EPA 903/B/00/02
                        CBP/TRS 244/00
                          August 2000
     Pollution Prevention
A Waste Reduction Guide for Facilities in the
      Chesapeake Bay Watershed
              111 BAY
           Chesapeake Bay Program
            A Wntit^hf-ti f'cift

     Businesses for the Say thanks the Elizabeth River Project for granting
  permission to modify their "River Stars P2 Workbook". Their hard work and
      dedication to protecting and restoring the Chesapeake Bay is greatly
  Businesses for the Bay also thanks the Chesapeake Bay Program's Pollution
     Prevention Workgroup for their assistance in preparing this document.
 Businesses for the Bay is the Chesapeake Bay Program's voluntary pollution prevention
 program for businesses, industries, government facilities, and other organizations within
                         the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique regional partnership that has been directing and
 conducting the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since the signing of the historic 1983
Chesapeake Bay Agreement. The Chesapeake Bay Program partners include the states of
   Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia; the District of Columbia; the Chesapeake Bay
   Commission, a tri-state legislative body; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
        representing the federal government; and participating advisory groups.
              Printed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Chesapeake Bay Program
                V Printed with Vegetable Oil Based Inks on Recycled Paper 30% Postconsumer

     Table of Contents
              Introduction  3
    What is Pollution Prevention (P2)? 3
          How Can You Help? 3
         Businesses for the Bay 3
            Getting Started 4

  Developing a Pollution Prevention Plan 6

     How to Do Pollution Prevention 9

          Facility Operations 10
         Reducing at the Source 10
           New Technology 10
          Process Re-Design 10
          Product Substitution 11
           Energy Efficiencyl 1
Washing Facilities, Vehicles and Equipmentl2
        Outdoor Pressure Washing 12
            Vehicle Fuelingl3
             Pesticide Use 13
      Landscaping for Water Quality 14
  Landscape Installation and Maintenance 15
       Keeping a Clean Work Site 15
      Waste and Materials Storage 16
      Spill Prevention and Clean-Upl7
               Recycling 19
            Waste Disposal20

   Purchasing and Accounting Practices22
    Track Costs by Process or Activity22
           Inventory Control22
          Damaged Material s23
          Recycled Materials23
           Printed Materials24
           Alternative Fuel Vehicles24

       Employee Awareness & Involvement25
             Employee Involvement25
             Employee Recognition26
             Employee Commuting26

    Public Relations & Community Involvement27
               Product Promotion27
        Sharing Experiences-Be a Mentor27
         Awards and Incentive Programs28
         Community Outreach Programs28
                Area Clean-Ups28
  Appendix A - Environmental Contact Information29

Appendix B - Pollution Prevention Internet Resources33

  The Chesapeake Bay watershed is one of our most important natural resources.  The
64,000 square mile area that drains to the Chesapeake Bay, called the watershed, is home
to a wide variety of organisms, including birds, shellfish, trees, fish, and humans. With so
     many dependent upon the Bay watershed, it is critical to protect and restore it.
                  What is Pollution Prevention (P2)?
 One of the best ways to protect the Bay is to prevent pollution and waste from entering
  the waterways. Pollution prevention (P2) is a hierarchy of activities that eliminate or
reduce the amount of chemical contaminants or other wastes at the source of production.
    Source reduction is the preferred method to addressing waste issues, followed by
 reuse/recycling, then energy recovery. Treatment, followed by safe disposal, should be
                            used as a last alternative.
                           How Can You Help?
  There are a number of ways you can prevent pollution and waste at the source. This
 workbook outlines more than 30 different strategies that your facility can implement to
    help protect the Chesapeake Bay. Not only can these strategies be good for the
    environment, they can be good for your facility's bottom line. In many instances,
preventing pollution can be less costly than treatment or disposal. Use this P2 Workbook
to guide you in selecting those P2 strategies that make the most sense for your facility to
                         Businesses for the Bay
 Another way to help is by joining Businesses for the Bay.  Businesses for the Bay is the
   Chesapeake Bay Program's voluntary pollution prevention program for businesses,
    industries, government facilities, and other organizations located throughout the
 Chesapeake Bay watershed. More than 270 facilities have joined Businesses for the Bay
 since the program began in 1996.  These forward-looking facilities have all committed to
 help protect the Chesapeake Bay watershed by preventing pollution and waste.  In 1998
  alone, Businesses for the Bay participants prevented or reduced more than 877 million
 pounds of waste while saving more than $3.9 million.  That's good for the Bay and  good
                                  for business!

   By joining Businesses for the Bay, your facility gets the recognition it deserves for
  implementing P2 activities to protect the Bay. In addition, you will be eligible for the
 prestigious Businesses for the Bay Excellence Awards, given annually to those facilities

  that have made great progress in achieving their P2 goals. Businesses for the Bay also
 hosts various technical assistance workshops to help its participants learn more about P2
 and new ways that they can prevent pollution at their facilities. As a participant, you will
also have access to the Businesses for the Bay Mentors, volunteers who can help you with
  your pollution prevention needs. With so many benefits to your facility and the Bay, it
                             makes sense to join today!
                                Getting Started
    It's easier than you may think to get started preventing pollution and waste at your
                       facility.  Begin by following these steps:

                *Step 1 - Read this Pollution Prevention Workbook
  Use the strategies outlined in this workbook to identify pollution prevention and waste
                       reduction opportunities at your facility.

                       *Step 2 - Conduct a Self-Evaluation
 Take a look around your facility and get an idea of how you're doing with your pollution
prevention and waste reduction activities. By assessing where you are now, you'll be able
 to quickly identify new opportunities to reduce your wastes and save money. Businesses
for the Bay and your state/district pollution prevention coordinators are available to help
                                you with this process.

                             *Step 3 - Set Your Goals
  Once you've identified the opportunities that exist at your facility, you can begin to set
pollution prevention goals.  Effective goals are achievable, measurable, observable, flexible
                                  and demanding.

            *Step 4 - Take Advantage of Free Services Available  to You
Businesses for the Bay Mentors are just one of many free resources that exist to  help you
     implement your P2 activities. On-site advice, access to P2 literature, help with
  presentations, identifying  funding opportunities, and referrals to other local, regional or
 national assistance providers are just a few of the services that you can take advantage of
                           to help you achieve your goals.

                       *Step 5 - Document Your Success
 Be sure to document your progress along the way. Keeping records will help you to see
  your successes in achieving your P2 goals and will help you when seeking recognition
through the Businesses for the Bay Excellence Awards program. Be specific in recording
  when your goals are reached, amounts of waste reduced, and any cost savings or other
                                tangible benefits.

