United States
        Environmental Protection
        Agency
2007 Progress Report

Vehicle and Engine
Compliance Activities
                                i»
                                      HSil'SL

-------

-------
    2007 Progress Report
 Vehicle and Engine
Compliance Activities
       United States Environmental Protection Agency
        Office of Transportation and Air Quality
         1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
           Washington, DC 20460

            EPA-420-R-08-011
             October 2008
            www.epa.gov/otaq

-------

-------
Contents
     I. Introduction	5
     II. Scope	6
       A. Legal Authority	6
       B. Vehicle and Engine Categories Regulated by EPA	6
       C. Fuels Regulated by EPA	8
     III. Contribution of Mobile Sources to Air Pollution	9
       A. Contribution of Major Pollution Source Categories to National Air Quality	9
       B. Contribution of Engine, Vehicle, and Equipment Industry Sectors to
         Mobile Source Emissions	10
     IV. Vehicle and Engine Compliance Program	12
       A. Pre-Production Certification	14
       B. Vehicle and Engine In-Use Compliance	28
     V. Regulatory Flexibilities	37
       A. Cars and Light Trucks	37
       B. Heavy-Duty Highway Engines	42
       C. Nonroad Engines and Equipment	42
     VI. Summary: 2007 Compliance Highlights	48
       A. Light-Duty Highlights	48
       B. Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Highlights	49
     Appendix A. Tier 2 Manufacturers'Average Certification Level vs. the Standard.. 50
     Appendix B. Compliance Data Sources	57
     Appendix C. Useful References  and Web Links	58
     Key to Acronyms	59
                                                                                      i

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
List of Tables
Table 1.     Statutes	6
Table 2.     Vehicle and Engine Programs and Implementation Dates	7
Table 3.     Fuel Programs and Implementation Dates	8
Table 4.     Pre-Production, Production, and Post-Production Compliance Processes by Industry Sector, 2007	13
Table 5.     Number of MY 2007 Certificates	15
Table 6.     Alternative Fuel Conversions	22
Table 7.     EPA/Manufacturer Light-Duty Test Procedures	23
Table 8.     Confirmatory Test Failures Requiring Vehicle Calibration Change, 2007	25
Table 9.     In-Use Surveillance Testing of Cars and Light Trucks, 2007	28
Table 10.   In-Use Verification Program Results	29
Table 11.   NTE Summary for a Subset of Heavy-Duty Highway Vehicles Tested in 2007	31
Table 12.   Revised Engine Family Designation and Reporting Schedules	31
Table 13.   Snapshot of Heavy-Duty Highway and Nonroad Manufacturer-Run In-Use Programs	32
Table 14.   Number of Light-Duty Defect Information Reports by Category	33
Table 15.   Warranty Coverage Period for Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Engines for Model Year 2007	36
Table 16.   Regulatory Flexibilities	37
Table 17.   Marine Diesel Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT  in the 2007 Model Year	42
Table 18.   On-Highway Diesel Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year	43
Table 19.   Nonroad Diesel Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year	43
Table 20.   On-Highway Otto Cycle Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year	43
Table 21.   Small SI Nonroad Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year	44
Table 22.   Marine SI Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year	45
Table 23.   Snowmobile Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year	45
Table 24.   Locomotive Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year	46
Table 25.   TPEM Allowance per Power Category	47

-------
                                                                          Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
List of  Figures
Figure 1.    U.S. VOC Emissions by Category, 2006	9
Figure 2.    U.S. N0x Emissions by Category, 2006	9
Figure 3.    U.S. PM2 5 Emissions by Category, 2006	10
Figure 4.    U.S. CO Emissions by Category, 2006	10
Figure 5.    Mobile Source VOC Emissions by Sector, 2007	10
Figure 6.    Mobile Source N0x Emissions by Sector, 2007	10
Figure 7.    Mobile Source PM2 5 Emissions by Sector, 2007	11
Figure 8.    Mobile Source CO Emissions by Sector, 2007	11
Figure 9.    Engine, Vehicle, and Equipment Population by Industry Sector, 2007	11
Figure 10.   Compliance Life of a Light-Duty Vehicle	12
Figure 11.   Compliance Life of a Heavy-Duty Highway and Nonroad Engine	13
Figure 12.   MY 2007 Certified Car and Light Truck Test Groups by Manufacturer	15
Figure 13.   MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales by Manufacturer	16
Figure 14.   MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales by Manufacturer for the United States, Japan, Germany, and Korea	17
Figure 15.   MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales by Manufacturer for Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Italy	18
Figure 16.   MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales by Country of Origin	18
Figure 17.   Production of Agricultural and Construction Equipment Engines by Manufacturing Location	19
Figure 18.   Production of Semi-Trucks and Buses by Manufacturing Location	19
Figure 19.   Production of Lawn and Garden Equipment Engines by Manufacturing Location	19
Figure 20.   Production of Gasoline Boat and Personal Watercraft Engines by Manufacturing Location	20
Figure 21.   Production of Diesel Boat, Ship, and Oceangoing Vessel Engines (Both Commercial and Recreational) by Manufacturing Location. .20
Figure 22.   Production of Forklift, Generator, and Compressor Engines by Manufacturing Location	20
Figure 23.   Production of Snowmobiles by Manufacturing Location	20
Figure 24.   Alternative Fuel Car and Light Truck Test Groups by Original Equipment Manufacturer	21
Figure 25.   MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales by Fuel Type	21
Figure 26.   MY 2007 Confirmatory Testing Passes and Failures by Exhaust Emissions	24
Figure 27.   Average C02 Emissions and MPG per Vehicle, 2007	25
Figure 28.   Comparison of EPA/Manufacturer MY 2007 Hydrocarbon and NOX Emission  Results	26
Figure 29.   Comparison of EPA/Manufacturer MY 2007 PM Emission Results	27
Figure 30.   Comparison of EPA/Manufacturer MY 2007 CO Emission Results	27
Figure 31.   In-UseTest Results for 3.1  NTE N0x Standards for Highway Vehicles, 2007	30
Figure 32.   Defects, 2007	34
Figure 33.   Types of Problems for Vehicles Recalled, 2007	35
Figure 34.   Car and Light Truck Recalls, 2007	35
Figure 35.   Tier 2 Phase-In Percentages	38
Figure 36.   Percent of Total Test Groups per Bin	38
Figure 37.   Tier 2 Bin Certification Levels and Compliance Margins	39
Figure 38.   Tier 2 Bin 5 Certification Levels and Compliance Margins for NMOG	40
Figure 39.   Tier 2 Bin 5 Certification Levels and Compliance Margins for N0x	41
Figure 40.   Tier 2 Bin 5 Certification Levels and Compliance Margins for CO	41
Figure 41.   On-Highway Engine Family Certification by Family Emission Limit, MY 2007	42

-------

-------
I.  Introduction
Welcome to the first compliance report of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Transportation and Air Qual-
ity (OTAQ).The purpose of this report is to present a convenient
reference for the environmental data we generate about "mobile
sources," or moving sources of air pollution. These sources include
vehicles, engines, and motorized equipment that produce exhaust
and evaporative emissions. It is  our job to regulate these sources
of air pollution and make sure that they comply with emissions
and fuel economy requirements.

Specifically, this report summarizes vehicle and engine compliance
program data we collected in 2007. These data include test re-
sults from model year (MY) 2007 certification activities plus other
types of compliance reports and test results produced during
calendar year 2007. Sales data  presented in this report are based
on MY 2006 sales because MY  2007 sales data were not yet
available at the time of publication. National emissions inventory
data are also for 2006, as those were the most recent data at the
time of publication.

The United States has the most far-reaching emission control
programs in the world; however, regulations in and of themselves
do not achieve clean air. The goal of our compliance programs is
to deliver on the regulatory promise of environmental and public
health benefits by implementing emission standards covering
every vehicle, engine, and gallon of fuel sold in this country and
ensuring that these standards are met over the life of the product.

Our program is comprehensive in tracking compliance at every
stage of useful life. We work closely with industry, years before
new products appear in the market, to review engineering con-
cepts for technical viability. Later we follow up to check emissions
performance by testing vehicles before production begins and
again after they enter actual customer service. When necessary,
we collaborate with EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance
Assurance (OECA) to inititiate enforcement actions in cases of
legal violations. This comprehensive approach is critical to the
success of air quality improvements. Collectively, our four most
recent major programs have air quality and public health benefits
that are projected to exceed $180 billion annually by 2030.

The data presented in this report highlight four important areas
in  EPA's oversight of vehicle and engine emissions. First, OTAQ's
certification and compliance programs are growing. For example,
in  2007, OTAQ issued over 3,500 certificates of conformity to
vehicle and engine manfuacturers, with this number projected
to  significantly increase in the next few years. Second, light-duty
vehicles are being certified at very clean levels, with most vehicles
meeting the Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions requirements with a significant
compliance margin as well. Third, we have initiated an expansion
in  certification and compliance activity to  adddress new regula-
tions, new technologies, new manufacturers, and new regulatory
flexibilities, as well as new challenges due to growth in imports.
These new programs are derived from EPA testing as well as
analysis of data provided to the Agency under manufacturer-run,
in-field testing programs. In coming years, this expansion will
be particularly important in the  newer nonroad and heavy-duty
areas. Lastly, OTAQ compliance activities are critically important to
achieving the air quality benefits promised by emissions regula-
tions. However, even in the relatively  mature light-duty area,
more than 2.5 million vehicles were affected by emissions-related
voluntary recalls in 2007.

In  future reports, we expect to update these analyses as well
as provide new information as programs evolve and new data
become available.
 Please refer to our Fuel Trends Report: Gasoline 1995 -2005 (EPA-420-R-08-002, January 2008) for data on our fuel programs.

-------
II.  Scope
A. Legal Authority
EPA derives authority to do its work through a variety of statutes
enacted by Congress. Table 1, below, summarizes the statutes
that give OTAQ the authority to develop and implement mobile
source emission control programs.
These statutes authorize EPA to regulate nearly all engines and
vehicles that emit pollutants into the environment, from locomotives
to leaf blowers. OTAQ's compliance programs play an essential role
in realizing the benefits of these regulations.
Table 1. Statutes
Statute
Clean Air Act (CAA)
Energy and Policy Conservation Act
Energy Independence and Security Act
Authority
Emission standards for highway and nonroad vehicles and their fuels
Fuel economy information programs for consumers, including fuel economy
publication of an annual fuel economy guide
labeling and the
Renewable fuels
B. Vehicle and  Engine Categories Regulated by EPA
OTAQ's compliance programs are vast in scope and comprehensive
in coverage to ensure that vehicle and engine manufacturers and
fuel refiners and producers comply with regulations. The programs
employ flexible yet comprehensive compliance strategies to address
the unique challenges faced by particular industry sectors.
Table 2, on the next page, describes EPA vehicle and engine
regulations by industry and model year of implementation. It is
an abbreviated list of mobile source regulatory implementation
dates and reflects emission standards proposed or established in
2004 and later years. For earlier emission standards, please visit
www.gpoaccess.gov/cfr.

