were returned to the water bath for
a period  of 30 minutes.  Three mL of 12% hydroxylamine chloride solution was added to
each sample after cooling.  Finally, the  samples were mixed and centrifuged for 5 minutes at
3,000 rpm.  Calibration standards were digested concurrent with  the samples.  Quality
control samples were prepared as stated previously for every batch of 10 samples or less.
3.2.2 Arsenic Analysis By Furnace

Arsenic was analyzed in accordance with the EPA SW-846 method 7060A utilizing the
Graphite Furnace technique. The instrument employed was a Perkin Elmer 4110ZL atomic
absorption  spectrophotometer.   An  arsenic EDL Lamp was used as a light source at a
wavelength of 193.7 nm.  The instrument utilized a Zeeman background correction that
reduces the non-specific absorption caused by some matrix components.  The temperature
program is summarized below:
Step
1
2
O
4
5
Temp,
C
110
130
1300
2100
2500
Time, sec.
Ramp
1
15
10
0
1
Hold
35
37
20
5
3
Gas Flow,
mL/min
250
250
250
0
250
Read



X

A Pd/Mg modifier was used to stabilize As during the pyrolysis step. The calibration curve
was constructed from four standards and a blank. Validity of calibration was verified with a
check standard prepared  from a secondary source. This action was taken immediately after
calibration, after every 20  samples, and at the end of each run.  At least 1 post-digestion
spike was performed for every analytical batch of 20 samples.
                                          20

-------
3.2.3 Cadmium Analysis By Furnace
Cadmium was analyzed in accordance with the EPA SW-846 method 7060A utilizing the
Graphite Furnace technique. The instrument employed was a Perkin Elmer 4110ZL atomic
absorption spectrophotometer.  A hollow cathode lamp was used  as a light  source at a
wavelength of 228.8 nm.  The instrument utilized  a  Zeeman background  correction that
reduces the non-specific absorption caused by some matrix components.  The  temperature
program is summarized below:
Step
1
2
3
4
5
Temp,
C
110
130
500
1550
2500
Time, sec.
Ramp
1
15
10
0
1
Hold
40
45
20
5
3
Gas Flow,
mL/min
250
250
250
0
250
Read



X

A Pd/Mg modifier was used to stabilize Cd during the pyrolysis step. The calibration curve
was constructed from four standards and a blank.  Validity of calibration was verified with a
check standard prepared from a secondary source.  This action was taken immediately after
calibration, after every 20  samples, and at the end of each run.   At least 1 post-digestion
spike was performed for every analytical batch of 20 samples.

3.2.4 Lead Analysis By Furnace

Lead  was analyzed in accordance with the EPA  SW-846  method  7060A  utilizing the
Graphite Furnace technique. The instrument employed was a  Perkin Elmer 4110ZL atomic
absorption spectrophotometer. A lead EDL Lamp was used as a light source at a wavelength
of 283.3 nm.  The instrument utilized a Zeeman background correction that reduces the non-
specific absorption  caused by some matrix components.   The temperature  program is
summarized below:
Step
1
2
O
4
5
6
Temp,
C
120
140
200
850
1900
2500
Time, sec.
Ramp
1
5
10
10
0
1
Hold
20
40
10
20
5
3
Gas Flow,
mL/min
250
250
250
250
0
250
Read




X

A Pd/Mg modifier was used to stabilize Pb during the pyrolysis step. The calibration curve
was constructed from four standards and a blank.  Validity of calibration was verified with a
                                         21

-------
check standard prepared from a secondary source. This action was taken immediately after
calibration, after every  20 samples, and at the end of each run.  At least 1 post-digestion
spike was performed for every analytical batch of 20 samples.

3.2.5 Selenium Analysis By Furnace

Selenium was  analyzed in accordance with the EPA SW-846 method 7060A utilizing the
Graphite Furnace technique. The instrument employed was a Perkin Elmer 4110ZL atomic
absorption  spectrophotometer.  An arsenic EDL Lamp was used as a light  source at a
wavelength of 196.0 nm.  The instrument utilized  a Zeeman  background correction that
reduces the non-specific absorption caused by some matrix components.  The  temperature
program is summarized  below:
Step
1
2
O
4
5
6
Temp,
C
120
140
200
1300
2100
2450
Time, sec.
Ramp
1
5
10
10
0
1
Hold
22
42
11
20
5
3
Gas Flow,
mL/min
250
250
250
250
0
250
Read




X

A Pd/Mg modifier was used to stabilize Se during the pyrolysis step. The calibration curve
was constructed from four standards and a blank.  Validity of calibration was verified with a
check standard prepared from a secondary source. This action was taken immediately after
calibration, after every 20  samples, and at the end of each run.  At least 1  post-digestion
spike was performed for every analytical batch of 20 samples.

3.2.6 Metal Analysis By ICP

Aluminum, barium,  calcium, chromium, copper,  iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and
zinc  were analyzed in accordance with EPA SW-846  method 6010A using Inductively
Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.  Samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer
P-1000  ICP  Spectrometer with  Ebert monochromator and  cross-flow nebulizer.   The
following settings were used:
Element Analyzed
Al
Ba
Ca
Element Analyzed
Cr
Cu
Fe
Wavelength, nm
308.2
233.5
315.9
Wavelength, nm
267.7
324.8
259.9
                                          22

-------
Mg
Mn
Ni
Zn
279.1
257.6
231.6
213.9
                                RF Power:
1300 W
Matrix interferences were suppressed with internal standardization utilizing Myers-Tracy
signal  compensation.  Interelement  interference  check standards were  analyzed  in  the
beginning and at the end of every analytical run and indicated  absence of this type of
interference at the  given  wavelength.  The calibration curve was constructed from four
standards and a blank, and was verified with  a check standard prepared from a secondary
source.

3.2.7 Mercury

After the digestion  procedure outlined  in 3.2.1, sediment samples were analyzed for total
mercury by cold  vapor technique  according to SW-846 Method  7471.   A Perkin Elmer
5100ZL atomic absorption spectrophotometer  with FIAS-200 flow injection accessory was
used.   Mercury was reduced to an elemental  state using stannous chloride solution,  and
atomic absorption was measured in  a quartz cell at an ambient temperature and a wavelength
of 253.7 nm.  A  mercury electrodeless discharge lamp was used as a light source.  The
calibration  curve  consisted of four standards  and  a blank, and was  verified with a  check
standard prepared from a secondary source.

3.2.8 Total  Organic Carbon

Total Organic Carbon analysis of sediments was conducted on a Shimadzu TOC-5000 Total
Organic Carbon Analyzer equipped with Solid Sample Accessory SSM-5000A.  Samples
were air dried and then reacted with phosphoric acid to remove inorganic carbonates.  Prior
to analysis, the samples were air dried a final time.  Calibration curves for total carbon were
constructed from three standards and a blank. Glucose was used as a standard compound for
Total Carbon Analysis (44% carbon by weight).

3.2.9 Grain Size Analysis

Grain size  was performed by wet  sieving the sediments.  The following  mesh sizes were
used: 2 mm (granule), 1 mm (very  coarse sand), 0.85 mm (coarse sand), 0.25 mm  (medium
sand), 0.125 mm (fine sand), 0.063 (very fine  sand), and 0.031 (coarse silt). After sieving,
the fractions were dried at 105C and analyzed by gravimetric methods to determine weight
percentages.
 i.2.10  Semivolatiles Analysis
                                          23

-------
Sediment samples were extracted for analysis of semivolatiles using SW-846 Method 3050.
The sediment samples were dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate to  form a  free flowing
powder. The samples were then serially sonicated with 1:1 methylene  chloride/acetone and
concentrated to a volume of 1 mL.

The sample extracts were analyzed by GC/MS  on a Hewlett Packard 5895 MSD Mass
Spectrometer according to Method 8270. Instrumental conditions are itemized below:
   MS operating conditions:

     -  Electron energy:
     -  Mass range:
        Scan time:
        Source temperature:
        Transfer line temperature:
70 volts (nominal).
40-450 amu.
820 amu/second, 2 scans/sec.
190 C
250C
   GC operating conditions:

        Column temperature program:
        Injector temperature program:
        Sample volume:
45C for 6 min., then  to 250C at
10C/min, then to 300C at 20C/min
hold 300C for 15 min.
250C
A list of analytes and detection limits is given in Table 3.2.2.  Surrogate standards were
utilized  to monitor extraction efficiency.  Acceptance criteria for surrogate standards are
given in Table 3.2.3.  The GC/MS was calibrated using a 5-point curve.  Instrument tuning
was performed by injecting 5 ng of decafluorotriphenylphosphine and then adjusting spectra
to meet method acceptance criteria.   The MS and MSD samples  were analyzed  at a 5%
frequency.
             TABLE 3.2.2 ORGANIC PARAMETERS AND DETECTION LIMITS

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (8270)                     Sediment (mg/kg)
                                         24

-------
Phenol                                                            0.33
Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether                                             0.33
2-Chlorophenol                                                    0.33
1,3-Dichlorobenzene                                               0.33
1,4-Dichlorobenzene                                               0.33
1,2-Dichlorobenzene                                               0.33
2-Methylphenol                                                    0.33
4-Methylphenol                                                    0.33
Hexachloroethane                                                  0.33
Isophorone                                                        0.33

2,4-Dimethylphenol                                                0.33
Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane                                        0.33
2,4-Dichlorophenol                                                0.33
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene                                             0.33
Naphthalene                                                       0.33
Hexachlorobutadiene                                               0.33
4-Chloro-3-methylphenol                                           0.33
2-Methylnaphthalene                                               0.33
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene                                         0.33
2,4,6-Trichlorophenol                                              0.33

2,4,5-Trichlorophenol                                              0.33
2-Chloronaphthalene                                               0.33
Dimethylphthalate                                                  0.33
Acenaphthylene                                                    0.33
Acenaphthene                                                     0.33
Diethylphthalate                                                   0.33
4-Chlorophenyl-phenyl ether                                        0.33
Fluorene                                                          0.33
4,6-Dinitro-2-methylphenol                                          1.7
4-Bromophenyl-phenyl ether                                        0.33
                                           25

-------
       TABLE 3.2.2 ORGANIC PARAMETERS AND DETECTION LIMITS (CONTINUED)

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (8270)                    Sediment (mg/kg)

Hexachlorobenzene                                             0.33
Pentachlorophenol                                               1.7
Phenanthrene                                                  0.33
Anthracene                                                    0.33
Di-n-butylphthalate                                             0.33
Fluoranthene                                                   0.33
Pyrene                                                        0.33
Butylbenzylphthalate                                            0.33
Benzo(a)anthracene                                             0.33
Chrysene                                                      0.33

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate                                       0.33
Di-n-octylphthalate                                             0.33
Benzo(b)fluoranthene                                            0.33
Benzo(k)fluoranthene                                            0.33
Benzo(a)pyrene                                                 0.33
Indeno(l,2,3-cd)pyrene                                          0.33
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene                                          0.33
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene                                            0.33
3-Methylphenol                                                 0.33
TABLE 3.2.3 DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SURROGATE STANDARDS CONTROL LIMITS
                            FOR PERCENT RECOVERY

                     Parameter                     Control Limit

                  Nitrobenzene-d5                    30%-97%
                  2-Fluorobiphenyl                    42%-99%
                    o-Terphenyl                      60%-101%
                     Phenol-d6                      43%-84%
                   2-Fluorophenol                    33%-76%
                2,4,6-Tribromophenol                  58%-96%
3.2.11 PCS Analysis
                                        26

-------
The  sediment  samples  were extracted for PCBs using  SW-846 Method 3050. Sediment
samples were air dried for 24 hours, and then equal weights of the dried soil and anhydrous
sodium  sulfate were mixed together. The samples were then extracted using 50 mL of
methanol and 100 mL of hexane. The samples were sonicated for 3 minutes, and then the
hexane layer was removed and filtered through anhydrous sodium sulfate. The process was
repeated two more  times,  adding 50 mL of hexane each time. The  hexane extract was
concentrated to 1 mL in the  Turbovap,  and then run through a chromatography column
packed with 2% deactivated florisil and anhydrous sodium  sulfate. Copper turnings cleaned
with 1 M hydrochloric acid were added to remove sulfur. The eluent was concentrated to 1
mL using the Turbovap, and concentrated sulfuric acid was added as a final clean-up step.
Solvent transfer to iso-octane was achieved under a flow of nitrogen gas and condensed to a
final volume of 1 mL.

Sample  extracts  were analyzed using gas chromatography  with  a Nies electron capture
detector and RTX-5  capillary column. Helium and nitrogen were used as the carrier gas and
makeup gas, respectively. Instrumental operating conditions were as follows:

   >  Column temperature program: 80C for 2 min., 10C/min to 160C,
   >  1.5C/min to 190C, 2C/min to 256C and hold at 256C for 6 min.
   >  Injector temperature: 260C
   >  Detector temperature: 330C
   >  Sample volume:  1 jil

Table 3.2.4 presents a  list of PCB congeners and their detection  limits.  Two surrogate
standards, tetrachloro-m-xylene and  decachlorobiphenyl were used to monitor extraction
efficiency. Acceptance limits for the surrogates were + 50%  for precision and accuracy.
                   Table 3.2.4 Sediment Detection Limits for PCBs

     PCB Formulation                                    Detection Limit (mg/kg)

       Aroclor 1221                                               0.33
       Aroclor 1232                                               0.33
       Aroclor 1242                                               0.33
       Aroclor 1248                                               0.33
       Aroclor 1254                                               0.33
       Aroclor 1260                                               0.33
                                          27

-------
3.2.12  Organic Chromium Analysis


The organic chromium fraction in sediment was extracted using 0.1  M Na2P2Oy at a 10:1
(v/m) ratio by shaking for 18 hours (Walsh and O'Halloran 1996).  Twenty grams of wet
sediment were extracted. The extract was centrifuged, filtered with a 0.45 um membrane and
analyzed for total chromium as  described previously. Sample results were converted to a dry
weight basis for reporting.
3.2.13 Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE)

Dried 2-cm-sections of sediment cores were homogenized by mechanical shaking. A sample
of approximately 0.1 to 0.2 g of sediment was pressed into a self-supporting thin target by
10,000 psi of hydraulic pressure in a standard pellet press. The exact mass and thickness of
the pellet was not critical as long as the resultant target remains thin with respect to the range
of accelerated protons used in the irradiation.  A current of approximately 10 nA of 2.3 MeV
protons was used as an ion analysis probe  for X-ray emission. The  sediment samples were
loaded on a target wheel in a vacuum chamber, which was subsequently evacuated to <10~5
torr.  Each sample  was exposed to the beam for approximately 300  seconds, or a total
accumulated charge of approximately 3 |j,Coulomb. The incident beam current was measured
with a Faraday cup immediately before and after irradiation and an average current was used
to calculate the exact charge collected on each target. The resultant X-rays emitted from the
irradiation were detected with a 4 cm2  Si(Li) detector located at 135 from the incident beam.
There was a thin vacuum window and a piece of Be foil in  front of the active detector, as
well  as an adjustable wheel  of Kaptan foils that was interspersed between the target and X-
ray detector to attenuate the excess low-energy X-rays. A 2 mil (.002") of Kaptan foil was
used to suppress low energy X-rays  on  sediment  sample irradiation.  The X-ray energies
were calibrated with a set of known metal standards (Si, Ti, In, Au) and for each run (up to a
maximum of 36  samples per target  wheel) a NIST standard mud pellet was used to
standardize the X-ray yield  calculations.  We use both Buffalo River Sediment (NIST SRM
2704) and Trace Elements in Soil (NIST SRM 2586) as calibration  standards for sediment
samples.  The X-ray spectra were acquired by standard NIM and CAMAC electronics and
recorded onto a PC in binary format. The  spectra were analyzed off-line by GUPIX II a
commercial PIXE analysis programl.  The limits of detection vary from element to element,
but typically range between the ppb - ppm level for most metals. A general review of the
technique and examples  of earth science applications  are provided by  Johanssen  and
Campbell (1988).
                                          28

-------
3.3 Chemical Analysis Methods For Water Analysis

The  parameters,  methods, and detection limits  for the measurements  performed on the
culture water used in the sediment toxicity tests are listed in Table 3.3.1.  All methods were
performed according to procedures outlined in Standard Methods 14th Edition (1996).
   TABLE 3.3.1 ANALYTICAL METHODS AND DETECTION LIMITS FOR CULTURE WATER

             Parameter                     Method               Detection Limit

        Specific Conductance        Standard Methods 2510 B.             NA

             Alkalinity              Standard Methods 2320            10 mg/1
            Temperature             Standard Methods 2550              NA

         Dissolved Oxygen         Standard Methods 4500-O G.          0.5 mg/1

         Ammonia Electrode             Standard Methods             0.05 mg/1
                                         4500-NH3 F.
             Hardness              Standard Methods 2340 C.           10 mg/1
3.4 Sediment Toxicity
The evaluation of the toxicity of the White Lake sediments was conducted using the ten-day
survival test for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the dipteran Chironomus tentans.  The
procedures followed are contained in EPA/600/R-94/024,  Methods  for Measuring the
Toxicity  and Bioaccumulation of  Sediment-associated  Contaminants with Fresh  Water
Invertebrates.  All sediments were stored at 4C prior to analysis.

3.4.1 Laboratory Water Supply

Moderately hard well water was employed for the culture and maintenance of H. azteca and
C. tentans.

3.4.2 Test Organisms

The original stock of H. azteca was  obtained from the Great Lakes Environmental Research
Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan.  The H. azteca culture was maintained in four 20  L
glass aquaria using maple leaves as  a substrate and  as a food source. The food source was
supplemented  with a suspension of Tetramin fish food. The original stock of C. tentans
was obtained from the University of Michigan Department of Environmental Health in Ann
Arbor,  Michigan.   The culture of C. tentans was maintained in 36 L  glass aquaria using
shredded paper toweling as a substrate and was fed a suspension of Tetrafin goldfish food.
                                          29

-------
3.4.3  Experimental Design

For the November testing, eight replicates per sediment were set up for both H. azteca and C.
tentans exposures, with the  sediment from site M-15P designated as the control. In all tests,
moderately hard well water was utilized as the overlying water. The experimental conditions
outlined in Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 were used for the toxicity evaluations.

One day prior  to the start of the test  (day  -1), the sediment from each  site was mixed
thoroughly and a  100 mL  aliquot  was transferred to each of  the  eight test chambers.
Additionally, visual observations of the sediments were made. Moderately hard well water
also was added  at this time.  On day 0, the overlying water was renewed once before the test
organisms were introduced into each of the  glass beakers.  Measurement of water quality
parameters also was initiated on this day. Ten, 7-14 day old H. azteca and 10 third instar C.
tentans  larvae were  randomly added to their respective test chambers.   At this time the
organisms were fed  1.5 mL of Tetrafm.  The  glass beakers were placed in a rack  and
transferred to a temperature  controlled room (23 + 1C). The light cycle was 16 hours on and
8 hours  off.   Temperature and dissolved  oxygen measurements were taken from  one
randomly selected beaker for each sediment sample every 12 hours, after which the overlying
water was renewed in all the beakers. Feeding with the Tetrafm  suspension occurred after
the  morning renewal.  This procedure was repeated daily through day 10,  at which point the
test was terminated.  On day 0, the overlying water from the beakers was composited from
each sediment sample and 250 mL were retained for alkalinity, pH, conductance, hardness
and ammonia analysis.  On the last day  the same procedure was carried out. On day  10, the
sediments were sieved, and the surviving test organisms were removed and counted.   The
biological endpoint for these sediment tests was mortality.  The validity of the test was based
on EPA (1994) criteria of greater than  80%  survival in the control treatment for H. azteca
and greater than 70% survival in the control treatment for the C. tentans.  In addition, EPA
(1994) recommended that the hardness, alkalinity, pH,  and ammonia in the overlying water
within a treatment should not vary by more than 50% over the duration of the test.

3.4.4  Statistical Analysis

Survival data for the toxicity testing were analyzed first for normality with Chi Square  and
then for homogeneity using Bartlett's Test. All data passed the normality and homogeneity
tests without transformation.  The data were then examined using Dunnett's Procedure to
determine whether there was a  significant difference in  survival between the designated
control sediment and those sediments containing pollutants. The TOXSTAT 3.5 Computer
Program was used for the statistical evaluations.
                                           30

-------
   TABLE 3.4.1  TEST CONDITIONS FOR CONDUCTING A TEN DAY SEDIMENT TOXICITY
                           TEST WITH HYALELLA AZTECA.
1.      Test Type:   Whole-sediment toxicity test with renewal of overlying water
2.      Temperature (C):	23 + 1C
3.      Light quality:	Wide-spectrum fluorescent lights
4.      Illuminance:	About 500 to 1000 lux
5.      Photoperiod:	16 h light, 8 h darkness
6.      Test chamber size:	300 mL high-form lipless beaker
7.      Sediment volume:	100 mL
8.      Overlying water volume:	175 mL
9.      Renewal of overlying
       water:	2 volume additions per day (i.e., one volume addition
                                every 12 hours)
10.     Age of test organisms:	7 to 14 days old at the start of the test
11.     Number of organisms
       per chamber:	10
12.     Number of replicate
       chambers per treatment:	8
13.     Feeding:	Tetramin fish food, fed  1.5  mL daily to each test
                                chamber
14.     Aeration:	None, unless dissolved oxygen in overlying water drops
                                below 40% of saturation
15.     Overlying water:	Reconstituted water
16.     Overlying water quality:	Hardness, alkalinity, conductivity, pH, and ammonia
                                measured  at the  beginning  and  end  of  a  test.
                                Temperature and dissolved oxygen measured daily.
17.     Test duration:	10 days
18.     End point:	Survival, with greater than 80% in the control

Test Method 100.1. EPA Publication  600/R-94/024 (July 1994).

-------
     TABLE 3.4.2   RECOMMENDED TEST CONDITIONS FOR CONDUCTING A TEN DAY
               SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST WITH CHIRONOMUS TENTANS.
1.      Test Type:	Whole-sediment toxicity test with renewal of overlying
                                water
2.      Temperature (C):	23 + 1C
3.      Light quality:	Wide-spectrum fluorescent lights
4.      Illuminance:	About 500 to 1000 lux
5.      Photoperiod:	16 h light, 8 h darkness
6.      Test chamber size:	300 mL high-form lipless beaker
7.      Sediment volume:	100 mL
8.      Overlying water volume:	175 mL
9.      Renewal of overlying
       water:	2 volume additions  per day (i.e., one volume addition
                                every 12 hours)
10.     Age of test organisms:	Third instar larvae (All organisms must be third instar
                                or younger with at least 50% of the organisms at third
                                instar)
11.     Number of organisms
       per chamber:	10
12.     Number of replicate
       chambers per treatment:	8
13.     Feeding:	Tetrafm goldfish food, fed 1.5 mL daily to each test
                                chamber (1.5 mL contains 4.0 mg of dry solids)
14.     Aeration:	None, unless dissolved oxygen in overlying water drops
                                below 40% of saturation
15.     Overlying water:	Reconstituted water
16.     Overlying water quality:	Hardness, alkalinity, conductivity,  pH,  and ammonia
                                measured  at the  beginning  and  end  of  a test.
                                Temperature and dissolved oxygen measured daily.
17.     Test duration:	10 days
18.     End point:	Survival, with greater than 70% in the control.  Weight
                                > 0.6 mg per midge in the control
Test Method 100.2. EPA Publication 600/R-94/024 (July 1994).
                                         32

-------
3.5 Benthic Macroinvertebrate Analysis
Samples were washed with tap water to remove formalin and extraneous debris through a
USGS #30 mesh screen. The  retained  portion was  poured into a white enamel pan from
which the organisms were picked into two groups. These were oligochaetes and "other". The
worms were preserved with 4% formalin and later identified to the lowest practical level.
The  worms were mounted separately and examined under 100X and 400X. The "other"
group was preserved in 70% ethanol. Midges were removed from this group and a head
mount of each midge was made and examined under 100X and 400X. The number and taxa
were reported. The  remainder  of the organisms were identified and enumerated utilizing a
60X dissecting microscope.

3.6 Radiometric Dating
Radiometric measurements were made using low-background gamma counting systems with
well-type  intrinsic germanium detectors (Schelske et al.  1994).  Dry sediment from each
section was packed to a nominal height of 30 mm in a tared polypropylene tube (84 mm high
x 14.5 mm outside diameter, 12 mm inside diameter).  Sample height was recorded and tubes
were weighed to obtain sample mass. Samples in the tubes were then sealed with a layer of
epoxy resin  and polyamine  hardener,  capped,  and stored before  counting to  ensure
equilibrium between 226Ra and 214Bi.  Activities for each radionuclide were calculated using
empirically derived  factors of variation  in counting efficiency with sample  mass and  height
(Schelske et al. 1994). Total 210Pb activity was obtained from the 46.5  keV photon peak, and
226Ra activity was obtained from the 609.2 keV peak of 214Bi. 226Ra activity was assumed to
represent supported  210Pb activity. Excess 210Pb activity was determined from the difference
between total and supported 210Pb activity and then corrected for decay from the coring date.
The 661.7 keV photon peak is used to measure 137Cs activity.

Sediments were aged using activity measurements of the above radioisotopes in the sediment
samples. The method was based on determining the activity of total 210Pb (22.3 yr half-life),
a decay product of 226Ra  (half-life  1622 yr) in the 238U decay series.   Total 210Pb represents
the sum of excess 210Pb and supported  210Pb activity in sediments.  The ultimate source of
excess 210Pb is the outgassing of chemically inert 222Rn (3.83 d half-life) from continents as
226Ra incorporated in soils as rocks  decay. In the atmosphere, 222Rn decays to 210Pb which is
deposited  at the  earth's surface with  atmospheric washout as unsupported  or excess 210Pb.
          o i n                                             T7f\
Supported   Pb in lake sediments is produced by the decay of   Ra that is deposited as one
fraction of erosional inputs.  In the  sediments, gaseous 222Rn produced from 226Ra is trapped
and decays to 210Pb. By definition,  supported 210Pb is in secular equilibrium (production rate
matches decay rate) with sedimentary  226Ra and is equal to total 210Pb activity at depths
where excess 210Pb  activity is  not measurable due to decay.  Because the  decay of excess
210Pb activity in sediments provides the  basis for estimating sediment ages, it is necessary to
make estimates  of  total and  supported  210Pb  activities  so  excess  210Pb  activity can be
determined by difference. Excess 210Pb activity was calculated  either by  subtracting 226Ra
activity from total 210Pb  activity at each depth  or by subtracting an estimate of supported
210Pb activity based on measurements of total 210Pb activity at  depths where excess 210Pb
activity was negligible.
                                           33

-------
Sediment ages were calculated using a CRS model (Appleby and Oldfield 1983).  This model
                                                         210
calculates ages based on the assumption that the flux of excess   Pb to the lake was constant
and therefore that variation  in 210Pb activity from a pattern of exponential decrease with
depth depends on variation in rate of sedimentation.  The age of sediments at depth x is given
by:
where t is time in yr, k is 0.03114 (the 210Pb decay constant), AO is the total residual excess
210Pb activity in the sediment core, and A is the integrated excess 210Pb activity below depth
x.  Calculations for each depth provide a continuous profile of ages as a function of depth.
Mass sedimentation rate (MSR) at depth x was determined by:

                                 MSR = m/t

where m is dry mass of sediment (g /cm2) for the sampling interval.  Errors in age and mass
sedimentation rate were  propagated  using first-order approximations  and  calculated
according to Binford (1990).
3.7 Statistical Analysis

Multivariate analyses were conducted  using  SAS version 8.0 (Gary, North  Carolina).
Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted on the physical/chemical parameters.
Correspondence Analysis (CA) was conducted  on the benthic macroinvertebrate  data using
the individual taxa.

Spearman Rank  Correlation  was used  to  determine significant relationships between
individual physical  and chemical  parameters and  the  trophic  status indices. Pearson
correlation analysis was conducted using SYSTAT version 5.0 (Evanston, Illinois).
3.8 Contaminant Mapping

ArcView  GIS  and  Surfer  were  utilized  for  analyzing  and  mapping  contaminant
concentrations in White Lake. ArcView was primarily used for geographic projection and
spatial distribution mapping while Surfer was used for creating contour maps of chromium
and PCB concentrations, in which Kriging was selected as a gridding method.

The  original  GPS  observation  points  were  expressed in  decimal  degrees  under the
Geographic-Lat/Long system.  To determine the coordinates of the station locations, ArcView
GIS 3.3 and the MI DNR Projection Extension were used to project the station points to the
Michigan GeoRef NAD 1983  system.  Kriging was used for the interpolation of chromium
concentrations at the grid points. Specific information concerning the range  of X and Y
                                          34

-------
coordinates, grid size, as well as the variogram model, drift type, and nugget effect are shown
below:
       X Coordinates             465255 - 471530 meters
       Y Coordinates             312504 - 317754 meters
       Grid Size                 876 rows x 1047 columns
       Variogram Model          Type: Linear
                                Parameters: Scale: 671000; Length: 3310
       Drift Type                No Drift
       Nugget Effect             Error Variance: 0; Micro Variance: 0
       Anisotropy               Ratio = 1; Angle = 0
3.9 References
      >y, P. G. ;
       sediment accumulation rates. Hydrobiologia 103: 29-35.
                                                       210
Appleby, P. G. and F. Oldfield.  1983. The assessment of   Pb data from sites with varying
                                                           210
Binford, M. W.  1990. Calculation and uncertainty analysis of   Pb dates for PIRLA project
       lake sediment cores.  J. Paleolim. 3:253-267.
EPA.  1994.  Methods for Measuring the  Toxicity and  Bioaccumulation of Sediment-
       Associated  Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates. EPA  Publication 600/R-
       94/024.
Johanssen,  S.A.E.  and J. L Campbell.  1988.  PIXE, A Novel Technique for Elemental
       Analysis, John  Wiley & Sons, Chichester, NY. 458 pp.
Schelske, C. L.,  A. Peplow,  M.  Brenner, and C. N. Spencer.  1994.  Low-background
                                      210
       gamma counting: Applications for   Pb dating of sediments. J. Paleolim. 10:11128.
Walsh, A.R. and  O'Halloran, J.   1996. Chromium speciation in tannery  effluent  -  II.
       Speciation in the effluent and in a receiving estuary. Water Res. 30(10):2401-2412.
                                          35

-------
4.0    Results And Discussion

The  results  and discussion section is organized according to 6 sections that present and
summarize the information related to the following topics:

       Section 4.1                        Sediment Chemistry Results
       Section 4.2                        Stratigraphy and Radiodating Results
       Section 4.3                        Toxicity Testing Results
       Section 4.4                        Benthic Macroinvertebrate Results
       Section 4.5                        Chromium Uptake In Aquatic Organisms
       Section 4.6                        Environmental Fate and Transport Analysis
       Section 4.7                        Sediment Quality Triad Assesment
       Section 4.8                        Summary and Conclusions

The sediment chemistry results are presented for the core and PONAR samples (Section 4.1)
and include  metals, semivolatiles, and physical parameters.  A discussion is also included
related to the comparison  of the  data with published sediment  quality guidelines.  The
stratigraphy  and radiodating results are presented in  Section 4.2 and include the results of
radioisotopes and the  target list of metals (chromium  and  lead). Toxicity and  Benthic
Macroinvertebrate results are presented in Sections  4.3  and  4.4, respectively.   Statistical
analyses  of the data and comparisons to related chemical and  biological data are also
discussed.   Chromium accumulation in  selected  aquatic organisms and  the results  are
summarized in Section 4.5. Section 4.6 provides a discussion of the environmental fate and
transport of contaminants in White Lake using the results of this investigation plus  studies by
Rediske et al. (1998) and Earth Tech (2001). Finally, Section 4.7  presents the investigative
data  in the contex of the Sediment Quality Triad. The project summary and  conclusions are
provided in section 4.8.