                       *Step 6 - Bask in the Recognition
Let others know of your successes and accomplishments. Businesses for the Bay will help
              to promote the good P2 work you're doing at your facility.

  strategy 7  Developing  a  Pollution  Prevention Plan
DuPont set a
wide goal of
zero waste
and emissions.
The company
•works with all
employees to
throughout its
                Pollution prevention (P2) should be a facility-wide effort, supported by all
                 workers.  It is important to write down your company's policies or goals
               regarding pollution prevention and to share it with all company employees.

                 A P2 plan should outline the strategies your facility will take to eliminate
               wastes and the steps needed to implement those strategies. It is important to
               have a plan written down so that all employees can refer to it and have a clear
                          understanding of the facility's goals and objectives.

                       To be effective, a pollution prevention plan should include:
                     company pollution prevention policy.  It is important to encourage all
                   employees to read and adopt this policy in their everyday activities.
 4 Pollution prevention goals.  You may want to include specific goals in your
  P2 plan, or just a process by which goals will be identified.  If you develop
 specific goals, be sure to include target dates for achieving the goals and make
   sure they are part of the formal plan. Or, because the goals are likely to
change and be enhanced over time, you may want to have a separate document
  for recording goals and progress. Goals should be achievable, measurable,
   observable, flexible and demanding, and should incorporate the following
                 4 steps on how to implement the P2 plan
                          4 facility operations
                   4 environmental management systems
                   ^purchasing and accounting practices
                    4 employee awareness and training
                 ^public relations/community involvement

    4 A P2 Leader.  Identify one person who takes the lead on P2 efforts.
   Typically, this is the environmental manager, but could also be the facility
 owner/operator or an employee that has volunteered his/her time.  The leader
   should be able to track progress on the goals and report the results to the

    +A process for employees to participate in on a day-to-day level. For
instance, employees could form a Pollution Prevention Team that identifies and
 evaluates potential pollution prevention opportunities.  It is advantageous to
make this team "cross  functional", incorporating people from  different areas of
 the company (engineering, accounting, etc.). Training may be necessary for

 participation in this team and when/if new pollution prevention strategies are
   implemented (such as the purchase of new equipment or when processes

+A process for assessing the waste streams at your facility.  This is commonly
 referred to as a Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment.  Waste types,
 volumes/amounts, impacts, and costs should be documented for each process
that creates waste. This should cover wastes for all media: solid waste, water
waste streams and air. Make sure to identify the true costs of waste generation
   - including costs associated with regulatory compliance, paperwork and
  reporting, loss of production potential, materials in waste stream, storage,
 transportation, treatment, disposal, employee exposure risks and health care,
    and future liability. These costs should be allocated by waste stream or
 process type, not buried in overhead costs. For more information on how to
 conduct a pollution prevention opportunity assessment and on environmental
  cost accounting for your waste streams, contact the Businesses for the Bay
   Coordinator at 1-800 YOUR BAY. Once you go through this process, it
 becomes apparent that using fewer resources and preventing pollution at the
source can be less costly in the  end.  In other words, pollution prevention pays!

+A method to track progress. Good record keeping is essential to measuring
your progress and showing your results.  It is important to document specific
    information about waste elimination, reduction, recycling, re-use, and
treatment, including types, volumes/amounts, and impacts.  This information
   should be as detailed as possible and should be divided by process.  The
tracking method should be identified in the plan. However, you may want to
 track the actual progress as a separate document. Once goals are selected,
measure baseline performance for the item so that progress can be measured.
For instance, if you decide to recycle a material, measure how much material
   is currently recycled and how much was disposed as waste before you
   implemented the recycling program. Then, after the recycling has been
implemented, measure the amount that each of those categories has changed.
  Other measurements to consider include disposal cost avoided, number of
employee hours required to implement, and training cost for implementation.

 +A recognition or award program for employees.  A great place to get P2
    ideas is from your employees.  It is important to recognize and reward
     employees who identify P2 opportunities and promote environmental
awareness. By recognizing employee efforts, you encourage them to continue
            looking for P2 opportunities and boost their moral.

 4Information for Awards and Mentoring Efforts.  You may want to include
information in your P2 plan for any awards or recognition you receive for your
developed an
plan, which
objectives and
targets for the
many projects
conducted at this
facility.  The
plan is reviewed
regularly by

P2 efforts.  The Businesses for the Bay Excellence Awards are just one way to
 gain recognition.  Do not hesitate to publicize your efforts or any events you
  host to celebrate successes. The public really wants to hear about positive
environmental efforts, especially when they are voluntary! It is also a good idea
 to record participation in community events and other community awareness
efforts such as helping another organization with P2 issues. Share information
 and technology with other companies that have operations similar to yours.
               They may have ideas you haven't considered.

Once your P2 plan is in place, periodically evaluate it and update it as needed.
  Ask yourself if it still meets your facility's needs.  Has the company's policy
 changed? Does the P2 plan still reflect the company policy? Do we need to
appoint another P2 leader?  Should we change the format of our P2 team?  Are
  we tracking our progress accurately and with enough detail?  What is our
  progress? Do we need  to do another assessment to look for additional P2
opportunities? Do we need to update our goals? Are there any  strategies that
we have overlooked for obtaining more employee support and participation?
  It is important to ask these questions regularly so that you can always stay
                   ahead with your goals and progress.

  If you need any assistance along the way, Businesses for the Bay is here to

       How to Do  Pollution Prevention
Once you have established the plan, you are ready to start preventing pollution
                          to meet your goals.

  If you want to reduce or eliminate your wastes, it is very important to know
what they are, how much you are producing and where they are coming from.
Waste manifests, invoices for disposal, reports to regulatory agencies, sampling
programs and purchase orders, are all good sources of information about your
  wastes. If you do not have this type of information, you can go "Dumpster
  Diving."  This technique is very simple: go out to your dumpster or other
  waste storage area and inventory the types and amounts of waste you see.
     You can do this process once, or, in order to get more accurate
 information, repeat the process  at different times over a period of a month or
  two. Don't forget to include releases to other areas, such as water or air.
 Make sure to inventory the waste from each process (each individual process
  may have independent waste storage areas).  Ask yourself these questions:

 4 What is the main component of our waste?  Chemicals? Solvents? Paints?
                      Nutrients?  VOCs? Paper?
 4Can we make our processes more efficient (or fine tune them) to reduce the
   4 Are there any hazardous wastes that we could minimize by substituting
   another,  less toxic material somewhere in the process or by changing the
4 What can we do about our purchasing or inventory procedures to reduce the
       4 Is there anything in our waste that we could reuse or recycle?
   4Is there anything in our waste that someone else may be able to reuse?