-------
                                                                          Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                 Table 2. Vehicle and  Engine Programs and Implementation Dates
       Program/Rule
 Affected Industries/Vehicles
Effective Model Year
            Description
Tier 2 Emission Standards and
Gasoline Sulfur Control
Cars and Light Trucks
2004
Establishes a more stringent set of
emission standards that applies to both
cars and light trucks regardless of fuel
type
Heavy-Duty Highway Rule
Trucks and Buses
2007
Establishes more stringent exhaust
emission standards and requires ultra-
low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel (15 ppm
maximum)
Tier 4 Nonroad Diesel Rule
Construction and Agriculture Equip-
ment
2008 (for emissions)
2010 (for fuel)
Establishes more stringent exhaust
emission standards and requires ULSD
fuel (15 ppm maximum)
New Emission Standards for Large
Spark-Ignition (SI) Engines
Forklifts and Generators
2004 (Tier 1)
2007 (Tier 2)
Establishes new emission standards,
plus requirements for in-use emission
testing and computerized diagnostics
New Nonroad SI Engines, Equip-
ment, and Vessels
Lawn and Garden Equipment
                              Boats and Personal Watercraft
2012 (Class I
2011 (Class I

2010
Establishes more stringent exhaust
emission and fuel permeation standards
for small SI engines below 19 kilowatts
and new evaporative emission stan-
dards for inboard, outboard, stern-drive,
and personal watercraft engines
Tier 3 and 4 Emission Standards
for Marine Diesel Engines
Commercial and Recreational Boats
and Ships
2009 (Tier 3)
2014 (Tier 4)
Establishes more stringent exhaust
emission standards for newly built
engines; requires highly efficient,
advanced emission control technology;
and establishes first exhaust emission
standards for remanufactured engines
Tier 3 and 4 Emission Standards
for Locomotive Diesel Engines
Commercial Trains
2011 (Tier 3)
2015 (Tier 4)
Establishes more stringent exhaust
emission standards for newly built
engines; requires highly efficient,
advanced emission control technology;
and establishes first exhaust emission
standards for remanufactured engines
New Emission Standards for
Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines
Commercial Aircraft Engines
2005
Establishes more stringent exhaust
emission standards for engines certified
after 2005
Tier 1 and 2 New Emission Stan-
dards for Motorcycles
On-Highway Motorcycles
2006 (Class I and II)
2006 (Class 111, Tier 1)
2010 (Class III, Tier 2)
Establishes new exhaust and evapora-
tive emission standards for all displace-
ments

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
C.  Fuels Regulated by EPA
EPA regulates all mobile source gasoline and diesel fuel and
recently began regulating the use of renewable fuels such as
ethanol and biodiesel. This is an abbreviated list of major
ongoing fuels regulations. For a comprehensive list, please visit
                 www.epa.gov/otaq/fuels.htm. For more information on our fuel
                 programs, please refer to our Fuel Trends Report: Gasoline
                 1995-2005 (EPA-420-R-08-002, January 2008).
                           Table 3.  Fuel  Programs and Implementation Dates
           Affected Fuel Type—
   Applicable Fuel Producer or Importer
            Program/Rulemaking Description
   Effective
Implementation
     Date
 All motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives—
 Gasoline and diesel refiners and importers,
 renewable fuel producers and importers, fuel
 additive producers and importers
Fuels and Fuel Additives Registration System (FFARS):
• Mandatory registration program for all motor vehicle fuels and
  fuel additives sold in the United States.
• Requires all fuel and fuel additive manufacturers to report on
  the chemical composition of their products and other technical,
  sales, and health effects information.
      1994
 Gasoline—
 Gasoline refiners and importers
  Volatility standards limit the vapor pressure of gasoline sold
  at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce
  evaporative emissions from gasoline, which contribute to
  ground-level ozone formation.
  Oxyfuel requirements reduce emissions of carbon monoxide
  from motor vehicles during the winter season.
  Reformulated gasoline requirements reduce smog-forming
  and toxic pollutants in U.S. cities with the worst smog pollution.
  Tier 2 emission standards and gasoline sulfur regulations
  establish stringent exhaust emission standards for all fuel types
  and limit fuel sulfur levels to 30 ppm on average.
  Mobile source air toxics regulations will limit the benzene
  content of gasoline and reduce toxic emissions from passenger
  vehicles and portable gas cans.
      1989



      1992

      1995

      2004



      2011
 Diesel—
 Diesel producers and importers
Highway, Nonroad, Locomotive & Marine Rules:
• Suite of rules for highway, nonroad, locomotive, and marine
  diesel engines requires ULSD (15 ppm maximum).
      2006
8

-------
    .  Contribution of
      Mobile Sources to Air  Pollution
A. Contribution of Major  Pollution  Source Categories
    to  National Air Quality
This section presents EPA's estimates of national emissions for
several regulated air pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen
oxides (N0x), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particu-
late matter (PM) less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter
Figures 1 through 4 compare mobile source emissions to the
national emissions inventory. Nationwide, mobile sources are the
primary source of CO emissions, account for more than half of
the NO emissions, more than one-third of VOC emissions, and
(PM  ). These pollutants are produced by many types of engines,    less than 10 percent of PM   emissions.
industries, and commercial operations. For purposes of this
report, the categories have been broadly defined at the national
level as fuel combustion, industrial, solvent/storage/waste/re-
cycling, mobile sources, and other. The footnote  below provides
more detail as to the specific make-up of each source category.*
While mobile sources are important contributors to total national
emissions, they are the dominant emissions sources in many
individual urban areas. In addition, mobile sources contribute to
higher localized levels of pollutants near roads and transporta-
tion facilities. Because so many people live and work near roads,
mobile source emissions have a particularly important impact on
people's exposure and health.
                                  Fuel Combustion
                                           Industrial
                               Solvent/Storage/
                               Waste/Recycling
                               35%
                                                                                            \
                                                                                                  Industrial
                                                                                               Solvent/Storage/
                                                                                               Waste/Recycling
Figure 1. U.S. VOC Emissions by Category, 2006    Figure 2. U.S.  NO Emissions by Category, 2006
* Fuel Combustion: Electric Utility, Industrial, Other; Industrial: Chemical &Allied Manufacturing, Petroleum & Related Industries, Other Industrial Processes; Sol-
  vent/Storage/Waste/Recycling: Solvent Utilization, Storage & Transportation, Waste Disposal & Recycling; Mobile Sources: Highway Vehicles, Off-Highway; Other.
                                                                                                           9

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                                   ^Solvent/Storage/
                                     Waste/Recycling
                                     7%
                                                                   Solvent/Storage/
                                                                   Waste/Recycling
                                                                   2%
                                —Fuel Combustion
                            \      5%
                            Industrial
                            2%
 Figure 3. U.S. PM,. Emissions by Category, 2006    Figure 4. U.S. CO Emissions by Category, 2006
B. Contribution  of Engine, Vehicle, and  Equipment Industry Sectors
   to Mobile Source Emissions
Figures 5 through 8 show how much the various engine, vehicle,
and equipment industry sectors contribute to overall mobile
source VOC, N0x, PM, and CO emissions. For additional context,
Figure 9 provides a snapshot of the total engine, vehicle, and
equipment population (total engines, vehicles, and equipment
in the fleet) by industry that is currently subject to EPA regula-
tions. Cars and trucks are the largest contributors to VOC and CO
emissions. Diesel trucks and buses are the biggest source of N0x,
and large diesel construction and agricultural equipment are the
biggest contributor to PM25.
                        A icult I &
                            Die IB    ip   e  in    Is
                S   uc
    Figure 5. Mobile Source VOC Emissions
                by Sector, 2007
                                                                                              D • ikes, ' V
                                                                                                  mobiles
                                                                                              0.1%
     Figure 6. Mobile Source N0x Emissions
                 by Sector, 2007
10

-------
                                                           Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                                 Aircraft
Forklift , e
                                                        A icult  I &
           IW t
                      Dirtbikes, ATVs, & Snowmobiles
 Figure 7. Mobile Source PM25 Emissions
              by Sector, 2007
                                                                         1%
                     Die I B    ip
                     & Oce   in   sels
                                                                     Aircraft
                                                                           0.4%
                                                                                Dirtbikes, : V     mobiles
                                                                                     F lift
                                                                                     &  pr sors
                                                                                        Gasolin    &
                                                                                        P   I Wat craft
                                                                                        S  i Trucks &  es
Figure 8. Mobile Source CO Emissions
           by Sector, 2007
             250
                   226
                                                Industry Sector

       Figure 9. Engine, Vehicle, and Equipment Population by Industry Sector, 2007
                                                                                               •11

-------
IV. Vehicle and  Engine
      Compliance  Program
OTAQ employs a variety of strategies to oversee compliance
with mobile source regulations. These include pre-production
certification, confirmatory testing, production line testing,
selective enforcement audits, and in-use testing.

The in-use compliance activities serve as feedback for the
vehicle/engine certification process and encourage good
emission control technology design and durability.
                                       Figures 10 and 11 represent the compliance life cycle of a typical
                                       vehicle/engine certified by EPA. These figures show the activities
                                       of both EPA and  the manufacturer at different phases in the life
                                       cycle. (Note: Manufacturer-run in-use testing  programs are not
                                       required for all nonroad categories.)
          EPA Confirmatory
          Testing, Random
            and Targeted
  EPA Reviews Initial
   Manufacturer
    Application
                                                 EPA In-l
Vehicle Design
  and Build
EPA Reviews
   Final
Manufacturer
Application

      EPA Issues Certificate of
           Conformity
              0 Miles  10,000 Miles  20,000 Miles
                                            -Use Surveillance Testing
                                                                                                   EPA Action
                                                                                Manufacturer Action
                                                                           50,000 Miles    90,000 Miles    120,000 Miles
                      Manufacturer Prototype
                      Vehicle Emissions and
                        Durability Testing
                       [Representative of
                          Production]
                            Low-Mileage In-Use
                            Verification Testing
                         Performed by Manufacturer
                                           High-Mileage In-Use
                                            Verification Testing
                                         Performed by Manufacturer
  End of Useful Life
     (per CAA)
  [Emission Levels
Predicted Via Certifica-
tion Durability Testing]
                            Figure 10. Compliance Life of a Light-Duty Vehicle
12

-------
                                                                           Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                  EPA Confirmatory Testing
                           EPA Selective Enforcement
                                   Audit
             EPA
         Reviews Initial
    Manufacturer Application
                                             EPA Issues Certificate
Reviews Final
Manufacturer
 Application
 of Conformity
     i
Engine Design
  and Build
Begin Useful
    Life
          0 Miles
          0 Hours
                                            EPA Action

                                            Manufacturer Action
      End of Useful Life
      435,000 Miles or
50 to 10,000 Hours Depending
   on the Engine/Application
                    Manufacturer
                      Testing of
                   Prototype Engine
                    Representative
                    of Production
                 Manufacturer
                Production Line
                    Testing
                      Manufacturer In-Use
                            Testing
                                 End of Useful Life (per CAA)
                                Emission Levels Predicted via
                                Certification Durability Testing
                Figure 11. Compliance Life  of a Heavy-Duty Highway and Nonroad Engine
Table 4 below shows the testing programs EPA and industry
conducted to assess compliance in 2007. EPA has the legal
authority to  use any of these compliance tools for any industry
sector,  but typically chooses the tests that best fit an industry
                                sector at any given time. Decisions are based on factors such
                                as the technology being used to meet the emission standards,
                                industry-specific production processes and cycles, and sector/
                                manufacturer size.
T " ComeplLrnceUptrocn«Ps'e0s ^tadl^ sffloo?"0"
Industry Sector
On-Road
Nonroad
Light-Duty
Heavy-Duty
Gasoline-Powered
Diesel-Powered
Cars, pickup
trucks, sport
utility vehicles
(SUVs)
Motorcycles
Trucks and
buses
Lawn and
garden
equipment,
locomotives,
and marine
vessels
Construc-
tion and
agriculture
equipment
Pre-Production
Certification
•
•
•
•
•
Confirmatory
Testing
•


•
•
Fuel
Economy
•




Production
Production
Line
Testing



•

Selective
Enforce-
ment Audits





Post-
Production
In-Use
•

•
•
•
                                                                                                                       •13

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities

A. Pre-Production Certification

1. Application for Certification

The certification process begins when a manufacturer submits
an application for certification to EPA for a group of vehicles or
engines having similar design and emission characteristics. Such
groups are referred to as "test groups," or engine families. EPA
requires manufacturers to provide detailed information to show
that they have met all of the applicable requirements to qualify
for a certificate of conformity. The application for certification
describes those vehicles or engines specifically covered by the
certificate of conformity. The certificate is a license to produce
and sell the vehicle and covers only those vehicles or engines
specifically described in the application.The list below generally
describes the information and data that manufacturers must
submit to begin the application process:

    • A description of the basic engine design  and list of
      distinguishable configurations to be included in the test
      group or engine family

    • An explanation of how the emission control system
      operates

    • A description of the test engine representing the test
      group or engine family

    • A description of the test procedures and  equipment used
      to test the engine

    • All emission  data obtained on each test engine

    • The intended useful life of the family and emission
      deterioration characteristics over this useful life

    • The production volumes of each configuration in the test
      group or engine family

    • An unconditional statement certifying that all engines in-
      cluded in the engine family comply with  all requirements
      of the applicable regulation and the CAA

    • Manufacturer representative and official  company
      contact information

    • Durability grouping (i.e., groups of vehicles/engines with
      similar emission deterioration and emission component
      durability)

    • Durability test procedures

    • Description of each test group/engine family
    • Description of vehicles used to demonstrate tailpipe emis-
      sions and emission control component durability

    • List of all test results, official certification levels, and the
      applicable emission standards for each vehicle/engine
      tested

    • Statement of compliance with the applicable emission
      standards for all other vehicles not tested

    • Evaporative and On-Board Recovery Vapor Refueling
      (ORVR) system information (light-duty only)

    • Information on emission control diagnostic systems (i.e.,
      On-Board Diagnostics [OBD]) (light-duty only)

2. Certificates of Conformity

a. Engines and Vehicles Produced by Original
   Engine Manufacturers

Section 206 of the CAA requires that all engines and vehicles
be covered by a certificate of conformity before they can enter
into commerce. A certificate of conformity demonstrates that the
respective engine or vehicle conforms to all of the applicable
emission  requirements. The certificate represents engines and
vehicles covered by a specific engine family or, in the case of
light-duty vehicles, a specific test group for each manufacturer.
Figure 12 shows test groups of MY 2007 certified cars and light
trucks by manufacturer.