The project data were reviewed for compliance with the Data Quality Objectives outlined in
the Quality  Assurance Project Plan.  Low matrix spike  recoveries were obtained on one
sample for semivolatiles and one sample for metals. Acceptable recoveries were obtained in
the laboratory control sample, indicating that the problem was matrix related.  The data were
not qualified due to the fact that the project was a preliminary investigation.  The results of
the Quality Assurance reviews are summarized in Appendix A.
4.1 Sediment Chemistry Results
The results of sediment grain size fractions, percent solids and TOC for the core and PONAR
samples are presented in  Tables 4.1.1 and 4.1.2, respectively.   The sediments from most of
the core samples can be characterized as having fine grain size (> 70% of particles < 63 um)
and moderate to high in total organic carbon (TOC 1% - 10%) in the top 51 cm. Grain size
distributions changed to  include a greater sand fraction (125-500 um range) in the middle
(51-102 cm)  and  bottom (102-152 cm)  sections.  This pattern is consistent with historical
modification and development of the shoreline. Much of the lake shoreline was modified by
                                           36

-------
TABLE 4.1.1 RESULTS OF SEDIMENT GRAIN SIZE FRACTIONS, TOC, AND PERCENT SOLIDS FOR WHITE LAKE CORE
             SAMPLES, OCTOBER 2000. (Top = 0-52 CM, MID = 52-102 CM, EOT = 102-152 CM)
>2000Mm 2000-1000 Mm
Sample ID Weight %
WL-1 TOP
WL-1 MID
WL-1 EOT
WL-2 TOP
WL-2 MID
WL-2 EOT
WL-3 TOP
WL-3 MID
WL-3 TOP
WL-4 TOP
WL-4 MID
WL-5 TOP
WL-5 MID
WL-5 EOT
WL-6 TOP
WL-6 MID
WL-6 EOT
WL-7 TOP
WL7MID
WL-7 EOT
WL-8 TOP
WL-8 MID
WL-8 EOT
WL-9 TOP
WL-9-MID
WL-9 EOT
WL-10TOP
WL-10MID
WL-10BOT
WL-21 TOP
WL-21 MID
WL-21 EOT
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
Weight%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1000-850 Mm
Weight %
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
850-500 Mm
Weight %
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
500-125 Mm
Weight %
2
13
7
4
13
90
4
23
7
10
80
7
9
6
2
43
8
8
11
8
8
8
6
9
9
7
23
11
6
10
10
6
125-63 Mm
Weight %
6
9
9
4
9
2
8
11
9
14
3
12
12
10
5
8
13
12
17
18
16
11
12
14
10
11
6
10
7
5
15
6
<63Mm
TOC
Solids
Weight % % %
92
78
84
92
77
5
87
65
84
76
13
81
79
84
93
46
78
80
72
75
76
80
83
76
81
81
71
79
87
84
74
86
3.9
11
9.5
6.5
10
<1.0
2.2
4.8
8.1
2.9
<1.0
5.8
8.9
7.2
3.0
10
3.0
3.6
10
10
6.6
1.2
1.3
7.5
7.1
8.1
5.0
9.7
8.9
2.7
7.1
3.4
12
14
15
11
15
67
13
18
15
13
53
12
15
15
17
38
16
12
16
15
12
15
16
13
15
16
14
15
14
20
16
13
                                              37

-------
TABLE 4.1.2 RESULTS OF SEDIMENT GRAIN SIZE FRACTIONS, TOC, AND PERCENT SOLIDS FOR WHITE LAKE PONAR SAMPLES,
                                          OCTOBER 2000.

Sample ID
WL-1 P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-4P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-1 OP
WL-11 P
WL-1 2 P
WL-1 3 P
WL-1 4 P
WL-1 5 P
WL-1 6 P
WL-1 7 P
WL-1 8 P
WL-1 9 P
WL-20P
WL-21 P
WL-22P
WL-23P
WL-24P
>2000 Mm
Weight %
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
3
3
2000-1000 Mm
Weight%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
1
1000-850 Mm
Weight %
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
850-500 Mm
Weight %
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
1
500-125 Mm
Weight %
4
6
4
82
6
5
7
8
7
5
7
6
30
13
6
3
5
8
6
11
19
12
10
12
125-63 Mm
Weight %
5
5
5
2
10
7
10
10
9
5
9
9
14
10
10
7
10
8
11
17
9
13
9
7
<63 Mm
Weight %
91
88
90
11
83
88
83
82
83
89
84
84
55
76
83
90
84
84
83
70
71
65
73
76
TOC
8.0
3.5
3.0
<1.0
5.0
4.4
6.6
5.5
6.4
2.2
6.0
7.1
5.0
18
7.4
10
10
11
11
8.5
5.6
4.6
5.9
8.2
Solic
7
10
10
61
11
10
10
11
11
10
11
11
15
13
12
14
15
16
15
16
13
11
12
15
                                               38

-------
logging in the 1800s and urban/industrial development in the 1900s. The subsequent erosion and
runoff probably resulted in a sand layer being deposited throughout the near shore area.   The
presence of the finer grained material  is consistent with the recent  history of a more stable
shoreline and eutrophic  conditions present in the lake.  Station WL-4 was different with respect
to grain size distribution as it contained a higher sand fraction (80%)  in the 52-102 cm core
section. WL-4 was collected off a sloping contour with a public boat launch located to the south.
Since the particle size and TOC characteristics of sediments will influence their ability to retain
metals and organic chemicals, these data will be important in explaining  the  distribution of
anthropogenic contaminants.

Very little difference was noted between the grain size and TOC content  of the PONAR samples
(Table 4.1.2) and the top core sections (Table 4.1.1) for all samples except WL-4. The PONAR
collected at this location was very  high in  sand fraction sediments  (80%)  suggesting  that
sediment composition is variable  at this location.  The variability may be due to the landscape
variables discussed above or depositional patterns. Since these samples  were used for chemical
analysis in addition to the assessment of sediment toxicity and benthic  invertebrate diversity, the
influence of particle size and TOC content will also be an important factor in the evaluation of
the project data.  Chemical and ecological results from W-4 will be influenced to a large extent
by the physical characteristics of the substrate.

The results  of sediment metals analyses  are presented for the  core  and PONAR samples in
Tables 4.1.3 and 4.1.4 respectively.  The results of semivolatile and PCB analyses for the same
sample  groupings are given in Tables 4.1.5 and 4.1.6.  Figures 4.1.1,  4.1.2,  and 4.1.3 illustrate
the distribution  of arsenic, chromium,  and lead respectively, in core samples  collected from
western White Lake. In general,  arsenic concentrations in the three core sections showed little
variation (3  mg/kg) with depth (Figure 4.1.1).   The same pattern was  noted  in the prior
investigation (Rediske  et al.  1998) for  samples collected in eastern White  Lake.   These data
suggest a relatively constant deposition  rate of arsenic in the lake occurred over time. Uniform
deposition rates over an extended period of time are usually related to regional geology and do
not indicate anthropogenic pollution.  Chromium and lead (Figures 4.1.2 and 4.1.3 respectively)
did not follow this pattern as the highest levels of these elements were  found  in the top 51 cm of
sediment.   The sediment chemistry profiles of chromium and lead are indicative of recent
anthropogenic pollution and cannot  be  attributed to background levels.  A  comparison of the
results for arsenic, chromium and  lead is provided in Figures 4.1.4, 4.1.5, and 4.1.6 respectively.
The PONAR collects sediments to an approximate depth of 18 cm and can be used to estimate
very recent  deposition.   The  results for arsenic are again  indicative of a  relatively constant
deposition rate, as there was little difference between PONAR and core  sections (Figure 4.1.4).
Chromium results follow a similar pattern indicating stable  deposition rates  in the more recent
strata (Figure 4.1.5).   In  consideration  that the deeper  strata were  considerably  lower in
chromium, these results  suggest a  relatively constant source is currently present in the lake.  This
is significant because the tannery ceased its discharge  of chromium laden wastewater to White
Lake in 1975.  Chromium deposition in the western half of the lake reflects a  constant loading of
chromium after the wastewater diversion. These data support the hypothesis that the erosion and
transport of  sediments  from  Tannery  Bay play  an important role  in the mobilization  and
deposition of contaminants in the western portion of White Lake (Rediske  et al. 1998).  Lead
                                           39

-------
TABLE 4.1.3 RESULTS OF SEDIMENT METAL ANALYSES FOR WHITE LAKE CORE SAMPLES (MG/KG DRY WEIGHT), OCTOBER 2000.
                             (TOP = 0-52 CM, MID = 52-102 CM, EOT = 102-152 CM)
Sample
WL-1 Top
WL-1 Mid
WL-1 Bot.
WL-2 Top
WL-2 Bot
WL-3 Top
WL-3 Mid
WL-3 Bot
WL-4 Top
WL-4 Mid
WL-5 Top
WL-5 Mid
WL-5 Bot
WL-6 Top
WL-6 Mid
WL-6 Bot
WL-7 Top
WL-7 Mid
WL-7 Bot
WL-8 Top
WL-8 Mid
WL-8 Bot
WL-9 Top
WL-9 Mid
WL-9 Bot
WL-1 0 Top
WL-1 0 Mid
WL-10Bot
WL-21 Top
WL-2 1 Mid
Arsenic
(mg/kg)
9.1
6.1
6.6
9.0
7.5
7.9
6.2
5.7
9.0
1.8
8.9
6.3
6.1
6.7
12
12
8.2
6.5
5.5
7.7
7.7
7.3
9.6
7.5
7.0
6.5
5.8
6.5
9.5
7.8
Barium
(mg/kg)
130
130
160
160
150
120
110
130
130
18
140
130
150
180
88
110
130
110
110
140
120
1470
140
120
120
92
110
110
162
120
Cadmium
(mg/kg)
1.3
0.87
0.74
1.6
0.97
1.5
0.61
0.48
1.9
0.15
1.4
0.53
<0.1
1.3
0.26
0.19
1.6
0.65
0.35
1.4
0.42
0.49
1.5
0.6
0.51
1.1
0.47
0.36
1.2
0.78
Chromium
(mg/kg)
270
34
37
470
34
290
33
28
440
8.1
300
34
24
410
19
17
600
40
33
380
34
40
500
38
35
210
33
30
430
99
Copper
(mg/kg)
29
18
21
33
18
33
17
16
34
2.3
31
18
17
23
12
13
34
19
17
32
18
18
34
18
17
23
16
16
23
12
Mercury
(mg/kg)
0.42
<0.1
<0.1
0.42
0.14
0.39
0.16
<0.1
0.49
<0.1
0.52
0.10
<0.1
0.38
<0.1
<0.1
0.62
0.13
<0.1
0.58
<0.1
<0.1
0.63
0.12
<0.1
0.34
0.11
<0.1
0.51
0.11
Nickel
(mg/kg)
23
16
18
18
12
24
14
13
27
U
24
15
12
27
13
14
28
16
15
26
15
16
26
16
14
18
14
14
28
19
Lead
(mg/kg)
140
15
9.8
190
24
190
28
8.2
180
2.1
110
16
5.9
340
13
7.7
180
22
7.9
180
9.6
8.9
120
18
8.0
97
18
6.9
290
170
Selenium
(mg/kg)
2.8
2.8
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.1
2.6
2.5
0.47
3.6
2.9
3.1
2.1
0.86
1.5
2.6
1.9
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
1.7
5.1
2.6
2.6
<0.1
2.0
2.7
1.5
1.8
Zinc
(mg/kg)
140
75
86
140
87
150
80
65
160
16
160
82
69
110
46
45
160
90
70
160
76
78
170
81
69
120
75
64
160
85
                                                40

-------
TABLE 4.1.4 RESULTS OF SEDIMENT METAL ANALYSES FOR WHITE LAKE PONAR SAMPLES (MG/KG DRY WEIGHT), OCTOBER 2000.
Sample
WL-1 P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-4P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-1 OP
WL-11 P
WL-1 2 P
WL-1 3 P
WL-1 4 P
WL-1 5 P
WL-1 6 P
WL-1 7 P
WL-1 8 P
WL-1 9 P
WL-20 P
WL-21P
Arsenic
(mg/kg)
6.3
7.5
5.5
1.4
6.2
8.4
7.6
8.8
7.9
7.0
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.3
6.0
5.8
5.4
5.3
5.7
6.2
6.5
Barium
(mg/kg)
140
150
120
12
130
130
120
130
170
120
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Cadmium
(mg/kg)
0.85
0.85
0.73
< 0.1
1.1
1.0
0.99
0.93
0.87
0.91
0.96
1.03
0.96
1.10
0.75
0.84
0.64
0.51
0.42
0.61
1.00
Chromium
(mg/kg)
270
300
190
18
400
360
390
380
420
270
310
510
250
480
250
190
50
29
39
28
450
Copper
(mg/kg)
30
34
29
2.2
31
28
37
27
34
31
32
30
32
31
28
27
30
32
31
28
31
Mercury
(mg/kg)
0.20
0.20
0.16
< 0.1
0.27
0.25
0.29
0.25
0.30
0.34
0.32
0.28
0.27
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.24
Nickel
mg/kg)
17
18
16
1.6
19
18
25
20
23
19
18
17
17
17
17
18
19
20
21
19
18
Lead
(mg/kg)
70
76
54
8.3
89
73
86
75
74
75
78
70
67
72
71
75
34
22
26
21
65
Selenium
(mg/kg)
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
< 0.1
2.9
3.0
3.6
3.7
3.0
<0.1
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Zinc
(mg/kg)
120
120
100
33
120
120
130
120
130
120
116
118
108
95
101
105
115
125
131
124
132
PONAR analyzed for target list metals. Barium and selenium not analyzed.
                                                   41

-------
TABLE 4.1.5 RESULTS OF SEDIMENT PCB AND SEMIVOLATILE ANALYSES FOR WHITE LAKE CORE SAMPLES (MG/KG DRY
 WEIGHT), OCTOBER 2000. (SAMPLES AND PARAMETERS THAT WERE NOT DETECTED WERE OMITED.) (Top = 0-52 CM,
                               MID = 52-102 CM, EOT = 102-152 CM)
Sample ID

WL-1 Top
WL-1 Top
WL-1 Mid
WL-1 Mid
WL-1 Bot
WL-1 Bot
WL-2 Top
WL-2 Mid
WL-3 Top
WL-3Mid
WL-3 Bot
WL-4 Top
WL-4Mid
WL-5 Top
WL-5Mid
WL-5 Bot
WL-6 Top
WL-6Mid
WL-6 Bot
WL-7 Top
WL-7Mid
WL-7 Bot
WL-8 Top
WL-8Mid
WL-8 Bot
WL-9 Top
WL-9 Mid
WL-9 Bot
WL-1 0 Top
WL-10Mid
WL-10 Bot
WL-21 Top
WL-21 Mid
Aroclor
1248
mg/kg
0.22
0.49
<0.33
0.07
<0.33
.061
0.07
<0.33
0.05
<0.33
0.06
0.17
<0.33
0.17
<0.33
0.06
0.39
<0.33
<0.33
0.24
<0.33
<0.33
0.27
0.054
<0.33
0.07
0.06
<0.33
0.06
0.06
<0.33
22
0.84
1,3-
DICHLORO
BENZENE
mg/kg
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.7
< 1.2
< 1.4
<0.93
< 1.0
< 1.3
<0.33
< 1.3
< 1.2
< 1.1
< 1.1
<0.46
<0.45
< 1.5
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.3
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.2
1.9
0.29
1,4- BIS
DICHLORO (2-ETHYLHEXYL)-
BENZENE PHTHALATE
mg/kg
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.7
< 1.2
< 1.4
<0.93
< 1.0
< 1.3
<0.33
< 1.3
< 1.2
< 1.1
< 1.1
<0.46
<0.45
< 1.5
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.3
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.2
0.65
<0.33
mg/kg
0.38
< 1.5
< 1.1
0.42
.26
0.32
0.56
0.35
0.99
<0.93
0.39
< 1.3
<0.33
< 1.3
< 1.2
< 1.1
0.22
0.19
0.14
0.28
0.25
< 1.1
0.25
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
< 1.1
0.23
0.25
< 1.1
< 1.2
0.94
0.54
DI-N-
BUTYL
PHTHALATE
mg/kg
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.7
< 1.2
< 1.4
<0.93
< 1.0
1
<0.33
< 1.3
< 1.2
< 1.1
< 1.1
<0.46
<0.45
1.1
0.99
< 1.1
< 1.3
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
0.44
0.46
0.98
1.1
0.84
< 1.2
<0.98
FLUORANTHENE
mg/kg
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.7
< 1.2
< 1.4
< 0.93
< 1.0
0.10
< 0.33
0.097
< 1.2
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 0.46
< 0.45
< 1.5
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.3
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 0.98
HEXACHLORO
BENZENE
mg/kg
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.7
< 1.2
< 1.4
< 0.93
< 1.0
< 1.3
< 0.33
< 1.3
< 1.2
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 0.46
< 0.45
< 1.5
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.3
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.2
0.54
0.051
HEXACHLORO
BUTADIENE
mg/kg
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.7
< 1.2
< 1.4
<0.93
< 1.0
< 1.3
<0.33
< 1.3
< 1.2
< 1.1
< 1.1
<0.46
<0.45
< 1.5
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.3
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.2
<0.33
<0.98
HEXACHLOROCYCLO
PENTADIENE PYRENE
mg/kg
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.7
< 1.2
< 1.4
< 0.93
< 1.0
< 1.3
< 0.33
< 1.3
< 1.2
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 0.46
< 0.45
< 1.5
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.3
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 0.33
< 0.98
mg/kg
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.7
< 1.2
< 1.4
<0.93
< 1.0
< 1.3
<0.33
< 1.3
< 1.2
< 1.1
< 1.1
<0.46
<0.45
< 1.5
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.3
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
<0.98
                                             42

-------
TABLE 4.1.6 RESULTS OF SEDIMENT PCB AND SEMIVOLATILE ANALYSES FOR WHITE LAKE PONAR SAMPLES (MG/KG DRY
         WEIGHT), OCTOBER 2000. (SAMPLES AND PARAMETERS THAT WERE NOT DETECTED WERE OMITED.)
Sample ID

WL-1P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-4P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-10P
WL-11P
WL-12P
WL-13 P
WL-14P
WL-15 P
WL-16P
WL-17P
WL-18P
WL-19P
WL-20 P
WL-21 P
Aroclor
1248
mg/kg
<0.33
0.086
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
0.071
0.084
0.076
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
21
1,3-
DICHLORO
BENZENE
mg/kg
< 1.8
<1.7
< 1.5
<0.33
< 1.7
<1.5
<1.7
<1.7
< 1.5
< 1.7
*
*
*
*
*
< 1.2
*
*
*
*
< 1.3
Die (2-ETH^HEXYL)- B FLUORANTHENE XpARO ^ 
BENZENE PHTHALATE PHTHALATE BENZENE BUTADIENE PENTADII
mg/kg
< 1.8
<1.7
<1.5
<0.33
<1.7
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.7
<1.5
<1.7
*
*
*
*
*
<1.2
*
*
*
*
< 1.3
mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg
0.92 ^ 1.8 < 1.8 < 1.8 ^ 1.8
<1.7 <1.7 <1.7 <1.7 <1.7
0.31 <1.5 <1.5 <1.5 <1.5
<0.33 <0.33 <0.33 < 0.33 < 0.33
0.62 < 1.7 < 1.7 < 1.7 < 1.7
0.25 <1.5 <1.5 <1.5 <1.5
0.32 0.3 < 1.7 < 1.7 < 1.7
0.35 0.25 < 1.7 < 1.7 < 1.7
1.3 <1.5 <0.33 <1.5 <1.5
<1.7 <1.7 <1.7 <1.7 <1.7
* * * * *
* * * * *
* * * * *
* * * * *
* * * * *
1.1 <1.2 0.18 <1.2 <1.2
* * * * *
* * * * *
* * * * *
* * * * *
0.4 < 1.3 < 1.3 < 1.3 < 1.3
mg/kg
< 1.8
< 1.7
< 1.5
<0.33
< 1.7
< 1.5
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.5
< 1.7
*
*
*
*
*
< 1.2
*
*
*
*
< 1.3
                                                                                            mg/kg
                                                                                            0.12
                                               43

-------
12.0-r
                            __
                            r^i               ~
                   WL-4         r~~~^^ '	K     J
                        WL-5  .... -      I	T_'	^     ,

                             WL"6  WL-7      ]   	~|=rl
                                       inii Q       I	
                                       WL-8

                                             WL9  WL-10
                                                0-51 cm


                                              51-102 cm


                                             102-152 cm
    FIGURE
                                  nl--3   WL-10



4.1.1 DISTRIBUTION OF ARSENIC IN CORE SAMPLES COLLECTED IN

       WESTERN WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
   600
                                       WL-8
                                            WI Q
                                            WL9
                                                 WL-10
   FIGURE 4.1.2 DISTRIBUTION OF CHROMIUM IN CORE SAMPLES COLLECTED IN

                  WESTERN WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
                                  44

-------
350
                                 ^
                                      WL-8
                                            WL S
                                                 WL-10
 FIGURE 4.1.3 DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD IN CORE SAMPLES COLLECTED IN WESTERN
                      WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
  10.0
  9.0	
   0.0
      WL-1  WL,     r^i-LJ-J-J^	J~H   ~l
              WL-3         	1	-=*T  	J     ~^     )
                   WL-4         ^	^^t_  I	 x'     ~"^
                        WL-5  .... -      i	S^L^ I	
-------
600
                                                                   0-18 cm
                                                                  D 0-51 cm
    WL-1
         WL-2
              WL-3
                   WL-4
                        WL-5
                             WL-6
                                  WL-7
                                       WL-8
  0-18 cm
0-51 cm
                                             WL-9
                                                   WL-10
   FIGURE 4.1.5 COMPARISON OF CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS IN PONAR
    SAMPLES (0-18 CM) AND TOP CORE SECTIONS (0-51 CM) COLLECTED IN
                    WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
     350
        WL-1
                                   WL-7
                                        WL-8
                                             WL-9
                                                  WL-10
     FIGURE 4.1.6 COMPARISON OF LEAD CONCENTRATIONS IN PONAR
    SAMPLES (0-18 CM) AND TOP CORE SECTIONS (0-51 CM) COLLECTED IN
                    WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
                                46

-------
follows a different depositional pattern as the PONAR  samples have lower contaminant
concentrations than the 0-51 cm core sections (Figure 4.1.6).  Lead was removed from fuel
formulations during the 70s and lower deposition rates in the more recent sediments reflect
this change.

With  the exception of the sample collected at WL-21, high levels of PCBs and organic
chemicals were not present in sediment cores (Table 4.1.5).  Station WL-21 was  collected
near the outfall of the former Hooker/Occidental Chemical facility and contained similar
PCB levels as previously reported (Rediske et al. 1998). Figure 4.1.7 shows the distribution
of Aroclor  1248 in the three core sections.  PCBs appear to be localized in the vicinity of the
outfall and show minimal migration to  areas in the western basin.  Low levels of phthalate
esters  (bis  ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate) were sporadically  found in a
number of  core sections (Table 4.1.5).  Phthalate esters are often found in  plastic materials
and are common laboratory contaminants. Their sporadic distribution in the samples does
not point to a particular contaminant source or time period.  PONAR samples (Table 4.1.6)
reflect a similar deposition pattern for Aroclor 1248.  The highest concentration was found at
WL-21 and no significant migration of PCBs was noted in the western stations.  Organic
contaminants were not detected in the PONAR sample from WL-16. This  station exhibited
the  highest degree of toxicity in the previous investigation (Rediske et al.  1998) and in this
project (Section 4.3). These results strongly indicate that the heavy metals and/or the scan list
of organic chemicals are not responsible for the toxicity observed at this WL-16.

Chromium  concentrations were  analyzed  in a series of PONAR samples  collected in the
eastern section of White Lake to provide an indication of the distribution of this contaminant
throughout the entire system.  The results of the PONAR samples are summarized in Figure
4.1.8.  While a decreasing trend in chromium concentration is noted moving downgradient
from  Tannery  Bay to  Long Point, it is significant to note that the lowest  chromium value
measured in the organic sediments was 190 mg/1. The low chromium concentration  observed
at station WL-4 can be  attributed to the physical characteristics (80% sand).   Since the
PONAR collects samples from the biologically active zone of 0-18 cm, the results can be
compared to sediment quality guidelines to evaluate ecological effects.  For  this purpose, the
Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) (MacDonald et al. 2000) for chromium (111 mg/kg)
can be used as a reference point. Stations with concentrations above the chromium PEC are
identified on Figure 4.1.8.   PECs  are  consensus based  guidelines that indicate a >75%
probability that adverse  ecological  effects may be  observed when the concentrations are
exceeded.  The results suggest that a majority of the organic sediments in White Lake west
of the  Tannery are contaminated  with chromium  at levels exceeding  the PEC.   The
bathymetric plot for White Lake (Figure 4.1.9) supports this conclusion as it shows a shallow
zone  with  an  approximate depth of 4  m that is present along the perimeter west of the
Narrows (white and light green contours).   This shelf area consists of sandy sediments
related to the  native soils and has  physical characteristics that  limit  the  accumulation  of
chromium.  Depositional  organic sediments are found in the deeper areas of the lake west  of
Tannery Bay and in the shallow zone extending from the rivermouth to the Narrows.  All  of
the  samples collected in this depositional zone were contaminated with chromium at levels
significantly above the PEC and are representative of a majority of the lake bottom.
                                           47

-------
         WL-1
WL-2 WL_3
                                            WL-8
                                                                       0-51 cm
                                                                      51-102 cm
                                                                    102-152 cm
                                                  WL-9
                                                                Core
                                                                Depth
                                                       WL-10
                            Station
                                                            WL-21
    FIGURE 4.1.7 DISTRIBUTION OF AROCLOR 1248 IN CORE SAMPLES COLLECTED IN
                       WESTERN WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
In contrast to chromium, the pattern of PCB contamination shows that it is localized in the
area near the Occidental/Hooker Chemical outfall near WL-21 (Figure 4.1.7).  The discharge
of PCBs occurred in a deep area near the Occidental/Hooker Chemical outfall (15  m) that
was not subject to wave  action and currents.   The stability  of the  sediments plus the
hydrophobic nature of PCBs limited the ability of this contaminant to be transported to areas
downgradient from the outfall zone.  In contrast, the discharge of chromium occurred in an
area of shallow sediments (< 3 m) that were subject to shoreline erosion and currents related
to the flow of the  drowned rivermouth and wave action.  Even though chromium is very
insoluble in natural water due to the formation of Cr(OH)3, the combination of resuspension
by wave action and advection by lake currents resulted in contamination throughout the basin
west of Tannery Bay. Factors influencing the spatial distribution  of contaminants in White
Lake will be discussed in Section 4.6.
                                          48

-------
   1400
   1200
   1000
                                                                      Tannery Bay

   800
_

I  600
O
                                               East of Dowies Point
                           East of Long Point
   400
   200
         FIGURE 4.1.8 DISTRIBUTION OF CHROMIUM IN PONAR SAMPLES FOR WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000. LINE
                  DENOTES PROBABLE EFFECT CONCENTRATION (PEC) (MACDONALD ET AL. 2000).
                                                49

-------
318000
3 ^ODD-
SI 6000-
315000-
314000-
313000
                                                                                                                n
26





24





22





20





18





16





14





12





10





8





6





4





2





0
                 466000
                              467000
                                            468000
                                                         469000
                                                                       470000
                                                                                     471000
                                                                                                  472000
                FIGURE 4.1.9 BATHYMETRIC PLOT OF WHITE LAKE.
                                                         50

-------
Principal  Component Analysis  (PCA) was  conducted on  the  physical  and  chemical
parameters collected during this investigation (Figure 4.1.10).  In the first two principal
components

              PCA Using Chemical  / Physical Data

                               White  Lake
           DryWt.
               2 -
          I    OH
          w
      CN
        ro
      CN 5
      C O -2
      .2 0 co

      0  -"O


      of o


        O.S2
 -2 -



 -4 -



 -6 -



 -8 -



-10 -
             -12
                                500-125 urn
                           Depth
                      PCB1248  Mercury
                -12   -10
-8
                     -6
-4
-2
\
0
 2
TOC
                                                                  Chromium
                                                                  Lead
                                                                  Cadmium
                                      Arsenic


                                      < 63 urn
                                      Copper
                                      Zinc
                                      Nickle
                                                                   125-63 urn
                               Dimension 1 (52%)
                       Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Nickle, and Zinc
                         vs. Dry Wt. and 125 - 500 urn sediment

     FIGURE 4.1.10 PCA ANALYSIS OF WHITE LAKE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA.
(explaining 73.2% of the variation), the deep sites and the west bay were pulled away from
the locations upgradient from the tannery (WL-17, WL-18, WL-19, and WL-20).  The
upgradient sites (WL-17, WL-18,  WL-19, and WL-20) were pulled in the direction of
                                      51

-------
physical parameters (TOC and grain size) while the remainder of the stations clustered
around the contaminants chromium, mercury, and lead.  Station WL-4 did not follow this
pattern as  it was pulled in the direction of the grain size (sand fraction) and % solids.  This
station had the greatest sand fraction, the highest dry weight (% solids), and was the only
deep  station  that  contained low contaminant  concentrations.   Spearman  Rank  Order
Correlations were developed for chromium and the physical/chemical parameters measured
in the investigation (Table 4.1.7) to further examine the relationship between the variables.
Chromium showed a strong positive correlation with lead, arsenic, and mercury.  In addition,
chromium showed a negative correlation with % solids.  Previous investigations (Bolattino
and Fox.  1995,  Rediske et al.  1998) established that  arsenic,  lead,  and mercury  were
associated with the tannery discharge and found in high concentrations in Tannery Bay.  The
clustering  of the deep stations in the PCA around these contaminants plus the Spearman
Correlations indicate that the tannery is the predominant source of metal enrichment in
western White Lake.

 TABLE 4.1.7  SPEARMAN RANK ORDER CORRELATIONS FOR CHROMIUM, CHEMICAL, AND
   PHYSICAL PARAMETERS FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.  (VALUES IN BOLD DENOTE
                    STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT CORRELATIONS)

                           Chromium with:                     r
                               Arsenic                       0.644
                              Cadmium                      0.906
                               Copper                       0.347
                               Mercury                       0.63
                               Nickel                        0.063
                                Lead                        0.616
                                 Zinc                        0.189
                                Depth                        0.459
                               <63um                       -0.03
                          Total organic carbon                 -0.03
                               % Solids                       -0.52

Organic chromium  was  analyzed  in the PONAR  samples by  extraction with sodium
pyrophosphate (Walsh and O'Halloran 1996).   This fraction contains chromium bound to
alkaline extractable ligands  such as humic and fulvic acids.  Organically bound chromium
was found in sediments contaminated with tannery wastes in New Zealand (Walsh and
O'Halloran 1996).  The results of organic chromium determinations are given in Table 4.1.8.
No detectable organic chromium was found in  the  stations east of Tannery Bay (WL-17,
WL-18, WL-19, and WL-20) and at WL-4.  The high sand content and low organic carbon
would prevent this fraction of chromium from accumulating at this location.  Stations west of
Tannery Bay had levels of organic chromium ranging from 23-55 mg/kg. A set of archived
samples that had been collected from Tannery Bay (Rediske  et al. 1998) were also analyzed
(Table 4.1.8).  Organic chromium in these samples ranged from 40-380 mg/kg.  The location
with the lowest organic chromium fraction (1-6) was similar to  WL-4 in that it contained a
                                          52

-------
high sand fraction.  Samples that were previously noted to contain hide fragments, 1-5 and I-
3, exhibited the highest levels of organic chromium (380 and 160 mg/kg, respectively). The
relationship between organic chromium and sediment toxicity will be discussed in Section
4.3.3.

  TABLE 4.1.8 CONCENTRATION OF ORGANIC CHROMIUM IN WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
                         Organic    Total            Organic   Total
                 Station  Chromium Chromium  Station  Chromium Chromium
                         (mg/kg)   (mg/kg)           (mg/kg)  (mg/kg)
WL1 P
WL2P
WL3P
WL4P
WL5P
WL6P
WL7P
WL8P
WL9P
WL10P
WL11 P
WL12P
WL13P
WL14P
55
37
45
0
41
41
39
30
38
31
30
54
23
53
270
300
190
18
400
360
390
380
420
270
310
510
250
480
WL15P
WL16P
WL17P
WL18P
WL19P
WL20P
WL21 P
I-3*
I-4*
I-5*
I-6*
I-7*
I-8*

27
24
0
0
0
0
39
155
120
380
40
110
160

250
190
50
29
39
28
450
934
1890
4100
2650
2560
515

                Collected in 1996 (Rediske et al. 1998)
While  discharges from the tannery and Occidental/Hooker Chemical  left large areas of
contaminated sediment in White Lake,  samples collected near the  DuPont  groundwater
plume (WL-1 and WL-2) did not contain elevated levels of organic compounds.  Chromium
and other metals were at concentrations consistent with the tannery discharge.  No obvious
signature related  to the DuPont groundwater plume was noted  in  the core or PONAR
samples.
4.2 Stratigraphy and Radiodating Results

Three cores were collected for radiodating and  the analysis  of detailed  stratigraphy for
chromium.   Stations were selected based on bathymetry and the chromium concentrations
measured in the initial cores. One core was collected from a deep depositional area and the
remaining two were collected at locations that showed high accumulations of chromium in
the 0-51 cm section of the initial cores. The first core (WL-2S) was collected at station WL-
2 and was located in the deep basin (20.3 m) west of Long Point (Figures 2.1 and 4.1.8) and
                                          53

-------
near the channel to Lake Michigan.  This station represented the deep depositional zone of
the lake.  The second core (WL-7S) was collected at WL-7 in a shallower zone (10.8 m) east
of Long Point.  This station had the highest level of chromium  in the 0-51 cm zone of the
initial set of cores (600 mg/kg).  The final core (WL-9S) was collected at station WL-9
located west of Dowies Point at a depth of (9.7 m).  This site is  nearer to Tannery Bay than
the previous cores and contained the second highest level of chromium (500 mg/kg).  The
results of each core are presented in the following sections.