As you ask these questions, use the information in the  following strategies to
  come up with ways to reduce the wastes your facility  produces. Minimizing
waste  should be a top management priority. By reducing waste at the source
   your company can save money and time and can become more efficient.

                                   Facility  Operations
                                 Reducing at the Source

                  Reducing pollution at the source, also called "source reduction", is the most
                  effective way to prevent pollution and waste from being created during your
                 operations. By going to the starting points of your operations, you can identify
                  opportunities to fine tune your systems. Use the source reduction strategies
                     (Strategy 2 - 14) to learn how prevention can be the best medicine!
Proctor & Gamble
changed their
process to run
batches of
cosmetics starting
•with light colors
and progressing to
dark colors. They
use fewer raw
materials, create
less -waste, and
          Strategy 2     New Technology

Investigate technologies that can help you eliminate or reduce your wastes or
 emissions. Although purchasing new equipment may be costly, through the
 use of environmental accounting one can see the long-term benefits and can
   determine the payback for the equipment. Examples of new technology
4 Aqueous parts washers which can remove oil and grease from metal parts as
               well as or better than solvent parts washers
 4Wet cleaning techniques for dry cleaning, which eliminates the use of some
        +Recovery systems for hazardous material used in processes
             4 Efficient high volume, low pressure spray guns
                 ^Distillation units to recover solvents
    4 Compact fluorescent lighting to reduce energy demands and costs
 +Energy efficient products such as appliances, parts,  engines or motors, and
                           Strategy 3  Process Re-Design

                 It is not always necessary to change your equipment to improve your results.
                 Process re-design involves changing the process in order to reduce generated
                                        waste. Examples include:
                 4Using a physical means for paint removal (closed blasting facility) instead of
                                       solvent based paint strippers
                          4Using less packaging for the product (redesign product)
                   ^Finding ways to extend the life of hazardous materials which will in turn
                                  minimize the amount of waste produced
                                   4Capturing process water for re-use

   4Using smaller quality control samples and returning them back into the
                        4 Running batch processes
           Strategy 4 Product Substitution

 Substituting a less toxic material is an effective P2 technique. There are many
solvents and coatings that may be substituted with less hazardous ones.  Many
   times water can be used just as effectively.  (Appendix B includes some
    Internet sites that discuss alternatives to solvents and coatings.) It is
 important to realize that product substitution may require some re-training of
    staff on the procedures for use of the new product.  When substituting
                    products, consider the following:
 4 Rather than detergents, use hot water/steam-cleaning methods for washing
          oil off metal parts such as engines, tools and equipment.
 4Use non-solvent cleaners. You can also reduce pollution by using a solvent
           parts washer with a recycling service or filtration unit.
 4Use non-chlorinated compounds rather than chlorinated ones; they are less
                      4Use waterless hand cleaners.
    4 Try using safe cleaning alternatives such as baking soda and vinegar.
Inc. switched to
soy-based inks,
solutions and
low VOC
blanket washes
for its printing
The result is a
            Strategy 5 Energy Efficiency

 Reducing energy consumption can save money and helps to reduce pollution
associated with power generation (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen
  oxides). Educate your employees about switching off lights and equipment
   when not in use. Look for office equipment and other products with the
  ENERGY STAR logo on them. Purchase energy efficient lighting, such as
compact fluorescent bulbs, or use sensors that turn lights on only when a room
  is in use. Install temperature control devices on air conditioning or heating
units. You could even use the money saved with energy reduction initiatives to
  have a party for employees that will increase employee morale and educate
                them about efforts they can make at home.

Strategy 6 Washing Facilities, Vehicles and Equipment

    Prevent oil and grease, suspended solids, nutrients, heavy metals, toxics and
    other contaminants entering the drainage system when washing equipment or
      Select a proper location for washing. Wash vehicles and equipment at a
    facility (on or off site) that drains to a sanitary sewer. Options include using
      commercial washing facilities or inside your building with drainage to  the
                                sanitary sewer.
    Properly design any unenclosed wash area. If you plan to wash vehicles or
                  equipment outdoors, then the wash area must:
          4 drain to an oil/water separator and then to the sanitary sewer
          covered and/or bermed so that an area no bigger than 200 square  feet
                          drains to the sanitary sewer
                                  4be paved
        well marked as a wash area and posted with signs prohibiting oil changes
                          and washing with solvents.
         Use other options as a last resort. If it is not possible to connect a wash
   area to the sanitary sewer, collect the water in a dead-end sump, tank, or other
    device for transport to the sanitary system for proper disposal. Alternatively,
    place a temporary plug over the storm  drain and pump the accumulated water
    to the nearest sanitary sewer. Call the local public works office for permission
                  to temporarily block a city-owned storm drain.
         Strategy 7 Outdoor Pressure Washing

    Pressure washing buildings, roofs, and pavement dislodges pollutants such as
     oil, paint chips, and sealants.  Allowing dirty or debris-laden wash water to
           enter the storm drainage system violates local and state law.
   Avoid pressure washing if possible. Use mechanical cleaning methods such as
                  brooms and wire brushes as much as possible.
    Manage the waste water appropriately.  If you can't avoid pressure washing,
      use sandbags or other materials to divert the flow of waste to a grassy or
     vegetated area which does not directly discharge to a storm drain. (NOTE:
        This method should not be used if the water contains any hazardous
   substances.) If such a vegetated area is not available, divert the waste water to
   a temporary basin or other material or to a storm drain catch basin which is not
     in the public right-of-way and which you have temporarily blocked.  Then,
      pump the water to a containment vehicle and decant it at an appropriate
     disposal site.  Alternatively, the runoff may be diverted to the sanitary sewer
     system at the wash location if it meets your locality's discharge guidelines.
   Dispose of solids.  Solids remaining after the water has been removed need to

                  be cleaned up and properly disposed.
             Strategy 8 Vehicle Fueling

  Gas and diesel spills are common when vehicles are fueled.  Fuels contain
 organic compounds and metals that are harmful to aquatic life. If the fueling
 area is improperly designed, oil and grease, metals, and toxics can be washed
   to the drainage system in violation of state and local law.  To minimize
                    pollution, take the following steps:
 4Do not top-off vehicles during fueling.  Overfilling causes spillage and vents
 gas fumes to the air.  Make sure automatic shutoff valves on the gas nozzles
 4Know the size of the tank you are filling and carefully watch the gauges to
                       avoid overfilling and spills.
   4Post signs that instruct fuel pump operators not to overfill gas tanks.
         Overfilling causes spillage and  vents gas fumes to the air.
   4Pave the fueling area with cement concrete. Fuel deteriorates asphalt.
 ^Design the fueling area as a spill containment pad. In other words, design it
  so that any spills are contained and storm water runoff from  adjacent areas
                             can't enter it.
4Cover the fueling area. This keeps rain from hitting the ground and washing
   away any spilled materials. Ideally, the cover should extend several feet
                    beyond the spill containment pad.
  4Keep suitable clean-up materials on-site to allow prompt clean-up of any
       spill.  See Strategy 14 regarding spill prevention and clean-up.
              Strategy 9 Pesticide Use

 Pesticide misuse or misapplication can be a human health hazard.  It can also
 lead to ground and surface water pollution and can be harmful to birds, fish
                           and other animals.