For MY 2007, EPA issued  3,550 certificates for engines and
vehicles covering more than 17 different categories, or industry
sectors. Table 5 lists the number of certificates issued for the
various categories. The number of certificates issued ranged from
1,084 for lawn and garden equipment to two for heavy-duty
engines (California-only certificates).

Figure 13 presents MY 2006 car and light truck sales by
manufacturer.
14

-------
                                                           Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Table 5 Number of MY 2007 Certificates

Category
Lawn and Garden Equipment
Agricultural and Construction Equipment
Cars and Light Trucks
Motorcycles
All-Terrain Vehicles
Diesel Boats, Ships, and Oceangoing Vessels
Gasoline Boats and Personal Watercraft
Nonroad Motorcycles
Locomotives
Semi-Trucks and Buses (Diesel)
Semi-Trucks and Buses (Gasoline)
Snowmobiles
Forklifts, Generators, and Compressors
Oceangoing Vessels
Light-Duty Vehicle Independent Commercial Importers
Heavy-Duty Engine Evaporatives
Heavy-Duty Engine (California)
TOTAL
Certificates
1,084
676
427
418
309
117
112
106
60
58
38
37
34
31
22
19
2
3,550
100
     BMW    Chrysler     Ford     General    Honda    Hyundai/   Mazda    Mercedes-    Nissan    Toyota    Volkswagen    All
                            Motors              Kia             Benz                           Others

                                          Manufacturer


     Figure 12. MY 2007 Certified Car and Light Truck Test Groups by Manufacturer
                                                                                                 •15

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
 _o
 1
 0)

 3
 o

 
-------
                                                                     Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
We have also presented the 2006 sales information for motor
vehicles and engines two different ways to give an approximate
snapshot of where products are manufactured or where primary
corporate functions are located.

Figures 14  and 15 show the country of origin of all MY 2006
vehicles sold in the Unites States. The country of origin for a
vehicle is the country where a manufacturer's headquarters are
located. For example, Toyota's corporate headquarters are in
Japan. Thus, we consider Toyota's country of origin to be Japan.
Based on this definition of the country of origin, each bar in
these graphs represents the total number of MY 2006 vehicles
sold from each representative manufacturer. Each bar is further
split into manufacturers originating from that country, along with
their sales numbers.

Figure 16 is based on the same data. It shows MY 2006 vehicle
sales by percentage for each country of origin.
                                                                     Ford: 2,609,076
                             Chrsyler: 2,075,009
  o
  «•_
   o



Japan



Germany






Toyota: 2,269,480
Mercedes Benz:
BMW: 254,560
415,607
Germany
Audi/VW: Porsche:
341,616 36,631
Hyundai:
43^054
Korea 1 Korea: 750,7
Kia:


317,658




^^^^^^^^^^^H
Subaru: Suzuki:
213>4|9 51,098
1 l.So ffim |/JaPa



: 1,048,414



12


Mazda: Mitsubishi:
229,246 139,514











n: 5,458,303










USA:
9,865,643











i
0 2 4 6 8 10
                                             MY 2006 Sales (millions of vehicles)
                   Figure 14. MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales by Manufacturer for the
                                    United States, Japan, Germany, and Korea
                                                                                                              •17

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                                                                                   Spyker:
     Sweden


:§
2 UK
=
3
o
o


Be
4
Jaguar:
20,537
^^^^^^^^^


ntley: Aston M<
325 ^770
UK: 27,
Lotus:
1,424
Maserati: Lamborghini:
2,437^ 551
Italy 1 Italy: 4,2£
J


Ferrari:
1,279
7




artin:
056





































Swede









n: 158,443









           0       20,000    40,000     60,000     80,000    100,000    120,000    140,000    160,000
                                             MY 2006 Sales
          Figure 15. MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales by Manufacturer for Sweden, the
                                    United Kingdom, and Italy
                                    e   1%
                                  Ko
                          Germ a   6%
                                                           Italy, 0.0
                         Figure 16. MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales
                                      by Country of Origin
18

-------
                                                                   Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Figures 17 through 23 show the manufacturing location of
heavy-duty and nonroad engine categories sold under a MY
2007 U.S. Certificate of Conformity. Engines produced in more
than one country were aggregated under "multiple countries,"
as designated by the manufacturer. This approach might not
completely capture existing corporate and financial relationships.

EPA tracks manufacturing location because the supply base of
engines for the various heavy-duty and nonroad sectors is  quite
diverse. Manufacturers from across Europe and Asia provide
engines used in machines sold for use in the United States. As
such, it is important to realize that a compliance presence might
need to be established outside of the United States. This may
include reviewing facility testing and calibration records and
conducting emission performance audits of current production.

For MY 2007, all locomotive engines and 99 percent of locomo-
tives were produced  in the United States. The remaining models
were produced in Canada.
                         USA
  Multiple Countries
  5%
                                                                              Brazil
                                                                                         Japan
                                                                                                tiple Countries
                                                                                                    Not Specified
       Figure 17. Production of Agricultural
     and Construction Equipment Engines by
              Manufacturing Location
    Figure 18. Production of Semi-Trucks and
         Buses by Manufacturing Location
                                                   Other
                                                              Japan
                                                                   r
                                                                      Brazil, 7%
                               Figure 19. Production of Lawn and Garden
                             Equipment Engines by Manufacturing Location
                                                                                                          •19

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                                                                        Other
  Germany.
     Mexico
     5%
                                                                              Germany
                                                                                  Mutiple Countries
                                                                                  5%
                                                                                    The Netherlands
                                                                                    5%
                                                                                    United Kingdom
    Figure 20. Production of Gasoline Boat
      and Personal Watercraft Engines by
           Manufacturing Location
Figure 21. Production of Diesel Boat, Ship, and
Oceangoing Vessel Engines (Both Commercial
 and Recreational) by Manufacturing Location
                                        Germany
                                        1%
                                        Japan
                                                                                        Finland
 Figure 22. Production of Forklift, Generator, and
 Compressor Engines by Manufacturing Location
   Figure 23. Production of Snowmobiles by
           Manufacturing Location
20

-------
                                                                     Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
b. Alternative and Diesel Fuel Vehicles

b.1  Alternative Fuel Vehicles Produced by Original
    Equipment Manufacturers
Figure 24, below, presents the number of MY 2007 test groups of
alternative and diesel fuel vehicles for each manufacturer. All MY
2007 ethanol vehicles are flex-fuel vehicles, capable of operating
on gasoline, ESS (85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline),
or an intermediate blend. Note that the number of test groups
certified does not necessarily reflect the number of vehicles
produced. Thus, manufacturers with the most certified diesel test
groups may not have produced the most diesel vehicles.
                  in
                  o.
                  3
                  o
                 .Q

                 3
                  Flex-Fuel (Ethanol)
                  Diesel
                  Compressed Natural Gas
                                   Chrysler      Ford             Honda   Mercedes
                                                   Manufacturer
                                                                            Nissan
                                                                                          VW
                 Figure 24. Alternative Fuel Car and  Light Truck Test Groups by Original
                                           Equipment Manufacturer
For comparison, Figure 25 below shows the sales of MY 2006
vehicles by fuel type. The vast majority of vehicles still run on
gasoline only. About 5 percent of MY 2006 vehicles sold are
flex-fuel vehicles capable of operating on either E85 or gasoline.
Following gasoline and ethanol, diesel is the next most prevalent
fuel. Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles make up only 0.002
percent of MY 2006 vehicle sales.
               Gasoline
                       Figure 25. MY 2006 Car and Light Truck Sales by Fuel Type
                                                                                                             •21

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
b.2 Alternative Fuel Vehicles Produced by Alternative
    Fuel Vehicle Converters

Some alternative fuel vehicles are gasoline vehicles that have been
converted to operate on alternative fuels. The CAA requires certifi-
cation for all vehicles, inlcuding those modified from their original
configuration to use alternative fuels, such as CNG or liquified
natural gas. Alternative fuel converters are responsible for obtain-
ing a certificate and for ensuring that converted vehicles remain in
compliance with all EPA regulations.

Manufacturers built approximately 750 light-duty alternative fuel
conversions in 2007. Table 6 below summarizes certificates issued
for light-duty vehicle fuel conversions by manufacturer.
Table 6. Alternative Fuel Conversions
Fuel
Total Certificates Issued in MY 2007
Manufacturer
Cars and Light Trucks
CNG
Dual Fuel1 (CNG/Gasoline)
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Dedicated
Dual Fuel1 (LPG/Gasoline)
2
10
12
12
BAF Technologies
ECO Fuel Systems
Parnell
AFV Solutions
Parnell
Yellow Checker Star
AFV Solutions
EDPRO
Parnell USA
Prins
Semi-Truck and Bus Engines
Dual Fuel1 (CNG/Gasoline)
Dual Fuel1 (Propane/Gasoline)
Propane
Natural Gas
3
5
11
12
Baytech
Baytech
American Alternative Fuels
BAF Technologies
Baytech
Bi-Phase Technologies
Clean Fuel USA
Cummins
Parnell USA
Baytech
Cummins
John Deere Power Systems of Deere and Company
Forklifts, Generators, and Compressor Engines
LPG
Dual Fuel1 (LPG/Gasoline)
4
23
Linde Material Handling
NGVI
Buck's Engines
Engine Distributors
Impco Technologies
KEM Equipment
NGVI
Nissan
Toyota Industrial Equipment Manufacturing
Wisconsin Motors
 Dual fuel signifies a vehicle or piece of equipment capable of operating on two separate fuels, with separate fuel tanks. In operation, only one fuel is used at a time.
22

-------
                                                                         Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
3. Compliance Testing

All of EPA's emission regulations specify test procedures to
measure engine or vehicle emission levels. EPA uses the test
results to determine compliance with the applicable emission
standards. The number and types of tests vary according to the
regulated sector. Certification testing is a form of compliance
testing that is required as a condition of certification and is
generally performed prior to issuing a certificate. In-use test-
ing occurs after  the vehicles or engines have been certified,
generally on privately used vehicles or engines. Production  line
(or assembly line) testing audits emission  levels of vehicles or
engines that are in production, but not yet in service, to confirm
that the manufacturer is building compliant vehicles.
a. Car and Light Truck Compliance Testing
Table 7 below lists the emissions tests that EPA requires for
light-duty vehicles. These tests are used to measure compliance
with CAA emission standards, Department of Transportation cor-
porate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, and consumer
fuel economy labeling  requirements. There are two components
to car and light truck certification testing. The first component
is initial  testing that manufacturers conduct to support their
application for a certificate of conformity. Manufacturers must
conduct this testing for all test groups they wish to certify and
must report the results to EPA as part of the certification applica-
tion. The second component is confirmatory testing, which occurs
after an  application has been submitted. Confirmatory tests are
performed by either the manufacturer or by EPA and serve to
validate  the manufacturer's initial emissions or fuel economy
test results. EPA does not confirmatory-test all test groups but
rather uses random and targeted methods to select vehicles for
confirmatory testing.The confirmatory test  rate in 2007 was 15
percent  of all test groups.
Table 7. EPA/Manufacturer Light-Duty Test Procedures
Test Procedure
Federal Test Procedure (FTP)
Highway Fuel Economy Test
US06 (High Speed/Acceleration Cycle)
SC03 (Air Conditioning Test Cycle)
Cold CO
(FTP conducted at 20° F)
Evaporative Emissions
ORVR
Running Loss Emissions Test
Manufacturer Testing for
Certification Demonstration
•
•
•
•
•
•
(3-day test)
•
•
EPA Confirmatory Testing
•
•
•


•
(2-day test)


                                                                                                                   -23

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Figure 26 presents results of EPA's MY 2007 confirmatory test
program. The graph shows the number and percent of passes
and failures over the FTP, highway cycle,  US06 cycle, and evapo-
rative emissions test. The FTP test has the highest rate of failure,
followed by the US06 test. Both the evaporative and highway
tests have relatively low rates of failure. The total number of tests
conducted over each test cycle differs because FTP and highway
tests are required for both  emissions and fuel economy purposes,
whereas US06 and evaporative emissions testing are required
for emissions only. The number of evaporative tests performed
by EPA is low compared to the number of exhaust tests because
manufacturers usually have far fewer evaporative families than
exhaust test groups.