4.2.1  CoreWL-2S

Stratigraphy and radiodating results for WL-2S are presented in Table 4.2.1.  Station WL-2S
is located at the  deep point in White Lake near Long Point and within the flow path of the
old river channel (Figure 2.1).  Profiles of depth and concentration for chromium, 210Pb, and
137Cs are shown on Figure 4.2.1. Elevated concentrations of chromium continue beyond the
estimated date of 1894, which indicates that the CRS  model  did not yield credible results for
the deeper strata.  Depositional patterns for 210Pb describe three regions in the core. The top
25 cm exhibits an exponential decay pattern  for the radionuclide,  which indicates stable
deposition (Robbins and Herche  1993). Estimated dates within the  top 19 cm of the core
appear to be realistic as a peak in 137Cs activity is noted at 15cm. This peak corresponds to

TABLE 4.2.1 STRATIGRAPHY AND RADIODATING RESULTS FOR CORE WL-2S COLLECTED
                         FROM WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2001.
Depth (cm)
3
7
11
15
19
23
27
31
35
39
43
47
51
55
59
61
Total
Chromium
mg/kg
340
341
317
347
415
481
625
688
793
1137
1915
2046
1846
1400
911
679
Ra-226
Activity
(dpm/g)
1.797
2.529
2.384
2.359
2.980
2.612
2.612
2.090
2.342
2.187
2.205
2.737
3.260
3.093
3.514
2.446
Cs-137
Activity
(dpm/g)
0.992
1.438
1.992
8.801
5.181
2.070
2.055
2.384
2.904
2.466
0.932
0.209
0.437
0.759
0.305
-0.542
Excess Pb-
210
Activity
(dpm/g)
17.667
8.904
7.538
4.637
2.198
5.012
2.318
0.970
3.385
2.598
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Date at
Given
Depth
1996
1986
1977
1966
1958
1954
1947
1935
1930
1910
1890





                                          54

-------
  Chromium Concentration (mg/kg)
500     1000     1500    2000    2500
                                                       Unsupported Pb-210 (dpm)

                                              Q.OOO  5.000  10.000  15.000  20.000  25.000  30.000

                                              0 -
                                                                             -5.000
   Cs-137 activity (dpm))

0.000      5.000      10.000
                                                                                                                 15.000
  10 -
  20 -
30-|
'S.
  40
  50 -
  60 J
         FIGURE 4.2.1 DEPTH AND CONCENTRATION PROFILES FOR CHROMIUM , LEAD-210, AND CESIUM-IS? AT STATION
                                            WL-2S, WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2001.
                                                            55

-------
the maximum deposition of the radionuclide that occurred during 1962 from atomic testing.
The CRS model estimated the data of this interval to be 1966, indicating good agreement
with the 137Cs peak.  Chromium deposition appears to be constant in the top  15 cm of the
core, which indicates a relatively constant supply of the element.  Since the tannery discharge
ceased in the mid  70s, the  continued  deposition of chromium  can  be attributed to the
transport of contaminated  sediment from Tannery Bay by lake currents.  From 19 cm to 39
cm, 210Pb deposition is uniform.  Chromium deposition increases  from 415 mg/kg  to  1915
mg/kg at the end of this interval.  Excess 210Pb activity is absent in the region below 43 cm.
Chromium levels peak at 47 cm (2071 mg/kg) and then decrease to 795 mg/kg at the bottom
of the core (81 cm).  The results of the strata below 19 cm suggest that210Pb deposition was
attenuated by dilution from excessive sedimentation. Since 226Ra inventories were relatively
consistent throughout the core, it is unlikely  that sediments generated by the erosion of
surficial soils were responsible for the dilution of the 210Pb signal.  A similar pattern of high
chromium levels in strata with  no 210Pb inventories was noted for sediment cores taken in
Tannery Bay (Rediske et al. 1989).  Dilution by  the discharge of industrial waste materials
was thought to have attenuated the  210Pb signal in Tannery Bay.  In the deep basin where
WL-2S is located, it is  likely that the additional sedimentation was generated by  primary
productivity and/or the input of organic matter. This location is 8 km from Tannery Bay and
no known source of industrial  waste is  present in the area.  Since the historical  tannery
discharge also contained  high levels  of nitrogen and phosphorus from the processing of
animal hides, the productivity of White Lake may have been greater during the years prior to
1960.  Observations and data from Evans (1992) support this conclusion as the water quality
in White Lake was significantly  degraded during the 50s and early 60s.  Excessive  algal
blooms, high turbidity, and degraded benthic populations were reported for this time period.
A trend  of increasing water  quality was noted  in the late  60s.  The fact that a  peak in
chromium deposition is coupled  with the absence of 210Pb suggests that the tannery was
discharging high levels  of metal  laden waste materials into White Lake prior to the early
1960s and that organic sedimentation was elevated by primary productivity.
4.2.2  CoreWL-7S

Stratigraphy and radiodating results for WL-7S are presented in Table 4.2.2.  Profiles of
depth and concentration for chromium and lead are shown in Figure 4.2.2.  This core was
taken at a depth of 21.5 m in the deep basin near Dowies Point (Figure 2.1). The top 11 cm
showed an exponential decay pattern for 210Pb while the remainder of the core had variable
radioisotope inventories.  These data suggest a  recent pattern of stable  deposition followed
by a period of mixing and excess sedimentation from advection within the lake. Since White
Lake  is  a drowned rivermouth, storm events and  currents are  capable  of transporting
significant amounts of sediment on an episodic basis. The layer of uniform 210Pb inventories
                                           56

-------
TABLE 4.2.2 STRATIGRAPHY AND RADIODATING RESULTS FOR CORE WL-7S COLLECTED
                        FROM WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2001.
                      Total
        Depth (cm)  Chromium
                      mg/kg
             7
             11
             15
             19
            23
            27
            31
            35
            39
            43
            47
            51
            55
            59
            61
Ra-226
Activity
(dpm/g)
Cs-137
Activity
(dpm/g)
Excess Pb-
   210
 Activity
 (dpm/g)
Date at
 Given
 Depth
204
242
273
330
470
462
397
702
928
893
1052
1230
1848
1779
1418
1072
4.047
3.773
3.056
2.947
2.535
3.356
3.531
3.083
3.562
3.018
3.398
3.734
3.404
3.126
3.357
2.639
1.922
2.184
2.244
2.348
2.195
2.828
2.183
3.247
4.015
3.695
4.611
3.515
3.434
3.877
4.282
3.467
30.878
27.848
22.008
16.646
18.633
20.804
12.293
16.398
11.531
13.742
11.814
14.954
13.294
11.450
13.387
9.901
1999
1996
1992
1990
1983
1977
1971
1966
1964
1957
1951
1947
1939
1928
1918
1900
may be due to a combination  of mixing  and excess deposition by episodic events.  The
absence of a 137Cs horizon (Figure 4.2.2)  also supports the hypothesis of sediment mixing
and transport,  as the  radionuclide profile shows a slightly increasing deposition pattern
instead of the classic peak shape found in core WL-2S (Figure 4.2.1).  In consideration of the
atypical radioisotope at this location, the dates assigned by the constant supply model cannot
be considered  to be accurate.   Chromium deposition patterns (Figure 4.2.2) also show the
dates to be inaccurate as the highest levels  of chromium were estimated to be deposited prior
to the conversion of the tanning process in  1945. Chromium levels were relatively consistent
in the top 11 cm and then increased to a maximum of 1848 mg/kg at 51 cm.  This region of
the core also contained 210Pb inventories that were more representative of exponential decay,
indicating stable  sediments and a constant  supply of chromium.   Increasing chromium
deposition is evident in the deeper region where the 210Pb is variable.  The presence of excess
210Pb  throughout  this  region of the core indicates a continuous influx  of sediment and
frequent movement out of the location.  Based on the increasing  and decreasing pattern, it
appears that episodic events such as  storms act to remove and deposit varying amounts of
sediment at this location.
                                          57

-------
       Chromium Concentration (mg/kg)

     0      500     1000     1500    2000
   10 -
  20 -

-------
4.2.3  CoreWL-9S

Stratigraphy and radiodating results for WL-9S are presented in Table 4.2.3.  Profiles of
depth and concentration for chromium and lead are shown in Figure 4.2.3  along with the
calculated dates  from the 210Pb deposition model.   The radiodating results indicate that
stable sediments are not accumulating at this location. The accumulation of stable sediments
would result in a 210Pb profile that exhibits an exponential decay of the radioisotope (Robbins
and Herche  1993) similar to core WL-2S.  No exponential decay pattern  is visible in core
WL-2S (Table 4.2.3).  Instead, a mixed layer with uniform 210Pb inventories was observed
for the first  15 cm followed by a pattern of sections with increasing and decreasing 210Pb
concentrations ranging from -11-19 dpm. The presence of excess 210Pb throughout the core
indicates a continuous influx of sediment and frequent movement out of the location. Based
on the increasing and decreasing pattern, it appears that episodic events such as storms act to
remove  varying  amounts of  sediment from  the location.   The  depositional  pattern of
chromium also exhibits sporadic  changes in concentration indicating  the influence  of
episodic events.  The relatively uniform concentrations of chromium noted in the top 11 cm
correspond to a mixed sediment layer shown in the 210Pb profile. Chromium concentrations
peak at 31 cm and then decline to the base of the core.  Station WL-9S is closer to Tannery
Bay than the two previous cores and is also located in shallower water (15.2 m).

TABLE 4.2.3 STRATIGRAPHY AND RADIODATING RESULTS FOR CORE WL-9S COLLECTED
                        FROM WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2001.
Depth (cm)
3
7
11
15
19
23
27
31
35
39
43
47
51
55
59
Total
Chromium
mg/kg
454
464
488
606
643
695
917
1201
849
778
750
732
678
722
630
Ra-226
Activity
(dpm/g)
1.797
2.529
2.384
2.359
2.980
2.339
2.612
2.612
2.090
1.839
2.040
2.205
2.272
3.326
3.093
Cs-137
Activity
(dpm/g)
0.992
1.438
1.992
8.801
5.181
3.576
2.070
2.055
2.384
2.261
2.239
1.932
1.759
0.851
0.759
Excess Pb-
210
Activity
(dpm/g)
24.098
23.798
23.858
20.499
17.389
16.061
14.196
14.602
15.705
10.988
15.262
12.225
17.246
18.967
19.093
Date at
Given
Depth
1999
1996
1991
1989
1984
1978
1972
1967
1963
1958
1955
1947
1932
1912
1890
                                          59

-------
      Chromium Concentration (mg/kg)
  0        500        1000        1500
Unsupported Pb-210 (dpm)
 10      20       30       40
 Cs-137activity(dpm)
234
10 -
20 -
30-
40 -
50 -
60 -
                                      10 -
                                      20 -
                                    o
                                      30 -
                                      40 -
                                      50 -
                                      60 -I
                                                                             10 -
                                                                             20 -
                                                                             30 -
                                                                             40 -
                                                                             50 -
                                                                             60 -I
                 FIGURE 4.2.3 DEPTH AND CONCENTRATION PROFILES FOR CHROMIUM , LEAD-210, AND CESIUM-IS?
                                       AT STATION WL-9S, WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2001.
                                                       60

-------
4.2.4  Stratigraphy and Radiodating Summary

In examining the results of the three stratigraphy cores together, some important patterns in
contaminant deposition  are evident.  All of  the cores show uniform levels  of chromium
deposition in the top 10 - 15 cm.  This pattern indicates that a relatively constant source of
chromium is currently  present in  White Lake.   These data coupled  with  the  previous
investigation (Rediske et al. 1998) suggest that the  heavily contaminated sediments near the
historic tannery discharge are being transported out  of the bay by currents and then deposited
throughout the  lake.  In addition, the lack of a standard exponential decay pattern in the
lower sections of the  core illustrates that sediments in the open waters of the lake are also
mobile and influenced by currents and episodic events.  Even when there is evidence of a
distinct 137Cs horizon as in WL-2S, the deeper sections of the core still contain atypical 210Pb
profiles that suggest mixed sediment layers.

The  stratigraphy cores  were  analyzed  by  PIXE while  the  investigative samples were
evaluated by ICP.    The PIXE  method  is a  form  of elemental  analysis  based on  the
characteristics of X-rays and the nature of X-ray detection (Johansson  et al. 1995). The
method uses beams of energetic  ions, produced by  an  accelerator to generate a beam of
protons in the 2-5 MeV range, used to create inner electron shell vacancies. As these inner
shell vacancies  become  filled by  outer shell electrons, the characteristic X-rays emitted by
this cascade effect can be detected  by wavelength dispersion.  PIXE techniques provide a
rapid  screening of the samples  for metals without sample preparation.   The PIXE results
represent a total analysis of metals due to the interaction of the proton beam with all metallic
forms (Rajander et al.  1999). In contrast, the microwave digestion used for the investigative
samples provides data on acid extractable metals. Comparative  studies of the two techniques
found that acid  extractable digestions underestimate chromium  concentrations by up to 40%
because of the  stability of chromite (Ma et al. 1997, Chen and Ma 2001).   Total  metal
digestions involving HF are necessary to dissolve the refractory  chromite.   In order to
compare the results of the  stratigraphy cores  with  the investigative samples, the core from
WL-9S was analyzed  by PIXE  and  ICP methods.  The results of the comparison study are
shown in Table 4.2.4. With respect to White Lake  sediments, there appears to be a 21%
difference between the two methods (based on grand mean).   Since the soils in the White
River watershed consist of glacial tills that originated in the Canadian Shield, background
levels of chromite can be expected in the core samples. The results also indicate that some of
the chromium originating in the tannery waste may  be refractory  to acid digestion.   The
results of the top core section from the investigative samples (0-51  cm) are compared to the
same depth interval of the stratigraphy cores in Table 4.2.5.  When a 21% factor is applied to
the PIXE results to account for  the difference between total and extractable metals,  the
results between the methods show  good agreement.   There appears to be some high bias
associated with  the stratigraphy  results that is probably related to sample collection methods.
The investigative samples were  collected by VibraCore  methods that tend to compress
flocculent sediments.  It is possible that some of the deeper strata were included in  the
VibraCore  samples.   It  is  also  interesting to note that  the  middle core section  of  the
investigative samples  (51-102  cm)  had  chromium levels that ranged from  34-38  mg/kg
(Table 4.1.3).   These  results suggest that anthropogenic chromium contamination does  not
extend down into this region of the core.
                                           61

-------
  TABLE 4.2.4 RESULTS OF ICP AND PIXE ANALYSES FOR CHROMIUM IN CORE WL-9S
                 COLLECTED FROM WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2001.
             Depth   Chromium (ICP) Chromium (PIXE)       %
             (cm)       mg/kg          mg/kg        Difference

               3          359            454             21
               7          427            464              8
              11         421            488             14
              15         484            606             20
              19         496            643             23
              23         552            695             21
              27         709            917             23
              31         870            1200            28
              35         678            849             20
              39         627            778             19
              43         611            750             19
              47         540            732             26
              51         564            678             17
              55         564            712             20
              59         359            454             21
             Grand
             Mean        551            695             21
  TABLE 4.2.5 AVERAGE AND CORRECTED DATA FOR STRATIGRAPHY CORES (OCTOBER
 2001) COMPARED TO THE RESULTS OF THE TOP CORE SECTION FROM THE INVESTIGATIVE
              SURVEY (OCTOBER 2000) FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.

        Stratigraphy Core Average Stratigraphy Core Corrected    Investigative Core Top
Station     Chromium (PIXE)     Average Chromium (PIXE)   Section Chromium (ICP)
                mg/kg                  mg/kg*                 mg/kg**
  3              695                     549                    470
  7              869                     686                    600
  11              712                     574                    500
 * Corrected for 21% difference between PIXIE and ICP results
 ** Top Core Section Results (0-51 cm)
                                      62

-------
4.3 Toxicity Testing Results

The toxicity evaluations of the White Lake  sediments were performed during November
2000. Grab sediment samples collected from 21 different sites were evaluated using the EPA
(1994)  solid  phase testing protocol with  Hyalella azteca  and  Chironomus  tentans.
Conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, and pH were determined for the culture water at
the beginning  and on the tenth day of each test (Appendix E: Tables E-l, E-3).  With the
exception of ammonia  in most of the sediments and conductivity and hardness in M10-P,
these parameters remained relatively constant.  Variations of less than 50% from initial to
final measurements for both test species were observed. Based on the initial pH values (all <
8.00) and the  fact that the overlying water was exchanged prior to adding the organisms,
toxicity related to unionized ammonia was not anticipated to be a factor in these experiments.
Temperature  and  dissolved oxygen  measurements  were recorded  daily  throughout  the
duration of the tests (Appendix E: Tables E-2, E-4).  Very little variation was noted with
respect to temperature.   The dissolved oxygen remained above 40% saturation in  all of the
test beakers.
4.3.1  Hyalella azteca

Survival data for solid phase toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca are presented in  Table
4.3.1.1. The survival in the control (WL-20P and WL-4P) treatments exceeded the required
80%.  In order to group the samples based on depth, WL-20P was used as the control for the
shallow locations east of the Narrows and  WL-4P was used as the control for the deep
stations.  Separate statistical analyses also were performed on the two groups of data. Un-
transformed survival data were evaluated to  determine whether they were consistent with a
normal distribution.  The Chi-Squared distribution was used to compare the expected count
of data values at the  10th, 20th, ..., and 90th percentiles with the observed count. The sample
data from  both groups  were  found to  be  consistent with those  drawn from a normal
population  (p > 0.01).  Dunnett's Test (Table 4.3.1.2) showed a statistically significant (p <
0.05)  difference for the survival data compared to control site WL-20P in 1 out of 4 shallow
stations.  Sediments from site WL-16P had significantly  reduced survival compared to WL-
20P (66%  vs  90%  respectively).  Dunnett's  Test  (Table 4.3.1.3)  showed a  statistically
significant  (p < 0.05) difference for the  survival data compared to control site WL-4P in 1
out of 9 deep  stations.  Sediments from site  WL-21P  had significantly reduced survival
compared to WL-4P (65% vs 88% respectively).  All of the other deep and shallow locations
had greater than 80% survival.
                                           63

-------
TABLE 4.3.1.1 SUMMARY OF HYALELLA AZTECA SURVIVAL DATA OBTAINED DURING
        THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
                 (WL-4 AND WL-20 ARE CONTROLS.)
Sample
ID
WL-1
WL-2
WL-3
WL-4
WL-5
WL-6
WL-7
WL-8
WL-9
WL-10
WL-11
WL-1 2
WL-1 3
WL-1 4
WL-1 5
WL-1 6
WL-1 7
WL-1 8
WL-1 9
WL-20
WL-21
Number of
Organisms
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Replicate
A
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
10
10
9
10
8
10
7
10
10
10
8
10
9
10
10
10
8
10
6
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
7
B
10
8
10
10
10
9
10
7
10
9
10
9
10
7
10
9
10
8
10
9
10
10
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
7
10
8
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
6
c
10
9
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
10
10
8
10
9
10
10
10
9
10
8
10
9
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
6
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
10
10
9
D
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
9
10
10
10
10
10
6
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
9
10
6
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
10
10
9
10
10
10
9
10
6
E
10
9
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
7
10
10
10
9
10
7
10
8
10
7
10
10
10
8
10
6
10
8
10
7
10
7
10
8
10
8
F
10
8
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
10
10
9
10
10
10
8
10
8
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
6
10
6
10
8
10
10
10
10
10
9
10
9
10
5
G
10
9
10
7
10
9
10
10
10
8
10
7
10
8
10
8
10
9
10
7
10
8
10
9
10
8
10
10
10
9
10
7
10
9
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
6
H
10
9
10
10
10
8
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
10
10
8
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
8
10
10
10
7
10
10
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
9
10
5
Survival
Mean

9.000

9.500

9.000

8.875

9.000

8.750

8.500

8.625

8.625

8.125

8.875

8.750

8.250

8.375

8.000

6.625

8.875

8.750

8.625

9.000

6.500
Std Dev

0.7559

1 .0690

0.7559

0.9910

0.9258

1.1650

1.4142

1 .0607

0.7440

0.8345

1.1260

0.7071

1.2817

1 .5980

1.4142

1 .0607

0.8345

1.0351

1 .0607

0.7559

1.4142
Variance

0.571

1.143

0.571

0.982

0.857

1.357

2.000

1.125

0.554

0.696

1.268

0.500

1.643

2.554

2.000

1.125

0.696

1.071

1.125

0.571

2.000
                                64

-------
TABLE 4.3.1.2 SUMMARY OF DUNNETT'S TEST ANALYSIS OFHYALELLA AZTECA SURVIVAL
 DATA OBTAINED DURING THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS
                     FROM SHALLOW STATIONS (< 4.5 M).
ID
WL-20P
WL-19P
WL-18P
WL-17P
WL-16P
MEAN
9.0000
8.6250
8.7500
8.8750
6.6250
TSTAT
0.0000
0.7828
0.5219
0.2609
4.9580
SIG
0.05




*
            Dunnett's critical value = 2.2500.    1 Tailed, alpha = 0.05.
TABLE 4.3.1.3 SUMMARY OF DUNNETT'S TEST ANALYSIS OFHYALELLA AZTECA SURVIVAL
 DATA OBTAINED DURING THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS
                       FROM DEEP STATIONS (> 4.5 M).
ID
WL-4P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-1P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-21P
MEAN
8.8750
9.5000
9.0000
9.0000
9.0000
8.7500
8.5000
8.6250
8.6250
6.5000
TSTAT
0.0000
-1.1832
-0.2366
-0.2366
-0.2366
0.2366
0.7099
0.4733
0.4733
4.4962
SIG
0.05









*
            Dunnett's critical value = 2.4800.    1 Tailed, alpha = 0.05.
                                    65

-------
4.3.2  Chironomus tentans

Survival data for solid phase toxicity tests with Chironomus tentans are presented in Table
4.3.2.1.  The survival in the control treatments (WL-4P and WL-20P) exceeded the required
70%.  Un-transformed survival data were evaluated as described above with the Chi-Squared
distribution. The  sample data were found to be consistent with those drawn from a normal
population (p > 0.01).  Dunnett's Test (Table 4.3.2.2) showed a statistically significant (p <
0.05)  difference for the survival data compared to control site WL-20P in 1 out of 4 shallow
stations. Sediments from site WL-16P had significantly reduced survival compared to WL-
20P (66% vs  90% respectively).  Dunnett's Test (Table 4.3.2.3) showed  a statistically
significant (p < 0.05) difference for the survival data compared to control site WL-4P in 1
out of 9 deep stations.  Sediments from site WL-21P had significantly reduced survival
compared to WL-4P (65% vs 88% respectively).  All of the other deep and shallow locations
had greater than 80% survival.

Chironomus tentans growth data are presented in Table 4.3.2.4. Un-transformed growth data
were  found to be consistent with a Chi-Squared distribution at p > 0.01.  Dunnett's Test
(Table 4.3.2.5) showed a  statistically  significant (p < 0.05) difference for the growth data
compared to control site WL-20P in 1  out of 4 shallow stations.  Sediments from site WL-
16P had significantly reduced growth compared to WL-20P (0.5375 mg/individual vs 1.1522
mg/individual respectively). Dunnett's Test (Table 4.3.2.6) showed a statistically significant
(p < 0.05) difference for the growth data compared to control site WL-4P in 1 out of 9 deep
stations. Sediments from site WL-21P had significantly reduced growth compared to WL-4P
(0.6263 mg/individual vs 0.9834  mg/individual respectively).  All of the other deep and
shallow locations had average individual weights of >0.6 mg.
4.3.3  Sediment Toxicity Data Discussion

Statistically significant (p < 0.05) acute toxicity effects were observed in the sediments from
sites WL-16 and WL-21 for the amphipod, H. azteca. In addition, statistically significant (p
< 0.05) mortality and growth rates were noted for the midge, C. tentans in sediment from the
same sites.  Sediment from station located in the east bay, WL-16, contained no detectable
organic compounds and metals that were above PEC guidelines (MacDonald et al. 2000).
The toxic agent(s) present at this location were not identified in the current protocol. Given
the high level of toxicity measured in this study and the previous investigation, a  more
detailed assessment of east bay area is warranted. A Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE)
protocol needs to be performed to examine the classification of the toxicant.  The east bay is
located adjacent to the old storage reservoir for the tree bark tanning agent used from 1890-
1940.  Since tannins  are known to be toxic to herbivores including insects (Cowan 1999,
Bernays et al.  1989, and Kubanek et al. 2001), it is possible that this class of compounds is
responsible for the amphipod and midge mortality.  The dark, opaque color of pyrophosphate
extract from
                                           66

-------
TABLE 4.3.2.1 SUMMARY OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS SURVIVAL DATA OBTAINED
    DURING THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
                 (WL-4 AND W-20 ARE CONTROLS.)
Sample
ID
WL-1
WL-2
WL-3
WL-4
WL-5
WL-6
WL-7
WL-8
WL-9
WL-10
WL-11
WL-1 2
WL-1 3
WL-1 4
WL-1 5
WL-1 6
WL-1 7
WL-1 8
WL-1 9
WL-20
WL-21
Number of
Organisms
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Replicate
A
10
7
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
9
10
6
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
7
10
7
10
7
10
6
10
9
10
10
10
7
10
10
10
8
10
7
10
8
10
6
B
10
6
10
7
10
9
10
9
10
8
10
5
10
9
10
7
10
6
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
12
10
8
10
6
10
8
10
6
10
8
10
8
10
5
C
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
7
10
8
10
7
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
10
10
7
10
5
10
8
10
8
10
5
10
8
10
8
10
7
10
8
10
6
D
10
8
10
9
10
7
10
8
10
8
10
9
10
8
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
7
10
5
10
8
10
10
10
8
10
3
10
8
10
6
10
6
10
7
10
5
E
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
9
10
9
10
7
10
6
10
9
10
8
10
10
10
11
10
10
10
5
10
10
10
4
10
5
10
7
10
7
10
9
10
9
10
6
F
10
9
10
8
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
6
10
7
10
10
10
6
10
7
10
8
10
5
10
7
10
9
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
6
10
9
10
7
10
5
G
10
9
10
9
10
8
10
7
10
8
10
8
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
9
10
11
10
8
10
10
10
9
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
7
10
6
10
7
H
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
8
10
7
10
9
10
9
10
8
10
6
10
8
10
7
10
7
10
7
10
9
10
6
10
4
10
7
10
7
10
8
10
8
10
5
Survival
Mean

7.875

8.125

8.125

8.125

8.000

7.250

7.875

7.750

7.000

8.125

8.625

7.125

7.000

9.500

7.000

5.375

7.750

7.000

7.625

7.625

5.625
Std Dev

0.9910

0.6409

0.6409

0.6409

0.7559

1.4880

1.1260

1.6690

1.1952

1.1260

1.7678

1.6421

1.6903

1.1952

2.1381

1.5980

1.1650

0.9258

1.0607

0.9161

0.7440
Variance

0.982

0.411

0.411

0.411

0.571

2.214

1.268

2.786

1.429

1.268

3.125

2.696

2.857

1.429

4.571

2.554

1.357

0.857

1.125

0.839

0.554
                               67

-------
 TABLE 4.3.2.2 SUMMARY OF DUNNETT'S TEST ANALYSIS OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS
SURVIVAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE
              SEDIMENTS FROM SHALLOW STATIONS (<4.5 M).
ID
WL-20P
WL-19P
WL-18P
WL-17P
WL-16P
MEAN
7.6250
7.6250
7.0000
7.7500
5.3750
TSTAT
0.0000
0.0000
1.0773
-0.2155
3.8781
SIG
0.05




*
           Dunnett's critical value = 2.2500.    1 Tailed, alpha = 0.05.
 TABLE 4.3.2.3 SUMMARY OF DUNNETT'S TEST ANALYSIS OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS
SURVIVAL DATA OBTAINED DURING THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE
                SEDIMENTS FROM DEEP STATIONS (> 4.5 M).
ID
WL-4P
WL-1P
WL-2P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-10P
WL-21P
MEAN
8.1250
7.8750
8.1250
8.0000
7.2500
7.8750
7.7500
7.0000
8.1250
5.6250
TSTAT
0.0000
0.4585
0.0000
0.2292
1.6047
0.4585
0.6877
2.0632
0.0000
5.6250
SIG
0.05









*
           Dunnett's critical value = 2.4800.    1 Tailed, alpha = 0.05.
                                  68

-------
TABLE 4.3.2.4 SUMMARY OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS DRY WEIGHT DATA OBTAINED
     DURING THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
                  (WL-4 AND WL-20 ARE CONTROLS.)
Sample
WL-1 A
WL-1 B
WL-1 C
WL-1 D
WL-1 E
WL-1 F
WL-1 G
WL-1 H
WL-2A
WL-2B
WL-2C
WL-2D
WL-2E
WL-2F
WL-2G
WL-2 H
WL-3A
WL-3B
WL-3C
WL-3D
WL-3E
WL-3F
WL-3G
WL-3 H
WL-4 A
WL-4B
WL-4C
WL-4D
WL-4E
WL-4F
WL-4G
WL-4H
WL-5 A
WL-5B
WL-5C
WL-5D
WL-5E
WL-5F
WL-5G
WL-5H
WL-6A
WL-6B
WL-6C
WL-6D
WL-6E
WL-6F
WL-6G
WL-6 H
WL-7 A
WL-7B
WL-7C
WL-7 D
WL-7E
WL-7 F
WL-7G
WL-7 H
Individual
Weight (mg)
0.9714
1.2167
0.9500
0.9875
1.0500
0.8667
0.9111
1.0625
0.9500
1.0429
1.2000
0.8444
0.9500
1.0125
0.8222
1.1250
1.3750
1.0667
1.0500
1.3571
1.4000
2.1000
1.8250
1.4375
0.8250
0.8667
1.1125
0.7750
1.1111
1.0750
1.0143
1.0875
1.1333
1.1250
1.0857
1.0750
0.8111
0.8125
0.7625
0.9429
1.1833
0.9200
1.1000
1.1556
1.0571
0.8667
1.1000
0.9444
1.3000
0.9222
1.2000
0.9125
1.2833
1.1571
0.9778
0.9667
Average
Individual
Weight (mg)



1 0020































0 9685




















Sample
WL-8 A
WL-8 B
WL-8C
WL-8D
WL-8E
WL-8 F
WL-8G
WL-8H
WL-9 A
WL-9B
WL-9C
WL-9D
WL-9E
WL-9F
WL-9G
WL-9H
WL-1 0 A
WL-10 B
WL-10C
WL-10 D
WL-10 E
WL-1 OF
WL-10G
WL-10 H
WL-11 A
WL-11 B
WL-11 C
WL-11 D
WL-11 E
WL-11 F
WL-1 1 G
WL-11 H
WL-1 2 A
WL-1 2 B
WL-1 2 C
WL-1 2 D
WL-1 2 E
WL-1 2 F
WL-1 2 G
WL-1 2 H
WL-1 3 A
WL-1 3 B
WL-1 3 C
WL-1 3 D
WL-1 3 E
WL-1 3 F
WL-1 3 G
WL-1 3 H
WL-1 4 A
WL-1 4 B
WL-1 4 C
WL-1 4 D
WL-1 4 E
WL-1 4 F
WL-1 4 G
WL-1 4 H
Individual
Weight (mg)
1.0875
1.4571
1.9000
1.5800
0.9556
1.0100
1.0333
1.0500
1.0250
1.0167
0.9429
1.2667
0.9375
1.0000
0.8667
1.0000
0.9143
0.7333
0.9000
1.0714
0.9900
1.0857
0.8556
0.8625
0.9714
0.9750
0.8600
0.9143
0.9364
1.1500
0.9636
1.0714
0.9286
0.8250
0.8714
0.9600
0.5800
1.0600
1.0375
0.8571
1.9000
1.3750
1.3200
1.3875
0.5400
1.1857
0.9600
0.9143
1.1111
0.8083
0.9750
0.9600
1.0000
0.9667
1.1333
1.1444
Average
Individual
Weight (mg)
1.2592
1.0069
0.9266
0.9803
0.8900
1.1978
1.0124
Sample
WL-1 5 A
WL-1 5 B
WL-1 5 C
WL-1 5 D
WL-1 5 E
WL-1 5 F
WL-1 5 G
WL-1 5 H
WL-1 6 A
WL-1 6 B
WL-1 6 C
WL-1 6 D
WL-1 6 E
WL-1 6 F
WL-1 6 G
WL-1 6 H
WL-1 7 A
WL-1 7 B
WL-1 7 C
WL-1 7 D
WL-1 7 E
WL-1 7 F
WL-1 7 G
WL-1 7 H
WL-1 8 A
WL-1 8 B
WL-1 8 C
WL-1 8 D
WL-1 8 E
WL-1 8 F
WL-1 8 G
WL-1 8 H
WL-1 9 A
WL-1 9 B
WL-1 9 C
WL-1 9 D
WL-1 9 E
WL-1 9 F
WL-1 9 G
WL-1 9 H
WL-20 A
WL-20 B
WL-20 C
WL-20 D
WL-20 E
WL-20 F
WL-20 G
WL-20 H
WL-21 A
WL-21 B
WL-21 C
WL-21 D
WL-21 E
WL-21 F
WL-21 G
WL-21 H
Individual
Weight (mg)
1.0700
1.1125
1.0625
1.1875
1.5250
1.9000
1.9875
0.9000
0.7857
0.6111
0.4625
0.3667
0.7250
0.2600
0.7500
0.3250
0.7636
1.0125
1.0500
0.9500
1.1429
1.1000
1.0375
1.0000
0.8625
1.0500
0.9000
1.1500
1.0714
1.0500
0.9500
0.9429
1.0857
1.1333
0.8857
0.9333
0.9556
0.8111
1.0714
1.0714
1.1429
0.9875
1.1000
0.9571
1.9667
0.7714
1.1667
1.1250
0.7000
0.5000
0.6000
0.6600
0.6333
0.6800
0.6571
0.5800
Average
Individual
Weight (mg)
1.3431
0.5357
1.0071
0.9971
0.9935
1.1522
0.6263
                                69

-------
   TABLE 4.3.2.5 SUMMARY OF DUNNETT'S TEST ANALYSIS OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS
   GROWTH DATA OBTAINED DURING THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE
                  SEDIMENTS FROM SHALLOW STATIONS (<4.5 M).
ID
WL-20P
WL-19P
WL-18P
WL-17P
WL-16P
MEAN
1.1522
0.9935
0.9971
1.0071
0.5357
TSTAT
0.0000
1.6051
1.4816
1.4816
6.1733
SIG
0.05




*
              Dunnett's critical value = 2.2500.    1 Tailed, alpha = 0.05.
   TABLE 4.3.2.6 SUMMARY OF DUNNETT'S TEST ANALYSIS OF CHIRONOMUS TENTANS
   GROWTH DATA OBTAINED DURING THE 10 DAY TOXICITY TEST WITH WHITE LAKE
                    SEDIMENTS FROM DEEP STATIONS (> 4.5 M).
ID
WL-4P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-1P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-21P
MEAN
0.9834
0.9934
1.4514
1.0020
0.9685
1.0409
1.0900
1.2592
1.0069
0.6263
TSTAT
0.0000
-0.2551
-4.7197
0.2551
-0.6378
-1.1480
-2.9339
-0.1276
0.5102
3.5717
SIG
0.05









*
              Dunnett's critical value = 2.4800.    1 Tailed, alpha = 0.05.
WL-16 provides indirect evidence of the presence of high levels  of tannins due to their
solubility in alkaline conditions. The toxicity observed at WL-21 was most likely due to the
presence of PCBs (22 mg/kg) and/or chlorinated hydrocarbons.   This area was dredged in
2003 and further toxicity evaluations are not necessary.