Integrated pest management (or IPM) is preferred method to controlling pests
 in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  IPM is a pro-active approach where the
best available pest management methods to prevent pest damage are used and
 the hazards to humans and the environment are minimized.  Use of pesticides
    can be reduced dramatically by using IPM methods.  Examples of IPM
 techniques include striking a natural balance by letting natural predators such
 as  birds, bats or toads eat your insect pests and using hand removal, traps or
    diatomaceous earth (a dust that kills insects such as aphids) in place of
    pesticides.  Contact your state Cooperate Extension Service for ideas

            controlling unwanted pests and to learn more about IPM.

  Pesticides should only be used when less toxic options are not available.  If you
    must use pesticides, use the least toxic type and use only as directed. Avoid
     broad-spectrum insecticides which are generally, more toxic to non-target
    organisms such as birds. Take care to follow directions for proper use and
  disposal of the product. Be careful with leftover pesticides and their containers
     - they could be hazardous waste. Always read labels. Contact your local
    public works or environmental agency for information on proper disposal.
    Never pour excess pesticides on the ground into a storm drain, sink drain, or
  Strategy 70 Landscape Designs for Water Quality

     Plant selection and landscape design can significantly affect water quality
  through their effects on water infiltration, storm water runoff, pest control, and
    maintenance needs. Using native plants can help to eliminate or reduce the
   need for pesticides and maintenance (such as watering or mowing). Planting
    native species to help improve water quality is commonly referred to in the
   Chesapeake Bay watershed as "Bayscaping". When turf is necessary, choose
   seed varieties recommended for your region.  Techniques for protecting water
                               quality include:
  4 Collecting runoff in bioretention areas to treat and slow water runoff before it
                     enters the storm drains or waterways.
     +Reducing high maintenance turf by planting perennial gardens, wooded
     groves, hedgerows, beds of flowering and fruiting shrubs, or wildflower
    4 Reducing or eliminating impervious surfaces (the paved surfaces which do
    not allow water to penetrate into the soil). Replace pavement with stones or
                 pavers  set in sand, or with mulched pathways.
   ^Create no-mow zones by planting natural buffers of trees,  shrubs, flowers or
     ground cover to protect sensitive areas like streams and drainage areas.

    For additional information about Bayscaping and landscape designs, contact
        the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay at 410-377-6270  or your state
                        Cooperative Extension Service.
Strategy 7 7 Landscape Installation and Maintenance

    Landscape installation and maintenance methods affect both the amount of
     runoff and the pollutants potentially washed into our waterways.  Choose

 planting sites based on soil, slope, moisture and light conditions.  Be sure to
 use native plant species (i.e., Bayscaping). Test the soil before you amend or
   fertilize it and reseed as needed.  Review your application schedules for
   eliminating or reducing fertilizer, herbicides and pesticides. Follow state
         Cooperative Extension Service guidelines and keep records.

 When installing new plant material, do not bury the roots too shallow or too
    deeply.  Apply a layer of mulch no more than 3 inches deep and avoid
 mounding around trunks of trees and shrubs.  When possible, leave existing
 trees and shrubs in place.  Maintenance equipment and ground disturbance in
                 the root zone can harm trees and shrubs.
      Strategy 12 Keeping a Clean Work Site

  Why is it important to keep a clean work site? Any residue (such as paint
 chips, metal shavings, or grease) on a surface that drains to a storm drain can
 be washed to waterways.  Disorganized work places also increase the chance
of spills.  Keep surfaces that drain to the drainage system clean and organized.
                             Remember to:
         4Keep toxic materials separated from non-toxic materials.
  ^Organize the work place to avoid clutter. This can help you to easily find
 products, will help reduce the chance of spills and can help you identify leaks
    4 When transferring or diluting chemicals, use a funnel and place a tray
 underneath to catch spills.  Place drip pans under the spouts of liquid storage
+Regularly sweep or mechanically remove outside wastes  such as those found
                 around the dumpster or on the parking lot.
  iPlace a tarp on the ground during remodeling, painting preparation work,
       sandblasting, or other operations that can create dust or debris.
 iDrain fluids such as unused gas, transmission and hydraulic oil, brake fluid,
  and radiator  fluid from vehicles or parts kept in storage.  Recycle, reuse or
         dispose  of these fluids properly (see Strategies 5,6 and 18).
   4Fix leaks on equipment and vehicles.  Maintain equipment properly and
                 develop a system to report leaks promptly.
4Cover exposed soils with plants, gravel, or pavement depending on the use of
                               the area.
  4Don't hose  down your shop floor if the water can  enter a storm drain.  It's
                            best to sweep it.
     Strategy 73Waste and Materials Storage


  Proper storage of materials and wastes is very important. If materials and
  wastes aren't properly stored, pollutants can leak or be washed out by rain
 water and carried into waterways and lakes. Consider the following options:
                4Clearly label the contents of all containers.
     4Don't mix different types of hazardous waste in a single container.
 4Use suitable storage containers for your materials and wastes and store them
                        in an appropriate location.
4Make sure that your storage containers are in good condition and lined with  a
     material that won't react with the product or waste. Outdoor storage
      containers should be rigid, durable, water tight, and rodent-proof.
 4 Handle containers in ways that won't cause ruptures or leaks, and keep them
     tightly closed except when you're adding or removing the contents.
 4 Check with the fire department for containment requirements for reactive or
                             ignitable waste.
  4 Place re-usable  plastic sheeting over stockpiles of substances such as sand,
 gravel, soil, and lumber.  Secure the cover with weighted objects such as sand
 bags or old tires. This will prevent sediments and nutrients from washing into
  the waterways. Better yet, build a covered areas for stockpiles.  (Be sure it
                  conforms to local and state regulations.)
     +Inspect your dumpster area regularly and avoid placing liquids in the
 dumpster. Spills and leaks from dumpsters are a common  source of pollutants,
 especially from facilities producing damp or oily wastes that are compacted. If
  the dumpster leaks, it should be replaced. Alternatively, you can isolate the
     area around the dumpster and drain it to the sanitary sewer system.
4 Keep the dumpster lid tightly closed to keep the rain out and prevent leakage.
    A more foolproof approach is to build a cover over the dumpster.  The
  dumpster should  also  be locked to prevent others from using it to dispose of
                           hazardous products.
  4Pave the storage area, install a drainage system, and treat the storm water
  4Dike and drain liquid storage areas. For liquid products or wastes stored
 outdoors, surround the storage area with a curb or dike to provide volume to
  contain 10 percent of the volume of all the containers  or 110 percent of the
  volume of the largest container, whichever is greater.  If the storage  area is
     permanent, install  a drain. For used oil, hazardous waste, or materials
   controlled by the Fire Code, the liquid should drain to a dead-end sump;
  otherwise, connect it to the sanitary sewer, after checking with your locality
                              for regulations.
  ^Obtain storage  permits if needed. Businesses that accumulate or generate
    more than 220 pounds of hazardous waste per month (or 2.2 pounds if
  extremely hazardous) may also need a storage permit from the state/district
 environmental department.  Also, check with your municipality if you plan to