The pie chart in Figure 26 shows FTP failures by pollutant. The
greatest number of failures were for non-methane organic gas
(NMOG) exceedances, followed by NO and CO.
                  350
                               FTP                  Highway                  US06                  Evap

         Figure 26. MY 2007 Confirmatory Testing Passes and  Failures by Exhaust Emissions
For 2007, 26 confirmatory tests failed. Of these failures,
eight resulted in calibration changes. Table 8 illustrates the
confirmatory test failures that required some type of calibration
change to the vehicle. This is  significant because it illustrates that
even for a very mature emission control program like the one
for light-duty vehicles, pre-production mistakes can still hap-
pen. These mistakes would result in emission exceedences if not
resolved prior to introduction into commerce.
24

-------
                                                                     Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Table 8. Confirmatory Test Failures Requiring Vehicle Calibration Change, 2007
Manufacturer
GM
Hyundai
GM
GM Daewoo
GM
Ford
Land Rover
Test Group
7GMXV03.8044
7HYXV01 .6MW5
7GMXT02.4130
7GDXV01 .6004
7GMXT03.6150
7FMXT05.44E6
7LRXT04.2001
Model(s)
Chevrolet Impala, Monte Carlo,
Pontiac Grand Prix, Buick La-
crosse/Allure, Lucerne
Sonata
Vue Hybrid
Chevrolet Aveo,Aveo 5, Suzuki
Swift, Swift+, Pontiac Wave,
Wave 5
XL-7
Saleen F-1 50
Range Rover
Emission Failed
NMOG
NMOG
CO
NMOG
NOX, NMOG
CO
NMOG
As mentioned previously, EPA performs tests for both emissions
and fuel economy validation purposes. While the Agency does
not regulate carbon dioxide (C02) emissions at this time, C02
is a major greenhouse gas contributing to climate change, and
C02 emission rates correlate directly to fuel economy. Figure
27 compares the average C02 emissions among manufacturer
car and truck fleets and presents the corresponding miles per
gallon (mpg). The C02 average was determined using the sales-
weighted highway and city fuel economy numbers as measured
in the laboratory. Consumer fuel economy label values include an
adjustment factor to reflect differences between real world and
laboratory driving conditions. The unadjusted averages presented
below will therefore reflect lower C02 and higher mpg levels
than would be expected in real world driving conditions. Gener-
ally, for gasoline vehicles, a C02 emission level of 300 grams per
mile is equivalent to roughly 30 mpg. A C02 emission level of
400 grams per mile is equivalent to approximately 22 mpg.
       500
  0>
  in
  E
  £
  3
  CM
  o
  u
       400
                                     17.7
                                                                                               22.2
       300
       200
                                                                    No flexible-fuel vehicle adjustment

                   Figure 27. Average CO, Emissions and MPG per Vehicle, 2007
                                                                                                              •25

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
b.  Heavy-Duty Highway and Nonroad Engines
    Confirmatory Testing

Confirmatory testing for heavy-duty highway and nonroad engines
is similar to that for light-duty vehicles. EPA may conduct confir-
matory and other testing on any test engine a manufacturer uses
to demonstrate compliance for an engine family. EPA test results
validate the manufacturer test results and subsequently become
the  official record used to determine compliance with emission
standards.

EPA began confirmatory testing nonroad engines in 2006. Four
MY 2007 agricultural and construction engine families were
selected for testing from four different engine manufacturers.
The results, displayed in Figures 28, 29,  and 30, show that all
companies complied with  the emission standards. The data were
generated from testing conducted by EPA at the National
Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory and from original certifi-
cation test data submitted by manufacturers. While the results
demonstrate good comparability between EPA and manufac-
turer nonroad  engine emissions testing, the manufacturer data
sets in the figures do not necessarily represent data from the
most recent manufacturer testing on the engines. For example,
data from the  manufacturers may be carry-over test data from
previous model years, as permitted  by the regulations.

EPA plans to expand confirmatory testing over the next couple
of years to other nonroad engine categories, including lawn and
garden equipment. Confirmatory testing  of semi-truck and bus
engines is expected to begin in 2009.
                                       Hydrocarbons + Oxides of Nitrogen (HC+NO )
                               1
                               I   2
                                                                 • Manufacturer Results
                                                                 • EPA Results
                                                                 -Standard/Family
                                                                  Emission Limit (EEL)
                                       John Deere      Deutz       Cummins       Iveco

                                              Manufacturer—Engine Family
          Figure 28. Comparison of EPA/Manufacturer MY 2007 HC and NO Emission Results
26

-------
                                                  Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                                      Participate Matter (PM)
               0.25
                                                       i Manufacturer Results
                                                       i EPA Results
                                                       -Standard/PEL
                     John Deere        Deutz         Cummins
                                  Manufacturer—Engine Family
                                                             Iveco
Figure 29. Comparison of EPA/Manufacturer MY 2007 PM Emission Results
                                  Carbon Monoxide (CO)
           3.5
        i"
         
-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
4. Additional Compliance Requirements—
   Production  Line Testing and Selective  Enforcement Audits
Production line testing requires manufacturers to routinely test
engines as they leave the assembly line to demonstrate that
production engines control emissions at least as well as the
prototype engines tested for certification. Production line testing
is currently used primarily for nonroad engines.
Selective enforcement audits require manufacturers to test
engines pulled off the production line without prior notice. EPA
has used selective enforcement audits as a backstop measure if
a problem is suspected with routine production line testing (e.g.,
possible reporting fraud, or improper testing procedures). In the
future, the use of this tool will be increased as industry in various
sectors transitions to technologies that result in emissions reduc-
tions below previous standards, or in instances where sectors
may have a higher percentage of new, possibly inexperienced
entrants into the market.


B. Vehicle and  Engine In-Use
   Compliance

1. Light-Duty Vehicle In-Use Testing

a. In-Use Testing Conducted by EPA

EPA conducts a surveillance program at its Ann Arbor laboratory
to assess emissions a few years after vehicles enter customer
service. EPA typically recruits two- or three-year old vehicles
from vehicle owners in southeast Michigan for this program.
These vehicles are chosen for a variety of reasons, ranging from
issues of past emissions performance to gaining a better under-
standing of how new technologies are working.

In 2007, EPA tested 142 vehicles, representing 47 test classes,
as shown in Table 9. Vehicles are  listed  by manufacturer, vehicle
model, and model year.

A test class is a group of vehicles with very similar  design
characteristics from an emissions standpoint. EPA usually tests
three randomly selected vehicles within each selected test class.
During 2007, nine vehicles, covering five test classes, failed one
or more emissions standard. However, only one of these test
classes exhibited failures to the extent that it required  further
investigation by EPA.
Table 9. In-Use Surveillance Testing of Cars
and Light Trucks, 2007
MY
2004
2005
2006
Manufacturer
Toyota
BMW
GM
Suzuki
BMW
Chrysler
Ford
GM
GM Daewoo
Honda
Hyundai
Jaguar
Kia
Mazda
Mercedes-Benz
Mitsubishi
Nissan
Porsche
Subaru (Fuji)
Suzuki
Toyota
Volvo
VW
Hyundai
Model
Scion (1 .51)
Mini Cooper
Chevy Cavalier, Truck B.3L/6.0L
Aerio
32Si
Dodge Magnum, Jeep Liberty, Ram
1500, PT Cruiser Turbo
Crown Victoria, BOO, F-150, Ford
Escape 2WD, Lincoln LS, Mercury
Mariner 2WD, Ranger
Cadillac CTS and STS, Chevy
Impala, Chevy Pickup, Hummer,
Saturn, Cobalt
Suzuki Forenza
Accord, Element
Tucson, XG3BO
X-type
Rio, Sorento SUV
MPV
CLKBOO, CLK BOO, Cabriolet
Eclipse, Endeavor, Gallant
Altima, Murano, 3BOZ
Cayenne
Forester AWD
Grand Vitara
Avalon, RAV-4, Tacoma
S-40 and S-60
Beetle, Diesel Golf, Jetta
Sonata
28

-------
                                                                        Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
b. In-Use Testing Conducted by Manufacturers

Since 2004, passenger car and light truck manufacturers have
also been required to conduct their own in-use testing program,
known as the In-Use Verification Program (IUVP). Manufacturers
recruit IUVP vehicles from private citizens across the United States.
The vehicles are minimally screened  for safety or obvious tamper-
ing. The IUVP tests are required at low mileage (10,000 miles)
and high mileage (50,000 miles). Manufacturers must report their
IUVP data to EPA on a pre-determined schedule. In addition, if any
manufacturer's failure rates for a particular test group surpass the
threshold established in the regulations, that manufacturer must
automatically conduct an  In-Use Confirmatory Test Program (IUCP)
on the test group that has failed. Depending on the results of the
IUCP testing, manufacturers might need to recall or implement
other remedies for the failing test groups. In 2007, one manu-
facturer was required to conduct an  IUCP. This IUCP resulted in a
voluntary recall of BMW vehicles.

IUVP is yielding significant information about how light-duty
vehicles are performing in use. The  data allow EPA to work with
manufacturers to identify potential  design issues for future
model years and target vehicles that might need additional at-
tention. Table 10 shows the testing and failure rates for all of the
IUVP testing as of December 31, 2007. The high-mileage data
cover approximately 75 percent of MY 2003 testing. MY 2003
testing will be complete five years from the end of production
(expected August 2008). Test data for MY 2004 high-mileage
vehicles were not included because manufacturers were just
beginning  to test these vehicles at the time of publication of this
report.

Similarly, the latest low-mileage IUVP data cover approximately
95 percent of MY 2006 testing. MY 2006 testing will be com-
plete two years from the end of production (expected August
2008). Model year 2007 test data are not included because
manufacturers were just beginning to test these vehicles.

Overall, the test results from this program show that the in-use
fleet is performing well. If either the high- or low-mileage testing
program reveals problems, EPA works with the manufacturer to
fix the problem. This occurs either though voluntary manufac-
turer action or, if necessary, through an ordered emissions recall,
described in greater detail on page 36.
Table 10. In-Use Verification Program Results
Model Year
FTP
Vehicles
Tested
Percent
Fail
US06
Vehicles
Tested
Percent
Fail
2 -Day Evap
Vehicles
Tested
Percent
Fail
ORVR
Vehicles
Tested
Percent
Fail
High-Mileage Testing
2000
2001
2002
2003
478
1146
1121
599
6.5
4.7
5.1
4.2
0
18
95
123
0
5.6
5.3
2.4
43
104
108
62
0
3.8
2.8
3.2
22
78
75
49
9.1
6.4
9.3
10.2
Low-Mileage Testing
2004
2005
2006
2007
662
651
625
32
5.4
5.7
4.6
0
618
584
541
29
1.3
0.9
0.9
0
167
152
139
12
7.2
5.9
3.6
0
150
142
138
13
8.0
6.3
5.8
0
* Unrounded emission values exceeded the emission standard, including void tests.
2. Heavy-Duty Highway and Nonroad
   In-Use Testing
As it does for light-duty vehicles, in-use testing for the heavy-
duty and nonroad sectors provides an essential measure of
compliance with emission standards. Similar to the light-duty
program, both EPA and manufacturers conduct testing to
check in-use emission levels. Test program design varies
depending on issues specific to each sector, as described in the
following section.
                                                                                                                   -29

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
a, EPA In-Use Testing

EPA's in-use heavy-duty and nonroad emissions testing program
is new compared to the long-standing light-duty in-use program.
This is because the emission standards for these sectors only
recently became stringent enough to require controls that might
be affected by factors such as deterioration or engine control de-
sign strategy that could change emissions in use. Consequently,
EPA had multiple goals for its 2007 heavy-duty and nonroad
in-use test program. These included collecting data to character-
ize emissions  under various operating conditions, identifying po-
tentially noncompliant engine families, demonstrating new test
methods, and gaining experience with new tools and equipment.