No  correlation was found between  amphipod toxicity  and chromium  concentrations  in
Tannery Bay sediments in the previous investigation (Rediske et al. 1998).  Table 4.3.3.1
                                       70

-------
contains the 1996 data for total chromium and amphipod toxicity plus the recently measured
values  of organic  chromium.  The correlation results for  amphipod toxicity and  total
chromium and organic chromium are displayed in Figures 4.3.3.1 and 4.3.3.2, respectively.
The results clearly show that a significant correlation exists between organic chromium and
 TABLE 4.3.3.1 SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF TOTAL CHROMIUM, ORGANIC CHROMIUM, AND
 AMPHIPOD SURVIVAL FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS (REDISKE ET AL. 1998). (ORGANIC
       CHROMIUM ANALYSIS PERFORMED ON ARCHIVED SEDIMENT FROM 1996.)
                               Total
                      Station

                       E-l
                        1-1
                        1-2
                        1-3
                        1-4
                        1-5
                        1-6
                        1-7
                        1-8
Cr

(mg/kg)
35
212
259
934
1890
4100
2650
2560
515
Survival
H.
azteca
84
9
1
20
53
9
60
41
23
Organic
  Cr
(mg/kg)
  160
  120
  380
  40
  110
  155
  33
  58
  27
         I 30
            0      500     1000    1500    2000    2500    3000    3500    4000    4500
                                 Total Chromium (mg/kg)

 FIGURE 4.3.3.1  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOTAL CHROMIUM AND AMPHIPOD SURVIVAL
               FOR TANNERY BAY SEDIMENTS (REDISKE ET AL. 1998).
                                       71

-------
     70 -,
     60
     50
                                                     FT = 0.6902
   ro
   o
     40
   ro
   >
   '> 30
   W
     20
     10
               50      100       150      200       250
                                Organic Chromium (mg/kg)
                                                         300
                                                                  350
                                                                          400
     FIGURE 4.3.3.2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIC CHROMIUM AND AMPHIPOD
 SURVIVAL FOR TANNERY BAY SEDIMENTS (REDISKE ET AL. 1998).  (ORGANIC CHROMIUM
             ANALYSIS PERFORMED ON ARCHIVED SEDIMENT FROM 1996.)

amphipod toxicity  (r2=0.6902).   No  correlation was  observed for total chromium and
amphipod toxicity.  Chromium (III) is anticipated to be the only form of the metal present in
the sediments of White Lake due to their reducing nature (ENVCA 1994). While trivalent
chromium compounds have low membrane permeabilities (Eisler 1986),  organically bound
metals exhibit increased absorption (Barnhart 1997).  Once in the cell, chromium (III) has
been shown to bind with DNA and induce conformational changes in bio molecules (Snow
1994).  In consideration of these chemical  properties and the correlation with amphipod
mortality, it is possible that the organic chromium fraction in the sediments of Tannery Bay
is responsible for the observed toxicity. More research would be required to link cause and
effect with the organic chromium fraction.  The presence of the decomposing animal hides in
Tannery Bay may contribute a form of organic chromium that is more toxic than the material
found in the remainder of the lake.
                                         72

-------
4.4 Benthic Macroinvertebrate Results

Triplicate PONAR grab samples were used to characterize the benthic macroinvertebrate
populations  at  each  of the investigative  stations.   The locations, depths,  and physical
characteristics  of the  sediments  are  given in  Table  2.2.   Benthic macroinvertebrate
populations were assessed by three methods. These data were first analyzed for differences
in taxa and total number of organisms and the results summarized in Section 4.4.1. A further
analysis of these data using trophic indices and diversity metrics was then conducted  and
presented in Section 4.4.2.  Finally, the community composition on an organismal level was
statistically analyzed  in Section 4.4.3 to determine if differences in community composition
were associated with contaminant concentration and distribution.

4.4.1  Benthic Macroinvertebrate Results Of Individual Samples

The population composition and abundance data are summarized in Table 4.4.1.1 by mean
and standard deviation for each station.   The results for each replicate  are presented in
Appendix F,  Table F-l. The general distribution of organisms is shown in Figure 4.4.1.1.
Tubificids  dominated  the  benthic  macroinvertebrate  assemblages  at  most  stations.
Nematodes were the dominant taxon at WL-12, WL-9, and WL-14.  Chironomids also were
abundant at most stations.  Benthic populations show an increase in both total numbers  and
species compared to the historic data reported by Evans (1992) for the 1980s.  A summary
of total organisms and  taxometric groups is presented in Table 4.4.1.2. Total density was
generally high and ranged between 2,297/m2 and 34,405/m2 with 15 of 21 sites having >4000
organisms/m2.  Tubificidae were the most  abundant group at all but three of the sites
sampled, comprising between 1,880/m2 and 30,171/m2.  Fifteen of the locations had tubificid
populations  that accounted for 75% of the total organisms.  Four species, Aulodrilus
limnobius, Aulodriluspigueti, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, and Ilyodrilus templetoni were found
at most sites (Table 4.4.1).  One of the more pollution tolerant species, L. hqffmeisteri, was
found at all sites and was the  dominant tubificid taxon.  Howmiller and Scott (1977)  and
Milbrink (1983) classified  benthic  macroinvertebrate  assemblages  dominated by these
species as enriched with organic (nutrient) materials.  Sites with the highest chromium levels
(WL-9,  WL-12,  and  WL-14)  had  lower  tubificid  densities (45%,  23%,  and 37%
respectively). WL-20,  the control station, was also characterized by a lower percentage of
these  organisms (31%) and a slightly larger abundance  of amphipods (35%).  The shallow
depth and presence of macrophytes at this station provided an environment more  conducive
to the growth of amphipods.

Nematoda were the second most abundant group in White Lake with densities that ranged
from 0/m2 to 7,7807 m2 (Table  4.4.1.2).  Stations WL-9, WL-12, and WL-14 had nematode
densities of 47%, 72%, and 55% of the total population, respectively, and the organisms were
found in greater abundance than tubificids.    This taxon was not found in significant
quantities in the shallow stations (WL-16 - WL20) and several of the deeper locations (WL-
2, WL-3, WL-4, and WL-7). Nematodes are generally considered part of the microbenthos,
                                          73

-------
  TABLE 4.4.1.1 BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION IN WHITE LAKE
(#/M2), OCTOBER 2000. MEAN NUMBER OF ORGANISMS AND STANDARD DEVIATION
                    REPORTED FOR EACH STATION.

Taxa
Amphipoda
Gammarus
Hyallela
Isopoda
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Amnicola
Physa
Valvata tricarinata
Viviparous
Bivalvia
Dreissena polymorpha
Pisidium
Sphaerium
Annelida
Tubificidae
Aulodrilus limnobius
Aulodrilus pigueti
llyodrilus templetoni
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
Limnodrilus claparianus
Quistrodrillus
Naididae
Haemonais waldvogeli
Hirundinea - Glossiphoniidae
Helobdella
Nematoda
Tricladida
Planaridae
Diptera
Chaoboridae
Chaoborus punctipennis
Ceratapogonidae
Chironomidae
Ablabesmyia
Chironomus
Clinotanypus
Coelotanypus
Cryptochironomus
Dicrotendipes
Heterotrissocladius
Paraphaenocladius
Paratendipes
Phaenopsectra
Polypedilum
Procladius
Pseudochironomus
Tanypus
Ephemeroptera
Caenis
Ephemera
Hexagenia
Isonychia
Trichoptera
Polycentroapodidae
Pseudosfenop/7y/ax
Megaloptera
Stalls
Hydracarina
Odonata - Zygoptera
WL-1
Mm*
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
0
703
2612
0
0
0
0
0
0
502
0
0
0
0
1292
0
43
0
57
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
61
0
0
0
0
0
55
1668
0
0
0
0
0
0
354
0
0
0
0
745
0
75
0
35
0
0
0
75
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-2
Mm*
0
14
14
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
0
100
0
0
0
93
0
926
2340
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
2497
0
129
0
646
0
0
0
100
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
21
21
0
0
0
41
0
0
0
0
0
71
0
0
0
25
0
128
1647
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
1422
0
114
0
366
0
0
0
101
0
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-3
Mm*
0
14
0
0
0
0
72
0
0
0
0
14
129
0
0
0
43
32
54
1521
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
1565
0
0
0
72
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
21
0
0
0
0
81
0
0
0
0
21
75
0
0
0
49
41
124
1182
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
843
0
0
0
60
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL^l
Mm*
0
43
0
0
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
129
115
0
0
0
132
220
265
569
178
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
761
0
0
0
29
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
38
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
107
64
0
0
0
55
100
183
895
120
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
537
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
36
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-5
Mm*
0
0
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
29
43
0
0
0
646
0
517
6028
0
0
0
0
0
0
646
0
0
0
0
445
0
129
0
330
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
86
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
0
0
0
0
0
99
0
0
0
0
50
23
0
0
0
52
0
36
3908
0
0
0
0
0
0
434
0
0
0
0
243
0
75
0
192
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
70
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-6
Mm*
0
14
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
733
183
504
2612
0
0
0
0
0
0
646
0
14
0
0
1077
0
230
0
1435
0
0
14
43
0
0
14
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
25
0
0
0
0
36
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
157
85
235
1880
0
0
0
0
0
0
351
0
21
0
0
597
0
163
0
883
0
0
21
75
0
0
21
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-7
#/mz
0
29
0
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
144
29
0
0
0
21
4
4
1234
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
330
0
0
0
43
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
25
0
0
0
0
41
0
0
0
0
128
25
0
0
0
79
50
50
1109
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
229
0
0
0
41
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
                                 74

-------
 TABLE 4.4.1.1 (CONTINUED) BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION IN WHITE
LAKE (#/M2), OCTOBER 2000. MEAN NUMBER OF ORGANISMS AND STANDARD DEVIATION
                      REPORTED FOR EACH STATION.
WL-8
Taxa
Amphipoda
Gammarus
Hyallela
Isopoda
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Amnicola
Physa
Valvata tricarinata
Viviparous
Bivalvia
Dreissena polymorpha
Pisidium
Sphaerium
Annelida
Tubificidae
Aulodrilus limnobius
Aulodrilus pigueti
llyodrilus templetoni
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
Limnodrilus claparianus
Quistrodrillus
Naididae
Haemonais waldvogeli
Hirundinea - Glossiphoniidae
Helobdella
Nematoda
Tricladida
Planaridae
Diptera
Chaoboridae
Chaoborus punctipennis
Ceratapogonidae
Chironomidae
Ablabesmyia
Chironomus
Clinotanypus
Coelotanypus
CryptDchironomus
Dicrotendipes
Heterotrissocladius
Paraphaenocladius
Paratendipes
Phaenopsectra
Polypedilum
Procladius
Pseudochironomus
Tanypus
Ephemeroptera
Caenis
Ephemera
Hexagenia
Isonychia
Trichoptera
Polycentroapodidae
Pseudostenophylax
Megaloptera
Sialis
Hydracarina
Odonata - Zygoptera
mm'
0
0
0
0
0
0
115
0
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
660
110
220
3746
0
0
0
0
0
0
1177
0
0
0
0
201
14
72
0
215
0
0
14
0
14
0
0
0
14
115
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
0
0
0
0
0
120
0
0
0
0
0
85
0
0
0
55
21
43
2541
0
0
0
0
0
0
705
0
0
0
0
129
21
64
0
130
0
0
21
0
25
0
0
0
21
107
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-9
mm'
0
29
0
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
86
100
0
0
0
785
0
349
1270
423
0
0
0
0
0
3804
0
0
0
0
158
0
0
0
230
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
144
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
25
0
0
0
0
41
0
0
0
0
101
101
0
0
0
87
0
35
1363
88
0
0
0
0
0
2569
0
0
0
0
126
0
0
0
153
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
89
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
WL-10
mm'
0
29
0
0
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
43
86
0
0
0
0
112
419
1409
328
0
0
14
0
0
172
0
0
0
0
1077
0
0
0
115
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
43
0
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
41
70
0
0
0
0
49
119
748
148
0
0
21
0
0
163
0
0
0
0
598
0
0
0
120
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
21
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-11
mm'
0
14
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
298
119
1491
6967
0
683
0
14
0
0
1277
0
0
0
0
416
0
301
0
904
0
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
25
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
60
25
536
1432
0
81
0
21
0
0
697
0
0
0
0
242
0
172
0
490
0
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-12
mm'
0
0
0
0
0
0
57
14
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
215
0
431
1421
0
0
0
0
0
0
7780
0
0
0
0
129
14
43
0
172
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
115
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
0
0
0
0
0
61
25
0
0
0
64
0
0
0
0
25
0
150
675
0
0
0
0
0
0
4390
0
0
0
0
76
21
41
0
143
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
105
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-13
mm'
0
43
0
0
0
0
129
0
0
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
1837
0
0
2110
0
0
0
0
0
0
574
0
0
0
0
201
0
72
0
144
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
115
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
23
0
0
0
0
69
0
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
742
0
0
1247
0
0
0
0
0
0
440
0
0
0
0
139
0
52
0
104
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
89
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-14
mm'
0
57
0
14
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
72
0
0
0
0
0
0
675
2770
0
0
0
0
0
0
5698
0
14
0
0
0
14
72
0
273
0
0
57
0
0
14
0
0
0
158
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
85
0
21
0
0
38
0
0
0
0
74
0
0
0
0
0
0
321
932
0
0
0
0
0
0
3620
0
21
0
0
0
21
60
0
162
0
0
49
0
0
25
0
0
0
97
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-15
mm'
0
14
0
0
0
0
172
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
514
73
73
1852
0
0
0
0
0
0
617
0
0
0
0
0
43
115
0
359
0
43
72
0
0
0
0
0
0
172
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
21
0
0
0
0
110
0
0
0
0
35
0
0
0
0
156
21
25
760
0
0
0
0
0
0
592
0
0
0
0
0
41
77
0
381
0
38
52
0
0
0
0
0
0
130
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
                                   75

-------
 TABLE 4.4.1.1 (CONTINUED) BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE DISTRIBUTION IN WHITE
LAKE (#/M2), OCTOBER 2000. MEAN NUMBER OF ORGANISMS AND STANDARD DEVIATION
                      REPORTED FOR EACH STATION.

Taxa
Amphipoda
Gammarus
Hyallela
Isopoda
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Amnicola
Physa
Valvata tricarinata
Viviparous
Bivalvia
Dreissena polymorpha
Pisidium
Sphaerium
Annelida
Tubificidae
Aulodrilus limnobius
Aulodrilus pigueti
llyodhlus templetoni
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
Limnodrilus claparianus
Quistrodrillus
Naididae
Haemonais waldvogeli
Hirundinea - Glossiphoniidae
Helobdella
Nematoda
Tricladida
Planaridae
Diptera
Chaoboridae
Chaoborus punctipennis
Ceratapogonidae
Chironomidae
Ablabesmyia
Chironomus
Clinotanypus
Coelotanypus
Cryptochironomus
Dicrotendipes
Heterotrissocladius
Paraphaenocladius
Paratendipes
Phaenopsectra
Polypedilum
Procladius
Pseudochironom us
Tanypus
Ephemeroptera
Caenis
Ephemera
Hexagenia
Isonychia
Trichoptera
Polycentroapodidae
Pseudostenophylax
Megaloptera
Sialis
Hydracarina
Odonata - Zygoptera
WL-16
#/m2
0
29
0
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
244
0
0
0
0
0
0
890
2225
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
29
0
0
0
14
86
0
115
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
STDEV
0
25
0
0
0
0
38
0
0
0
0
226
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
110
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
43
0
0
0
25
81
0
64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
60
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
WL-17
#/m2
0
57
0
0
0
0
72
29
0
0
0
72
43
0
0
0
0
2411
0
1716
0
322
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
29
0
0
144
0
0
0
0
0
0
43
0
29
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
36
0
0
0
0
42
43
0
0
0
81
41
0
0
0
0
83
0
174
0
64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
23
0
0
123
0
0
0
0
0
0
41
0
43
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-18
#/m2
0
43
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
14
0
86
0
0
0
0
0
115
115
1306
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
14
187
0
43
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
23
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
25
0
82
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
21
137
0
64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
85
0
0
0
0
0
23
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-19
#/m2
0
43
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
165
165
1837
0
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
172
29
43
57
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
0
29
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
41
0
0
0
0
49
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
56
0
0
0
0
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
0
0
230
23
38
49
0
76
0
0
0
0
0
0
60
0
0
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-20
#/m2
0
2483
230
100
0
0
144
14
14
0
0
201
0
0
0
0
0
0
215
1521
0
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
431
0
0
0
115
560
0
86
0
0
57
0
0
0
0
14
0
301
0
0
0
14
14
129
14
0
14
0
0
0
14
57
STDEV
0
2312
290
101
0
0
142
25
21
0
0
247
0
0
0
0
0
0
149
136
0
0
0
0
0
25
0
0
590
0
0
0
98
422
0
76
0
0
56
0
0
0
0
21
0
164
0
0
0
21
25
129
25
0
25
0
0
0
25
99
WL-21
#/m2
0
100
0
0
0
0
86
0
0
0
0
43
144
0
0
0
3986
996
5381
18444
0
0
0
0
0
14
2268
0
0
0
0
976
0
258
0
976
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
14
0
316
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
88
0
0
0
0
74
0
0
0
0
38
99
0
0
0
1154
281
1223
9279
0
0
0
0
0
21
1337
0
0
0
0
594
0
281
0
691
0
0
25
0
0
0
0
21
0
192
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WL-21 DUD
#/m2
0
244
0
0
0
0
43
0
0
0
0
14
100
14
0
0
772
114
772
5177
0
0
0
0
0
0
330
0
0
0
0
488
0
187
0
646
0
0
14
0
0
0
14
0
0
244
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STDEV
0
132
0
0
0
0
41
0
0
0
0
25
88
25
0
0
292
45
406
2644
0
0
0
0
0
0
309
0
0
0
0
483
0
161
0
362
0
0
21
0
0
0
21
0
0
136
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
                                   76

-------
     TABLE 4.4.1.2 MEAN ABUNDANCE (#/M2) AND RELATIVE DENSITIES (%) OF MAJOR
                TAXONOMIC GROUPS IN WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
  Station
N
Tuberficidae (%) Nematoda (%) Chironomidae (%) Amphipoda (%)   Other
WL-1
WL-2
WL-3
WL-4
WL-5
WL-6
WL-7
WL-8
WL-9
WL-10
WL-11
WL-12
WL-13
WL-14
WL-15
WL-21
WL-16
WL-17
WL-18
WL-19
WL-20
4521
4880
2713
2612
9287
7378
2297
7119
8067
3660
12947
10736
5569
10277
4981
34405
4177
4196
2383
3172
7162
3804
3804
2383
2182
7966
4866
1981
5311
3603
3129
10392
2497
4464
3804
3316
30171
3531
3679
1880
2541
2253
84
78
88
84
86
66
86
75
45
85
80
23
80
37
67
88
85
88
79
80
31
502
14
14
0
646
646
0
1177
3804
172
1277
7780
574
5698
617
2268
14
0
14
14
0
11
0
1
0
7
9
0
17
47
5
10
72
10
55
12
7
0
0
1
1
0
144
890
86
100
545
1765
72
445
388
158
1234
330
330
574
761
1579
258
244
287
488
1019
3
18
3
4
6
24
3
6
5
4
10
3
6
6
15
5
6
6
12
15
14
0
14
14
43
0
14
29
0
29
29
14
0
43
57
14
100
29
57
43
43
2483
0
0
1
2
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
2
1
35
72
158
215
287
129
86
215
187
244
172
29
129
158
144
273
287
344
215
158
86
1407
however it is evident that larger forms were retained by the screen during elutriation.  Very
little information is available on the pollution tolerance of these organisms.

Densities of Chironomidae ranged between 72/m2 and 1,765/m2 and this taxa group was the
third most abundant group at 8 of 21 of the stations sampled (Table 4.4.1.2).  A total  of 15
taxa were identified (Table 4.4.1.1). Chironomus spp. was found at all sites and Procladius
spp. was present at 18 of the 21 stations. Abundance of Chironomus spp. ranged from 29/m2
to 1,435/m2 and was generally the most common chironomid encountered. Procladius spp.
abundance was low and did not exceed 301/m2. With the exception of Dicrotendipes spp. and
Cryptochironomus spp., the remaining  species were found infrequently and were generally
low in abundance. Organisms from these two genera are predatory in nature and do not
exclusively feed on organic detritus like Chironomus spp. (Berg 1995). Sites with the highest
levels of heavy metals (M-5, M-6, and M-7) had chironomid populations dominated by this
organism, which may suggest an impact from contaminated sediments.  Chironomus was the
most abundant midge genus in the enriched stations with the highest oligochaete densities.
                                          77

-------
 35000
 30000
                 Western White Lake
                                             v                             %
DN
 Tubificidae
D Nematoda
D Chironomidae
 Amphipoda
D Other
                                       Station
FIGURE 4.4.1.1 GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES IN WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
                                             78

-------
Station WL-20 was very different than the other stations with respect to macroinvertebrate
composition as amphipods were the dominant genera (35%) along with four mayfly taxa plus
odonata and  trichoptera species.   The  latter three groups were not present in the other
shallow stations.  WL-20 was located in closest proximity to the mouth of the White River
and away from the marinas.    The absence of both physical  and chemical anthropogenic
disturbance at this station influenced the quality of the macroinvertebrate population at this
location.

4.4.2  Analysis of Macroinvertebrate Results Using Trophic Indices and Diversity Metrics

The benthic macroinvertebrate data were analyzed by a variety of trophic status indices and
diversity metrics.   The following indices and metrics were utilized:

      Shannon Weaver Diversity (Krebs 1989)
      Margalefs Richness (Krebs 1989)
      Evenness  (Krebs 1989)
      Pielou's J  (Krebs 1989)
      Oligochaete Index (Howmiller and Scott 1977, Hilsenhoff 1987)
      Chironomid Index (Hilsenhoff 1987)
      Oligochaete + Chironomid Index (*)
      Trophic Index (Hilsenhoff 1987)

* Modified from Howmiller and Scott (1977)

Tolerance values  used to calculate  the  Trophic Index and  the  individual  indices  for
Chironomids  and  Oligochaetes were taken from Winnell and White (1985), Lauritsen et al.
(1985), Hilsenhoff (1987), Schloesser et al. (1995), and Barbour et al. (1999). The results of
the population metrics are summarized in Table 4.4.2.1.   Summaries of Trophic Indices for
the benthic populations are shown in Figure 4.4.2.1.   Shallow stations WL-20 and WL-17
had the most favorable trophic index scores for overall community structure (Hilsenhoff) and
chironomids.  All  of the other shallow stations and the deep stations exhibited high scores for
the Hilsenhoff index,  indicating enriched conditions.   Chironomid index values for  the
shallow stations WL-18,  WL-19, and WL-20  were all  <7.5.   Deep stations  had higher
chironomid  index values that were again  representative  of organic  enrichment. It  is
interesting to note that the stations WL-4  and WL-20 had similar Shannon-Weaver scores,
indicating a more balanced  community structure (-2.1).  Shannon-Weaver scores for the
other  stations ranged from  0.8-1.5,  indicating a more limited diversity.  The increased
diversity at WL-4 appears to be related to the lower TOC and increased sand fraction.
                                           79

-------
TABLE 4.4.2.1 SUMMARY OF DIVERSITY AND TROPHIC STATUS METRICS FOR THE BENTHIC
             MACROINVERTEBRATES IN WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
Station

WL-1
WL-2
WL-3
WL-4
WL-5
WL-6
WL-7
WL-8
WL-9
WL-10
WL-11
WL-12
WL-13
WL-14
WL-15
WL-21
WL-16
WL-17
WL-18
WL-19
WL-20
N

4521
4880
2713
2612
9287
7378
2297
7119
8067
3660
12947
10736
5569
10277
4981
34405
4177
4196
2383
3172
7162
Hilsenhoff
Index
9.573
9.282
9.153
8.162
9.258
8.723
9.231
8.859
8.388
9.201
9.431
9.051
7.616
9.377
8.406
8.869
9.303
7.049
8.758
8.757
6.413
Oligochaete
Index
9.715
9.563
9.567
8.426
9.358
8.682
9.707
9.022
8.444
9.446
9.545
9.238
7.659
9.722
8.699
8.912
9.686
7.051
9.388
9.381
9.750
Chironomid
Index
7.860
8.819
9.333
8.943
8.653
9.034
8.960
8.506
9.319
9.073
8.670
8.922
8.609
8.610
8.483
8.844
8.267
8.012
7.140
7.059
7.262
Shannon-
Weaver
0.808
1.402
0.976
2.100
0.923
1.588
0.925
1.182
1.833
1.542
1.229
1.442
1.170
1.248
1.689
1.264
1.255
1.343
1.393
1.387
2.086
Margalef s
Richness
0.734
1.191
1.187
1.602
0.892
1.497
1.358
1.397
1.349
1.397
1.076
1.149
0.833
1.437
1.467
1.258
1.215
1.293
1.445
1.387
2.495
Evenness

0.321
0.370
0.265
0.628
0.280
0.350
0.229
0.251
0.521
0.390
0.311
0.423
0.403
0.268
0.416
0.253
0.319
0.319
0.336
0.334
0.350
J

0.415
0.585
0.424
0.819
0.420
0.602
0.386
0.461
0.738
0.621
0.512
0.626
0.563
0.487
0.658
0.479
0.523
0.541
0.561
0.558
0.665
Taxa
Richness
7
11
10
13
9
14
11
13
12
12
11
10
8
13
13
14
11
12
12
12
23
                                  80

-------
   10.000^
    9.000-
x
a)
a
    8.000-
    7.000-
    6.000-
                                            Station
      FIGURE 4.4.2.1  SUMMARY OF TROPHIC INDICES (POLLUTION TOLERANCE) FOR THE BENTHIC

                     MACROINVERTEBRATES IN WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000
                                                81

-------
Spearman Rank Order Correlations were developed for the indices and physical/chemical
parameters (Table  4.4.2.2)  to determine variables that help  define community structure.
Chromium showed significant correlations with nematodes  and the Chironomid index.
Elevated levels of chromium were associated with increased abundance of nematodes and a
decrease in the quality of the chironomid population.  The  chironomid index value was
positively correlated with depth and negatively correlated with TOC. This pattern shows that
increased pollution tolerance is associated with greater depth and more organic carbon in the
sediments.  A negative correlation was found between the Chironomid/Oligocheate ratio and
TOC, indicating that chironomids are  associated with lower organic enrichment in the
sediments than oligochaetes.  There is a strong relationship between Hilsenhoff index values
and  fine  grain sediments,  indicating that pollution  tolerance is  associated with  soft,
depositional sediments.  Taxa richness and  fine grain sediments were negatively correlated,
indicating that the number of taxa decrease as sediments become more finely grained. The
significant correlations with TOC, grain size, and depth all point  to eutrophication related
factors having the greatest influence on the  benthic community.  Increased nematodes were
strongly linked with chromium enrichment. The positive correlation with the chironomid
index may also be  influenced by  depth since the chromium was also linked to this variable
(Table 4.1.7).
 TABLE 4.4.2.2 SPEARMAN RANK ORDER CORRELATIONS FOR ECOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL,
 AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS FOR WHITE LAKE. (SIGNIFICANT CORRELATION IN BOLD.)

                    Parameter          Cr    Depth   TOC   <63um
                  Total Organisms      0.241    0.029   0.047   -0.201
                 Total Tubificidae      0.455    0.226   -0.073   -0.039
                Total Chironomidae    0.299    0.089   0.202   -0.253
                    Nematoda         0.800    0.380   -0.070    0.030
                 Hilsenhoff Index      0.445    0.305   -0.133    0.518
                 Oligochaete Index     0.015   -0.127   0.145    0.313
                 Chironomid Index     0.509    0.714   -0.551    0.109
                 Shannon-Weaver      -0.27   -0.049   0.096   -0.201
                Margalefs Richness    -0.32   -0.336   0.259   -0.352
                    Evenness         -0.25    0.075   -0.165   -0.069
                        J             -0.29   -0.044   0.018   -0.229
                  Taxa Richness       -0.10   -0.190   0.255   -0.513
               Chironomid/Oligochaet   _Q Q5   _Q^           _
                      e Ratio
                                          82

-------
4.4.3 Analysis of Macroinvertebrate Results Using Community Structure

The benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were further analyzed for associations with chromium by
canonical correspondence analysis (Figure 4.4.3.1).  A description of the taxa abbreviations
are provided in Table 4.4.3.1.  Dimensions 1 and 2 accounted for 55% of the variability in
the data set (31% and 24%,  respectively).  Four data clusters are evident.  The clean site,
Station WL-20, was characterized by amphipods, mayflies, and isopods.  This assemblage
was not
    C\J
    c
    o
    'to
    c
    CD
        0
       -2
          -2
\
0
\
2
\
4
                              Dimension 1 (31%)
     FIGURE 4.4.3.1 CANONICAL CORRESPONDENCE ANALYSIS OF BENTHIC MACRO-
  INVERTEBRATE TAXA FOR WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000. (LABELS INDICATE SPECIFIC
 TAXA AND STATIONS. SHALLOW STATIONS LISTED IN RED AND DEEP STATIONS IN GREEN.)
                                        83

-------
    TABLE 4.4.3.1 SUMMARY STATISTICS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL BENTHIC
          MACROINVERTEBRATE SAMPLES FROM WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000.
          Taxa
Gammarus
Hyallela
Isopoda
Amnicola
Physa
Valvata tricarinata
Viviparous
Dreissena polymorpha
Pisidium
Aulodrilus limnobius
A ulodrilus pigue ti
Ilyodrilus templetoni
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
Limnodrilus claparianus
Quistrodrillus
Haemonais waldvogeli
Helobdella
Nematoda
Planaridae
Ceratapogonidae
Chironomidae
Ablabesmyia
Abbreviation
    gam
    hya
    iso
    amn
    phy
    tri
    viv
    drei
    pis
    limn
    Pig
    temp
    hof
    clap
    qui
    wald
    hel
    nem
    pla
    cer
    Chir
    Abla
          Taxa
Chironomus
Clinotanypus
Coelotanypus
Cryptochironomus
Dicrotendipes
Heterotrissocladius
Paraphaenocladius
Paratendipes
Phaenopsectra
Polypedilum
Procladius
Pseudochironomus
Tanypus
Caenis
Ephemera
Hexagenia
Isonychia
Polycentroapodidae
Pseudostenophylax
Sialis
Zygoptera
Abbreviation
   chiron
    clin
    coel
    cryp
    die
    heter
    para
    par
    pha
    poly
    pro
    pseu
    tany
    cae
   ephem
    hex
    iso
    polyc
  pseudos
    sia
found in the other sites.  WL-16, the site in the east bay with high solid phase toxicity, was
grouped around the two tubificid taxa Quistrodrillus  spp.  and  Aulodrilus pigiieti, the
gastropod Physa spp., and the midges Tanytarsus spp., Ablabesmyia spp., Cryptochironomus
spp., and  Clinotanypus  spp.   The tubificid taxa represent  additional pollution tolerant
organisms at this location. Tanytarsus spp. is classified as a "sprawler" because it resides on
the surface and does not burrow in the sediment. Ablabesmyia spp., Cryptochironomus spp.,
and Clinotanypus spp.  are  predators and do not ingest sediment  and/or detritus.    The
additional  pollution tolerant tubificids and the shift to predatory and surface dwelling midges
are indicative of adverse conditions in the sediment.