     construct a storage area (or structurally modify the one you have).
    Strategy 14 Spill Prevention and Clean-Up

If you use paints, solvents, oils, gasoline, pesticides, or other materials that can
  spill, your facility needs a spill control plan. This is true even if you handle
 materials that are normally considered harmless (such as food), because only
                  clean water belongs down a storm drain.
  Take steps to prevent spills.  Examine your activities for ways to reduce the
                      chance of spills.  For instance:
  4Organize the delivery and unloading areas. Ideally, loading or unloading
 docks should have overhangs or door skirts which enclose the trailer end, and
     should be designed to prevent run-off of storm water (e.g., by being
                       surrounded by a low berm).
       4Use a funnel to transfer liquids from one container to another.
    4Keep trays on hand to catch spills from leaking or overheating cars.
            4 Store materials where they won't be knocked over.

       Consider installing a spill control oil/water separator to prevent
                    contamination if a spill does occur.
  Prepare a clean-up plan. Any facility that uses oils, gasoline, pesticides, or
 even bulk food products should prepare for and know how to handle possible
 spills. Generally, a clean-up plan includes a description of the facility, contact
 people to be notified and specific clean-up instructions.  Certain laws require
facilities that generate or store regulated amounts of hazardous waste to have a
spill clean-up plan. All facilities should have basic procedures to follow during
       a spill and these procedures should be made clear to employees.
Clean up spills immediately. If a spill occurs, respond immediately and follow
your clean-up plan. Protect your safety and the safety of others.  Do not enter
 an area with spilled toxic materials without proper clothing and gear. Be sure
                       4 Stop the source of the spill.
   4 Contain the spill. If the spill involves a liquid, block the flow by placing
  absorbent materials along the edge of the spill. If there is a chance the spill
   could enter the storm drain or sewer, cover the drain inlet (such as with a
  rubber mat).  If a spilled powder could blow away, contain it by covering it
with plastic or, if it won't react with water, by dampening it with wet towels or
                            a light water spray.
 4Cover liquid spills with absorbent material.  Use materials that can be swept
or picked up  such as kitty litter, shop rags,  sawdust, or vermiculite. The idea is
to contain - not disperse - the spill, so don't use emulsifiers or dispersants. For
           solids such  as powders, sweep  or wipe up the material.
 4 Report the spill to the appropriate authorities and call for help as needed.  If
   the spill presents a hazard to public health or safety, call 911 immediately.
    4For large spills, consider using the services of a private clean-up firm.
+Properly dispose of clean-up materials.  Never wash spilled materials down a
 sanitary sewer or storm drain. Cleaning products used to absorb a hazardous
waste (such as vermiculite used to soak up spilled degreasers) cannot be put in
the garbage.  They may be considered hazardous waste and should be disposed
    of accordingly. Contact your local authority for disposal requirements.
                 Strategy 75  Re-Use

 If you still have pollution and waste after implementing the source reduction
 strategies described above, there are still options for preventing those wastes
 from being disposed.  See if others can use your leftovers. Many times, there
 are other uses for those things that are considered waste. For example, used
motor oil can be burned for heat in certain types of space heating equipment, a
 neighboring facility may be able to use leftover paint or other materials, dirty
solvent from one process may be clean enough to use in another process, scrap
customers to
return their
spent toner
for reuse at

wood may be turned into mulch, or used furniture can be given to a charity or
                             to employees.

  Consider using a waste exchange service.  A waste exchange service helps
 those looking for raw materials find them from the wastes of others.  These
types of services, usually operated through the Internet, will post descriptions
    of your wastes for others to see so that they may "shop" for their raw
 materials.  In other words, your "trash" may be another person's "treasure".
  Fees may be associated with waste exchange services, but they should be
 weighed against all of the costs associated with treatment and disposal.  See
    Appendix B for a list of waste exchanges and their web site addresses.
              strategy 16 Recycling
     If you still have wastes after exploring source reduction and re-use
 opportunities, then consider recycling.  Take advantage of opportunities to
      recycle whenever you can.  Here's how to make recycling work:
 Separate wastes. Keep your wastes in separate containers according to the
type of product,  and keep records of the container contents (if possible, keep
 materials in the original container). Combining different types of waste can
     prevent recycling and greatly increase disposal costs. For example,
  uncontaminated waste oil can be recycled, whereas waste oil mixed with
   solvents requires a much more  costly and complicated disposal process.
 Use recyclable materials. The following materials are potentially recyclable:
                           iused antifreeze
                              4used tires
                           iused car batteries
                       4 engine  and lubricating oil
                 iuncontaminated gasoline and brake fluid
        4 some solvents such as degreasing agents and paint solvents
          ^building materials such as concrete, asphalt or drywall
                             4metal scraps
                              4 latex paint
                      4cooking  oil, fats and greases
                         ipaper and cardboard
                   4container glass, aluminum and tin
 Check the Internet sites listed in  Appendix B to learn more about using and
                      purchasing recycled products.
 Keep receipts. For documentation purposes, always keep receipts from the
 recycling vendor showing the  amount and specific types of wastes recycled.
 Compost landscaping waste.  Consider installing a compost facility at your
 own site and, encourage clients and customers to compost, too. Be sure to
Donnelley &
Company, a
recycles spent
plates, film,
fiber cores
from paper
rolls, and
scrap metal
among other