EPA tests in-use heavy-duty highway and nonroad engines using
portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). These systems
can measure emissions in real time, under the same conditions
that vehicles or equipment might experience in actual service.
While not identical to laboratory measurement systems, this
technology is  appropriate for use as  a testing tool. PEMS testing
allows EPA to characterize emissions levels without having to
remove the engine from a large vehicle and test it in a laboratory
under simulated conditions. EPA conducts this testing at the U.S.
Department of Defense Aberdeen Test Center in Maryland.

During 2007,  EPA conducted 54 tests of late model year trucks
and 72 late model year nonroad equipment tests. The diesel
manufacturers whose products were tested include John Deere,
Caterpillar, Case New Holland, Cummins, Mack, Volvo, Interna-
tional Navistar, Kubota, and Mercedes-Benz. The vehicles and
equipment were procured from truck rental companies, state and
local public works fleets,  private companies, and other sources.
Sample results of this testing can be seen in Figure 31, below. It
is important to note that  the emission standards and test meth-
ods in place for the model years we tested are not as stringent
as they are for current model heavy-duty highway and nonroad
engines.

Figure 31 presents a sample of highway heavy-duty "not-to-
exceed" (NTE) N0x levels, compared to the NTE  N0x standard.
The NTE standard represents a maximum value for the entire
in-use test. It  is calculated by averaging second-by-second N0x
measurements into 30-second sets.
    5
   4.5

T  4
1 3.5
.Q  3
3 2.5

i  2
Ml 1.5
H
Z  1
   0.5
    0
                                                                                   ManufE   - ManufF —
                                               Individual Tests by Engine Family
        Figure 31.  In-Use Test Results for 3.1 NTE NO Standards for Highway Vehicles, 2007
 As it obtains results from in-use testing, EPA conducts an NTE
 review assessing the emissions that occur within the operating
 window of the NTE zone. Figure 31 represents the initial review
 by EPA engineers to determine areas where exceedances of
 emission limits may have occurred during operation of vehicles.
 Upon completion of this review, EPA discusses the findings with
 the manufacturers in question as part of the process of deter-
 mining the cause of the emission exceedances. This aspect of
 the review of in-use testing focuses on encouraging compliance
 with EPA regulations during real-world operation of the vehicles.
 We continue to review and analyze the full set of data from our
 in-use testing program.
 Table 11 offers another way of looking at the heavy-duty high-
 way data by comparing emissions within the NTE zone limits
 to demonstrate the amount of time compliance was achieved
 versus the times when excursions above the NTE emission limit
 occurred.These data suggest good overall compliance with
 emission standards, during highway operation, despite some
 exceedances of the NTE standard.

 Interpretation of heavy-duty highway and nonroad in-use emis-
 sions data represents a special challenge because of flexibilities
 built into the emission regulations. Depending on a manufac-
 turer's overall compliance strategy, high emission levels during
 in-use testing do not always represent a violation or noncompli-
 ance. Additional investigation will be  necessary to fully
30

-------
                                                                  Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Table 11. NTE Summary for a Subset of Heavy-Duty Highway Vehicles Tested in 2007
Model Year
Group
1999-2002
2003-2006
Regulatory
Class
MHD
MHD
MHD
MHD
MHD
BUS
BUS
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
HHD
LHD
MHD
MHD
Manufacturer
ManufA
Manuf B
Manuf C
Manuf C
Manuf C
Manuf D
Manuf B
Manuf E
Manuf E
Manuf E
Manuf E
Manuf D
Manuf D
Manuf B
Manuf B
Manuf B
Manuf C
Manuf C
Manuf C
Manuf F
ManufA
ManufA
PEL
4.35
4.07
3.50
3.50
3.50
2.70
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.52
2.56
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.51
3.01
3.01
2.58
2.59
2.65
NTE Limit
5.43
5.08
4.38
4.38
4.38
3.38
3.13
3.13
3.13
3.13
3.13
3.15
3.21
3.13
3.13
3.13
3.14
3.76
3.76
3.22
3.23
3.32
Max
NTE Observed
5.69
6.54
6.41
3.61
5.12
4.77
2.88
2.75
3.44
2.67
2.90
3.22
2.28
2.85
2.88
3.67
4.56
3.61
2.88
3.31
3.34
3.33
Time Above
NTE Limit
0.01%
39.78%
7.24%
0.00%
2.27%
2.83%
0.00%
0.00%
28.39%
0.00%
0.00%
0.36%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
1 .96%
12.78%
0.00%
0.00%
0.03%
0.05%
0.28%
Table 12. Revised Engine Family Designation and Reporting Schedules
Program
2005 Gaseous Pilot*
2006 Gaseous Pilot
2007 Gaseous Enforceable
2007 PM Pilot
2008 Gaseous Enforceable
2008 PM Pilot
2009 Gaseous Enforceable
2009 PM Enforceable
2010 Gaseous Enforceable"
201 0PM Enforceable"
Designate Families
Original
06/2005
06/2006
06/2007
06/2007
06/2008
06/2008
06/2009
06/2009
06/2010
06/2010
Revised
Unchanged
12/2006
12/2007
12/2007
09/2008
09/2008
Unchanged
Unchanged
Unchanged
Unchanged
Report Due
Original
11/2006
11/2007
11/2008
11/2008
11/2009
11/2009
11/2010
11/2010
11/2011
11/2011
Revised
11/2007
11/2008
11/2009
05/2010
03/2010
09/2010
04/2011
04/2011
Unchanged
Unchanged
rThe 2005 Gaseous Pilot Program has been completed.
r* For illustration only. The 2010 program dates are as originally promulgated.
                                                                                                         -31

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
understand the in-use results presented in this report. For
example, some of the high N0x levels may be due to factors
such as allowable engine  protection strategies that temporarily
increase emissions. We are working with the manufacturers to
understand the results and assess whether the measured in-use
emission levels constitute noncompliance with standards. EPA
will continue to analyze the data and pursue further investiga-
tory testing in 2008.

This is also the first year EPA obtained data as a result of the
manufacturer-run in-use testing program. The  manufacturer-run
program for heavy-duty on-road diesel vehicles was specifically
designed to assess compliance with EPA's NTE standards using
advanced  PEMS,  and was developed collaboratively between
EPA, the California Air Resources Board, and the diesel engine
manufacturers. As may be seen in Table 12 above, the first set of
data reported to  EPA by manufacturers was a  result of the pilot
phase of the program. Generally, EPA selects engine families for
testing in June of a given year. For the most part, manufacturers
are required to test 25 percent of their engine families in any
given year, such that their entire fleet of families will be tested
within four years. The implementation schedule for the manufac-
turer-run in-use program was revised earlier in 2008 as seen in
Table 12. These data will provide EPA with an even broader as-
sessment of the level of compliance of heavy duty vehicles with
the NTE standard during actual operation as manufacturers test
the fleet of vehicles on the road.

b. Manufacturer In-Use Testing

EPA regulations require some engine manufacturers to conduct
in-use testing under the Agency's direction. For every model year,
EPA selects engine families for in-use emission testing  based on
information provided in the certification application. Criteria for
selection include compliance margins (the difference between
actual emission levels and the FEL or standard),  previous testing
history, technology, and use of emission credits.  EPA may also
choose an engine family if there is reason to  believe a  problem
may exist with the particular engine family or manufacturer.

As shown in Table 13, the in-use testing requirement currently
applies to manufacturers of semi-trucks; buses; gasoline boats
and personal watercraft; diesel boats, ships, and oceangoing
vessels; locomotives;  and locomotive remanufacturers.
Table 13. Snapshot of Heavy-Duty Highway and Nonroad Manufacturer-Run
In-use Programs
Engine
Category
Semi-Trucks
and Buses
Gasoline
Boats and
Personal
Watercraft
Forklifts, Gen-
erators, and
Compressors
Locomotives
Program in
Place Since
2005
1998
2007
2007
Selection
Requirement
Up to 25% of
each manufac-
turer's engine
families
1 engine family
and/or 1 remanu-
factured family
per manufacturer
EPA Must
Approve
Testing Plan/
Engine
Selection
No
No
Yes
Yes
Sample Size
per Engine
Family
Varies
Generally, no
less than 4
engines
Generally 2 or
4, depending
on the size
of the engine
family
Generally, 2
locomotives
Age of
Engines to
Be Tested
Any age
provided
vehicle has
not exceeded
useful life
50% to 75%
of useful life
At least 50%
of useful life
50% to 75%
of useful life
Activity in or Before 2007
2005: 1 1 test orders issued
for 13 engine families MY
2003-MY 2005; 2007 results
undergoing analysis
MY 2006: 9 test orders issued
for 19 engine families; results
expected in 2008
N/A
MY 2006: 6 test orders is-
sued for 9 engine families or
remanufacturing kits; actual
orders issued in 2007
32

-------
                                                                         Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
3. Warranties, Defect Reporting, and Recalls

a. Light-duty Vehicles

a.1 Warranties
The CAA requires manufacturers to warranty certain emission
control components on vehicles. These warranties protect vehicle
owners from the cost of repairs for certain emission-related
failures that result from defective parts or that cause the vehicle
to exceed emission standards. The warranties and the parts that
are covered are specified by regulation and can be found listed
in the warranty booklet for any new vehicle.

There are two categories of parts covered by the defect and
performance warranties. Major emission control components
include catalytic converters, electronic control units, and onboard
diagnostic devices,  or computers. These components must be
warranted for eight years or 80,000 miles, whichever comes first,
from the date the vehicle enters into service. All other specified
emission control components must be covered for at least two
years or 24,000 miles, whichever  comes first, from the date the
vehicle enters into service.
a.2 Defect Reporting

Manufacturers are required to report emission-related defects to
EPA. An emission-related  defect is a defect in design, materials, or
workmanship in a device, system, or assembly, as described in the
approved application for certification. For highway sectors, includ-
ing light-duty cars, trucks, and SUVs, heavy-duty semi-trucks and
buses, and motorcycles, EPA regulations establish minimum num-
bers of confirmed defects that trigger defect information reporting
requirements. Table 14 describes the defect information report
categories for light-duty vehicles in 2007. These reports, which can
include multiple model years of a given vehicle, covered defects
affecting over 18 million cars, light trucks, and SUVs and, in some
cases, multiple models of a given vehicle. Although manufactur-
ers are required  to report emission-related defects to the Agency
if the regulatory trigger is met, an emission-related defect does
not necessarily lead to an emission recall because not all  defects
in emission-related parts increase emissions. Manufacturers must
report the defects even though they may not increase emission
levels.
Table 14. Number of Light-Duty Defect Information Reports by Category
Defect Category
OBD
Computer-Related (other than OBD)
Electrical, Mechanical, & Cooling Systems
Evaporative Emissions System
Fuel Tank Component
Intake/Exhaust Manifold
Monitoring/Measuring Sensor/System
Fuel Delivery Component
Evaporative Exhaust System
Ignition Component
Oxygen Sensor
Vehicle Emission Control Information Label
Catalyst Component/System
Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
Crankcase Ventilation Component/System
Hybrid Vehicle Component/System
Other
Total
Number of Reports
42
38
27
15
15
15
15
13
12
9
9
9
7
4
2
1
1
234
                                                                                                                    -33

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
ions
      •D
       O
      +*
       O
      £
      <
       CO
       d)
      5

                               i
                                                                      Total of 18.5 million vehicles affected in 2007
                                I    I
                                                                                                     ^   ^
                                        Manufacturer and Number of Defect Reports

                                             Figure 32. Defects, 2007
a.3 Recalls

Vehicle manufacturers are required to design and build their
vehicles to meet emission standards for the useful life of the
vehicle specified by law. Under Section 207 of the CAA, if EPA
determines that a  substantial number of vehicles in a class or
category do not meet emission standards in actual use, even
though they are properly maintained and used, EPA can require
the manufacturer to recall and fix the affected vehicles. An
emission recall is a repair, adjustment, or modification program
conducted by a manufacturer to remedy an emission-related
defect for which vehicle owners have been notified.