Stations WL-9,  WL-12, and WL-14 cluster together around Nematoda, Pseudostenophylax
spp., and Paraphaenocladius spp.  The latter two organisms were found in very low numbers
                                          84

-------
(1 organism in the triplicate PONARS) and cannot be considered as important members of
the benthic assemblage.  Chromium concentrations and the order Nematoda showed a strong
correlation  (Table  4.4.2.2).   Stations  WL-9, WL-12,  and  WL-14  had  the  highest
concentrations  of chromium  (420  mg/kg,  510  mg/kg,  and 480 mg/kg,  respectively).
Nematodes have been reported to be tolerant of heavy metal pollution (Gyedu-Ababio et al.
1999, Fiscus and Neher 2002).  Some are able to produce phytochelatins that are able to
detoxify heavy metals (Cobbett 2000, Vatamaniuk et al. 2001). In addition to changes in the
nematode population, this group of locations also  had the lowest percentage of tubificids
(Table 4.4.1.2).     Samples at  stations  WL-9, WL-12, and WL-14 contained  tubificid
percentages of 45%, 23%,  and 37%, respectively.  The tubificid percentage range for the
other deep stations was 66-85%.  Based on these results, the benthic  macroinvertebrate
populations at these stations appear to be influenced by chromium.

The  remainder  of stations  and organisms form a  cluster in the middle  of the  CCA plot.
Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of the remaining shallow stations (WL-17, WL-18,
and WL-19) with low chromium levels are grouped  with deep locations that contain high
concentrations of the metal.  These sites are characterized by similar TOC, % solid, and grain
size  values.   This suggests that  organic enrichment from  eutrophication  exerts the
predominant influence on the benthic community for this cluster.
4.4.4. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Data Summary

The benthic macroinvertebrate community of White Lake is characterized by organisms that
are tolerant of organic (nutrient) enrichment.  The presence of organic deposition from the
White  River,  the eutrophic  conditions in the lake, and  the historical anthropogenic
enrichment from the lumbering operations, the Tannery, and the wastewater treatment plant
all act to increase the densities of pollution tolerant organisms.  To this extent, detritivores
such as tubificids and chironomids from the genus Chironomus should dominate the benthic
populations (Winnell and  White  1985). While  these conditions would  indicate habitat
degradation in a more pristine system, organic enrichment forms the basis for structuring the
benthic community in White Lake. The  only sites that did  not fit this characterization were
the locations with high chromium levels (WL-9, WL-12, and WL-14) and the east bay site,
WL-16. The most notable difference with respect to the first group of stations was a change
in benthic  taxa from  tubificids to  nematodes.   WL-16 was  characterized by a change in
chironomid species from detritivores to predators. A shift  to more opportunistic organisms
has previously been attributed to contaminant impact (Dauer 1991).

With respect to the  influence of chromium on the benthic ecology in White  Lake, a
significant  relationship  exists between  the metal  and the macroinvertebrate  community
(Figure  4.4.4.1).  When dimension  1  of the CCA (invertebrate taxa)  is plotted  against
chromium,  a strong relationship is noted (r = -0.588, p < 0.017).  An increase in chromium
concentration  shifts the population from an  assemblage  dominated by tubificids to one
dominated by nematodes. Changes in the benthic community in response to chromium have
been previously reported (Leslie et al.  1999). The significance of this shift is unknown and
would require further taxonomic resolution to identify and classify the nematode species with
                                           85

-------
respect to pollution tolerance.  In addition, a more detailed assessment of benthic biomass
would be required to determine if this shift is significant with respect to ecological resources
in White Lake. Finally, a more detailed evaluation of the nutrient and organic composition
would need to be performed to determine  if this shift was  related to food quality  or a
response to sediment contamination.
    Invertebrate Community Composition and Chromium Consentrations
                             (r = -0.588; p = 0.017)
      1.0
     0.5 -
 _  0.0 -
  c
  o
 'w
  c
  CD
  E  -0.5 -
 Q
 o
 o
     -1.0 -
     -1.5
 Control
Locations
 WL-18
 WL-19
 WL-20
                         100      200      300      400

                               Chromium (mg kg"1)
                        500
600
     FIGURE 4.4.4.1  PLOT OF CCA DIMENSION 1 (MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXA) AND
              CHROMIUM FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS, OCTOBER 2000.
                                        86

-------
4.5 Chromium Uptake by Aquatic Organisms
The accumulation of chromium in several aquatic organisms was examined to determine the
biological fate of the metal in White Lake.  The contaminated sediments in Tannery Bay
contained the  highest  levels  of chromium (1,000-4,000 mg/kg) and  supported  dense
macrophyte and zebra mussel populations (Rediske et al. 1998).  For this project, triplicate
collections of macrophytes (Ceratophyllum spp.) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)
were made at three sites in Tannery Bay and at WL-20. The results are shown in Table 4.5.1
and displayed in Figure 4.5.1. Only macrophyte shoots and the attached zebra mussels were
analyzed to minimize the inclusion contact with the highly contaminated sediment.  The
Ceratophyllum spp. tissue found in Tannery Bay contained significantly higher chromium
levels than the control location (13-35 mg/kg vs. 5 mg/kg respectively).  Zebra mussel tissue
followed a similar trend, however the difference between the  chromium  concentrations in
samples from Tannery Bay (16-33 mg/kg) and from the control area (2 mg/kg) were greater.
Chromium accumulation in macrophytes (Vajpayee et al. 1995) and zebra mussels (Redders
and Bij de Vaate 1993, LaValle et al. 1999) has been previously reported.  The results from
this investigation demonstrate the bioavailability of chromium in the sediments of Tannery
Bay. In consideration of the  dense macrophyte growth in the bay and the level of chromium
accumulation, translocation and senescence would not contribute significant concentrations
of the metal to the sediment. While the  macrophytes would contribute organic matter and
nutrients to the sediments, mixing and resuspension provide the mechanism for maintaining
the high chromium levels in the surficial  layers.  The accumulation of chromium in zebra
mussels also supports the mixing and resuspension hypothesis as these  organisms are filter
feeders and ingest suspended particulates.

  TABLE 4.5.1 CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN MACROPHYTES AND ZEBRA MUSSELS IN
                 TANNERY BAY. (STATION 20 is THE CONTROL SITE.)
                                Chromium in   Chromium in
                     Station   Zebra Mussels  Plant Tissue
                                   (mg/kg)       (mg/kg)
                      22A            52             14
                      22B            12             11
                      22C            14             16
                      23A            16             36
                      23B            12             48
                      23C            23             23
                      24A            45             54
                      24B            16             36
                      24C            23             20
                      20A           0.84             6.9
                      20B            *              3.5
                       * Insufficient organisms present for
                                   replicates
                                         87

-------
                                                               D Zebra Mussels
                                                               D Plant Tissue
                             24       24        20
                                Station
  FIGURE 4.5.1 CHROMIUM ACCUMULATION IN MACROPHYTES AND ZEBRA MUSSELS IN
                                  TANNERY BAY
The accumulation of chromium was evaluated  at all of the PONAR locations.  Chromium
concentrations in the sediment and in chironomid tissue from each station are presented in
Table 4.5.2 and displayed graphically in Figure 4.5.2.  The results show a significant
   TABLE 4.5.2 CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN CHIRONOMIDS FROM TANNERY BAY.
 Station

 WL-1
 WL-2
 WL-3
 WL-4
 WL-5
 WL-6
 WL-7
 WL-8
 WL-9
 WL-10
 WL-11
 Chromium in      Chromium in
Sediment (mg/kg)  Chironomids (mg/kg)
     270
     300
     190
     18
     400
     360
     390
     380
     420
     270
     310
59
44
41
10
84
75
92
91
99
62
69
Station

WL-12
WL-13
WL-14
WL-15
WL-16
WL-17
WL-18
WL-19
WL-20
WL-21
                                                       Chromium in
                                                                      Chromium in
                         Sediment (mg/kg)   Chironomids (mg/kg)
510
250
480
250
190
50
29
39
28
450
140
85
88
67
48
14
12
14
13
130
    FIGURE 4.5.2 CHROMIUM ACCUMULATION IN CHIRONOMIDS FROM TANNERY BAY.
                                         88

-------
       O
       c
        O
       .c
       o
160 -,


140 -


120 -


100 -


 80 -


 60 -


 40 -


 20 -
                                       R2 = 0.8833
                       100
                        200         300        400
                        Chromium in Sediment (mg/kg)
500
600
relationship between chromium uptake and the concentration in the sediment. The Spearman
Correlation coefficient was  0.92 (p <  0.001), indicating a strong relationship  between
sediment and  chironomid concentrations.  Locations with sediment  concentrations  < 50
mg/kg had chromium concentrations in the  chironomid populations of 10-14 mg/kg.  In
contrast, locations with chromium concentrations > 100 mg/kg had accumulated metal levels
of 48-140 mg/kg.  These data coupled with  the increased chironomid index value (Table
4.4.2.2) suggest that  chromium is  associated  with an  adverse  impact to this group of
organisms.  A more detailed evaluation of physiological response to  chromium would be
necessary  to  establish a direct  link between  accumulation  and the  increased pollution
tolerance.

The results of the tissue analyses showed that chromium in the sediment from White Lake
was accumulated by  macrophytes,  chironomids, and  zebra mussels.  Based on the dense
growth of macrophytes and the high numbers  of zebra mussels in Tannery Bay, there was no
obvious ecological effect apparent in these organisms.  More research would be necessary to
establish the  linkage between chromium accumulation in  chironomids and  ecological
impairment.
                                          89

-------
4.6 The Environmental Fate and Significance of Chromium and PCBs in White Lake

The results of this investigation coupled with previous studies (Rediske  et al. 1998, Earth
Tech 2001) provide an extensive sampling grid for chromium and PCBs in White Lake.  The
chromium sampling points are shown in Figure 4.6.1 for White Lake and in Figure 4.6.2 for
the Tannery Bay area. Coordinates and chromium concentrations are listed in Table 4.6.1.

    TABLE 4.6.1 WHITE LAKE CHROMIUM DATA. (PONAR SAMPLES FROM CURRENT
                      INVESTIGATION AND REDISKE ET AL. 1998)
Station

WL-1
WL-2
WL-3
WL-4
WL-5
WL-6
WL-7
WL-8
WL-9
WL-10
WL-11
WL-1 2
WL-1 3
WL-1 4
WL-1 5
WL-1 6
WL-1 7
WL-1 8
WL-1 9
WL-20
Latitude
N
43 22.58'
43 22.45'
43 22.41'
43 22.27'
43 22.73'
43 22.95'
43 22.61'
43 23.01'
43 23.27'
43 22. 18'
43 23.54'
43 23.62'
43 23.08'
43 23.69'
43 23.87'
43 24. 16'
43 24.20'
43 24.39'
43 24.32'
43 24.51'
Longitude
W
86 24.55'
86 24. 15'
86 24.77'
86 24. 16'
86 23.50'
86 22. 86'
86 23.27'
86 22.53'
86 22.43'
86 24.61'
86 22.25'
86 21. 97'
86 22.33'
86 21. 63'
86 21. 83'
86 21. 15'
86 21. 25'
86 21. 26'
86 21. 14'
86 21. 22'
Chromium
mg/kg
270
300
190
18
400
360
390
380
420
270
310
510
250
480
250
190
50
29
39
28
Station

WL-21
WL-22
WL-23
WL-24
1-1
I-2
I-3
I-4
I-5M
I-6
I-7M
I-8
E-1-P
E-2-P
E-3-P
E-4-P
E-5-P
E-6-P
E-7-P
E-9-P
Latitude
N
43 23. 15'
43 23.99'
43 24.02'
43 24.02'
43 24.15'
43 24.11'
43 24.06'
43 24.05'
43 24.04'
43 23.98'
43 23.97'
43 23.97'
43 24.59'
43 21.10'
43 23.89'
43 23.93'
43 23.70'
43 23.70'
43 23.59'
43 23.13'
Longitude
W
86 22.57'
86 21. 28'
86 21. 26'
86 21. 30'
86 21.15'
86 21.27'
86 21.32'
86 21.31'
86 21.26'
86 21.25'
86 21.22'
86 21.36'
86 21.59'
86 21.38'
86 21.50'
86 21.69'
86 21.61'
86 21.95'
86 21.71'
86 21.59'
Chromium
mg/kg
450
520
1200
1300
212
259
934
1890
4100
2650
2560
515
23
64
43
344
492
771
541
369
Chromium concentration contours plotted from the data using kriging are shown in Figure
4.6.3.  Concentrations are plotted for the > 4 m depth contours as shallower sediments in the
lake are sandy and related to shoreline erosion. Organic depositional sediments are typically
found at depths > 4 m. The concentration map shows that the spatial extent of chromium
contamination covers the area of the  lake from  Tannery Bay to the navigation channel.
Advective transport  and  deposition  are also  evident  from the reservoir  of highly
contaminated sediment in Tannery Bay.   Moving westward from Tannery Bay, an area of
low chromium concentration is present in the Narrows,  where drowned rivermouth related
currents would be highest.  The maximum chromium concentration outside of Tannery Bay
(771 mg/kg)  occurs
                                         90

-------
                                                                        t
N
FIGURE 4.6.1 CHROMIUM SAMPLING POINTS IN WHITE LAKE (CURRENT INVESTIGATION AND REDISKE ET AL.
                     1998). (RED LINE DENOTES THE 4 M DEPTH CONTOUR.)
                                                 91

-------
FIGURE 4.6.2 CHROMIUM SAMPLING POINTS IN THE VICINITY OF TANNERY BAY . (CURRENT
 INVESTIGATION AND REDISKE ET AL. 1998. RED LINE DENOTES THE 4 M DEPTH CONTOUR.)
                                      92

-------
318000
317000
316000
315000
314000
313000
                                                                500   1000  1500   2000
               466000
                          467000
                                      468000
                                                  469000

                                              X(m)
                                                             470000
                                                                         471000
                                                                                     472000
          FIGURE 4.6.3 CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION CONTOURS FOR WHITE LAKE SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS.
         (CONCENTRATIONS PLOTTED FOR DEPTHS > 4 M. TANNERY BAY AREA SHOWN IN GREATER DETAIL)
                                              93

-------
in the first deposit!onal basin (16 m) at the midpoint between Dowies Point and the Narrows
(Figures 4.1.8 and 4.6.3).  The next areas of high chromium  concentration occur in the
deposit!onal basins to the east (420 mg/kg) and west (400 mg/kg) of Dowies Point (6 m and
20 m, respectively). In the depositional basin west of Long Point (22 m), chromium levels
decrease to 300 mg/kg and continue to decline in concentration to the channel (190 mg/kg).
The plume of contaminated sediment emanating from Tannery Bay extends  8 km from the
source. Depositional contours also follow the generalized circulation pattern for White Lake.
Lung (1975) described a westerly flow of water from the drowned rivermouth and a wind
induced countercurrent along the southern shore (Figure 4.6.4).   The predominant westerly
wind results in a current moving eastward until it reaches the Narrows where it is nullified by
the drowned rivermouth flow. The shallow depths  and sandy nature of the sediments on the
southern shore  of the  lake  are indicative  of the erosional character of this current and its
effect on the shoreline.   The extensive shallow zone along the southern shore is the result of
the erosional effects on the shoreline and the rapid depositional process resultant from the
interaction of the counter currents. The northern shoreline is protected from the prevailing
   FIGURE 4.6.4 GENERALIZED CIRCULATION PATTERN FOR WHITE LAKE (LUNG 1975).
wind by the high banks  and shows little evidence of erosion.  The morphometry  of the
northern shore and the two points result in the formation of two gyres that enhance sediment
                                          94

-------
and detrital deposition.  Based on these flow characteristics, chromium deposition should be
lower along the southern shore and higher to the north.  The chromium concentration map
fits the generalized flow pattern  as the higher metal concentrations follow the northern
shoreline of White Lake.  The position of Tannery Bay in the eastern corner of the lake and
morphometry associated with the Narrows  would make this area a deposition and transport
zone depending on the nature of the storm event. Small storm events and wind surges would
cause sediment resuspension in the bay and result in a minor degree of transport out into the
drowned rivermouth current. Larger storm  events would result in considerable resuspension
and transport as the increased wave action  facilitates sediment advection out of the bay and
into the main section of the lake.  The 20 cm mixed layer  previously reported in the Tannery
Bay  sediments (Rediske  et al. 1998)  and  the  influence of episodic  events on  chromium
stratigraphy described in Section 4.2 are evidence of these phenomena.

The environmental fate and transport of the PCB discharge in White Lake from the former
Occidental/Hooker Chemical facility is very different from the chromium release from the
tannery. The data from the extensive sampling of the Occidental/Hooker Chemical discharge
zone (Earth Tech 2001) plus the results of current and previous investigations of White Lake
are given in Table 4.6.2.  A map of the sampling locations is provided in Figure 4.6.5. Maps
of PCB concentration contours for the discharge zone and for White Lake are shown in
Figures 4.6.6 and  4.6.7, respectively.   The effluent  pipe was located  at a depth ~ 10 m and
the maximum PCB concentration occurred at ~ 11 m (390 mg/kg).  Sediment contamination
is confined to a 100 m2 zone around the outfall.  The discharge from this facility began in the
mid  50s  and the origin of  the PCBs  is not  known.    Occidental/Hooker  Chemical
manufactured  chlorinated pesticide intermediates and the PCBs  were either produced  as
byproducts or were released from  the electrical  systems on site. The discharge of chemical
wastes was terminated in the mid 70s, however treated groundwater from an activated carbon
system  is  currently released from  the  old  outfall.   Concentration contours follow the
southwestern flow of the drowned  rivermouth and the depth change from 10 m to 14 m.  The
affinity of PCBs for sediment coupled with the location of the outfall in the deep deposit!onal
basin resulted in conditions that limited the advective transport of the chemical outside the
area  around Dowies Point.  This environment is in stark  contrast to the shallow area of the
tannery discharge and its proximity currents associated with the Narrows.  The presence of
PCBs in the surficial  sediments is problematic because  of the depositional nature of the
discharge  zone.  If this location was a true depositional  zone,  the PCBs would have been
covered by clean  sediment  over the last 20+ years.  The groundwater treatment discharge
(1.6 mgd) may cause turbulence in the local area and result in the resuspension and limited
transport of PCBs. The complex flow pattern for this area (Figure 4.6.5) may also result in
limited redistribution of sediments.

The highly contaminated sediment in Tannery bay  and near the former Occidental/Hooker
Chemical  outfall  will  be removed by dredging in 2003.  Removing the sediments from
Tannery Bay will eliminate the source that has contaminated the depositional sediments in
                                          95

-------
TABLE 4.6.2 WHITE LAKE PCB DATA. (PONAR SAMPLES FROM EARTH TECH 2001 AND
                THE CURRENT AND PREVIOUS INVESTIGATION)
Aroclor1248
Sample
SD-99-01
SD-99-02
SD-99-03
SD-99-05
SD-99-06
SD-99-07
SD-99-08
SD-99-09
SD-99-10
SD-99-11
SD-99-12
SD-99-13
SD-99-14
SD-99-15
SD-00-01
SD-00-02
SD-00-03
SD-00-04
SD-00-06
SD-00-07
SD-00-08
SD-00-09
SD-00-10
SD-00-11
SD-00-12
SD-00-13
SD-00-17
SD-00-18
SD-00-19
SD-00-20
SD-00-21
SD-00-22
SD-00-23
SD-00-34
SD-00-35
SD-00-38
SD-00-40
SD-00-41
SD-00-46
SD-00-47
SD-00-48
SD-00-49
SD-00-50
SD-00-51
(mg/kg)
<0.3
<0.3
6.3
0.55
<0.3
<0.3
413
390
110
0.58
<0.3
0.47
9
0.4
0.88
7.6
1.4
38
2.1
1.1
44
27
0.76
0.35
0.99
0.47
<0.3
0.55
1.1
1.3
4.3
<0.3
<0.3
34
<0.3
76
50
3.3
<0.3
0.35
1.5
0.56
0.82
110
A
1456881
1456885
1456882
1456903
1456813
1456928
1456911
1456915
1456934
1456959
1456978
1456931
145647.
1456997
1456870
1456900
1456960
1456866
1456920
1456946
1456859
1456896
1456926
1456801
1456765
1456699
1456969
1456990
1456924
1456868
1456828
1456891
1456819
1457055
1456846
1456697
1456894
1456927
1457097
1457050
1457022
1456887
1456822
1456887

.77
.82
.99
.31
.09
.34
.14
.93
.64
.40
.93
.41
75
.48
.26
.67
.59
.68
.27
.05
.61
.51
.84
.24
.84
.94
.63
.59
.39
.38
.58
.26
.55
.22
.44
.60
.22
.94
.29
.21
.73
.74
.38
.81

Y
694618.
694617.
694581.
694609.
694632.
694653.
694532.
694552.
694574.
694600.
694622.
694516.
694562.
694604.
694582.
694552.
694507.
694540.
694492.
694475.
694495.
694467.
694445.
694501.
694363.
694215.
694297.
694393.
694410.
694436.
694468.
. Aroclor1248

,72
08
86
,45
34
,54
,07
40
49
,19
,57
,70
,27
88
,65
86
,16
,53
04
,87
,57
,79
,57
,97
,00
,55
,55
,18
49
,77
,79
694314.74
694335.
694554.
694564.
694274.
694487.
694543.
694530.
694584.
694536.
694386.
694388.
694593.
,65
38
03
,53
,45
62
,11
42
46
30
,65
,90
bample
WL-1
WL-2
WL-3
WL-4
WL-5
WL-6
WL-7
WL-8
WL-9
WL-10
WL-11
WL-1 2
WL-1 3
WL-1 4
WL-1 5
WL-1 6
WL-1 7
WL-1 8
WL-1 9
WL-20
WL-21
1-1
I-2
I-3
I-4
I-5M
I-6
I-7M
I-8
E-1-P
E-2-P
E-3-P
E-4-P
E-5-P
E-6-P
E-7-P
E-9-P







(mg/kg)
<0.05
0.09
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
0.07
0.08
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
22
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
<0.05
5.5








43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43








N
22.58'
22.45'
22.41'
22.27'
22.73'
22.95'
22.61'
23.01'
23.27'
22.18'
23.54'
23.62'
23.08'
23.69'
23.87'
24.16'
24.20'
24.39'
24.32'
24.51'
23.15'
24.15'
24.11'
24.06'
24.05'
24.04'
23.98'
23.97'
23.97'
24.59'
24.10'
23.90'
23.93'
2370'
23.70'
23.59'
23.13'









86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86
86








W
24.55'
24.15'
24.77'
24.16'
23.50'
22.86'
23.27'
22.53'
22.43'
24.61'
22.25'
21.97'
22.33'
21.63'
21.83'
21.15'
21.25'
21.26'
21.14'
21.22'
22.57'
21.15'
21.27'
21.32'
21.31'
21.25'
21.25'
21.22'
21.36'
21.59'
21.38'
21.50'
21.69'
21.61'
21.95'
21.71'
22.59'







                                  96

-------
                     SD-gg-oi     -.--,^-1^
                    SD-99-07SD-99-05  SD-99-15
                   ^n.nnm-       SD-99-1 1  SD-OD-
                   SD-00-01SD_gg_
                 SD-HD-35
                                    SD-00-48   SD_oD_4B
                                                                                   N
FIGURE 4.6.5 PCB SAMPLING POINTS IN WHITE LAKE (EARTH TECH 2001, CURRENT INVESTIGATION AND
      REDISKE ET AL. 1998.  OCCIDENTAL/HOOKER CHEMICAL AREA SHOWN IN GREATER DETAIL)
                                          97

-------
315100 
315080 
315060 
315040 
315020 
315000 
314980 
                 14     14.5      15      155
                                                                                        469420
     400

     300

     200

     180

     160

     140

     120

     100

     80

     60

     40

     20

     10

     8

     6

     4

     2

     1

     0
PCBs
(mg/kg)
            FIGURE 4.6.6 PCB CONCENTRATION CONTOURS IN THE SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS IN THE VICINITY OF THE
                                FORMER OCCIDENTAL/HOOKER CHEMICAL DISCHARGE.
                                                  98

-------
318000-
317000-
316000-
315000-
314000-
313000-
               466000
                           467000
                                       468000
                                                   469000
                                                               470000
                                                                           471000
                                             X(m)
         FIGURE 4.6.7 PCB CONCENTRATION CONTOURS IN THE SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS IN WHITE
              LAKE. (OCCIDENTAL/HOOKER CHEMICAL AREA SHOWN IN GREATER DETAIL.)
                                                                                       472000
400

300

200

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

10

8

6

4

2

1
                                                                                                PCBs
                                                                                                (mg/kg)
                                               99

-------
90% of White Lake.  The complex flow pattern of the lake will continue to redistribute the
remaining contaminated sediments throughout the western basins. Even though the source
has been eliminated, it will take  many years to observe a significant trend of reduced
chromium deposition in the surficial zone.  Dredging should have a more immediate impact
on the ecosystem  in  Tannery Bay  as the  toxic  sediments  will be  removed from  the
environment.   The removal of PCB contaminated sediment from the Occidental/Hooker
Chemical outfall will also have an immediate benefit to the local ecosystem through the
elimination of toxic sediment.  On a broader scale, the removal of PCBs will eliminate a
major area of persistent bioaccumulative toxicants from White Lake.
4.7 Sediment Quality Triad Assessment of Contaminated sediments in White Lake
In order to determine the significance of the remaining areas of sediment contamination, an
assessment  matrix  (Chapman 1992) can  be used to examine  the  relationship between
chemistry, toxicity,  and benthic macroinvertebrate data. An assessment matrix for the White
Lake data is presented in Table 4.6.3.  Stations exceeding the PEC (MacDonald et al. 2000)

    TABLE 4.7.1 SEDIMENT QUALITY ASSESSMENT MATRIX FOR WHITE LAKE DATA,
            OCTOBER 2000. ASSESSMENT MATRIX FROM CHAPMAN (1992).
Station
No stations fit the
criteria
WL-17, WL-18, WL-
19, WL-20
WL-1, WL-2, WL-3,
WL-4, WL-5, WL-6,
WL-7, WL-8, WL-10,
WL-11, WL-13. WL-15
No stations fit the
criteria
No stations fit the
criteria
WL-21
WL-16
WL-9, WL-12,
WL-14
Sediment
Chemistry
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
Toxicity
Test
+
-
-
+
-
+
+
-
Benthic
Community
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
+
Possible Conclusions
Impact highly likely; contaminant induced
degradation of sediment dwelling organisms
evident
Impact highly unlikely; contaminant degradation
of sediment dwelling organisms not likely
Impact unlikely; contaminants unavailable to
sediment dwelling organisms
Impacts possible; Unmeasured contaminants or
conditions exist that have the potential to cause
toxicity
Impacts unlikely; no degradation of sediment
dwelling organisms in the field apparent relative
to sediment contamination; physical factors may
be influencing benthic community
Impact likely; toxic chemicals probably stressing
system
Impact likely; unmeasured toxic chemicals
contributing to the toxicity
Impact likely; sediment dwelling organisms
degraded by toxic chemical, but toxicity tests not
sensitive to chemicals present
 I- = Indicator classified as affected; as
 = Indicator not classified as affected:
determined based on comparison to the PEC or control site
as determined based on comparison to the PEC or control site
                                         100

-------
were classified as having a potential impact from sediment chemistry.  Toxicity and benthic
community impacts were based on observing a statistically significant difference in mortality
and diversity/trophic status  metrics, respectively.  Using this assessment methodology, the
Occidental/Hooker Chemical Outfall (WL-21), the east bay (WL-16), and the high chromium
sites (WL-9, WL-12, and WL-14) were likely to be impacted by contaminated sediments.
None of the stations were positive for all three components of the triad.  Station WL-21 had
levels of chromium and PCBs that exceeded the  PEC and solid phase toxicity.  The benthic
community at this location  was not significantly different from the other deep stations in
White Lake. Given the organically enriched conditions present in the sediment, it is difficult
to detect a toxic response in the benthos above effects caused by eutrophication.  Sediments
from WL-16 exhibited solid phase toxicity  and impacted benthic invertebrates. None of the
chemicals however were at sufficient concentrations to produce the toxic effect.  Stations
WL-9, WL-12, and WL-14 had chromium levels  above the PEC, no solid phase toxicity, and
a marginally impacted benthic community.  Nematodes were the most abundant organism at
these locations while tubificids dominated the  other stations.  Based on the  Assessment
Matrix,  ecological impairments exist at all of these sites due to  contaminated sediments.
Stations WL-17,  WL-18, WL-19,  and WL-20 did not exhibit solid phase  toxicity,  benthic
impairment, or contaminant  concentrations above  the PEC.   While the remaining  stations
exceeded the chromium  PEC, solid phase  toxicity was  absent and the benthic  community
was  similar to WL-17,  WL-18, and WL-19.   Because of these findings, impacts from
contaminated sediments were not anticipated at these locations.

In consideration  of the remediation of  the sediments in  Tannery  Bay  and near  the
Occidental/Hooker Chemical Outfall, the source  of impairments  due to chromium and PCBs
in White Lake should be eliminated.  While dredging should remove all of the sediment
containing  harmful levels of PCBs, the  extent of chromium contamination  throughout
western White Lake and the cost of remediation make removal an unfeasible  alternative.
Natural  attenuation by the redistribution and burial of contaminated sediments appears to be
the most cost effective option.

4.8 Summary And Conclusions
A Phase II investigation of the nature and  extent of sediment contamination in  White Lake
was performed.  Sediment chemistry, solid-phase  toxicity,  and benthic  macroinvertebrates
were  examined at 21 locations.   Since chromium was  previously identified as the major
contaminant in the sediments, experiments were conducted to determine the accumulation of
the metal in zebra mussels, macrophytes, and chironomids.  In addition, three core samples
were  evaluated  using  radiodating and   stratigraphy to  assess  sediment stability  and
contaminant deposition.  High levels of chromium were found to cover a majority of the lake
bottom and extend 8 km  from the Tannery Bay.  All locations sampled west of Tannery Bay
exceeded the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC). Most of the chromium was found in the
top 51 cm of the core samples.  High concentrations of PCBs were found near the outfall of
the former Occidental/Hooker Chemical facility.  These levels also exceeded PEC guidelines.
Sediment toxicity was observed in the east  bay area and  at the Occidental/Hooker Chemical
outfall.   Toxicity near the  Occidental/Hooker Chemical outfall was  probably  due to the
presence of PCBs. No obvious toxicant was present in the sediments  from the east  bay.
                                          101

-------
While no relationship was previously observed for total chromium and amphipod toxicity, a
significant  correlation was found for the organically bound fraction. Elevated levels of
organic chromium  were  found  in  archived sediments  from Tannery Bay.    Benthic
macroinvertebrate communities throughout White Lake  were found to be indicative of
organically enriched conditions.  Invertebrate community structure of locations in  the east
bay were significantly different than  reference sites, as indicated by a shift to chironomids
that were predators and sprawlers.  Chironomid populations in the remainder of the lake were
burrowers and detritivores. Higher densities of nematodes and reduced tubificid populations
were associated with the stations with elevated chromium levels (> 400 mg/kg).  The metal
also  was  correlated with an  increase  in the trophic  status of chironomid populations.
Chromium accumulation was observed  in chironomid populations throughout White Lake.
In addition, macrophytes and zebra mussels in Tannery Bay were observed to accumulate the
metal in their tissue.