  locate your compost area so that it doesn't leach into a waterway or storm
   drain. Leave grass clippings to decompose on the lawn.  Leaves (ideally
 shredded first) can be used as mulch on flower beds or composted.  Similarly,
  woody waste can be shredded for mulch. If you can't compost on-site, call
your locality to find out about yard waste collection and disposal opportunities.
          Strategy 77 WdSte Disposal
Disposal should be a last option. If it is not possible to completely eliminate all
 waste produced, proper waste disposal is extremely important to avoid both
 environmental and legal problems. Remember: businesses may be financially
 and legally responsible for their waste disposal even if it is handled by a waste
  contractor.  Although the business owner has ultimate responsibility for the
 proper disposal of hazardous and solid waste, employees may also be legally
             liable. When disposing of waste, follow these steps:
 Identify whether your waste is considered hazardous. Proper waste disposal
depends on the chemical properties of the waste. A hazardous waste is a solid,
    liquid, or gas that could pose dangers to human health, property, or the
    environment and can no longer be used for its intended purpose. Likely
                        hazardous wastes include:
                      4 paints, thinners and solvents
                      4cleaning and polishing fluids
                               4 cool ants
                          ^petroleum  products
    4rags completely saturated with  gasoline or other hazardous materials.
 Other materials that burn or itch on  contact with skin, dissolve metals, wood,
paper, or clothing, or bubble or fume upon contact with water are also likely to
  be hazardous.  If you don't know whether a product or waste is hazardous,
check shipping papers, material safety  data sheets (MSDS) and product labels.
 Assume a substance is hazardous until you find out otherwise.  Prior to safe
disposal, place the substance in a sealed container, label it, and store it in a safe
    If wastes are hazardous, determine the quantity. Is less than 220 pounds
produced per month or batch (2.2 pounds if the waste is extremely hazardous)
 or accumulated at any time?  Businesses that generate more than this amount
  have greater disposal requirements and may be considered a small-quantity
  generator (SQG). You may be required to dispose or recycle your wastes
 through a  recycling firm,  treat them on-site or have them treated through a
  treatment, storage and disposal (TSD)  facility. Be sure to consult federal,
            state, and local regulations for specific requirements.
 Determine the best disposal method. Recycling or finding someone who  can


use the waste are preferred over disposal.  Read the disposal section of the
  material safety data sheet (MSDS) to determine the proper disposal of a
specific product. The fact that a waste isn't hazardous doesn't automatically
mean it can go into your dumpster or down your drains. There are limits on
what can go down the sanitary sewer. Call your local authority for details.
       Never dump wastes down a storm drain or onto the ground.

    Purchasing & Accounting Practices
  Purchasing and accounting practices are important to the waste reduction
  process.  By taking a close look at your inventory purchasing and control
      practices, you may be able to identify additional  source reduction
opportunities. And, when you start to  look at the costs of prevention verus the
costs of treatment and disposal, you  will probably see that preventing pollution
 Strategy 18 Track Costs by Process or Activity

 Until the all the costs for a particular process or activity are clearly attributed
to that process or activity, it will be difficult to know what the true cost of that
activity is and how much the initiation of a pollution prevention strategy in that
  process will save.  For example, if a particular process generates hazardous
  waste, the waste disposal costs, regulatory compliance costs, sampling and
     analysis costs,  reporting costs, insurance costs, worker health costs,
 environmental liability costs, as well as other expenses should all be attributed
            directly to that process when examining cost savings.
 Sometimes costs can be hidden. It is important to look at all departments that
may be involved in the activity or process you are examining.  Be sure to work
 with your accounting department to obtain accurate information about costs
  and expenses. There are several computer programs available including P2
Finance and E2 Finance (both available on-line from Tellus Institute), that will
  help you to identify cost savings and costs savings opportunities. Once you
can look at the whole picture, you are  likely to see that the P2 activity you are
                 considering will pay off in the long-run.
           Strategy 19  Inventory Control

  Use the following tips to control your inventory to prevent waste and save
   Buy only what you need.  Purchase products in amounts that can be used
 completely within a given period of time.  Maintain a good inventory control
                system to prevent unnecessary purchases.
Purchase products that are durable. Products that will last longer are a good
  investment. Recommend them to your customers.  Maintain equipment and
                 products so they last as long as possible.
Buy the least toxic products available.  Where possible, select those materials
White Oak
worked with
their supplier to
develop a "just-
in-time "
inventory system
to reduce their
expired chemical

that do not contain toxic ingredients. Be sure to read labels and look for terms
  such as "non-toxic".  Review Material  Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) prior to
                          purchasing  materials.
  Limit or eliminate outdated materials.  Make sure all inventory is dated and
that there is a procedure in place to use older materials first. Consider working
   with your suppliers to develop a "just-in-time" delivery system, where the
  materials you need are delivered to you shortly before you need them. This
  will help you to reduce the amount of expired materials on your shelves, and
             your risk in handling and shoring those materials.
          Strategy 20  Damaged Materials

   If materials arrive damaged, request your supplier take them back. These
materials should not become part of your waste stream. Contact your supplier
to make sure they will take back damaged materials.  Work with your receiving
        department to develop a  system to return damaged materials.

  Materials or supplies that become damaged in the course of your operations
   might be usable in another application.  Be sure to consider all re-use and
  recycling options before throwing the material away. If materials damaged
 during operations are a big part of your waste stream, consider implementing
an employee training program or examining the handling process/procedures to
               decrease the opportunity for damage to occur.
           Strategy 21  Recycled Materials

  Purchase products made from recycled materials. Look for those products
  with the highest post-consumer content. Purchasing of recycled products is
   necessary to close the recycling loop. Markets for the recycled materials
    collected from your business will develop only when you buy back the
   recyclables in the form of new products. Buying recycled products also
 encourages energy and resource conservation. To find out more about buying
  products made from recycled materials, contact your vendors or your state's
    pollution prevention office and visit the web sites listed in Appendix B.

                Strategy 22 Packaging

Evaluate the amount of packaging materials used in the items you purchase.  If
 you are generating a lot of waste as a result of over-packaged raw materials,
  work with your supplier to reduce these wastes.  One option is to purchase
 items in bulk, as longs as  you can utilize the supply before it may expire (See
  Strategy 19).  Another option is to work with your supplier to use reusable
containers that can be sent back to the supplier for refills.  Examine the amount
 of packaging you use in the products you make. Reduce packaging materials
                             where feasible.
            Strategy 23 Printed  Materials

   When you send off materials to be printed, support the cause of pollution
 prevention elsewhere by having them printed with soy-based inks on recycled
   paper. Encourage your customers, suppliers, and vendors to do the same.
      Strategy 24  Alternative Fueled Vehicles

  When purchasing vehicles for your facility's fleet, consider using alternative
    fueled vehicles. Alternative fuel vehicles use clean-burning fuels such as
   compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol,
   ethanol, and electricity. They may be built by the original manufacturer or
traditional vehicles may be converted to use alternative fuels. Alternative fueled
   vehicles include  dedicated vehicles which use only one fuel, bifuel vehicles
 which use two different fuels at different times, or flex-fuel vehicles which can
       use two or more fuels (usually gasoline and methanol or ethanol)
  simultaneously. Financial incentives may exist in your area to encourage the
purchase of these types of vehicles. For more information about incentives and
 alternative fueled vehicles, contact your state/district energy office or pollution
                         prevention coordinator.