EPA has the authority to order a manufacturer to recall and fix
noncomplying vehicles. However, most recalls are initiated volun-
tarily by manufacturers once a potential noncompliance is discov-
ered. These voluntary actions could be influenced by the potential
for EPA action. Some voluntary recalls are directly influenced via
EPA in discussion with manufacturers. In 2007, more than
2.5 million cars and light trucks were affected by some type of
voluntary emission-related recall. These recalls included several
preceding model years. Figure 32 shows the total  number of
recalls and affected vehicles for MY 2007.

The range of problems for which vehicles can be recalled is
shown in Figure 33. A significant number of the recalls per-
formed in 2007 were to address possible vehicle emissions
problems. Recalls were also performed in 2007 for:

1)  Problems detected by the OBD system because of faulty com-
    ponents (e.g., oxygen sensor) and causing the malfunction
    indicator light (MIL) to illuminate

2)  Defects of the OBD system itself, such as software
    update issues
34

-------
                                                                     Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                        70
                        60
                        50
                     BJO
                     to
                        40
                     s.
                        30
                        20
                        10
                          Possible Emission
                             Problems
                                         OBD Problems
Safety-Related
  Problems
                                                                    Label Problems
Problems Detected
    by OBD
                                                     Type of Problem
                          Figure 33. Types of Problems for Vehicles Recalled, 2007
                          Note: Because some recalls can fall into more than one category, the percentages can
                          add up to more than 100 percent.
Description of types of vehicle recall problems:

    •  Possible emissions problems—defects that could
      cause emissions to increase

    •  OBD problems—defects of the OBD system such as
      software defects
          Safety-related problems—emissions-related defects
          that could also cause safety problems

          Label problems—incorrect Vehicle Emission Control
          Information labels

          Problems detected by OBD—defects that cause a Ml
          to be illuminated
                                      Manufacturer/Number of Recall Campaigns
                                Figure 34. Car and Light Truck Recalls, 2007
                                                                                                             •35

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
b. Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Engines

b.1 Warranties
The CAA requirement for emission control warranties against
defects in design, materials, and workmanship that cause vehicles
to exceed federal emission standards extends to all heavy-duty
and nonroad engines. Table 15 lists the different categories of
heavy-duty and nonroad engines and their warranty coverage
periods in effect for MY 2007.
Table 15. Warranty Coverage Period for Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Engines
for Model Year 2007
Engine Category
Lawn and Garden Equipment
Agricultural and Construction Equipment
Diesel Boats, Ships, and Oceangoing Vessels
Gasoline Boats and Personal Watercraft
Locomotives
Semi-Trucks and Buses (Diesel)
Semi-Trucks and Buses (Gasoline)
Recreational Vehicles
Forklifts, Generators, and Compressors
Minimum Warranty Coverage Period*
2 years, EPA may approve other periods under certain conditions
Between 1,500 hours/2 years and 3,000 hours/5 years, depending
on engine rating and revolutions per minute
50%-100% of useful life, depending on category
2 years or 200 hours
30% of useful life
5 years or 50,000 miles for light heavy duty engine, or 100,000
miles for medium heavy and heavy heavy engines
5 years or 50,000 miles
50% of useful life or 30 months
50% of useful life in hours of operation or 3 years
*Different coverage periods may apply to parts.
b.2 Defect Reporting

EPA regulations require manufacturers to monitor identified de-
fects in the emission control systems of properly maintained and
used engines. Manufacturers are required to notify EPA when
they learn of the existence of emission-related defects in 25 or
more highway engines (various thresholds apply to nonroad
engine categories) of the same class and model year. The steps
manufacturers must follow to investigate and report defects vary
among different categories.

Heavy-duty and  nonroad engine manufacturers have submitted
44 defect reports to date related to 2007 MY engines.
b.3 Recalls

EPA may order a recall when a defect that causes emissions
to exceed the applicable emissions standards is identified. If a
recall  is needed, manufacturers may decide to conduct the recall
voluntarily.  For example, EPA received seven defect reports from
snowmobile manufacturers in 2007, and six resulted in recalls.
Four of these recalls were actually initiated in 2007  and involve
seven different engine families. In all six cases, the snowmobile
manufacturers decided to recall voluntarily. One personal  wa-
tercraft and outboard manufacturer also conducted  a voluntary
recall  in 2007.
36

-------
V.  Regulatory
     Flexibilities
EPA builds a great deal of flexibility into its emissions and fuel
economy regulations. These flexibilities benefit the environment
by enabling vehicle and engine manufacturers to introduce new
technologies faster than would otherwise be possible under a
"one-size-fits all" standard. Table 16 below describes typical
flexibilities and the rules associated with those flexibilities.
Table 16. Regulatory Flexibilities
Flexibility
Phase-in Schedules
Averaging, Banking, and Trading (ABT)
Transition Programs for Equipment Manu-
facturers (currently available for agricul-
tural and construction equipment only)
Exemptions
National Security Exemptions
Hardship Relief
Small-Volume Manufacturer
Description
Allow emission standards to be phased in with an increasing portion of the fleet each year
Allows vehicle and engine manufacturers that overcomply with an average emission stan-
dard (e.g., Tier 2, Bin 5) to generate credits and either use them during a later compliance
period or sell them to other manufacturers who produce vehicles and/or engines that do
not meet the average standard
Allows equipment manufacturers to introduce into commerce equipment powered by non-
certified engines for up to seven years, contingent upon certain restrictions
Allow manufacturers and the public to import non-compliant engines for testing, display,
or racing with certain restrictions
Allow EPA to exempt engines used in armored vehicles or where compliance with emis-
sion standards interferes with critical performance
Allows engine manufacturers to request additional flexibilities when specific circumstanc-
es exist (e.g., economic hardship or natural disaster)
Provides some relief from compliance requirements for small-volume manufacturers
(1 0,000 vehicles per year or less)
A. Cars and Light Trucks
EPA's Tier 2 program for cars and light trucks exemplifies several
flexibilities EPA regulations provide for vehicle manufacturers and
fuel refiners. Among these flexibilities are a six-year phase-in of
emission standards; emission standards based on a fleet average
etc. Manufacturers are also allowed to produce vehicles that over-
comply with the average standard (e.g., Tier 2 Bin 5) to generate
credits to be used during a later compliance period or sell them to
other manufacturers that produce vehicles or engines that do not
compliance level, with less stringent standards for the initial years   meet the average standard.
of the program; and special phase-in conditions for diesel vehicles,
                                                                                                              •37

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Figure 35 below shows actual Tier 2 phase-in percentages
versus the required Tier 2 phase-in for MY 2004 through 2007.
Manufacturers have been able to comply at higher phase-in
percentages than required for each year of the phase-in.
                                  100
                                   75
                                   50
                                   25
                                           Tier 2 Phase-In for Model Years 2004-2007
                                                                           100%
                                                             Average of 87%
                                       Average of 36%
                                                                                   MY 2007 Requirement
                                                                                   MY 2006 Requirement
                                                                                   MY 2005 Requirement
                                                                                   MY 2004 Requirement
                                         2004
                                                                           2007
                                                    2005         2006

                                                       Model Years

                                    Figure 35. Tier 2 Phase-In Percentages
Out of approximately 40 vehicle manufacturers, five (Ford,
Honda, Hyundai, Kia, and Toyota) had a positive Tier 2 emission
limit credit balance for MY 2007, with one manufacturer (Aston
Martin) having a small deficit or negative credit balance. The
regulations allow three model years to reconcile any deficits.
Manufacturers with credits have tended to certify the majority of
their vehicles to the Tier 2 N0x fleet average requirement of
Bin 5 and the rest of their fleet to lower bins such as Bin 4
and Bin 3 that have more stringent emission standards. Figure
36 shows the percent of test groups per bin.The remaining
manufacturers did not have any credits because they either certi-
fied all of their vehicles to Bin 5 or traded more stringent lower
bin vehicles with less stringent higher bin vehicles such that they
cancelled each other out, resulting in meeting the Tier 2 N0x
fleet average requirement of Bin 5 exactly.
                  10
                           10%
                                   20%
                                           30%
                                                           50%
                                                                                                  100%
                                                   Percent of Total Test Groups

                                Figure 36. Percent of Total Test Groups per Bin
38

-------
                                                                         Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Despite the stringency of the Tier 2 standards, manufacturers
have been able to comply. Manufacturers typically strive to design
vehicles to overcomply with the standards. This is because vehicles
have to comply with the emission standards for their useful lives
(120,000 miles for light-duty vehicles) and manufacturers are sub-
ject to in-use testing requirements. There are a number of issues
that can cause emissions to increase in-use, including component
deterioration,  component failures, and the stacking of component
tolerances. To  ensure that vehicles will comply for their useful
lives and not have problems with in-use emission performance,
manufacturers try to design their vehicles to emission levels well
below the emission  standards. The difference between the emis-
sion standard  and a vehicle's actual certification emission levels is
known as the "compliance margin."
Figure 37 shows the average compliance margins for the MY
2007 light-duty fleet for Tier 2  Bins 3, 5, and 8. These compliance
margins range from 46 percent to 96 percent depending on the
pollutant. Since the Tier 2 standards are based on a N0x fleet
average requirement equal to Bin 5, the big concern with the
stringent Tier 2 emission standards was whether manufacturers
would be able to maintain compliance margins similar to histori-
cal levels of 50 percent for past emission programs, such as Tier 0,
Tier 1, and the national low emission vehicle program. As Figure
37 and the following figures illustrate, manufacturers have been
able to well exceed their past performance with regard to compli-
ance margins.
                         NMOG
                                                                                               CO
                                  Bin 3                       Bin 5                      Bin 8

                     Figure 37. Tier 2 Bin Certification Levels and Compliance Margins
                                     Note: Manufacturer-specific data are presented in Appendix A.
                                                                                                                    •39

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Figures 38, 39, and 40 below present the MY 2007 average cer-   share a graph. In these graphs, two values are present for each
tification levels along with the standards for Tier 2 Bin 5 for each   bar; the top value is the standard, and the bottom value is the
major manufacturer. Some closely related manufacturers          certification level.
         o.io
                                                  Standard = 0.09 gpm

      CO

      E
      (5
         0.08
         0.06
         0.04
         0.02
         0.00
                GM     Chrysler    Ford   VW/Audi   Nissan   Others   Toyota   Hyundai/   Honda    Subaru   BMW  Mercedes-
                                                                        Kia                              Benz
              Figure 38. Tier 2  Bin 5 Certification  Levels and Compliance Margins for  NMOG
40

-------
                                                                 Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
    0.08
    0.07
                                                  Standard = 0.07 gpm
    0.06
|   0.05
k.
2L
O*  0.04
S
(5
    0.03
    0.02
    0.01
    0.00
          33%     51%     53%     53%     53%     53%     56%
                                                   Compliance Margin
                                                                         67%     70%     75%     78%
          Ford    Honda    Others     GM     Chrysler   VW/Audi  Mercedes-  Hyundai/   Toyota    Nissan    Subaru    BMW
                                                         Benz      Kia
          Figure 39. Tier 2 Bin 5 Certification  Levels and Compliance Margins for NO
   O
   O
   •s
    CO
4.5
Standard = 4.2 gpm
4.0
3.5
6
3.0
1.0 1
r 1
9% 7C
U
I 1
% 7
'
1 J
r 1
3% 8
r
1 I
I 1
3% 8C
k ^
1 •
r 1
% 8
Complianc
k i
1 I
r 1
3% 8
; Margin
\
m '
h 1
3% 8
L
h 1
3% 8
r i
h 1
3% 9C
r
h 1
% 91

h 1
% 9

r-
2%

       0.5
       0.0
             GM     Chrysler   VW/Audi   Others   Subaru   Ford   Hyundai/ Mercedes-  Nissan   Honda    Toyota    BMW
                                                         Kia     Benz
        Figure 40. Tier 2 Bin 5 Certification Levels and Compliance Margins for CO
                                                                                                         -41

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
B.  Heavy-Duty Highway Engines
EPA's 2007 heavy-duty highway regulation provides an example
of the types of regulatory flexibilities available to manufactur-
ers of heavy-duty highway engines. The PM emission standard
(0.01 g/brake horsepower/hour [bhp-hr]) took full effect with
the  2007 model year. The NOX and non-methane hydrocarbon
(NMHC) standards (0.20 and 0.14 g/bhp-hr, respectively) are
being phased in between MY 2007 and MY 2010. The phase-in
requirement is on a percent-of-sales basis: 50 percent from MY
2007 to MY 2009 and 100 percent in 2010. Additionally, manu-
facturers may be allowed to use emission credits to demonstrate
compliance with  the NOX standard through an ABT program.