All of the stratigraphy cores showed uniform levels of chromium deposition  in the  top 10 -
15 cm.  This pattern suggested that a constant source of chromium was present in White
Lake.  A standard exponential  decay pattern was absent in the lower sections of the cores,
indicating that historical changes in sedimentation were caused by episodic events.    These
data coupled with chromium contour maps and the generalized circulation pattern of the lake
were used to elucidate the fate and transport of the metal.  The proximity to the drowned
rivermouth currents at the Narrows and the wind induced resuspension in the bay provided
conditions that facilitated the  advection and dispersion  a sediment plume 8 km  from its
source.  Higher concentrations  of chromium were found in the three deep deposition basins
(300-500 mg/kg).  In contrast, the PCBs  discharged by  the Occidental/Hooker Chemical
outfall  remained within 100 m of the outfall pipe.  The depth of the discharge (15 m) plus the
depositional nature of the discharge zone acted to confine the contaminants to a small area.
The removal of contaminated sediments in Tannery Bay and the Occidental/Hooker outfall
was completed in October 2003.  Both remedial actions were essential for the recovery of
White  Lake.   Remediation at Tannery Bay  removed  the ongoing source  of  chromium
contamination while  dredging the  Occidental/Hooker  outfall reduced the amount  of
bioaccumulative compounds in  the lake.
4.9 References

Barbour, M.T.,  J.  Gerritsen,  B.D.  Snyder,  J.B.  Stribling.  1999.  Rapid  Bioassessment
       Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic
       Macroinvertebrates   and  Fish,   Second  Edition.   EPA  841-B-99-002.   U.S.
       Environmental Protection Agency; Office of Water; Washington, D.C.

Barnhart,  J.  1997.   Chromium chemistry  and  implications  for  environmental  fate  and
       toxicity. Journal of Soil Contamination.  6: 561-568.
                                          102

-------
Berg, M. H. 1995. Larval food and feeding behavior. Pages  139-168 in P. Armitage, P. S.
       Cranston and L. C. V. Finder, eds. The Chironomidae: The biology and ecology of
       non-biting  midges. Chapman and Hall, London, England.

Bernays  EA, Cooper Driver G and  Bilgener  M. 1989. Herbivores and  plant  tannins.
       Advances in Ecological Research 19:263-301.

Chapman, P.M. 1992.  Sediment quality triad approach. In: Sediment Classification Methods
       Compendium. EPA 823-R-92-006. USEPA.  Washington, D.C.

Chen, M. and L.Q. Ma. 2001.  Comparison of three aqua regia digestion methods for
       analyzing 16 elements in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:491-499.

Cobbett,  C.S. 2000. Phytochelatins and Their Roles in Heavy Metal Detoxification.  Plant
       Physiology, 123: 825-832.

Cowan M.J.. 1999. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews
       12(4):564-582.

Dauer DM.  1991. Biological criteria, environmental  health, and estuarine macrobenthic
       community structure: Mar. Pollut. Bull. 26:249-257.

Del Vails TA and P.M Chapman.  1998. Site-specific sediment quality values for the Gulf of
       Cadiz (Spain) and San Francisco Bay (USA), using the  sediment quality triad  and
       multivariate analysis: Cienc. Mar. 24:313-336.

Eisler, R. 1986. Chromium hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review.
       U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 85(1.6) 60 pp.

ENVCA  1994. Priority Substances List Assessment Report, Chromium and its Compounds.
       Chemicals Evaluation Division, Environment Canada Quebec, Canada KIA OH3.  59
       pp.

EPA  1990 Macroinvertebrate Field and Laboratory Methods for Evaluating  the Biological
       Integrity of Surface Waters. EPA/600/4-90/03.

Evans, E.D.  1992.  Mona, White, and White Lakes in White County, Michigan The 1950s to
       the 1980s.  Michigan Department of Natural  Resources.  MI/DNR/SWQ-92/261.
       91pp.

Fiscus,  D.A.  and D.A.  Neher.   2002.  Distinguishing  nematode  genera  based  on
       relative   sensitivity   to   physical   and   chemical   disturbances.   Ecological
       Applications 12(2): 565-575.
                                         103

-------
Gyedu-Ababio TK,  J.P. Furstenberg, D  Baird, and A Vanreusel.   1999.   Nematodes  as
       indicators of pollution: A case study from the Swartkops River system, South Africa.
       Hydrobiologia 397: 155-169.

Hilsenhoff, W.L.  1987.  An Improved  Biotic Index of Organic Stream Pollution.  Great
       Lakes Entom. 20:31-39.

Howmiller, R.P. and M.A.  Scott.   1977.  An  environmental index based on the relative
       abundance of oligochaete species.  J. Water Pollut. Cont. Fed. 49: 809-815.

Johansson S.A., J.L. Campbell, K.G.  and Malmquist: Particle  Induced X-Ray Emission
       Spectrometry (PIXE).  John Wiley  & Sons, Chichester, New York, 1995

Krebs, C. J. (1989).  Ecological methodology. New York: Harper & Row.  325 pgs

Kubanekl J., M. E. Hays, P. J. Brown, N.  Lindquist, and W. Fenicall 2001. Lignoid
       chemical defenses in the freshwater macrophyte Saururus Cernuus. Chemoecology
       11:1-8.

Lauritsen, D.D., S.C. Mozley, and D.S. White. 1985. Distribution of oligochaetes in Lake
       Michigan and comments on their use as indices of pollution. J. Great Lakes Res.
       11:67-76.

LaValle,  P.D.,  A. Brooks,  Andrew, and L  V. Chris.  1999.  Zebra Mussel Wastes and
       Concentrations of Heavy Metals on Shipwrecks in Western Lake Erie J. Great Lakes
       Res. 25(2):330-338.

Leslie, H.A., T.I. Pavluk, A.B. de Vaate, M.H.S.  Kraak, 1999. Triad assessment of the
       impact of chromium contamination on benthic macro-invertebrates in the Chusovaya
       River (Urals, Russia). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 37(2): 182-189.

Lung, W. S. 1975. Modeling of Phosphorus Sediment-Water Interactions in White Lake,
       Michigan. Doctoral Thesis. University of Michigan. Department of Civil
       Engineering.

Ma, L.Q., F. Tan and W.G. Harris.  1997.  Concentrations and distributions of 11 elements in
       Florida soils.  J. Environ. Qual. 26:769-775.

MacDonald D.D., C.G. Ingersoll, and T.A. Berger. 2000. Development and Evaluation of
       Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guidelines for Freshwater Ecosystems.   Arch.
       Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 39(1):20-31.

Merritt, R.W. and K.W. Cummins. 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North
       America. 3rd edition. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, IA. 789 pp.
                                         104

-------
Milbrink, G.  1983. An improved environmental index based on the relative abundance of
       oligochaete species. Hydrobiologia 102: 89-97.

Rajander,  J.,  and L.  Harju.  1999.   Monitoring of  chromium,  copper and  arsenic in
       contaminated  soils using thick-target PIXE.  Nuclear Instruments and Methods in
       Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 150: 510-
       515.

Reeders, H. H., and A. Bij de Vaate,  1992. Bioprocessing of Polluted Suspended Matter
       from the Water Column by the Zebra Mussel(Dreissenapolymorpha Pallas),"
       Hydrobiologia, 239:53-63.

Rediske R, G. Fahnenstiel, P. Meier, T. Nalepa, and C.  Schelske,  1998.   Preliminary
       Investigation of the  Extent and Effects of Sediment  Contamination in White Lake,
       Michigan.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-905-R-98-004.

Robbins, J. A.,  and  L. R. Herche.   1993.   Models  and uncertainty in 210Pb dating of
       sediments. Int. Ver.  Theor. Angew. Limnol. Verh 25:217-222.

Schelske, C. L. and D. Hodell.  1995.  Using carbon isotopes of bulk sedimentary organic
       matter to reconstruct the history of nutrient loading and eutrophication in Lake Erie.
       Limnol. Oceanogr. 40:918-929.

Schloesser, Don W., Trefor B. Reynoldson, Bruce A. Manny.  1995, Oligochaete fauna of
       western Lake Erie 1961 and 1982: signs of sediment quality recovery: J. Great Lakes
       Res. 21(3):294-306.

Snow, E.T. 1994. Effects of Chromium on DNA Replication In Vitro. MoleculaMechanisms
       of Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenicity. Environmental Health Perspectives 102,
       Supplements: 41-44.

Vatamaniuk, O.K., Bucher, E.A., Ward, J.T., and Rea, P. A. 2001.  A new pathway for heavy
       metal  detoxification in animals:  phytochelatin synthase is required for cadmium
       tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 20817-20820.

Vajpayee, P.R., U. N., Sinha, S., Tripathi, R. D., and Chandra, P. 1995 Bioremediation of
       tannery effluent by aquatic macrophytes. Bull environ contain toxicol. 55(4):. 546-
       553.

Walsh, A.R. and O'Halloran, J. 1996. Chromium speciation in tannery effluent - II.
       Speciation in the effluent and in a receiving estuary. Water Res. 30(10):2401-2412.

Winnell, M. H., D. S. White.  1985. Trophic status of southeastern Lake Michigan based on
       the Chironomidae (Diptera). J. Great Lakes Res.  11:540-548.
                                          105

-------
5.0 Recommendations

The  remediation  of contaminated sediments in Tannery Bay and  in  the vicinity  of the
Occidental/Hooker Chemical outfall provide a unique opportunity monitor the restoration of
these areas and effects on the ecology of White Lake. The following recommendations are
based  on the results of this investigation  and  the completion of the above sediment
remediation:

   1.  East Bay.  Solid phase toxicity and an impaired benthic community were identified in
       the  current and  previous  investigations.   Conventional analyses for metals and
       organic compounds were unable to identify a toxicant.  In consideration that the east
       bay contains one of the few undeveloped littoral zones, it is important to identify the
       source of the toxicity and  the  benthic  impairment.     A Toxicity Identification
       Evaluation (TIE)  study should be conducted to evaluate the  nature of the toxicant.
       Tannin levels in the sediments should also be evaluated.  Once the toxic agent(s) have
       been identified, remediation and restoration options can be developed.
   2.  The removal of contaminated sediments from Tannery Bay and in the vicinity of the
       Occidental/Hooker  Chemical  outfall  remediated  the  two  major  source  areas
       responsible for the Area of Concern designation for White Lake.  In order to prepare
       for  future delisting activities,  it is important to initiate a  lake wide  monitoring
       program to evaluate the  effectiveness  of the remediation.   Annual monitoring of
       sediment  chemistry,  toxicity, benthic  macroinvertebrates,  and the  macrophyte
       community should be conducted in the  remediated areas to  determine whether the
       influx of contaminants has ceased and a stable benthic  community is established.  In
       addition, sediment chemistry and benthic macroinvertebrates should be examined on
       a lake wide  scale to evaluate the  effects of reduced  chromium loading  on the
       ecosystem. The  stations used in this  investigation will provide a solid data  set that
       describes the condition of the lake prior to remediation. Since the sampling locations
       reflect a broad range of chromium concentrations and depths,  the  data from this
       investigation will  provide a baseline to evaluate changes in specific areas  of elevated
       contamination and on a lake wide scale.
   3.  No sediment contamination related to the DuPont groundwater plume was detected in
       the investigation.  Based on these results, questions related to contaminated sediments
       should not prevent the disposition of the DuPont property west of Long Point.
   4.  The only remaining site with potential sediment contamination is the Mill Pond area
       downstream from Koch Chemical.  This site  should be investigated since hazardous
       chemicals were discharged in the creek and the area is residential.
                                          106

-------
Appendices
     107

-------
Appendix A. Quality Assurance Review of the Project Data.
                                 108

-------
                       QA/QC Analysis Checklist for
                  SEDIMENT CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS

GRANT/TAG NUMBER: GL-GL975368-01-0
PROJECT NAME: Phase II Investigation of Sediment Contamination in White Lake
REVIEWER: Richard Rediske
DATE:  6-26-03

1.  What sediment chemistry data has been collected (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY)?

      Total Metals __X_ PCBs	  pH	    TOC _X	
      Dioxins/Furans      PAHs   X  Pesticides    X   DO      AVS
      SEM Metals	  Particle Size X     Other Semivolatile Organics X

2.  Were the target detection limits met for each parameter?

                  YES
                  NO        X  (UNACCEPTABLE)      (Target Detection Limits
                           were not met for semivolatile organics due to low % solids))
3.  Were the Method Blanks less than the established MDL for each parameter?

                  YES    X
                  NO   	(UNACCEPTABLE)

4.  Did the results of Field Duplicate Analysis vary by less than the % RPD specified in the
QAPP?

                  YES    X
                  NO   	(UNACCEPTABLE)

5.  Did the results of the Field Replicates Analysis vary by less than the % RPD specified in
the QAPP?

                  YES   X Field replicates were not required in the QAPP
                  NO   	(UNACCEPTABLE)

6.  Did the surrogate spike recoveries meet the limits set forth in the QAPP?

                  YES    X
                  NO   	(UNACCEPTABLE)
                                       109

-------
7.  Did the MS/MSD recoveries meet the limits set forth in the QAPP?

                   YES      X
                   NO
8.  Did the RPD (%) of the MS/MSD sample set meet the limits set forth in the QAPP?

                   YES    X
                   NO
9.  Did the initial  calibration verification standards meet the requirements set forth in the
QAPP?

                   YES    X
                   NO   	(UNACCEPTABLE)

10.. Were any level of contaminants detected above the MDL for the trip blanks and storage
blanks?

                   YES  	(UNACCEPTABLE)
                   NO    X    Trip and Storage blanks were not required in the QAPP
11.  Did all required analysis take place within the required holding time protocols set forth
in the QAPP?

                   YES   X
                   NO    	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

12.  Did the laboratory duplicates vary by less than the % RPD specified in the QAPP?

                   YES   X
                   NO    	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

13.    Are measured dry weight contaminant concentrations reported?   (Note:  Conversion
 from wet weight to dry weight concentration may occur ONLY if data on moisture or TOC
 are provided. Nominal concentrations are unacceptable.)

                   YES  X
                   NO	(UNACCEPTABLE)
                                        110

-------
14.    Please provide details for all of the  "UNACCEPTABLE" marked above.  Include
details on the specific analytes affected by any QA/QC discrepancies, and recommendations
regarding usability of data.
Sediment  samples had very low % solids that resulted in raising  the detection limits for
semivolatiles.  The results are listed in the data tables.  A larger sample volume should be
used at these locations if additional  assessments are made.   Target detection limits were
achieved on all other samples.
                                          Ill

-------
                           QA/QC Analysis Checklist for
         ACUTE AND CHRONIC WHOLE SEDIMENT TOXICITY TESTS
                  (10-dayC. tentans and 10-day or 28-day H. azteca)

GRANT/TAG NUMBER:  GL975368-01-0
PROJECT NAME: Phase II Investigation of Sediment Contamination in White Lake
REVIEWER: Richard Rediske
DATE: 2-26-02

1. Did toxicity tests employ appropriate procedures? [ASTM: El367, E1611, El706, USEPA (2000)]

       YES  X
       NO	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

2. Does sample storage time exceed the allowable storage time specified in the QAPP?

       Allowable Storage Days Specified in QAPP   45
       Number of Storage Days Prior to Testing 14 DYAS AND 30 DAYS

                    YES	(UNACCEPTABLE)
                    NO   X

3.  Was the  age for H. azteca organisms  between 7- to 14-days at the start of the test with an age
 range less than 2-days?

                    YES  X
                    NO 	 (UNACCEPTABLE)
4A. Were all of the C. tentans organisms second- to third-stage larvae with at least 50% at the third
 instar?

                    YES   X
                    NO 	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

4B. How was the developmental stage of the C. tentans larvae measured?

                    Head Capsule Width	(See Table 10.2 of EPA/600/R-99/064, March 2000)
                    Length X   (Should fall between 4 mm to 6 mm)
                    Weight	(Should fall between 0.08 to 0.23 mg/individual)

5.  Do flow rates through the different test chambers differ by more than 10% at any particular time
during the test?

                    YES	(UNACCEPTABLE)
                    NO   X  (QAPP REQUIRED 2X DAILY RENEWAL OF OVERLYING
                    WATER INSTEAD OF FLOW  THROUGH)
                                         112

-------
6.  Did Dissolved Oxygen remain above 2.5 mg/L?

                    YES   X
                    NO	 (Provide Explanation at end of Checklist)

7.  Does daily mean Temperature remain at 23  1C?

                    YES    X
                    NO	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

8.  Does the instantaneous Temperature remain in the range of 23  3EC?

                    YES   X
                    NO	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

9.  Do the Ranges of for Hardness, Alkalinity, pH, and Ammonia fluctuate more than 50%
from the mean?

       Maximum % Difference:
              DO        30%            Alk      22%
              pH         6%             NH3   50%

                    YES	(UNACCEPTABLE)
                    NO	

10. Was the Ammonia concentration ever greater than 20 mg/L?

                    YES	    (See EPA/600/R-99/064, March 2000 to determine if ammonia
                                  contributed to toxicity of H. azteca.)
                    NO  X

11. Was the Ammonia concentration greater than  82 mg/L?

                    YES	    (See EPA/600/R-99/064, March 2000 to determine if ammonia
                                  contributed to toxicity of C. tentans)
                    NO  X

12. Was the Mean Control Survival in the H.  azteca Control Sediments greater than or equal to 80%?

                    YES   X
                    NO	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

13. Was  the Mean Control Survival in the  C. tentans Control  Sediments greater than or eqaul to
70%?

                    YES  X
                    NO	 (UNACCEPTABLE)
                                           113

-------
14. Was the mean weight per surviving C. tentans control organism greater than 0.48 mg (ash-free
dry weight)?

                     YES  X QAPP used dry weight of 0.8 mg/ individual. This was achieved.
                     NO	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

15. Was the overlying water renewed at a rate of 2 volumes per day?

                     YES  X
                     NO	 (UNACCEPTABLE)

16.    Please provide details for all of the "UNACCEPTABLE" responses marked above.  Include
details  on the specific  results that potentially may be affected by any QA/QC discrepancies, and
recommendations regarding usability of data.

All discrepancies were related to following methods approved in the project QAPP.
                                            114

-------
Appendix B.   Results Physical Analyses  On White  Lake  Sediments,
October 2000
                                 115

-------
TABLE B-l. RESULTS OF GRAIN SIZE, TOC, AND % SOLIDS ANALYSES ON WHITE LAKE
                 SEDIMENT CORE SAMPLES. OCTOBER 2000.
>2000Mm 2000-1000 Mm
Sample ID Weight %
WL-1 TOP
WL-1 MID
WL-1 EOT
WL-1 TOP DUP
WL-1 MID DUP
WL-1 EOT DUP
WL-2 TOP
WL-2 MID
WL-2 EOT
WL-3 TOP
WL-3 MID
WL-3 TOP
WL-4 TOP
WL-4MID
WL-5 TOP
WL-5 MID
WL-5 EOT
WL-6 TOP
WL-6 MID
WL-6 EOT
WL-7 TOP
WL7MID
WL-7 EOT
WL-8 TOP
WL-8 MID
WL-8 EOT
WL-9 TOP
WL-9-MID
WL-9 EOT
WL-1 0 TOP
WL-10MID
WL-1 0 EOT
WL-21 TOP
WL-21 MID
WL-21 EOT
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
Weight%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1000-850 Mm
Weight %
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
850-500 Mm
Weight %
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
500-125 Mm
Weight %
2
13
7
2
6
12
4
13
90
4
23
7
10
80
7
9
6
2
43
8
8
11
8
8
8
6
9
9
7
23
11
6
10
10
6
125-63 Mm
Weight %
6
9
9
6
9
12
4
9
2
8
11
9
14
3
12
12
10
5
8
13
12
17
18
16
11
12
14
10
11
6
10
7
5
15
6
<63 Mm
TOC
Solic
Weight % % %
92
78
84
92
86
75
92
77
5
87
65
84
76
13
81
79
84
93
46
78
80
72
75
76
80
83
76
81
81
71
79
87
84
74
86
3.9
11
9.5
3.1
1.5
9
6.5
10
<1.0
2.2
4.8
8.1
2.9
<1.0
5.8
8.9
7.2
3.0
10
3.0
3.6
10
10
6.6
1.2
1.3
7.5
7.1
8.1
<1.0
9.7
8.9
2.7
7.1
3.4
12
14
15
11
15
14
11
15
67
13
18
15
13
53
12
15
15
17
38
16
12
16
15
12
15
16
13
15
16
14
15
14
20
16
13
                                  116

-------
TABLE B-2. RESULTS OF GRAIN SIZE, TOC, AND % SOLIDS ANALYSES ON WHITE LAKE
SEDIMENT SAMPLES. OCTOBER 2000.
>2000m 2000-1000 am
Sample ID
WL-1 P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-4P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-1 OP
WL-1 1 P
WL-1 2 P
WL-1 3 P
WL-1 4 P
WL-1 5 P
WL-1 6 P
WL-1 7 P
WL-1 8 P
WL-1 9 P
WL-20 P
WL-21 P
WL-22 P
WL-23 P
WL-24 P
Weight %
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
3
3
Weight%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
1
1000-850 am
Weight %
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
850-500 wm
Weight %
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
2
1
500-125 wm
Weight %
4
6
4
82
6
5
7
8
7
5
7
6
30
13
6
3
5
8
6
11
19
12
10
12
125-63 am
Weight %
5
5
5
2
10
7
10
10
9
5
9
9
14
10
10
7
10
8
11
17
9
13
9
7
<63 am
Weight %
91
88
90
11
83
88
83
82
83
89
84
84
55
76
83
90
84
84
83
70
71
65
73
76
TOC
<10
3.5
3.0
<1.0
5.0
4.4
6.6
5.5
6.4
2.2
6.0
7.1
5.0
18
7.4
10
10
11
11
8.5
5.6
4.6
5.9
8.2
Soli(
7
10
10
61
11
10
10
11
11
10
11
11
15
13
12
14
15
16
15
16
13
11
12
15
                                   117

-------
TABLE B-3. TOC MATRIX SPIKE AND MATRIX SPIKE DUPLICATE RESULTS FOR WHITE
                  LAKE SEDIMENT SAMPLES. OCTOBER 2000.

                          Matrix Spike Data
Sample OC
Sample ID
WL-5 Top
WL-6 Bot
WL-9 Top
WL-21 Top
WL-5P
WL-14P
WL-18P
mg
6.1
2.6
8.0
2.7
5.0
7.2
9.0
MSOC
mg
20.2
56.9
28.7
22.3
26.5
31.8
36.1
Matrix Spike
Cone, mg
12.4
52.9
21.0
18.6
23.5
25.1
26.7

% Recovery
114
103
98
106
91
98
101
Matrix Spike Duplicate Data
Sample OC
Sample ID
WL-5 Top
WL-6 Bot
WL-9 Top
WL-21 Top
WL-5P
WL-14P
WL-18P
mg
6.1
2.6
8.0
2.7
5.0
7.2
9.0
MSDOC
mg
30.9
33.1
41.5
19.9
31.4
29.8
30.1
Matrix Spike
Cone, mg i
23.4
29.1
34.1
18.6
25.8
22.7
21.6
                                                  % Recovery RPD*
                                                     106     8
                                                     105     2
                                                     98      0
                                                     92      13
                                                     102     11
                                                     99      8
                                                     98      0
         * RPD was calculated using the % recoveries for the ms and msd.
         Different amounts (mg) of sample and spike were used for the ms and msc
                                     118

-------
     TABLE B-4. QUALITY CONTROL RESULTS FOR GRAIN SIZE ANALYSES ON WHITE LAKE
                            SEDIMENT SAMPLES. OCTOBER 2000.

              >2000Mm  2000-1000 Mm  1000-850 Mm  850-500 Mm  500-125 Mm  125-63 Mm  <63Mm
  Sample ID    Weight %   Weight%    Weight %   Weight %   Weight %   Weight % Weight %
  WL-2Bot        00           0           2          90          2         5
WL-2BotDup       00           0           3          90          2         5
  WL-4Mid        00           0           3          81          2         12
WL-4 Mid Dup       00           0           3          81          3         12
  Wl-6 Mid         1           0           0           2          43          8         46
WL-6MidDup       01           0           2          42          7         47
  WL-10P         00           0           0          5          5         89
 WL-lOPDup       00           0           0          6          5         90
  WL-15 PI           0           0           0          6          11        83
 WL-15PDup       00           0           0          6          10        83
  WL-18P         00           0           0          8          8         84
 WL-18PDup       10           0           1          6          11        82
  WL-21P         00           0           1          19          9         71
 WL-21PDup       00           0           1          17          9         73
                                             119

-------
Appendix C. Organic Analyses On White Lake Sediments, October 2000.
                                 120

-------
TABLE C-l. RESULTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSES ON WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS,
                                      OCTOBER 2000. (MG/KG DRY WT)
                                      WL-1
                                                       WL-1 Dup
                                                                         WL-2
                                                                                          WL-3
                                                                                                          WL-4
     PCB-1016
     PCB-1221
     PCB-1232
     PCB-1242
     PCB-1248
     PCB-1254
     PCB-1260

     1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE
     1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE
     1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE
     1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE
     2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL
     2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL
     2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL
     2,4-DIMETHYLPHENOL
     2,4-DINITROPHENOL
     2,4-DINITROTOLUENE
     2,6-DINITROTOLUENE
     2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE
     2-CHLOROPHENOL
     2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
     2-METHYLPHENOL
     2-NITROANILINE
     2-NITROPHENOL
     3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE
     3-NITROANILINE
     4,6-DINITRO- 2-METHYLPHENOL
     4-BROMOPHENYL PHENYLETHER
     4-CHLORO-3-METHYLPHENOL
     4-CHLOROANILINE
     4-CHLOROPHENYLPHENYL- ETHER
     4-METHYLPHENOL
     4-NITROANILINE
     4-NITROPHENOL
     ACENAPHTHENE
     ACENAPHTHYLENE
     ANTHRACENE
     BENZO (A) ANTHRACENE
     BENZO (A) PYRENE
     BENZO (B) FLUORANTHENE
     BENZO (G,H,I,) PERYLENE
     BENZO (K) FLUORANTHENE
     BIS (2-CHLOROETHOXY)- METHANE
     BIS (2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER
     BIS (2-CHLOROISOPROPYL)- ETHER
     BIS (2-ETHYLHEXYL)- PHTHALATE
     BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE
     CARBAZOLE
     CHRYSENE
     DI-N-BUTYLPHTHALATE
     DI-N-OCTYLPHTHALATE
     DIBENZO (A,H) ANTHRACENE
     DIBENZOFURAN
     DIETHYLPHTHALATE
     DIMETHYLPHTHALATE
     FLUORANTHENE
     FLUORENE
     HEXACHLOROBENZENE
     HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE
     HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE
     HEXACHLOROETHANE
     INDENO (1,2,3-CD) PYRENE
     ISOPHORONE
     N-NITROSO-DI-PHENYLAMINE
     N-NITROSODI-N-PROPYLAMINE
     NAPHTHALENE
     NITROBENZENE
     PENTACHLOROPHENOL
     PHENANTHRENE
     PHENOL
     PYRENE
'op
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.22
0.33
0.33
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.6
1.7
10
8.6
8.6
1.7
1.7
6.6
1.7
1.7
8.6
8.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
0.38
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 7.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
Bottom
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 7.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
0.26
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
Top
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
0.44
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 10
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 7.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
0.42
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
Bottom
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
0.06
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 7.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
0.32
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
Top
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
0.06 0.07
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 10
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 6.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
0.56
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 7.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 4.7
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
0.35
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
Top
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
0.06
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 7.2
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 7.2
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 7.2
< 1.4
< 8.4
< 7.2
< 7.2
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 5.5
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 7.2
< 7.2
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
0.99
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 7.2
< 1.4
< 1.4
< 1.4
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 4.8
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 4.8
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 4.8
< 0.93
< 5.6
< 4.8
< 4.8
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 3.7
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 4.8
< 4.8
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 4.8
< 0.93
< 0.93
< 0.93
Bottom
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
0.06
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 5.4
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 5.4
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 5.4
< 1.0
< 6.3
< 5.4
< 5.4
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 4.1
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 5.4
< 5.4
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
0.06
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 5.4
< 1.0
< 1.0
< 1.0
Top
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 6.6
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 6.6
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 6.6
< 1.3
< 7.8
< 6.6
< 6.6
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 5.1
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 6.6
< 6.6
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
0.17
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 6.6
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 2.0
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1 .3
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
                                                         121

-------
TABLE C-l (CONTINUED).  RESULTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSES ON WHITE LAKE
                                              SEDIMENTS, OCTOBER 2000.
     PCB-1016
     PCB-1221
     PCB-1232
     PCB-1242
     PCB-1248
     PCB-1254
     PCB-1260

     1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE
     1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE
     1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE
     1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE
     2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL
     2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL
     2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL
     2,4-DIMETHYLPHENOL
     2,4-DINITROPHENOL
     2,4-DINITROTOLUENE
     2,6-DINITROTOLUENE
     2-CH LORONAPHTHALEN E
     2-CHLOROPHENOL
     2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
     2-METHYLPHENOL
     2-NITROANILINE
     2-NITROPHENOL
     3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE
     3-NITROANILINE
     4,6-DINITRO-2-METHYLPHENOL
     4-BROMOPHENYL PHENYLETHER
     4-CHLORO-3-METHYLPHENOL
     4-CHLOROANILINE
     4-CHLOROPHENYLPHENYL- ETHER
     4-METHYLPHENOL
     4-NITROANILINE
     4-NITROPHENOL
     ACENAPHTHENE
     ACENAPHTHYLENE
     ANTHRACENE
     BENZO (A) ANTHRACENE
     BENZO(A)PYRENE
     BENZO (B) FLUORANTH EN E
     BENZO(G,H,I,)PERYLENE
     BENZO (K) FLUORANTH EN E
     BIS (2-CHLOROETHOXY> METHANE
     BIS (2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER
     BIS (2-CHLOROISOPROPYL)- ETHER
     BIS (2-ETHYLHEXYL)- PHTHALATE
     BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE
     CARBAZOLE
     CHRYSENE
     DI-N-BUTYLPHTHALATE
     DI-N-OCTYLPHTHALATE
     DIBENZO (A,H) ANTHRACENE
     DIBENZOFURAN
     DIETHYLPHTHALATE
     DIMETHYLPHTHALATE
     FLUORANTH ENE
     FLUORENE
     HEXACHLOROBENZENE
     HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE
     HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE
     HEXACHLOROETHANE
     INDENO(1,2,3-CD)PYRENE
     ISOPHORONE
     N-NITROSO-DI-PH ENYLAMIN E
     N-NITROSODI-N-PROPYLAMINE
     NAPHTHALENE
     NITROBENZENE
     PENTACHLOROPHENOL
     PHENANTHRENE
     PHENOL
     PYRENE
<



<


<





<

<



<










<


<





<
Top
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.17
0.33
0.33
'
'

6.6
'

6.6
'
'
'
'

6.6
'
6.6
6.6
'
5.1
'
6.6
6.6
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
1.3

'
1.3

'
'
'
'
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
6.6
1.3
1.3
1.3
WL-5
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 6.1
'

< 6.1
'
'
'
'

< 6.1
'
< 6.1
< 6.1
'
< 4.7
'
< 6.1
< 6.1
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
< 1.2

'
< 1.2

'
'
'
'
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
Bottom
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 5.4
'

< 5.4
'
'
'
'

< 5.4
'
< 5.4
< 5.4
'
< 4.2
'
< 5.4
< 5.4
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
< 1.1

'
< 1.1

'
'
'
'
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
Top
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
0.39
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 5.7
'

< 5.7
'
'
'
'

< 5.7
'
< 5.7
< 5.7
'
< 4.4
'
< 5.7
< 5.7
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
0.22

'
< 1.1

'
'
'
'
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.7
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
WL-6
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 2.4
'

< 2.4
'
'
'
'

< 2.4
'
< 2.4
< 2.4
'
< 1.8
'
< 2.4
< 2.4
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
0.19

'
< 0.46

'
'
'
'
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 2.4
< 0.46
< 0.46
< 0.46
Bottom
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 2.3
'

< 2.3
'
'
'
'

< 2.3
'
< 2.3
< 2.3
'
< 1.8
'
< 2.3
< 2.3
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
0.14

'
< 0.45

'
'
'
'
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 2.3
< 0.45
< 0.45
< 0.45
Top
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
0.24
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 7.8
'

< 7.8
'
'
'
'

< 7.8
'
< 7.8
< 7.8
'
< 6.0
'
< 7.8
< 7.8
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
0.28

'
< 1.5

'
'
'
'
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
WL-7
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 5.8
'

< 5.8
'
'
'
'

< 5.8
'
< 5.8
< 5.8
'
< 4.4
'
< 5.8
< 5.8
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
0.25