   Employee Awareness  & Involvement
   Keeping your employees informed about pollution prevention issues and
   opportunities is critical to reducing your pollution and wastes. Use these
   strategies to engage employees and get them involved in the P2 process.
        Strategy 25 Employee Involvement

 Many of the steps you can take to prevent pollution need to be followed on a
        daily basis.  Therefore, employee education is key to success.

  "In-house" training.  All employees should be aware of those practices that
   can prevent pollution as well as those that may create potential pollution
  problems.  You may want to incorporate pollution prevention training into
another training program you conduct on a regular basis. Remember to budget
   for this training.  Consider incorporating the following into an  "in-house"
                           training program:

  4 Incorporate the strategies in this workbook into your training sessions. Be
    sure to provide new training when a procedure changes or when new
                        equipment is purchased.
   +Explain your company's P2 strategies and goals with employees so they
understand why certain procedures must be followed. Post your goals for all to
4 Include P2 concerns in new employee orientations and in written procedures.
            +Provide employees with proper disposal guidelines.

    Once a training program is in place, monitor workers to determine the
effectiveness of the training. Remember to provide daily feedback on  observed
                       behavior to encourage P2.
 Solicit employee ideas. Ask your employees to identify pollution prevention
   opportunities.  One easy way to do this is to post a "P2 Suggestion Box"
 where all employees have access to it (such as the lunchroom). Another is to
    develop  employee teams and give them the responsibility of identifying
                      opportunities at your facility.
   Participate in other educational opportunities. Encourage employees to
   attend workshops and read educational materials to learn more about P2.
 Attend relevant conferences or courses  such as those sponsored by your trade
                    association or community college.
  Visual Reminders.  Post an explanation of your P2 policies and  strategies in
Exxon, a small
station, trains
all of its
•workers and
asks them to
sign a
stating they
their role in
teams to
identify? 2
it's facility.
One team
saved the

                areas where employees will see them.  Display signs or posters with P2 tips to
                 keep employees involved. Include P2 issues or articles in staff minutes or a
                                         company newsletter.
awards its
Star of the
Month " with
$50, a good
parking space
and recognition
in the
        Strategy 26 Employee Recognition

 It is important to offer positive recognition to employees who are preventing
 pollution at your facility.  Recognition not only awards those who are actually
 "living" your company policy, but encourages others to follow their example.
                 It also helps to boost employee morale.

   Create incentives for developing or implementing P2. Incentives help to
encourage employees to prevent pollution and to get involved.  Employees that
   identify P2 opportunities deserve special recognition.   Some examples of
                           incentives include:
 4 Naming an "Environmental Employee of the Month."  Post their picture and
                     story in an employee newsletter.
 4 Providing a gift certificate, cash awards, pais time off from work, or special
       parking space for employees that identify a new P2 opportunity.
    4Offering an employee who contributes a pollution prevention idea a
             percentage of cost savings resulting from that idea.
 Make pollution prevention apart of job performance.  Make it known how
   committed your organization is to pollution prevention by incorporating
     contributions to your pollution  prevention efforts into performance
                        Strategy 27 Employee Commuting

                Reducing the number of miles your employees commute each day is important
                  to improving the air quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Encourage
                employees to carpool, use mass transit or walk to work. Install a bike rack to
                 encourage cycling to work (it's good exercise, too).  Offering employees the
                  option of telecommuting is another valued employee benefit. Contact your
                 state/district transit authority to learn about incentives such as commuter tax
                   credits or making mass transit tickets available for sale at your business.

        Public  Relations & Community
   Showing clients and your community what you are doing to protect the
Chesapeake Bay and its rivers is good public relations. Getting your neighbors
         to do their part can also be good for business and the Bay.
          Strategy 28 Product Promotion

 Provide educational materials to customers. Why not share your values and
 pollution prevention policies or mission with your customers? You may find
that many customers are glad to know that they are supporting a company that
   promotes pollution prevention and other environmental initiatives.  If you
produce a product and it is now cleaner or more "environmentally friendly" due
 to a product substitution or process change, let your customers know. If you
   recycle and use non-toxic cleaning products in your office, or use energy
 efficient equipment, tell your customers and patrons. Not only can pollution
prevention save you money, it can improve your image and increase patronage.
 Strategy 29 Sharing Experiences-Be a Mentor

Help other facilities learn about pollution prevention and your P2 experiences.
 The only way pollution prevention is going to have a significant impact on the
 Chesapeake Bay is if more and more facilities get involved.  An excellent way
 to make sure participation increases is to mentor another facility. Ways you
                    can share your expertise include:
 ^Become a Businesses for the Bay Mentor!  Contact the Businesses for the
           Bay Coordinator at 1-800-YOUR BAY to learn how.
              4Give a presentation at another local business.
        4 Share your pollution prevention success stories with others.
    4Help another facility develop their own pollution prevention goals.
 4 Assist another facility with setting up an employee recognition program or
                          other P2 strategy.
4 Sponsor a workshop on pollution prevention or good management practices.
Need help
with your P2
Contact one
of more than
100 of our
Businesses for
the Bay

Are you doing
great P2 -work?
Contact the
Businesses for
the Bay
for an
  Strategy 30 Awards and Incentive Programs

Consider applying for the Businesses for the Bay Excellence Awards, or other
  local or national environmental awards.  Receiving an award for your P2
                            initiatives can:
            ^promote these initiatives within your organization
                     4 improve employee awareness
                     4 improve your company image
      4make your company more viable as a mentor to other facilities.

 Contact the Businesses for the Bay coordinator for information ion how to
apply for Excellence Awards.  The Businesses for the Bay Excellence Awards
 are presented annually to those facilities that have implemented outstanding
 pollution prevention activities and have achieved significant progress toward
                            their P2 goals.
 Hercules, Inc.,
 a manufacturer
 of cellulose
 participates in
 a local
 and Industrial
  Strategy 31 Community Outreach Programs

    In addition to sharing your pollution prevention strategies with other
businesses, help educate the community about P2. Put up a display at a local
    environmental event or give a tour of your facility to your residential
 neighbors. Talk to children at a local school about pollution prevention or
 recycling. Start a Community Advisory Panel to share facility news with the
 surrounding community.  By getting the community involved, you help raise
                   awareness about the benefits of P2.
                             Strategy 32 Area Clean-Ups

                  Host a "Clean the Bay Day" or other community clean-up event.  This is an
                  excellent way to market your company's P2 efforts while encouraging others
                       to appreciate their natural surroundings.  Partner with community
                        organizations and volunteer groups to help organize the event.