Fifty MY 2007 engine families were certified  through the use of
phase-in or credits provisions (Figure 41). Note the Family Emis-
sion Limit means an emission level that is declared by the manu-
facturer to serve  in lieu of the emission standard for certification
purposes and for the ABT Program.
   35

   30
I
E  25
S.
£  20
I
•s  16


z
    5
                        Family Emission Limit
       Figure 41. On-Highway Engine Family
 Certification by Family Emission Limit, MY 2007


Cummins certified a MY 2007 light-duty truck with a NOX ad-
sorber at 0.2 g/mile NOX, which allowed the company to produce
other engines at the 2004 NMHC+NOX standard (2.5 g/bhp-hr)
through use of the phase-in provisions in the regulations.

With respect to PM, most MY 2007 engine families were certified
at 0.01  g/bhp-hr. However, three engine families were certified at
the 2004 PM standard (0.10 g/bhp-hr) through use of another
flexibility provision. Manufacturers who certified engines early
in 2006 utilizing diesel paniculate filters (DPFs) were allowed
to certify engines in 2007 without DPFs on a 1:1.5 production
volume basis. This means that for every two engines sold with
a DPF prior to MY 2007, a manufacturer  may sell three engines
without a DPF in model years 2007 through 2009. The intent of
this flexibility is to encourage early introduction of new emission
control  technology to the marketplace.
C. Nonroad Engines and Equipment
EPA's nonroad engine emission regulations provide many
program designs and options to provide engine and equip-
ment manufacturers with compliance flexibility. Two of the most
prominent programs are the ABT program  and the Transition
Program for Equipment Manufacturers (TPEM).

1. ABT for Nonroad Engines
ABT provisions in many EPA regulations allow manufacturers to
certify engine families in their product line at levels above the
emission standard, provided that these emission "deficits" are
offset by positive credits from engine families they certify below
the standard. The flexibility to meet overall emission standards
by ABT credits facilitates earlier introduction of clean technology
into the market than would otherwise be feasible. ABT has prov-
en to be a successful tool in multiple sectors  including nonroad
diesel, marine diesel, heavy-duty  highway diesel and gasoline,
small and marine SI, snowmobile, and locomotive engines.

Participation in the voluntary ABT program ranges in  both the
number of participants (two manufacturers for the marine diesel
sector to 26 manufacturers for small SI engines)  and the pol-
lutants for which credits are generated or used. The tables that
follow provide information on which companies  participate in
generating or consuming credits,  by sector. The level of activity
in any given sector, as characterized by the number of trades
and the size of the overall credit bank for the sector, can provide
useful information about the technologies  and compliance strate-
gies being used in the sector. For  2007, EPA is presenting early
information about companies taking advantage of the ABT provi-
sions. Specifically, Tables 17 through 24 show the manufacturers
participating in ABT by industry. If a "yes"  is listed for a manu-
facturer under a  pollutant, it means the manufacturer is either
generating or using credits for that pollutant  in the 2007 model
year. EPA anticipates including a more comprehensive analysis
and quantitative assessment of these programs in future reports.
         Table 17. Marine  Diesel Engine
      Manufacturers Participating in ABT in
                the 2007 Model Year
Manufacturer
Detroit Diesel
Isuzu Motors
PM Credits
No
Yes
THC+NOX
Credits
Yes
Yes
42

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Table 18. On-Highway Diesel Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT
in the 2007 Model Year
Manufacturer
Caterpillar
Cummins
Detroit Diesel
General Motors
Hino Motors
International Truck and Engine
Isuzu Motors
John Deere
Volvo Powertrain
NMHC+NOx Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
N0x Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
PM Credits
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Table 19. Nonroad Diesel Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT
in the 2007 Model Year
Manufacturer
CNH Engine Corporation
Cummins
John Deere
Komatsu
Perkins Engines
VM Motori
Yanmar
NMHC+NOx Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
PM Credits
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Table 20. On-Highway Otto Cycle Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT
in the 2007 Model Year
Manufacturer
Bi-Phase Technologies
Clean Fuel USA
Ford
General Motors
NMHC+NOx Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
                                 -43

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Table 21. Small SI Nonroad Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT
in the 2007 Model Year
Manufacturer
Andreas Stihl
Atlas Copco Construction Tools
Briggs & Stratton
Chongqing Lifan Industry Group
Echo/Kioritz
EMAK
Fuji Heavy Industries
GXi International
Homelite Consumer Products
Honda
Husqvarna
Husqvarna Outdoor Products
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Kohler Power Systems
Komatsu Zenoah
Liquid Combustion Technology
Makita Numazu
Makita USA/Dolmar
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
MTD Southwest
Onan
Shindaiwa
Tanaka Kogyo
Tecumseh Power
Wenling Jennfeng Industry
Yamaha Motor Company
CO Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
NMHC+NOx Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
44

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Table 22. Marine SI Engine Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year
Manufacturer
Bombardier Recreational Products
Briggs & Stratton
Honda
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Mercury Marine
Surfango
Suzhou Parsun Power Machine
Suzuki
Sword Marine Technology
Tohatsu
Weber Motor
Yamaha Motor Company
THC+NOx Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Table 23. Snowmobile Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year
Manufacturer
Arctic Cat
Bombardier Recreational Products
Polaris Industries
Yamaha Motor Company
CO Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
HC Credits
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
                                 -45

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Table 24. Locomotive Manufacturers Participating in ABT in the 2007 Model Year
Manufacturer
Advanced Global Environmental
CSXT Environmental
EcoTrans Environmental
Electro-Motive Diesel
MotivePower
National Railway Equipment
Railpower Hybrid Technologies
Transportation Systems Business Operations of General Electric
N0x Credits
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
PM Credits
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
2. Transition Program for Equipment Manufacturers (TPEM)
EPA created TPEM in an effort to provide original equipment
manufacturers (OEMs) with flexibility to comply with new
emission regulations. When EPA lowers emission standards,
engine manufacturers might need to redesign their engines to
achieve the required emission reductions. Consequently, OEMs
might also need to redesign their products to accommodate these
engine design changes. TPEM allows OEMs to continue using
engines that comply with the previous set of emission standards
("noncompliant engines") for up to seven years after the new
regulations first apply.  Participation is voluntary. Participating
OEMs may choose between two options per power category:

    • Small-volume allowance—OEMs may install noncompli-
      ant engines in up to 200 pieces of equipment per year,
      not to exceed 700 pieces in the seven-year period (other
      limitations apply)
    •  Percent of production allowance—OEMs may use
      noncompliant engines in percentages over the period of
      participation  not exceeding 80 percent.

Engine manufacturers are required to report numbers of
noncompliant engine sales to EPA. In these reports, the equip-
ment manufacturer to which the engines were sold is included in
the summary for each engine family.

TPEM  is available only during a specific period of time for each
power category. Table 25 indicates when the program is avail-
able. In some cases, the period of  participation  has already
expired. Manufacturers must report their TPEM activities within a
year of ending their participation.
46

-------
                                                                       Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Table 25. TPEM Allowance per Power Category
Power Category
kW<8
(hp<11)
8 750 hp)
First Year of Allowance
2000
2000
1999
2004
2003
2003
2001
2002
2006
Last Year of Allowance
2006
2006
2005
2010
2009
2009
2007
2008
2013
In 2007, eight OEMs voluntarily notified EPA of their intent to
begin participating in TPEM under the categories for which the
program is still available. The Agency received 16 reports from
engine and equipment manufacturers in 2007 and is currently
evaluating them. OTAQ works with OECA to ensure compliance
with TPEM requirements.

A new TPEM begins in  2008 for manufacturers using Tier 4
engines. This new program has more stringent participation and
reporting requirements. It requires OEMs to notify us before they
use this flexibility. In 2007, eight OEMs notified us of their intent
to participate in 2008. OEMs must also submit annual reports
documenting their compliance with the terms of the program.

Currently, TPEM is only available for diesel construction and ag-
ricultural equipment. However, the Agency intends to extend this
flexibility to other nonroad engine categories in the future.
                                                                                                                 -47

-------
VI. Summary:  2007  Compliance  Highlights
A. Light-Duty Highlights
In 2007, EPA continued its implementation of the stringent Tier 2
emission standards. For light-duty vehicles and smaller light-duty
trucks, the Tier 2 N0x fleet average standard of 0.07 g/mi was
fully implemented. For larger light-duty trucks and medium-duty
passenger vehicles, this was the last year that these vehicles
could comply exclusively with the Interim Non-Tier 2 N0x fleet
average standard of 0.20 g/mi. Light-duty vehicles are now be-
ing  certified at very clean levels, with most vehicles meeting the
Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions requirements, with a significant compli-
ance margin as well.

EPA also began implementing the new "B-cycle" fuel economy
labeling requirements, which require manufacturers to measure
fuel economy over five test cycles: city, highway, US06, SC03, and
cold CO, compared to just the city and highway test cycles used
in the past. These additional test cycles cover a broad range of
vehicle  operation, such as high speeds, aggressive accelerations,
air-conditioning, and cold temperature. These conditions were
not captured over the original two test cycles. The new B-cycle
requirements result in fuel economy label estimates that better
reflect actual vehicle operation. City fuel economy estimates are
reduced on average by 12 percent from the previous estimates,
with some vehicles, such as hybrids, experiencing  a reduction of
up to 30 percent. Highway fuel economy estimates are reduced
on average by 8 percent from previous estimates with some
vehicles experiencing a reduction of up to 25 percent. EPA also
began using a redesigned fuel economy label for all light-duty
vehicles and trucks. The new label incorporates improved graphics
and information that make the labels more consumer-friendly and
useful.

EPA implemented new durability procedures for cars and light
trucks. These procedures introduced new durability test cycles for
aging vehicles and components. Each manufacturer must supply
information to EPA on in-use performance. If the results are ac-
ceptable, EPA approves the manufacturer's durability process for
that model year. Each manufacturer's durability process must be
approved each year.
EPA also implemented evaporative permeation requirements
for motorcycles and ATVs. These were the first EPA permeation
requirements for nonroad vehicles. These requirements reduce
the amount of hydrocarbon vapor that permeates through plastic
fuel tanks and rubber fuel lines.

EPA had several certification firsts. Certificates were issued for
the first Tier 2 Bin 8 diesel vehicle (Mercedes-Benz E320 Bluetec)
and the first heavy-duty vehicle compliant with the new stringent
2010 heavy-duty 0.2 g/mi N0x emission standards (Dodge Ram
2500/3500 with the 6.7 liter Cummins engine). The Dodge Ram
was also the first chassis-certified heavy-duty vehicle. EPA also
published guidance describing certification procedures for light-
duty vehicles and  heavy-duty engines that use selective catalyst
reduction technologies. Finally, EPA successfully tested the first
four-wheel drive confirmatory test vehicle on the new EPA four-
wheel drive dynamometer.

During 2007, light-duty vehicle manufacturers issued 48
emission-related recalls covering 3,024,236 vehicles. This was up
from 42 recalls and 2.6 million vehicles in 2006.

BMW  agreed to recall and fix 75,000 MY 2004 through MY
2006 X5 SUVs as a result of emission failures discovered in the
program. IUVP testing showed high N0x emissions. As a result,
BMW  agreed to recall the vehicles following the development of
calibration changes to lower the emission levels.