'
0.99

'
'
'
'
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
Botom
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 5.4
'

< 5.4
'
'
'
'

< 5.4
'
< 5.4
< 5.4
'
< 4.2
'
< 5.4
< 5.4
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
< 1.1

'
< 1.1

'
'
'
'
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
Top
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
0.27
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 6.6
'

< 6.6
'
'
'
'

< 6.6
'
< 6.6
< 6.6
'
< 5.1
'
< 6.6
< 6.6
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
0.25

'
< 1.3

'
'
'
'
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 6.6
< 1.3
< 1.3
< 1.3
WL-8
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 5.8
'

< 5.8
'
'
'
'

< 5.8
'
< 5.8
< 5.8
'
< 4.4
'
< 5.8
< 5.8
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
< 1.1

'
< 1.1

'
'
'
'
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
Bottom
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
'
'

< 5.4 <
'

< 5.4 <
'
'
'
'

< 5.4 <
'
< 5.4 <
< 5.4 <
'
< 4.2 <
'
< 5.4 <
< 5.4 <
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
< 1.1 <

'
< 1.1 <

'
'
'
'
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 5.4 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
< 1.1 <
Top
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
'
'

7.1
'

7.1
'
'
'
'

7.1
'
7.1
7.1
'
5.5
'
7.1
7.1
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
1.4

'
1.4

'
'
'
'
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
7.1
1.4
1.4
1.4
WL-9
Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 5.8
'

< 5.8
'
'
'
'

< 5.8
'
< 5.8
< 5.8
'
< 4.4
'
< 5.8
< 5.8
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
< 1.1

'
< 1.1

'
'
'
'
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
Botom
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
'
'

< 5.4
'

< 5.4
'
'
'
'

< 5.4
'
< 5.4
< 5.4
'
< 4.2
'
< 5.4
< 5.4
'

'
'
'

'
'
'
'
0.23

'
< 1.1

'
'
'
'
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.4
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
                                                                122

-------
TABLE C-l (CONTINUED).  RESULTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSES ON WHITE LAKE
                                              SEDIMENTS, OCTOBER 2000.
     PCB-1016
     PCB-1221
     PCB-1232
     PCB-1242
     PCB-1248
     PCB-1254
     PCB-1260

     1,2,4-TRICH LOROBENZEN E
     1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE
     1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE
     1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE
     2,4,5-TRICH LOROPH ENOL
     2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL
     2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL
     2,4-DIMETHYLPHENOL
     2,4-DINITROPHENOL
     2,4-DINITROTOLUENE
     2,6-DINITROTOLUENE
     2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE
     2-CHLOROPHENOL
     2-METHYLNAPHTHALEN E
     2-METHYLPHENOL
     2-NITROANILINE
     2-NITROPHENOL
     3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE
     3-NITROANILINE
     4,6-DINITRO- 2-METHYLPHENOL
     4-BROMOPHENYL PHENYLETHER
     4-CHLORO-3-METHYLPHENOL
     4-CHLOROANILINE
     4-CHLOROPHENYLPHENYL- ETHER
     4-METHYLPHENOL
     4-NITROANILINE
     4-NITROPHENOL
     ACENAPHTHENE
     ACENAPHTHYLENE
     ANTHRACENE
     BENZO(A) ANTHRACENE
     BENZO(A)PYRENE
     BENZO (B) FLUORANTHENE
     BENZO(G,H,I,)PERYLENE
     BENZO (K) FLUORANTHENE
     BIS (2-CHLOROETHOXY)- METHANE
     BIS (2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER
     BIS (2-CHLOROISOPROPYL)- ETHER
     BIS (2-ETHYLHEXYL)- PHTHALATE
     BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE
     CARBAZOLE
     CHRYSENE
     DI-N-BUTYLPHTHALATE
     DI-N-OCTYLPHTHALATE
     DIBENZO(A.H) ANTHRACENE
     DIBENZOFURAN
     DIETHYLPHTHALATE
     DIMETHYLPHTHALATE
     FLUORANTHENE
     FLUORENE
     HEXACHLOROBENZENE
     HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE
     HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE
     HEXACHLOROETHANE
     INDENO(1,2,3-CD)PYRENE
     ISOPHORONE
     N-NITROSO-DI-PHENYLAMINE
     N-NITROSODI-N-PROPYLAMINE
     NAPHTHALENE
     NITROBENZENE
     PENTACHLOROPHENOL
     PHENANTHRENE
     PHENOL
     PYRENE
Top
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.34
< 0.33
0.06
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 6.8
< 5.8
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
0.25
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
WL-10
Middle Bottom
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.34
< 0.33
0.06
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 6.8
< 5.8
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 5.8
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 1.1
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 7.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
0.84
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
WL-21 .... ,_
... ,  WL-1P
Top Middle
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
22
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.2
< 1.2
1.9
0.65
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 7.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
0.94
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
0.54
0.081
0.036
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 6.1
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 1.2
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.99 <
< 0.98 <
0.84 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98
< 5.0 <
< 0.98 <
0.29 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 5.0 <
< 0.98 <
< 5.9 <
< 5.0 <
< 5.0 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 3.9 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 5.0 <
< 5.0 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
0.54
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 5.0 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.98 <
< 0.46 <
< 0.46 <
< 0.46 <
< 0.46 <
< 2.4 <
< 0.46 <
< 0.46 <
< 0.46 <
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33

1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
9.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
9.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
9.2
1.8
11
9.2
9.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
9.2
9.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
0.92
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8
9.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
WL-1P
Dup
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 10
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
WL-2P WL-3P
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
0.34 <
< 0.33 <
0/09 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <

< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 7.8 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 7.8 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 7.8 <
< 1.5 <
< 9.2 <
< 7.8 <
< 7.8 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 7.8 <
< 7.8 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 7.8 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
< 1.5 <
0.33
0.33
0.34
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33

0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
1.7
0.33
0.33
0.33
1.7
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
1.7
0.33
2.0
1.7
1.7
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
1.7
1.7
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.31
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
1.7
0.33
0.33
0.33
WL-4P
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.34
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.8
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.8
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.8
< 1.7
< 10
< 8.8
< 8.8
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.8
< 8.8
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.8
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
WL-5P
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.34
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 9.2
< 7.8
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
0.62
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
WL-6P
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.34
< 0.33
0.07
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 10
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
0.32
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
WL-7P
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.34
< 0.33
0.08
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 10
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
0.35
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
0.30
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
WL-8P
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.34
< 0.33
0.08
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 9.2
< 7.8
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
1.3
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
0.25
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 7.8
< 1.5
< 1.5
< 1.5
WL-9P
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 10
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
                                                                123

-------
TABLE C-l  (CONTINUED). RESULTS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSES ON WHITE LAKE
                                               SEDIMENTS, OCTOBER 2000.
                                     WL-10P  WL-11P  WL-12P WL-13P WL-14P  WL-15P  WL-16P WL-17P WL-18P WL-19P WL-20 WL-21
           PCB-1016
           PCB-1221
           PCB-1232
           PCB-1242
           PCB-1248
           PCB-1254
           PCB-1260

           1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE
           1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE
           1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE
           1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE
           2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL
           2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL
           2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL
           2,4-DIMETHYLPHENOL
           2,4-DINITROPHENOL
           2,4-DINITROTOLUENE
           2,6-DINITROTOLUENE
           2-CHLORONAPHTHALENE
           2-CHLOROPHENOL
           2-METHYLNAPHTHALENE
           2-HETHYLPHENOL
           2-NITROANILINE
           2-NITROPHENOL
           3,3-DICHLOROBENZIDINE
           3-NITROANILINE
           4,6-DINITRO- 2-METHYLPHENOL
           4-BROMOPHENYL PHENYLETHER
           4-CHLORO-3-HETHYLPHENOL
           4-CHLOROANILINE
           4-CHLOROPHENYLPHENYL- ETHER
           4-HETHYLPHENOL
           4-NITROANILINE
           4-NITROPHENOL
           ACENAPHTHENE
           ACENAPHTHYLENE
           ANTHRACENE
           BENZO (A) ANTHRACENE
           BENZO(A)PYRENE
           BENZO fB) FLUORANTHENE
           BENZO (G,H,I,) PERYLENE
           BENZO (K) FLUORANTHENE
           BIS (2-CHLOROETHOXY)- METHANE
           BIS (2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER
           BIS (2-CHLOROISOPROPYL)- ETHER
           BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)- PHTHALATE
           BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE
           CARBAZOLE
           CHRYSENE
           DI-N-BUTYLPHTHALATE
           DI-N-OCTYLPHTHALATE
           DIBENZO (A,H) ANTHRACENE
           DIBENZOFURAN
           DIETHYLPHTHALATE
           DIMETHYLPHTHALATE
           FLUORANTHENE
           FLUORENE
           HEXACHLOROBENZENE
           HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE
           HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE
           HEXACHLOROETHANE
           INDENO (1,2,3-CD) PYRENE
           ISOPHORONE
           N-NITROSO-DI-PHENYLAHINE
           N-NITROSODI-N-PROPYLAMINE
           NAPHTHALENE
           NITROBENZENE
           PENTACHLOROPHENOL
           PHENANTHRENE
           PHENOL
           PYRENE
<
<
<
<
<
<
*

<
<
<

<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<

<
<
<
<
<
<

<
<

<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
<
0.33 <
0.33 <
0.33 <
0.33 <
0.33 <
0.33 <
0.33 <

1.8 <
9.2 <
1.8 <

9.2 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
9.2 <
1.8 <
11 <
9.2 <
9.2 <
1.8 <
7.1 <
1.8 <
9.2 <
9.2 <
1.8 <

1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
0.92 <
1.8 <
1.8 <

1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
9.2 <
1.8 <
1.8 <
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33

1.7
8.6
1.7

8.6
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.6
1.7
10
8.6
8.6
1.7
6.6
1.7
8.6
8.6
1.7

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.6
1.7
1.7
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <

< 1.7 <
< 8.7 <
< 1.7 <

< 8.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 8.7 <
< 1.8 <
< 11 <
< 8.6 <
< 8.6 <
< 1.7 <
< 6.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 8.6 <
< 8.6 <
< 1.7 <

< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <

< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 8.6 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33

1.7
8.8
1.7

8.8
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.8
1.9
12
8.6
8.6
1.7
6.8
1.7
8.6
8.6
1.7

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.6
1.7
1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 8.9
< 1.7

< 8.9
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.9
< 1.10
< 13
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 6.9
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 8.10
< 1.7

< 8.10
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.10
< 1.11
< 14
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 6.10
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 8.11
< 1.7

< 8.11
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.11
< 1.12
< 15
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 6.11
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
1.1
< 1.7
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
0.18
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <
< 0.33 <

< 1.7 <
< 8.12 <
< 1.7 <

< 8.12 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 8.12 <
< 1.13 <
< 16 <
< 8.6 <
< 8.6 <
< 1.7 <
< 6.12 <
< 1.7 <
< 8.6 <
< 8.6 <
< 1.7 <

< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <

< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
< 8.6 <
< 1.7 <
< 1.7 <
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33

1.7
8.13
1.7

8.13
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.13
1.14
17
8.6
8.6
1.7
6.13
1.7
8.6
8.6
1.7

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7

1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.7
8.6
1.7
1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 8.14
< 1.7

< 8.14
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.14
< 1.15
< 18
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 6.14
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 8.15
< 1.7

< 8.15
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.15
< 1.16
< 19
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 6.15
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33
21
< 0.33
< 0.33
< 0.33

< 1.7
< 8.16
< 1.7

< 8.16
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.16
< 1.17
< 20
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 6.16
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 8.6
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
0.4
< 1.7
< 1.7

< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 1.7
< 8.6
< 1.7
< 1.7
                                                                 124

-------
TABLE C-2. SURROGATE STANDARD RECOVERIES FOR SEMIVOLATILE ORGANICS ANALYSES
                  ON WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS, OCTOBER 2000.
Sample
WL-1 Top
WL-1 Middle
WL-1 Bottom
WL-1 Top Dup
WL-1 Middle Dup
WL-1 Bottom Dup
WL-2 Top
WL-2 Middle
WL-3 Top
WL-3 Middle
WL-3 Bottom
WL-4 Top
WL-4 Middle
WL-5 Top
WL-5 Middle
WL-5 Bottom
WL-6 Top
WL-6 Middle
WL-6 Bottom
WL-7 Top
WL-7 Middle
WL-7 Bottom
WL-8 Top
WL-8 Middle
WL-8 Bottom
WL-9 Top
WL-9 Middle
WL-9 Bottom
WL-1 0 Top
WL-10 Middle
WL-1 0 Bottom
WL-21 Top
WL-21 Middle
WL-1P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-1 OP
WL-16P
WL-21 P
2-Fluoro
biphenyl
77
97
89
84
83
86
83
72
89
82
89
81
90
63
56
56
75
77
83
91
84
80
53
70
65
63
64
82
85
86
81
94
91
81
87
91
87
85
78
86
72
69
84
94
2-Fluoro
phenol
79
89
92
82
82
81
81
70
79
77
83
67
74
52
46
44
71
73
66
71
69
69
41
57
53
52
56
65
65
65
70
78
77
75
70
76
72
79
66
79
61
65
70
86
d5-Nitro
benzene
61
72
77
72
80
73
68
64
73
77
79
67
61
49
36
44
68
34
73
54
63
60
42
58
46
51
45
56
60
70
61
70
72
73
80
69
73
77
75
69
63
64
71
85
d6-Phenol
72
84
80
76
79
79
76
68
78
75
78
63
72
53
46
45
67
73
65
68
70
71
43
56
52
52
51
65
65
66
69
72
78
73
73
76
76
74
70
77
65
62
84
64
o-Terphenyl
66
71
70
68
66
70
67
61
69
66
73
67
65
52
45
47
65
70
71
64
68
67
46
57
55
52
47
65
61
65
62
70
73
73
67
68
71
66
65
70
58
57
63
65
2,4,6-Tribromo
phenol
59
72
67
63
63
63
62
48
63
57
60
46
58
53
45
47
54
58
56
73
70
55
34
56
52
51
41
68
68
61
65
72
61
58
64
63
58
55
52
54
61
48
59
52
                                  125

-------
TABLE C-3. RESULTS OF MATRIX SPIKE/MATRIX SPIKE DUPLICATE ANALYSES FOR
SEMIVOLATILE ORGANICS ANALYSES ON WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS, OCTOBER 2000.
         WL-1 Bottom
         Parameter
         Acenaphthene
         1,4-Dichlorobenzene
         2,4-Dinitrotoluene
         Naphthalene
         N-Nitrosodi-n-Propylamine
         Pyrene
         1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
         4-Chloro-3-Methyl phenol
         2-Chlorophenol
         4-Nitrophenol
         Pentachlorophenol
         Phenol
         WI-10Top
         Parameter
         Acenaphthene
         1,4-Dichlorobenzene
         2,4-Dinitrotoluene
         Naphthalene
         N-Nitrosodi-n-Propylamine
         Pyrene
         1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
         4-Chloro-3-Methylphenol
         2-Chlorophenol
         4-Nitrophenol
         Pentachlorophenol
         Phenol
        WL-2P
        Parameter
        Phenol
        2-Chlorophenol
        1,4-Dichlorobenzene
        N-Nitrosodi-n-Propylamine
        1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
        Naphthalene
        4-Chloro-3-Methylphenol
        Acenaphthene
        4-Nitrophenol
        2,4-Dinitrotoluene
        Pentachlorophenol
        Pyrene
        WL-9P
        Parameter
        Phenol
        2-Chlorophenol
        1,4-Dichlorobenzene
        N-Nitrosodi-n-Propylamine
        1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
        Naphthalene
        4-Chloro-3-Methylphenol
        Acenaphthene
        4-Nitrophenol
        2,4-Dinitrotoluene
        Pentachlorophenol
        Pyrene
Sample Cone
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<1.70
<1.70
<0.33
Sample Cone
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<1.70
<1.70
<0.33
Sample Cone
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<1.70
<0.33
<1.70
<0.33
Sample Cone
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<0.33
<1.70
<0.33
<1.70
<0.33
Spike Quantity
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
Spike Quantity
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
Spike Quantity
6.67
6.67
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
6.67
3.33
6.67
3.33
6.67
3.33
Spike Quantity
6.67
6.67
3.33
3.33
3.33
3.33
6.67
3.33
6.67
3.33
6.67
3.33
Sample +Spike
3.07
2.87
2.97
3.01
3.55
3.28
2.82
3.22
3.09
2.37
2.71
3.20
Sample +Spike
2.97
2.80
2.96
2.90
3.18
3.14
2.76
3.01
2.91
2.62
2.78
2.92
Sample +Spike
6.51
6.11
2.80
2.72
2.86
2.96
5.90
2.86
3.99
2.84
5.38
2.33
Sample +Spike
5.91
5.49
2.45
2.64
2.59
2.84
5.79
2.79
3.80
2.64
4.47
2.24
Spike %Rec
92
86
89
90
107
98
85
97
93
71
81
96
Spike %Rec
89
84
89
87
95
94
83
90
87
79
83
88
Spike %Rec
98
92
84
82
86
89
88
86
60
85
81
70
Spike %Rec
89
82
74
79
78
85
87
84
57
79
67
67
Control Limits
47-112
43-122
52-128
55-129
48-120
42-129
57-116
61-125
51-126
34-128
20-143
58-126
Control Limits
47-112
43-122
52-128
55-129
48-120
42-129
57-116
61-125
51-126
34-128
20-143
58-126
Control Limits
58-126
51-126
43-122
48-120
57-116
55-129
61-125
47-112
34-128
52-128
20-143
42-129
Control Limits
58-126
51-126
43-122
48-120
57-116
55-129
61-125
47-112
34-128
52-128
20-143
42-129
                                                126

-------
Table C-4. Surrogate Standard Recoveries For PCB Analyses On White Lake Sediments,
                                   October 2000.
Sample
WL-1 Top
WL-1 Middle
WL-1 Bottom
WL-1 Top duplicate
WL-1 Middle duplicate
WL-1 Bottom duplicate
WL-2 Top
WL-2 Middle
WL-3 Top
WL-3 Middle
WL-3 Bottom
WL-4 Top
WL-4 Middle
WL-5 Top
WL-5 Middle
WL-5 Bottom
WL-6 Top
WL-6 Middle
WL-6 Bottom
WL-7 Top
WL-7 Middle
WL-7 Bottom
WL-8 Top
WL-8 Middle
WL-8 Bottom
WL-9 Top
WL-9 Middle
WL-9 Bottom
WL-10Top
WL-10 Middle
WL-10 Bottom
WL-21 Top
WL-21 Middle
WL-1P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-10P
WL-11P
WL-12P
WL-13P
WL-14P
WL-15P
WL-16P
WL-17P
WL-18P
WL-19P
WL-20P
WL-21 P
Tetrachloro-M-xylene
84
83
82
85
91
94
90
82
79
79
75
84
85
81
83
83
81
84
81
86
84
87
82
86
84
86
83
88
90
84
86
*
83
79
78
81
76
81
80
84
84
83
81
80
82
73
71
70
81
80
80
89
73
Decachlorobiphenyl
91
94
88
94
100
99
95
87
85
86
85
90
93
90
89
91
93
91
88
94
89
92
90
92
90
91
90
94
94
90
92
*
96
86
81
88
88
91
91
92
90
91
86
89
99
89
75
87
86
90
93
97
86
                 Surrogates not available due to dilution
                                        127

-------
Appendix D.  Results Of Metals Analyses For White Lake Sediments,
October 2000.
                              128

-------
TABLE D-l. RESULTS OF METALS ANALYSES IN WHITE LAKE SEDIMENT, OCTOBER 2000. (MG/KG DRY WT)
Sample
WL-1 Top
WL-1 Mid
WL-1 Bot.
WL-2 Top
WL-2 Bot
WL-3 Top
WL-3 Mid
WL-3 Bot
WL-4 Top
WL-4 Mid
WL-5 Top
WL-5 Mid
WL-5 Bot
WL-6 Top
WL-6 Mid
WL-6 Bot
WL-7 Top
WL-7 Mid
WL-7 Bot
WL-8 Top
WL-8 Mid
WL-8 Bot
WL-9 Top
WL-9 Mid
WL-9 Bot
WL-1 0 Top
WL-1 0 Mid
WL-10Bot
WL-21 Top
WL-2 1 Mid
Arsenic
9.1
6.1
6.6
9.0
7.5
7.9
6.2
5.7
9.0
1.8
8.9
6.3
6.1
6.7
12
12
8.2
6.5
5.5
7.7
7.7
7.3
9.6
7.5
7.0
6.5
5.8
6.5
9.5
7.8
Barium
130
130
160
160
150
120
110
130
130
18
140
130
150
180
88
110
130
110
110
140
120
1470
140
120
120
92
110
110
162
120
Cadmium
1.3
0.87
0.74
1.6
0.97
1.5
0.61
0.48
1.9
0.15
1.4
0.53
<0.1
1.3
0.26
0.19
1.6
0.65
0.35
1.4
0.42
0.49
1.5
0.6
0.51
1.1
0.47
0.36
1.2
0.78
Chromium
270
34
37
470
34
290
33
28
440
8.1
300
34
24
410
19
17
600
40
33
380
34
40
500
38
35
210
33
30
430
99
Copper
29
18
21
33
18
33
17
16
34
2.3
31
18
17
23
12
13
34
19
17
32
18
18
34
18
17
23
16
16
23
12
Mercury
0.42
<0.1
<0.1
0.42
0.14
0.39
0.16
<0.1
0.49
<0.1
0.52
0.10
<0.1
0.38
<0.1
<0.1
0.62
0.13
<0.1
0.58
<0.1
<0.1
0.63
0.12
<0.1
0.34
0.11
<0.1
0.51
0.11
Nickel)
23
16
18
18
12
24
14
13
27
U
24
15
12
27
13
14
28
16
15
26
15
16
26
16
14
18
14
14
28
19
Lead
140
15
9.8
190
24
190
28
8.2
180
2.1
110
16
5.9
340
13
7.7
180
22
7.9
180
9.6
8.9
120
18
8.0
97
18
6.9
290
170
Selenium
2.8
2.8
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.7
2.1
2.6
2.5
0.47
3.6
2.9
3.1
2.1
0.86
1.5
2.6
1.9
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
1.7
5.1
2.6
2.6
<0.1
2.0
2.7
1.5
1.8
Zinc
140
75
86
140
87
150
80
65
160
16
160
82
69
110
46
45
160
90
70
160
76
78
170
81
69
120
75
64
160
85
                                        129

-------
 TABLE D-l (CONTINUED). RESULTS OF METALS ANALYSES IN WHITE LAKE SEDIMENT, OCTOBER 2000. (MG/KG DRY WT)
Sample
WL-1 P
WL-2P
WL-3P
WL-4P
WL-5P
WL-6P
WL-7P
WL-8P
WL-9P
WL-1 OP
WL-11 P
WL-1 2 P
WL-1 3 P
WL-1 4 P
WL-1 5 P
WL-1 6 P
WL-1 7 P
WL-1 8 P
WL-1 9 P
WL-20 P
WL-21P
Arsenic
(mg/kg)
6.3
7.5
5.5
1.4
6.2
8.4
7.6
8.8
7.9
7.0
6.3
5.9
6.3
6.3
6.0
5.8
5.4
5.3
5.7
6.2
6.5
Barium
(mg/kg)
140
150
120
12
130
130
120
130
170
120
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Cadmium
(mg/kg)
0.85
0.85
0.73
<0.1
1.1
1.0
0.99
0.93
0.87
0.91
0.96
1.03
0.96
1.10
0.75
0.84
0.64
0.51
0.42
0.61
1.00
Chromium
(mg/kg)
270
300
190
18
400
360
390
380
420
270
310
510
250
480
250
190
50
29
39
28
450
Copper
(mg/kg)
30
34
29
2.2
31
28
37
27
34
31
32
30
32
31
28
27
30
32
31
28
31
Mercury
(mg/kg)
0.20
0.20
0.16
<0.1
0.27
0.25
0.29
0.25
0.30
0.34
0.32
0.28
0.27
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.24
Nickel
mg/kg)
17
18
16
1.6
19
18
25
20
23
19
18
17
17
17
17
18
19
20
21
19
18
Lead
(mg/kg)
70
76
54
8.3
89
73
86
75
74
75
78
70
67
72
71
75
34
22
26
21
65
Selenium
(mg/kg)
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
<0.1
2.9
3.0
3.6
3.7
3.0
<0.1
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Zinc
(mg/kg)
120
120
100
33
120
120
130
120
130
120
116
118
108
95
101
105
115
125
131
124
132
PONAR analyzed for target list metals. Barium and selenium not analyzed.
                                                  130

-------
TABLE D-2. RESULTS OF QUALITY CONTROL ANALYSES FOR METALS IN WHITE LAKE
                       SEDIMENT, OCTOBER 2000.
WL-1 Top
Analyte
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Zinc

Sample
Concentration
(mg/ml)
9.08
133
1.339
267
29.0
135
0.419
23.1
2.80
140

MSSpk
Added
(mg/ml)
798
319
319
319
319
319
0.813
319
798
319

MSDSpk
Added
(mg/ml)
768
307
307
307
307
307
0.844
307
768
307

MS Results
(mg/ml)
728.3
462.9
365.4
650.2
368.5
495.5
1.159
359.7
677.8
475.8

MSD Results
(mg/ml)
691.8
451.6
300.3
547.7
353.2
421.8
1.194
338.7
644.3
459.7

MS
%Rec
90
103
114
120
106
113
91
105
85
105

MSD
%Rec
89
104
97
91
106
93
92
103
84
104

RPD
1.1
0.97
16
27*
0
19
1.1
1.9
1.2
0.96

QC
RPD
20
20
20
20
20
20
23
20
20
20

QC
%REC
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
65-131
75-125
75-125
75-125
*No qualificarion of data is necessary
WL-7 Mid
Analyte
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Zinc
WL-5P
Analyte
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Zinc

Sample
Concentration
(mg/ml)
6.48
113
0.648
40.3
18.9
22.3
0.1338
15.5
1.91
89.8

Sample
Concentration
(mg/ml)
6.24
133.7
1.11
401.8
30.9
88.7
0.268
19.0
2.91
125

MSSpk
Added
(mg/ml)
522
209
209
209
209
209
0.667
209
522
209

MSSpk
Added
(mg/ml)
934
373
373
373
373
373
0.960
373
934
373

MSDSpk
Added
(mg/ml)
637
255
255
255
255
255
0.667
255
637
255

MSDSpk
Added
(mg/ml)
952
381
381
381
381
381
0.942
381
952
381

MS Results
(mg/ml)
431.1
303.8
186.9
218.4
219.1
206.5
0.8019
214.0
406.1
282.8

MS Results
(mg/ml)
863.8
526.9
380.0
769.9
419.6
465.8
1.28
400.0
796.4
523.1

MSD Results
(mg/ml)
523.0
351.6
238.5
270.7
270.7
260.4
0.7809
265.0
491.0
345.2

MSD Results
(mg/ml)
825.2
538.5
363.0
737.0
406.9
441.0
1.24
414.4
763.9
529.8

MS
%Rec
81
92
89
85
96
88
100
95
77
92

MS
%Rec
92
105
101
99
104
101
105
102
85
107

MSD
%Rec
81
94
93
90
99
93
97
98
77
100

MSD
%Rec
86
106
95
88
99
93
103
104
80
106

RPD
0
2.2
4.4
5.7
3.1
5.5
3.0
3.1
0
8.3

RPD
6.7
0.95
6.1
12
4.9
8.2
1.9
1.9
6.1
0.94

QC
RPD
20
20
20
20
20
20
23
20
20
20

QC
RPD
20
20
20
20
20
20
23
20
20
20

QC
%REC
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
65-131
75-125
75-125
75-125

QC
%REC
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
75-125
65-131
75-125
75-125
75-125
                                131

-------
TABLE D-3. RESULTS OF STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL ANALYSES FOR METALS
(RESULTS IN MG/KG EXCEPT WHERE NOTED).

          Sample ID  As   Hg  Cd   Cr   Cu  Pb   Ni   Zn
            ERA-1    190  1.8  120  180  90  72   71   200
           % RSD   95% 90% 86% 95%  82% 80% 89%  89%
            ERA-2    160  1.8  110  150  76  58   60   170
           % RSD   80% 90% 79% 79%  69% 64% 75%  76%
            ERA-3    200  1.6  120  180  89  72   70   200
           %RSD  100% 80% 86% 95%  81% 80% 88%  89%
                              132

-------
Appendix E. Summary Of Chemical Measurements For The Toxicity
      Test With Sediments From White Lake, October 2000.
                            133

-------
TABLE E-l. SUMMARY OF INITIAL AND FINAL CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS FOR
            HYALELLAAZTECA IN WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS

Sample
WL-1
WL-2
WL-3
WL-4
WL-5
WL-6
WL-7
WL-8
WL-9
Parameter
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH^)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
Day
0
8.06
550
160
160
0.3
8.06
560
180
150
0.6
8.05
510
160
140
0.8
8.11
570
170
140
0.4
8.04
610
160
140
0.3
8.08
660
160
140
0.3
8.10
660
160
150
0.6
8.10
660
170
140
0.2
8.13
660
150
140
1.3
10
8.13
530
160
130
<0.1
8.46
488
160
120
<0.1
8.68
499
140
120
<0.1
8.45
494
170
120
<0.1
8.40
520
160
120
<0.1
8.21
514
150
120
<0.1
8.36
530
170
130
<0.1
8.55
510
150
120
<0.1
8.85
530
170
130
<0.1
Difference
(%)
1
4
0
19
#VALUE!
5
13
11
20
#VALUE!
8
2
13
14
#VALUE!
4
13
0
14
29900
4
15
0
14
39900
2
22
6
14
#VALUE!
3
20
6
13
#VALUE!
6
23
12
7
#VALUE!
9
20
13
7
#VALUE!
                             134

-------
Table E-l (continued). Summary of Initial and Final Chemical Measurements for
                  Hyalella azteca in White Lake Sediments

Sample
WL-10
WL-11
WL-12
WL-13
WL-14
WL-15
WL-16
WL-17
WL-18
Parameter
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
Day
650
8.02
660
170
140
0.6
8.06
650
160
140
0.3
8.11
650
180
150
0.4
8.11
650
160
140
0.3
8.09
610
160
150
0.2
7.98
480
160
140
1.9
7.97
480
190
140
3.0
7.97
540
180
150
4.5
8.00
430
160
130
2.1
170
10
8.27
499
160
130
0.1
7.97
477
160
120
0.2
8.27
520
160
130
<0.1
8.96
520
150
130
<0.1
8.64
520
160
140
<0.1
8.87
560
210
160
0.2
8.05
520
160
130
<0.1
8.27
525
180
130
0.1
8.66
540
190
140
0.1
Difference
(%)
3
24
6
7
77
1
27
0
14
47
2
20
11
13
#VALUE!
10
20
6
7
#VALUE!
7
99
0
7
#VALUE!
11
17
31
14
89
1
8
16
7
176
4
3
0
13
97
8
26
19
8
93
                                   135

-------
Table E-l (continued). Summary of Initial and Final Chemical Measurements for
                  Hyalella azteca in White Lake Sediments

Sample
WL-19
WL-20
WL-21
Parameter
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
Day
0
8.05
420
160
130
1.6
7.98
480
170
150
2.3
8.10
490
160
140
0.6
140
10
9.16
530
190
140
<0.1
8.97
552
170
140
<0.1
8.50
541
180
130
0.15
Difference
(%)
14
26
19
8
#VALUE!
12
15
0
7
#VALUE!
5
10
13
7
75
                                   136

-------
Table E-2. Summary Of Daily Temperature And Dissolved Oxygen Measurements For Hyallela azteca In The Solid Phase Toxicity Tests For
                                                   White Lake Sediments
Sample:
WL-1



Day
0
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
99.80
1
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
86.30
2
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
73.50
3
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
79.40
4
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
64.10
5
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
72.40
6
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
69.30
7
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
62.40
8
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
61.20
9
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
65.30
10
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
43.50
Sample:
WL-2



Day
0
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
99.70
1
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
88.60
2
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
72.50
3
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
76.90
4
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
66.10
5
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
75.70
6
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
62.70
7
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
63.10
8
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
53.40
9
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
65.50
10
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
47.40
Sample:
WL-3



Day
0
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
96.70
1
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
85.70
2
Temp
C
111
DO
%
77.00
3
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
76.70
4
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
60.80
5
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
68.80
6
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
51.30
7
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
64.50
8
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
50.10
9
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
59.20
10
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
47.50
Sample:
WL-4



Day
0
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
99.30
1
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
83.90
2
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
71.80
3
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
71.30
4
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
63.00
5
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
70.40
6
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
56.50
7
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
68.50
8
Temp
C
111
DO
%
46.60
9
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
48.10
10
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
45.50
Sample:
WL-5