                      Appendix A

       Environmental Contact Information

                 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

                      General Information
                   D.C. Department of Health
               Environmental Health Administration
                   51 N Street, NE, 6th Floor
                    Washington, DC 20002

                Pollution Prevention Information
         Pollution Prevention & Waste Minimization Officer
        Office of Special Programs and Compliance Assistance

                   Small Business Assistance
             Ombudsman for Small Business Assistance
             D.C. Environmental Health Administration

                       Reporting Spills
Contact the Mayor's Command Center to report any spills.  Note the date,
                       time and location.
                        (202) 727-6161


                       General Information
              Maryland Department of the Environment
                      2500 Broening Highway
                      Baltimore, MD 21224
                 (410) 631-3000 or (800) 633-6101
                  Pollution Prevention Information
                  Pollution Prevention Coordinator
                 MDE Pollution Prevention Program

                     Small Business Assistance
                 Small Business Assistance Program

                         Reporting Spills
 To report spills or other problems causing pollution or damaging wildlife
habitat, note the location, time of day, and other pertinent information and
                  report the problem immediately.
                     (410)974-3551 (24 hours)

         Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection
                 Rachel Carson State Office Building
                        400 Market Street
                          P.O. Box 8772
                    Harrisburg, PA 17105-8772

                         Regional Offices
        Northeast Regional Office, Wilkes-Barre(717) 783-9981
   Southeast Regional Office, Conshohocken        (570) 826-2475
       South Central Regional Office, Harrisburg(610) 832-6021
      North Central Regional Office, Williamsport(717) 705-4797
      Northwest Regional Office, Meadville     (814) 332-6816
         Southwest Regional Office, Pittsburgh(412) 442-4343

                   Pollution Prevention Information
                   Pollution Prevention Coordinator
     PA DEP Office of Pollution Prevention & Compliance Assistance
                           (717) 772-8926

                      Small Business Assistance
                   Small Business Assistance Program
                           (800) 722-4743

                      Small Business Ombudsman

                           Reporting Spills
   When you notice a problem that could be causing pollution or damaging
wildlife habitat, note the location, time of day, and other pertinent information
                  and report the problem immediately.

              Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
                         629 East Main Street
                           P.O. Box 10009
                      Richmond, VA 23240-0009
                           (804) 698-4000
                          Regional Offices
                Tidewater Region  (757) 518-2007
             Southwest and Roanoke Regions(540) 562-5749

                   Pollution Prevention Information
                   Pollution Prevention Coordinator
                VA DEQ Office of Pollution Prevention
                           (804) 698-4545

                      Small Business Assistance
                   Small Business Assistance Program
                           (804) 698-4394

                        1650 Arch Street
                  Philadelphia, PA 19103-2029
                        (800) 438-2474

                Pollution Prevention Information
             Office of Environmental Innovation (OEI)
                        (215) 814-2761

                   Small Business Assistance
                   Business Assistance Center

                   Small Business Ombudsman

                       APPENDIX B

      Pollution Prevention Internet Resources

 Lots of great pollution prevention information can be found on the Internet.
Below is just a sampling of the many web sites available to help you implement
the pollution prevention strategies outlined in this workbook. Most have links
   to other web sites with additional information. (Sites operational as of
                          Summer 2000).
                     Businesses for the Bay

    For information about Businesses for the Bay and how to join, go to:
                 Compliance Assistance Centers

                   Automotive Services and Repair

             Local Government Assistance Network Center

                          Metal Finishing

           National Agriculture Compliance Assistance Center

                     Painters and Coatings Center

                          www. pneac. org

                       Printed Wiring Boards

             Transportation Compliance Assistance Center
                  Energy & Water Efficiency

         Department of Energy-Alternative Fuels Data Center

Department of Energy-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network

               Solstice Sustainable Energy Information

             U.S. EPA Energy Star Programs & Products
                      www. epa. gov/energy star

                           Water Wiser

                 World Energy Efficiency Association
                  Environmental Accounting

                            P2 Finance

                            E2 Finance
                   General P2 Information

                   Center for Sustainable Systems
                    www. umi ch.edu/~nppcpub/


                     Green Hotels Association



        Local Government Environmental Assistance Network

             Maryland Center for Environmental Training

              National Pollution Prevention Roundtable

                   Toxics Use Reduction Institute

          U.S. EPA Office of Pollution Prevention & Toxics

              Virginia Environmental Services Network
                  Landscaping & Bayscaping

                  Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay

             Maryland Department of Natural Resources

        National Wildlife Federation Backyard Wildlife Habitats
                  www.nwf. org/habitats/index. html

   U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Chesapeake Bay Program Field Office

Virginia Dept. of Conservation & Recreation's Natural Heritage Program

                      Product Alternatives

                 CAGE - Coatings Alternatives Guide
                          www. cage. rti. org

                  SAGE - Solvent Alternative Guide

     Waste Reduction Resource Center's Industry Sector Information

         Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIC)

            Waste Reduction Resource Center P2 Infohouse
                Recycling and Buying Recycled

                      Buy Recycled Information
   www. dep. state, pa.us/dep/deputate/airwaste/wm/recy cle/Buy /Buy. htm

                         The Loading Dock
             Northeast Maryland Waste Disposal Authority

                          Recycler's World
           State/District Pollution Prevention Offices

District of Columbia Dept. of Health's Environmental Health Administration
                       www. dchealth. com/eha

               Maryland Department of the Environment


    Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Protection's Office of Pollution
                  Prevention & Compliance Assistance

  Virginia Dept. of Environmental Quality's Office of Pollution Prevention
Sustainable Building, Design, Development and Manufacturing

    Maryland Department of Natural Resources Green Buildings Program


                     U.S. Green Buildings Council

                    Virginia Center for Stewardship

           World Business Council for Sustainable Development
                      Technology Resources

              Institute for Advanced Manufacturing Sciences

                    Manufacturing Extension Project
                     www.mep.nist.gov/indexl .html

                 National Technical Information Service

     Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's TechNotes

     University of Maryland at Baltimore, Technical Extension Service

            Waste Reduction Resource Center
                  Waste Exchange

       Directory of Markets for Recyclable Materials

                     ISO Central

    Southern Waste Information Exchange, Inc. (SWIX)
                www. wastexchange. org
                Waste Minimization

       EPA Region 3 Waste Minimization Web Page

www. epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/reduce/wastewi se/index. htm