After EPA intervention, Volkswagen agreed to provide extended
catalytic converter warranties for 340,000 vehicles, including the
MY 2001 through  MY 2003 Golf, Jetta, and new Beetle models
with 2.0 liter engines because of catalyst mat retention failures.
The warranty was extended from the required eight years or
80,000 miles to 10 years or 100,000 miles.

OTAQ  played a key role  in a landmark enforcement settlement
involving the illegal sale of an aftermarket tampering  device that
interferes with a vehicle's OBD catalyst monitoring system. EPA
discovered the devices, which are called oxygen sensor simula-
tors. When installed, they trick the OBD catalyst monitor into
48

-------
                                                                         Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
sensing a properly functioning catalyst even when the catalyst
is missing or faulty. EPA considers oxygen sensor simulators to
be illegal defeat devices under the CAA. OECA and  the Depart-
ment of Justice investigated, tested, and evaluated these devices,
which were marketed by Casper's Electronics. In a settlement
announced on July 10, 2007, Casper's was required to pay civil
penalties, recall the devices, and stop selling them. Publicity
about the settlement helped stop other marketers of these de-
vices from selling them as well.
B.  Heavy-Duty and  Nonroad  Highlights

The stringent 2007 heavy-duty emission standards took effect this
year. EPA's implementation of the standards included reviewing com-
puter software associated with the new emission  control technology.
The goal of the review is to ensure that engines will be designed
to meet emission standards over the broadest operating range
achievable with current technology. EPA review of this software led
to design changes, preventing an estimated 140,000 tons of excess
N0x from MY 2007 engines. This was accomplished without causing
delays of engine production.

EPA conducted confirmatory testing of 11 nonroad diesel engines.
This effort represents a broadening of EPA's compliance presence
in the nonroad and heavy-duty sectors. In addition to a regular cer-
tification confirmatory testing program for nonroad diesel engines,
small SI engines (below 25 hp) will also  be tested in the coming
year. Confirmatory testing in the power range of 250 to 450 hp was
undertaken in 2007; however, this will be expanded in the future to
include additional nonroad diesel engines beyond that range. The
small SI testing capability will  allow for testing of new engines as
well as pave the way for future in-use compliance efforts.

EPA conducts more than 200 in-use tests annually for heavy-
duty highway and nonroad diesel engines. EPA's in-use and
production line test programs have yielded test data on produc-
tion engines in the real world that encourage manufacturers to
make every effort to ensure that real-world production matches
design  targets in the certification applications. Recently, in-use
measurement allowances for gaseous pollutants have been
developed. These allowances facilitate the successful imple-
mentation of the new manufacturer-run in-use test program for
gaseous pollutants.

EPA also worked with more than 30 companies and U.S. Customs
and Border Protection (CBP) to ensure that used Japanese mini-
trucks were properly imported into the United States. The mini-
trucks were used as highway vehicles in other countries, but they
do not  meet EPA emission standards for light-duty trucks and can
only be legally imported as unregulated nonroad vehicles, if prop-
erly modified for speed restriction. Numerous CBP ports stopped
illegal importations of unmodified mini-trucks and referred the
cases to EPA. EPA worked to ensure future legal importation of
mini-trucks by educating  prospective importers on the proper
methods for limiting the mini-trucks' maximum speed to 25 miles
per hour.
                                                                                                                    -49

-------
Appendix A.
Tier 2 Manufacturers' Average  Certification
Level vs. the Standard
The following graphs present the MY 2007 average certification
levels with the appropriate standards for Tier 2 Bins 3, 5, and 8
for each major manufacturer. Related manufacturers (e.g., VW/
Audi) are presented in one graph. Two values are represented in
each bar; the top value is the standard, and the bottom value is
the certification level.
Note that the CO standards fall out of the range of the chart
because the standard levels for N0x and NMOG are much lower.
Also, not all graphs have Bin 3 or 8 data because not all  manu-
facturers had vehicles certified to Bin  3 or 8 for MY 2007.
     4.2
   a>
   a.
      1.6
      1.4
      1.2
   «   1.0
   o
   Q.
   •g   0.8
   CO

   I   0.6
      0.4
      0.2
                                                               T
                                                                          • Standard
                                                                          i Certification Level
                    BMW Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
50

-------
                                                           Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
   4.2
                                                                                    • Standard

                                                                                    i Certification Level
                                                            NOv
                                                                         CO
                       Bin 5                                 Bin 8


                Chrysler Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
   4.2
                                                                        T
a>
a.


1
I
o
Q.
E
(5
• Standard

i Certification Level
        NMOG
                 NOX      CO      NMOG      NOX       CO      NMOG     NOX


                Bin 3                      Bin 5                     Bin 8


                  Ford Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
                                                                             CO
                                                                                                 •51

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
          NMOG
                                                                                 • Standard
                                                                                 i Certification Level
                                                                        CO
                       NOX           CO         NMOG         NOX

                      Bin 5                                Bin 8

                General Motors Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
                                                                                  • Standard
                                                                                  i Certification Level
                     Honda Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
52

-------
                                                       Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
s.
                NMOG
                                                                              • Standard
                                                                              i Certification Level
                                       Bin5
            Hyundai/Kia Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
   4.2
                                                                               • Standard
                                                                               i Certification Level
                                                         NOX
                                                         Bin8
                                                                     CO
          Mercedes-Benz Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
                                                                                           •53

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                    NMOG
                                                                                  • Standard
                                                                                  i Certification Level
                                                                   CO
                     Nissan Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
                   NMOG
                                                                                   • Standard
                                                                                   i Certification Level
                                                                   CO
                    Subaru Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
54

-------
                                                      Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
4.2
2.1
     NMOG
                                             CO
                                                                            • Standard
                                                                            i Certification Level
                                                    NMOG     N0y
                                                                    CO
             Bin 3                   Bin 5                   Bin 8

            Toyota Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
 4.2 i-
              VW Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
                                                                              • Standard
                                                                              i Certification Level
                                                                                           •55

-------
Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
                   NMOG
                                                                                • Standard
                                                                                i Certification Level
                                                                  CO
             Other Manufacturers Tier 2 Average Certification Level vs. the Standard
56

-------
Appendix B. Compliance  Data Sources
EPA relies on a significant amount of data to support its certi-
fication and compliance decisions for all regulated sectors. EPA
uses several information databases to gather information from
regulated parties. They include:

Verify—EPA's Verify Vehicle and Engine Compliance Computer
System collects emissions and fuel economy compliance
information for all types of vehicles (mobile sources of air
pollution), including light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty engines,
locomotives, and motorcycles and ATVs. Vehicle and  engine
manufacturers report this information to the Verify system. The
database gathers and processes the data, confirms fee payment,
issues certificates of conformity, and supports other compliance
functions.
DCFuels—The DCFuels database collects and tracks the quality
and quantity of fuel and fuel additives used in the United States.
The system collects more than 100,000 electronic and paper
reports per year from refiners, importers, laboratories, pipelines,
terminals, additive manufactures, and rail and barge companies.
In 2007, DCFuels introduced a highly secure online submittal
process, through EPA's Central Data Exchange, that digitally
signs and encrypts each submission.

Engine Information Management System—Nonroad
engine certification information is collected and stored in the En-
gine Information System database. Engine manufacturers submit
certification data in templates, which are reviewed and loaded
directly into the database. Certified engines in agricultural and
construction equipment; forklifts, generators, and compressors;
lawn and garden equipment; diesel boats, ships, and oceangoing
vessels; gasoline boats  and personal watercraft; and snowmo-
biles are included in this system.
                                                                                                           •57

-------
Appendix  C.  Useful  References and Web Links
OTAQ Progress Report. This report presents the most recent
developments in OTAQ's key program areas. It can be found at
www.epa.gov/otaq/about/420rOB011 .pdf.

Fuel Economy Trends Report. This report provides data on
the fuel economy and technology characteristics of new light-
duty vehicles for MY 1975 through MY 2006.  It can be found at
www.epa.gov/OTAQ/fetrends.htm.

Fuel Trends Report. This report provides a comprehensive
look at fuel trends over the last several years. It can be found at
www.epa.gov/otaq/fueltrendsreport.htm.

Emission Standards Brochure. This  brochure summarizes
emissions standards, including those developed by EPA, the
California Air Resources Board, the European Union, and others.
It can be found  at www.epa.gov/otaq/standardsbrochure.htm.

Verify Web Site. The public Web site for Verify provides a vari-
ety of general information on  the Verify system. It can be found
atwww.epa.gov/otaq/verify/index.htm.

Fuels Registration Web Site. This site contains report-
ing forms and associated instructions for the registration of
fuels and fuel additives. These forms must be completed and
submitted by producers and importers of gasoline, diesel fuel
(including biodiesel), and fuel additives prior to their manu-
facture or import. The registration Web  site can be found at
www.epa.gov/OTAQ/regs/fuels/ffarsfrms.htm.

Document Index System (DIS). This system is a document
database that provides Web-based access to EPA documents.
With more than 4,000  certification and  compliance documents in
the DIS, the public can  choose from a variety of search options to
obtain such documents as manufacturers' certificates of confor-
mity and applications, guidance letters, advisory circulars, and
regulatory information. The DIS can be found atwww.epa.gov/dis.
Green Vehicle Guide (GVG). This guide is an interactive
Web site that rates cars and trucks based on emissions and
fuel economy. It provides an online resource to help consumers
choose the cleanest, most fuel-efficient vehicles to meet their
needs. It is located atwww.epa.gov/greenvehicles.

Engine Information System. This Web site provides certifica-
tion information for nonroad engine categories, including agri-
cultural and construction equipment; forklifts, generators, and
compressors; lawn and garden equipment; diesel boats, ships,
and oceangoing vessels; gasoline boats and personal watercraft;
and snowmobiles. Most of this information is available at
www.epa.gov/otaq/certdata.htm.

Light-Duty Certification Test Data. This site provides ac
cess to the emission test data used by EPA to certify light-duty
vehicles. The data  are available by model year, back to 1979.
It has the grams-per-mile emission levels as well as the emis-
sion standard that applies to the test vehicle. It can be found at
www.epa.gov/otaq/crttst.htm.

Fuel Economy Test Data. This site provides the test data
that are used to calculate the city and highway fuel economy
estimates. The data are available by model year, back to 1984. It
provides the fuel economy values for each vehicle tested. These
values are used to determine the  EPA estimates posted on win-
dow stickers, but are not necessarily identical to the estimates,
which are based on "model type" fuel economy, a calculated
value that represents the average of various configurations that
may be offered within a model type. The fuel economy test data
can be found atwww.epa.gov/otaq/tcldata.htm.

Fuel Economy Guide Data. This site provides the  EPA fuel
economy  estimates that are posted on all new cars and  light
trucks, and which  are compiled into the annual Fuel  Economy
Guide publication. Fuel economy  information for each vehicle
model type is included in the data, back to 1978. It can  be found
atwww.fueleconomy.gov/feg/download.shtml.
58

-------
                                                                     Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities
Key to Acronyms
ABT
ATV
bhp-hr
CAA
CAFE
CBP
CNG
CO
CO
   2
DPF
ESS
EPA
EEL
FTP
HC
hp
IUCP
IUVP
LPG
MIL
averaging, banking, and trading                mpg
all-terrain vehicle                             MY
brake horsepower/hour                       NMHC
Clean Air Act                                NMOG
Corporate Average Fuel Economy               N0x
Customs and Border Protection                 NTE
compressed natural gas (mostly methane)        OBD
carbon monoxide                             OECA
carbon dioxide
diesel paniculate filters                       OEM
85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline      ORVR
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency           OTAQ
family emission limit                          PEMS
federal test procedure                         PM
hydrocarbon                                 ppm
horsepower                                 SI
In-Use Confirmatory Test Program               SUV
In-Use Verification  Program                    TPEM
liquefied petroleum gas                       ULSD
malfunction indicator light                    VOC
miles per gallon
model year
non-methane hydrocarbon
non-methane organic gases
nitrogen oxides
not to exceed
onboard diagnostics
Office of Enforcement and
Compliance Assurance
original equipment manufacturer
onboard re-fueling vapor recovery
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
portable emissions monitoring system
particulate matter
parts per million
spark-ignition
sport utility vehicle
transition program for equipment manufacturers
ultra-low sulfur diesel
volatile organic compound
                                                                                                             •59

-------

-------