Day
0
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
96.20
1
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
85.00
2
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
61.30
3
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
74.40
4
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
62.10
5
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
71.60
6
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
64.30
7
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
59.90
8
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
55.60
9
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
64.00
10
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
51.60
                                                              137

-------
Table E-2 (Cont). Summary of Daily Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Measurements for Hyallela azteca in the Solid Phase Toxicity Tests for
                                                     White Lake Sediments
Sample:
WL-6



Day
0
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
98.50
1
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
90.30
2
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
79.50
3
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
80.40
4
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
62.50
5
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
71.70
6
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
76.10
7
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
70.30
8
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
59.60
9
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
63.50
10
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
44.20
Sample:
WL-7



Day
0
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
82.60
1
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
76.60
2
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
67.80
3
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
70.80
4
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
62.90
5
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
72.30
6
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
61.70
7
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
63.30
8
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
52.50
9
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
60.90
10
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
48.30
Sample:
WL-8



Day
0
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
93.00
1
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
84.70
2
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
75.90
3
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
76.60
4
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
76.20
5
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
77.20
6
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
64.60
7
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
69.40
8
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
57.30
9
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
61.00
10
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
53.90
Sample:
WL-9



Day
0
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
93.70
1
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
88.10
2
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
80.30
3
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
77.50
4
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
66.60
5
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
73.30
6
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
57.90
7
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
63.50
8
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
59.60
9
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
65.80
10
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
53.20
Sample:
WL-10



Day
0
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
94.20
1
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
87.90
2
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
75.80
3
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
79.60
4
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
70.20
5
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
76.20
6
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
51.80
7
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
74.70
8
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
60.10
9
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
67.50
10
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
54.20
                                                                138

-------
Table E-2 (Cont). Summary of Daily Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Measurements for Hyallela azteca in the Solid Phase Toxicity Tests
                                                  for White Lake Sediments
Sample:
WL-11



Day
0
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
98.40
1
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
85.50
2
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
56.90
3
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
76.20
4
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
69.30
5
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
80.00
6
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
82.30
7
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
69.70
8
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
66.40
9
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
80.10
10
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
49.70
Sample:
WL-12



Day
0
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
96.90
1
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
85.60
2
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
62.00
3
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
77.10
4
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
65.70
5
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
79.40
6
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
84.90
7
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
70.60
8
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
81.50
9
Temp
C
111
DO
%
62.50
10
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
58.10
Sample:
WL-13



Day
0
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
95.70
1
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
92.30
2
Temp
C
23.2
DO
%
70.40
3
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
85.40
4
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
74.60
5
Temp
C
23.2
DO
%
84.40
6
Temp
C
23.0
DO
%
83.50
7
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
83.10
8
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
73.60
9
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
72.70
10
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
61.80
Sample:
WL-14



Day
0
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
98.30
1
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
81.70
2
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
74.50
3
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
74.40
4
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
65.50
5
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
70.50
6
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
59.60
7
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
59.90
8
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
63.80
9
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
61.40
10
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
52.80
Sample:
WL-15



Day
0
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
91.20
1
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
86.30
2
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
75.80
3
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
75.90
4
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
69.40
5
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
75.00
6
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
58.90
7
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
69.00
8
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
63.60
9
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
70.60
10
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
49.70
                                                               139

-------
Table E-2 (Cont). Summary of Daily Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Measurements for Hyallela azteca in the Solid Phase Toxicity Tests
                                                  for White Lake Sediments
Sample:
WL-16



Day
0
Temp
C
20.8
DO
%
86.10
1
Temp
C
20.8
DO
%
79.00
2
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
66.30
3
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
72.60
4
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
68.10
5
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
76.00
6
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
86.00
7
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
78.30
8
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
79.70
9
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
65.30
10
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
61.70
Sample:
WL-17



Day
0
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
84.70
1
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
78.20
2
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
62.80
3
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
72.60
4
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
72.70
5
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
80.00
6
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
73.90
7
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
83.40
8
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
68.90
9
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
78.10
10
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
62.90
Sample:
WL-18



Day
0
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
88.30
1
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
77.10
2
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
70.70
3
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
68.50
4
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
62.80
5
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
73.00
6
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
65.40
7
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
71.40
8
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
69.00
9
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
65.50
10
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
52.00
Sample:
WL-19



Day
0
Temp
C
20.9
DO
%
96.60
1
Temp
C
20.8
DO
%
84.70
2
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
64.10
3
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
74.00
4
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
72.00
5
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
76.10
6
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
82.20
7
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
78.40
8
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
68.60
9
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
77.50
10
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
61.90
Sample:
WL-20



Day
0
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
89.00
1
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
83.70
2
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
70.20
3
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
70.70
4
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
59.40
5
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
72.30
6
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
68.90
7
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
60.20
8
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
57.90
9
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
60.90
10
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
47.50
                                                               140

-------
Table E-2 (Cont). Summary of Daily Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen Measurements for Hyallela azteca in the Solid Phase Toxicity Tests
                                                  for White Lake Sediments
Sample:
WL-21



Day
0
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
93.50
1
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
84.30
2
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
65.50
3
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
74.10
4
Temp
C
23.2
DO
%
70.90
5
Temp
C
23.1
DO
%
83.10
6
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
88.90
7
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
74.40
8
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
78.10
9
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
79.60
10
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
63.80
                                                               141

-------
TABLE E-3. SUMMARY OF INITIAL AND FINAL CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS FOR
          CHIRONOMUS TENTANS IN WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS

Sam pie
W L-1
W L-2
W L-3
W L-4
W L-5
W L-6
W L-7
W L-8
W L-9
Param eter
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
A m m onia (m g/l N H 3)
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (m g/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
A m m onia (m g/l N H 3)
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
A m m onia (m g/l N H 3)
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (m g/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
A m m onia (m g/l N H 3)
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
A m m onia (m g/l N H 3)
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (m g/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
A m m onia (m g/l N H 3)
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
A m m onia (m g/l N H 3)
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (m g/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3.N)
pH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Ha rd ness (mg/ICaCO3)
A m m onia (m g/l N H 3)
Day
0
8.05
530
150
150
0.3
7.90
477
150
140
0.6
8.05
519
150
1 40
0.6
7.98
509
150
150
1 .2
8.05
477
150
140
0.2
7.95
514
1 40
150
0.3
8.01
474
140
150
0.3
7.98
517
1 40
150
0.1
8.01
489
150
150
0.7
10
8.07
482
170
130
0.2
8.30
562
180
130
<0.1
8.50
562
180
130
<0.1
8.03
583
170
130
0.4
8.06
530
170
130
0.2
8.03
530
170
130
0.2
8.05
583
170
130
0.2
8.1 8
530
180
1 30
<0.1
8.39
583
180
130
<0.1
Difference
(%)
0
9
1 3
13
50
5
18
20
7
#VALUE!
6
8
20
7
#VALU E!
1
15
13
13
63
6484
64
1 3
100
1 5
1
3
21
13
40
0
23
21
1 3
43
3
3
29
20
#VALUE!
5
19
20
1 3
#VALU E!
                            142

-------
 TABLE E-3 (CONTINUED). SUMMARY OF INITIAL AND FINAL CHEMICAL
MEASUREMENTS FOR CHIRONOMUS TENTANS IN WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS

Sample
WL-10
WL-11
WL-12
WL-13
WL-14
WL-15
WL-16
WL-17
WL-18
Parameter
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
Day
8
8.06
483
140
150
0.5
7.92
490
150
150
0.3
8.00
525
150
150
<0.1
8.06
522
150
140
0.3
8.10
525
150
140
0.2
7.94
525
140
150
1.7
7.88
530
160
140
2.5
7.81
519
170
150
4.7
8.11
512
160
140
2.3
10
8.02
552
180
130
0.3
7.86
530
180
120
0.3
8.15
594
180
130
<0.1
8.46
583
180
130
<0.1
8.04
595
180
130
<0.1
8.14
585
180
140
0.1
8.10
569
180
120
<0.1
8.03
563
190
130
<0.1
8.12
563
180
130
<0.1
Difference
(%)
0
14
29
13
34
1
8
20
20
17
2
13
20
13
#VALUE!
5
12
20
7
#VALUE!
1
98
20
7
#VALUE!
3
11
29
7
92
3
7
13
14
221
3
8
12
13
#VALUE!
0
10
13
7
#VALUE!
                           143

-------
 TABLE E-3 (CONTINUED). SUMMARY OF INITIAL AND FINAL CHEMICAL
MEASUREMENTS FOR CHIRONOMUS TENTANS IN WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS

Sample
WL-19
WL-20
WL-21
Parameter
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
PH
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
Alkalinity (mg/l CaCO3)
Hardness (mg/l CaCO3)
Ammonia (mg/l NH3)
Day
0
8.02
532
160
150
1.7
7.98
505
170
140
2.6
8.12
546
160
170
0.6
10
8.63
597
180
130
<0.1
8.26
528
180
130
0.1
7.97
630
180
140
0.3
Difference
(%)
8
12
13
13
#VALUE!
4
5
6
7
96
2
15
13
18
55
                          144

-------
TABLE E-4. SUMMARY OF DAILY TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS FOR CHIRONOMUS TENTANS IN THE
                         SOLID PHASE TOXICITY TESTS FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
Sample:
WL-1



Day
0
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
91.90
1
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
82.20
2
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
42.70
3
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
62.10
4
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
52.70
5
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
59.30
6
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
49.10
7
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
62.60
8
Temp
C
19.2
DO
%
55.20
9
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
50.90
10
Temp
C
23.4
DO
%
31.70
Sample:
WL-2



Day
0
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
90.90
1
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
86.80
2
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
60.90
3
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
89.30
4
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
60.50
5
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
61.70
6
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
51.30
7
Temp
C
23.4
DO
%
63.50
8
Temp
C
18.8
DO
%
65.20
9
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
57.40
10
Temp
C
23.1
DO
%
37.10
Sample:
WL-3



Day
0
Temp
C
23.3
DO
%
88.90
1
Temp
C
23.0
DO
%
84.40
2
Temp
C
23.2
DO
%
65.40
3
Temp
C
23.0
DO
%
82.20
4
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
63.40
5
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
73.90
6
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
40.70
7
Temp
C
23.6
DO
%
61.20
8
Temp
C
19.3
DO
%
51.60
9
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
43.60
10
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
41.80
Sample:
WL-4



Day
0
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
81.40
1
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
75.10
2
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
44.40
3
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
59.30
4
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
41.80
5
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
47.70
6
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
41.20
7
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
58.20
8
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
40.20
9
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
63.50
10
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
54.40
Sample:
WL5



Day
0
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
83.70
1
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
73.70
2
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
43.60
3
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
59.80
4
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
41.30
5
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
47.70
6
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
41.10
7
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
59.90
8
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
44.80
9
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
52.00
10
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
41.90
                                              145

-------
TABLE E-4. (CONT). SUMMARY OF DAILY TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS FOR CHIRONOMUS TENTANS
                      IN THE SOLID PHASE TOXICITY TESTS FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
Sample:
WI^6



Day
0
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
73.70
1
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
59.60
2
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
53.00
3
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
55.30
4
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
41.00
5
Temp
C
23.0
DO
%
60.00
6
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
44.90
7
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
40.30
8
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
40.20
9
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
47.10
10
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
47.80
Sample:
WI^7



Day
0
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
79.50
1
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
80.10
2
Temp
C
22 3
DO
%
62.00
3
Temp
C
22 2
DO
%
77.90
4
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
58.60
5
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
58.60
6
Temp
C
22 4
DO
%
40.00
7
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
57.10
8
Temp
C
19.3
DO
%
47.20
9
Temp
C
22 1
DO
%
40.10
10
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
39.70
Sample:
WI^8



Day
0
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
75.80
1
Temp
C
22.5
DO
%
71.60
2
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
48.80
3
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
70.20
4
Temp
C
22.3
DO
%
40.00
5
Temp
C
22.4
DO
%
43.10
6
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
52.90
7
Temp
C
22.8
DO
%
48.60
8
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
44.20
9
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
61.20
10
Temp
C
23.1
DO
%
40.80
Sample:
WI^9




Sample:
WL-10




0
Temp
C
22.8


0
Temp
C
22.0


DO
%
84.70



DO
%
80.00

1
Temp
C
22.8


1
Temp
C
22.1


DO
%
80.00



DO
%
71.80

2
Temp
C
22.9


2
Temp
C
22.6


DO
%
59.50



DO
%
53.60

3
Temp
C
22.8


3
Temp
C
22.4


DO
%
74.30



DO
%
63.10

4
Temp
C
22.6


4
Temp
C
22.4


DO
%
44.50



DO
%
44.30
Da
5
Temp
C
22.8

Da
5
Temp
C
22.3
y

DO
%
53.10

y

DO
%
43.50

6
Temp
C
22.6


6
Temp
C
22.5


DO
%
50.70



DO
%
52.20

7
Temp
C
23.0


7
Temp
C
22.7


DO
%
61.60



DO
%
44.80

8
Temp
C
22 2


8
Temp
C
22.3


DO
%
40.20



DO
%
39.60

9
Temp
C
22.2


9
Temp
C
22.3


DO
%
52.10



DO
%
43.70

1C
Temp
C
23.2


1C
Temp
C
22.8


DO
%
51.00



DO
%
41.40
                                               146

-------
TABLE E-4. (CONT). SUMMARY OF DAILY TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS FOR CHIRONOMUS TENTANS
                      IN THE SOLID PHASE TOXICITY TESTS FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
Sample:
WL-11



Day
0
Temp
C
22.0
DO
mg/1
81.40
1
Temp
C
22.2
DO
mg/1
77.20
2
Temp
C
22.0
DO
mg/1
57.80
3
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
68.20
4
Temp
C
22.4
DO
mg/1
49.00
5
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
42.40
6
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
59.10
7
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
53.10
8
Temp
C
22.1
DO
mg/1
51.50
9
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
65.70
10
Temp
C
23.1
DO
mg/1
50.10
Sample:
WL-12



Day
0
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
86.90
1
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
84.40
2
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
60.20
3
Temp
C
22.9
DO
mg/1
62.80
4
Temp
C
22.5
DO
mg/1
53.90
5
Temp
C
23.0
DO
mg/1
60.60
6
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
70.10
7
Temp
C
23.1
DO
mg/1
55.90
8
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
43.50
9
Temp
C
21.9
DO
mg/1
59.80
10
Temp
C
23.4
DO
mg/1
40.50
Sample:
WL-13



Day
0
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
85.10
1
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
75.10
2
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
56.10
3
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
49.60
4
Temp
C
22.5
DO
mg/1
53.10
5
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
58.70
6
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
55.80
7
Temp
C
22.9
DO
mg/1
61.40
8
Temp
C
22.1
DO
mg/1
53.80
9
Temp
C
22.0
DO
mg/1
60.00
10
Temp
C
23.3
DO
mg/1
48.00
Sample:
WL-14



Day
0
Temp
C
22.2
DO
mg/1
78.80
1
Temp
C
22.4
DO
mg/1
76.40
2
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
55.00
3
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
60.00
4
Temp
C
22.5
DO
mg/1
43.70
5
Temp
C
22.5
DO
mg/1
44.60
6
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
47.90
7
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
40.80
8
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
49.70
9
Temp
C
22.4
DO
mg/1
62.50
10
Temp
C
23.0
DO
mg/1
41.30
Sample:
WL-15



Day
0
Temp
C
22.4
DO
mg/1
81.60
1
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
72.90
2
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
56.00
3
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
64.40
4
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
47.90
5
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
51.30
6
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
44.10
7
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
41.50
8
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
46.60
9
Temp
C
21.5
DO
mg/1
49.90
10
Temp
C
23.2
DO
mg/1
41.80
                                               147

-------
TABLE E-4. (CONT). SUMMARY OF DAILY TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS FOR CHIRONOMUS TENTANS
                      IN THE SOLID PHASE TOXICITY TESTS FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
Sample :
WL-16



Day
0
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
89.40
1
Temp
C
22.5
DO
mg/1
77.10
2
Temp
C
22.9
DO
mg/1
59.50
3
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
72.70
4
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
56.50
5
Temp
C
23.0
DO
mg/1
53.90
6
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
42.40
7
Temp
C
22.9
DO
mg/1
57.40
8
Temp
C
22 3
DO
mg/1
43.90
9
Temp
C
22.0
DO
mg/1
51.70
10
Temp
C
23.3
DO
mg/1
41.10
Sample:
WL-17



Day
0
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
72.70
1
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
68.80
2
Temp
C
22 5
DO
mg/1
46.30
3
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
59.80
4
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
40.90
5
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
51.30
6
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
47.70
7
Temp
C
22.6
DO
mg/1
51.70
8
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
38.70
9
Temp
C
21.9
DO
mg/1
55.80
10
Temp
C
23.1
DO
mg/1
39.80
Sample:
WL-18



Day
0
Temp
C
22.2
DO
mg/1
86.00
1
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
75.50
2
Temp
C
22 3
DO
mg/1
53.90
3
Temp
C
22.3
DO
mg/1
57.50
4
Temp
C
22 3
DO
mg/1
44.40
5
Temp
C
22.7
DO
mg/1
59.70
6
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
56.50
7
Temp
C
22.8
DO
mg/1
55.60
8
Temp
C
22.4
DO
mg/1
46.20
9
Temp
C
22 2
DO
mg/1
51.30
10
Temp
C
23.2
DO
mg/1
39.20
Sample:
WL-19




Sample :
WL-20




0
Temp
C
22.2


0
Temp
C
21.8


DO
mg/1
83.30



DO
mg/1
84.80

1
Temp
C
22.5


1
Temp
C
22.4


DO
mg/1
76.50



DO
mg/1
79.10

2
Temp
C
22 5


2
Temp
C
22.4


DO
mg/1
56.10



DO
mg/1
66.50

3
Temp
C
22.6


3
Temp
C
22.4


DO
mg/1
61.40



DO
mg/1
78.80

4
Temp
C
22 5


4
Temp
C
22.3


DO
mg/1
46.50



DO
mg/1
51.20
Da
5
Temp
C
22.6

Da
5
Temp
C
22.7
y

DO
mg/1
57.10

y

DO
mg/1
55.70

6
Temp
C
22 4


6
Temp
C
22.5


DO
mg/1
43.00



DO
mg/1
42.90

7
Temp
C
22.6


7
Temp
C
22.4


DO
mg/1
42.30



DO
mg/1
51.50

8
Temp
C
21.9


8
Temp
C
21.5


DO
mg/1
38.10



DO
mg/1
50.30

9
Temp
C
21.9


9
Temp
C
21.5


DO
mg/1
51.50



DO
mg/1
53.50

1C
Temp
C
22.7


1C
Temp
C
22.3


DO
mg/1
43.70



DO
mg/1
47.90
                                               148

-------
TABLE E-4. (CONT). SUMMARY OF DAILY TEMPERATURE AND DISSOLVED OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS FOR CHIRONOMUS TENTANS
                      IN THE SOLID PHASE TOXICITY TESTS FOR WHITE LAKE SEDIMENTS.
Sample:
WL-21



Day
0
Temp
C
22.0
DO
%
87.90
1
Temp
C
22.1
DO
%
81.80
2
Temp
C
22 2
DO
%
63.20
3
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
72.80
4
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
56.20
5
Temp
C
22.6
DO
%
59.00
6
Temp
C
22 3
DO
%
52.40
7
Temp
C
22.2
DO
%
71.30
8
Temp
C
19.1
DO
%
52.10
9
Temp
C
22.9
DO
%
59.80
10
Temp
C
22.7
DO
%
42.10
                                               149

-------
Appendix F.   Summary Of Benthic  Macroinvertebrate Results For White
Lake, October 2000
                                  150

-------
TABLE F-l. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE RESULTS FOR WHITE LAKE, OCTOBER 2000


Amphipoda
Gammarus
Hyallela
sopoda
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Amnicola
Physa
Valvata tricar inata
Viviparous
Bivalvia
Dreissena polymorpha
Pisidium
Sphaerium
Annelida
Tubificidae
Aulodrilus limnobius
Aulodrilus pigueti
llyodrilus templetoni
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
Limnodrilus claparianus
Quistrodrillus
Immature w/ hair
Immature w/o hair
Naididae
Haemonais waldvogeli
Hirundinea - Glossiphoniidae
Helobdella
Nematoda
Tricladida
Planaridae
Diptera
Chaoboridae
Chaoborus punctipennis
Ceratapogonidae
Chironomidae
flb/abesmyia
Chironomus
C/inotanypus
Coe/otanypus
Cryptochironomus
Dicrotendipes
Heteroirissocladius
Paraphaenocladius
Paratendipes
Phaenopsectra
Polypedilum
Procladius
Pseudochironomus
Tanypus
Ephemeroptera
Caenis
Ephemera
Hexagenia
Isonychia
Tricoptera
Polycentroapodidae
Pseudostenophy/ax
Megaloptera
Safe
Odonata - Zygoptera
WL
1a

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
129
0


0
0
129
301
0
0
904
2325

0

0
818

0


1206
0
129
0
43.1
0
0
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
1b

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
43.1
388
0
0
560
2627

0

0
517

0


1722
0
0
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
1C

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

0
43.1
0


0
0
86.1
517
0
0
646
2885

0

0
172

0


947
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
2,1

0
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

0
172
0


43.1
0
172
86.1
0
0
861
1421

0

0
43.1

0


2971
0
0
0
646
0
0
0
215
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
2b

43.1
43.1
0


0
0
0
0

0
86.1
0


0
0
258
258
0
0
1550
1981

0

0
0

0


2799
0
129
0
474
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
2c

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

0
43.1
0


0
0
0
301
0
0
646
3617

0

0
0

0


1722
0
258
0
818
0
0
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
3a

0
0
0


172
0
0
0

0
86.1
0


86.1
43.1
215
646
0
0
172
1593

0

0
0

0


1679
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
3b

43.1
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

43.1
129
0


0
0
0
431
0
0
172
1120

0

0
43.1

0


1421
0
0
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
3c

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
172
0


86.1
86.1
0
603
0
0
43.1
1852

0

0
0

0


1593
0
0
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
4,1

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

258
129
0


43.1
172
43.1
258
0
0
172
560

0

0
0

0


775
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
86.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
4b

43.1
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

86.1
129
0


86.1
215
431
904
258
0
1033
1292

43.1

0
0

0


1249
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
4c

86.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

43.1
86.1
0


129
43.1
43.1
215
172
0
646
388

0

0
0

0


258
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
5a

0
0
0


172
0
0
0

86.1
43.1
0


43.1
0
86.1
990
0
0
1550
6760

0

0
990

0


517
0
86.1
0
215
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
172
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
5b

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
43.1
0


129
0
43.1
646
0
0
603
4521

0

0
689

0


431
0
172
0
431
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
5c

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
43.1
0


43.1
0
43.1
947
0
0
1335
6803

0

0
258

0


388
0
129
0
344
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
6,1

43.1
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

0
0
0


129
0
0
603
0
0
689
2282

0

0
732

0


904
0
215
0
1722
0
0
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
6b

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

0
43.1
0


388
172
474
1120
0
0
2239
2454

0

0
646

0


1335
0
388
0
732
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
86.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
6c

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

0
0
0


172
0
0
646
0
0
1335
3100

0

0
560

43.1


990
0
86.1
0
1852
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
7a

43.1
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

258
43.1
0


129
86.1
86.1
517
0
0
0
258

0

0
0

0


560
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
7b

43.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


129
0
0
344
0
0
0
1679

0

0
0

0


258
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
7c

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

172
43.1
0


172
0
0
603
0
0
86.1
1765

0

0
0

0


172
0
0
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
8,1

0
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

0
0
0


129
0
0
388
0
0
947
2153

0

0
1550

0


258
0
129
0
215
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
8b

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


86.1
43.1
0
301
0
0
1120
5641

0

0
1292

0


258
43.1
86.1
0
129
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
258
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
8c

0
0
0


258
0
0
0

0
172
0


43.1
0
86.1
301
0
0
904
3445

0

0
689

0


86.1
0
0
0
301
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
                                 151

-------
TABLE F-l (CONTINUED). BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE RESULTS FOR WHITE LAKE,
                            OCTOBER 2000


Amphipoda
Gammarus
Hyallela
Isopoda
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Amnico/a
Physa
Va/vata tricarinata
Viviparous
Bivalvia
Dre/ssena polymorpha
Pisidium
Sphaerium
Annelida
Tubificidae
Aulodrilus limnobius
Aulodrilus pigueti
llyodrilus temp/etoni
Limnodri/us hoffmeisteri
Limnodri/us c/aparianus
Quistrodrillus
Immature w/ hair
Immature w/o hair
Naididae
Haemonais waldvogeli
Hirundinea - Glossiphoniidae
Helobdella
Nematoda
Tricladida
Planaridae
Diptera
Chaoboridae
Chaoborus punctipennis
Ceratapogonidae
Chiron omidae
Ablabesmyia
Chironomus
Clinotanypus
Coe/otanypus
Cryptochironomus
Dicrotendipes
Heterotrissoc/adius
Paraphaenoc/adius
Paratendipes
Phaenopsectra
Polypedilum
Procladius
Pseudochironomus
Tanypus
Ephemeroptera
Caenis
Ephemera
Hexagenia
Isonychia
Tricoptera
Polycentroapodidae
Pseudostenophylax
Megaloptera
S/a//s
Odonata - Zygoptera
WL
9a

43.1
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

43.1
86.1
0


215
0
43.1
560
172
0
990
2756

0

0
1938

0


129
0
0
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
86.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
9b

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

215
215
0


86.1
0
43.1
129
0
0
301
1033

0

0
3186

0


301
0
0
0
258
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
215
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
9c

43.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


86.1
0
86.1
215
129
0
2110
1292

0

0
6287

0


43.1
0
0
0
344
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
129
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
43.1

0
0
WL
10,1

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

86.1
0
0


0
86.1
172
775
0
0
344
1033

0

0
172

0


990
0
0
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
10b

86.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
129
0


0
0
258
603
86.1
0
861
2110

0

0
0

0


1335
0
0
0
258
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
10c

0
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

43.1
129
0


0
86.1
215
474
344
0
388
2067

43.1

0
344

0


904
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
11a

43.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
43.1
344
603
0
172
1593
6545

0

0
1120

0


560
0
215
0
861
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
11b

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


129
43.1
172
560
0
43.1
1033
6890

0

0
1507

0


388
0
388
0
818
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
11c

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

0
0
0


86.1
0
560
1033
0
0
3100
9516

43.1

0
1206

0


301
0
301
0
1033
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
12a

0
0
0


129
43.1
0
0

0
0
0


43.1
0
86.1
129
0
0
603
1636

0

0
9387

0


129
0
43.1
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
215
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
12b

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
301
689

0

0
5641

0


172
0
0
0
344
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
12c

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

129
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
1033
1938

0

0
8311

0


86.1
43.1
86.1
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
129
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
13a

43.1
0
0


129
0
0
0

0
0
0


86.1
0
0
301
0
0
1981
2325

0

0
215

0


129
0
43.1
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
215
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
13b

43.1
0
0


129
0
0
0

86.1
0
0


43.1
0
0
301
0
0
1636
2110

0

0
431

0


344
0
43.1
0
258
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
86.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
13c

43.1
0
0


129
0
0
0

0
0
0


86.1
0
0
603
0
0
1895
1895

0

0
1077

0


129
0
129
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
14a

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
43.1
0
0
732
1722

0

0
8784

0


0
0
0
0
215
0
0
86.1
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
215
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
14b

172
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

172
0
0


0
0
43.1
258
0
0
775
4435

0

0
3660

0


0
43.1
129
0
215
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
86.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
14c

0
0
43.1


43.1
0
0
0

43.1
0
0


0
0
0
258
0
0
517
2153

0

0
4650

43.1


0
0
86.1
0
388
0
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
172
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
15a

0
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

43.1
0
0


86.1
0
43.1
990
0
0
215
1292

0

0
172

0


0
86.1
172
0
258
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
301
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
15b

0
0
0


258
0
0
0

86.1
0
0


86.1
43.1
0
603
0
0
1163
2282

0

0
1421

0


0
0
43.1
0
0
0
43.1
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
15c

43.1
0
0


172
0
0
0

43.1
0
0


129
0
0
861
0
0
603
1981

0

0
258

0


0
43.1
129
0
818
0
86.1
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
172
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
16,1

43.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

258
0
0


0
0
43.1
172
0
0
2067
1033

0

0
0

0


0
43.1
86.1
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

43.1
0
16b

43.1
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

474
0
0


0
0
0
258
0
0
560
3660

0

0
0

86.1


0
0
172
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
129
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
16c

0
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
86.1
0
0
43.1
1981

0

0
43.1

0


0
0
0
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
                                152

-------
TABLE F-l (CONTINUED). BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE RESULTS FOR WHITE LAKE,
                            OCTOBER 2000


Amphipoda
Gammarus
Hyallela
Isopoda
Mollusca
Gastropoda
Amnicola
Physa
Valvata tricarinata
Viviparous
Bivalvia
Dreissena polymorpha
Pisidium
Sphaerium
Annelida
Tubificidae
Aulodrilus limnobius
Aulodrilus pigueti
llyodrilus templetoni
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
Limnodrilus claparianus
Quistrodrillus
Immature w/ hair
Immature w/o hair
Naididae
Haemonais waldvogeli
Hirundinea - Glossiphoniidae
Helobdella
Nematoda
Tricladida
Planaridae
Diptera
Chaoboridae
Chaoborus punctipennis
Ceratapogonidae
Chironomidae
Ablabesmyia
Chironomus
Clinotanypus
Coelotanypus
Cryptochironomus
Dicrotendipes
He tero trissocladius
Paraphaenocladius
Paratendipes
Phaenopsectra
Polypedilum
Procladius
Pseudochironomus
Tanypus
Ephemeroptera
Caenis
Ephemera
Hexagenia
Isonychia
Tricoptera
Polycentroapodidae
Pseudostenophylax
Megaloptera
Stalls
Odonata - Zygoptera
WL
17a

86.1
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

43.1
43.1
0


0
0
0
258
0
0
732
4177

0

0
0

0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
215
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
17b

43.1
0
0


43.1
86.1
0
0

172
86.1
0


0
129
0
43.1
0
0
388
1852

0

0
0

0


0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
86.1

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
17c

43.1
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
172
0
388
0
129
6115
86.1

0

0
0

0


0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
215
0
0
0
0
0
0
86.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
18a

43.1
0
0


43.1
0
0
43.1

172
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
344
1852

0

0
0

0


0
0
301
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
18b

43.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
215
1077

0

0
43.1

0


0
43.1
43.1
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
172
0
0

0
0
43.1
0

0
0

0
0
18c

43.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

86.1
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
129
990

0

0
0

0


0
0
215
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
43.1
0

0
0

0
0
WL
19a

43.1
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
86.1
0
0
474
2368

0

0
0

0


0
0
474
0
0
86.1
0
129
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
19b

86.1
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
129
0
0
215
1593

0

0
0

0


0
0
43.1
43.1
43.1
0
0
86.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
86.1
0

0
0

0
0
19c

0
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
86.1
0
0
301
1550

0

0
43.1

0


0
0
0
43.1
86.1
86.1
0
172
0
0
0
0
0
0
129
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
203

5426
603
215


301
43.1
0
0

517
0
0


0
0
258
258
0
0
43.1
1163

0

43.1
0

1206


0
0
215
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
301
0
0

0
43.1
0
43.1

43.1
0

0
172
20b

258
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
0
0


0
0
0
215
0
0
301
2024

0

0
0

0


0
215
1033
0
86.1
0
0
129
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
344
0
0

43.1
0
301
0

0
0

0
0
20c

1765
86.1
86.1


129
0
43.1
0

86.1
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
301
1378

0

0
0

86.1


0
129
431
0
172
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
258
0
0

0
0
86.1
0

0
0

0
0
WL
21 a

43.1
0
0


129
0
0
0

0
43.1
0


258
43.1
431
1550
0
0
9645
mm

0

0
1378

0


517
0
172
0
301
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
172
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
21 b

215
0
0


129
0
0
0

86.1
215
0


301
172
258
2325
0
0
mm
mm

0

43.1
2971

0


1120
0
603
0
1593
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
344
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
21 c

43.1
0
0


0
0
0
0

43.1
172
0


301
0
474
2842
0
0
9301
mm

0

0
2454

0


1292
0
0
0
1033
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
431
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
WL
21a1

258
0
0


86.1
0
0
0

43.1
43.1
43.1


172
43.1
215
947
0
0
7622
3273

0

0
646

0


431
0
258
0
474
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
301
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
21 b1

215
0
0


0
0
0
0

0
43.1
0


172
0
215
1335
0
0
2497
2454

0

0
0

0


0
0
0
0
775
0
0
43.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
215
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
21c1

258
0
0


43.1
0
0
0

0
215
0


172
0
86.1
1249
0
0
4005
2928

0

0
344

0


1033
0
301
0
689
0
0
0
0
0
0
43.1
0
0
215
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
                                153

-------