National Clean  Diesel  Campaign
      ! Fact  Sheet
                  REDUCING emissions from diesel engines is one of the most important public
                  health challenges facing the country. Even with more stringent heavy-duty high-
                  way and nonroad engine standards set to take effect over the next decade, mil-
             lions of diesel engines already in use will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen
             oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM)—both of which contribute to serious public
             health problems.
             These emissions cause thousands of premature deaths, hundreds of thousands of asth-
             ma attacks, millions of lost work days, and numerous other health impacts every year.
             Thankfully, there are a variety of cost-effective technologies that can dramatically
             reduce diesel emissions and help our nation meet its clean air goals.

             Our Goal
             Building on the success of its regulatory and voluntary efforts to reduce emissions from
             diesel engines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created the National
             Clean Diesel Campaign (NCDC). The Campaign is working to reduce the pollution
             emitted from diesel engines across the country through the implementation of varied
             control strategies and the sustained involvement of national, state, and local partners.
             To fully address the challenges of reducing
             diesel emissions, EPA is utilizing a  multi-
             pronged approach through the NCDC,
               Successfully implementing the 2007 Heavy-
               Duty Highway Engine Rule and the Clean
               Air Nonroad Diesel Rule.
               Developing new emission requirements for
               trains and marine diesels, including large
               commercial marine engines.
                           Exposure to diesel exhaust can:
                            Cause lung damage.
                            Trigger respiratory problems.
                           • Exacerbate asthma and existing allergies.
                            Be linked to premature mortality.

                           Long-term exposure is thought to increase
                           the risk of lung cancer.
              Addressing engines already in use today
              by promoting a variety of cost-effective and innovative
              emission reduction strategies, including switching to cleaner fuels;
              retrofitting, repairing, repowering, and replacing equipment; and
              reducing idling.
                                                                           Strategies for
                                                                             Cleaner Air
         United States
         Environmental Protection

                      Regulations for New Diesel Engines
                      EPA is committed to successfully  implementing stringent new standards for
                      diesel fuel and  new diesel engines. These standards are the critical founda-
                      tion of the Agency's diesel emissions control program. Clean, ultra-low sulfur
                     diesel fuel will be required for use in highway diesel engines starting in 2006.
                    Lower sulfur diesel fuel for nonroad diesel machines will be required in 2007,
                   followed by ultra-low sulfur fuel for these machines in 2010, and for locomotives
                 and marine engines in 2012.
             Besides reducing  emissions from the existing diesel fleet, clean fuels will enable the use
         of advanced aftertreatment technologies on new engines. Technologies such as particulate
     traps, capable of emission reductions of 90 percent and more, will be required under new stan-
                                          dards set to  begin phasing into the highway sector in
                                          2007, and into the nonroad sector in 2011.
  Many areas of the country are designated as
  "nonattainment areas"and do not meet the     The new standards will yield enormous long-term bene-
  National Ambient Air Quality Standards.         f'ts for public health and the environment. By 2030,
                                          when the engine fleet has been fully turned over, PM will
                                          be reduced by 250,000 tons per year,  and NOx will be
                                          reduced by 3.3 million tons per year. This will result
                                          in annual  benefits  of more than $150 billion, at a cost
                                          of approximately $7 billion. Similar stringent emissions
                                          standards for locomotives and marine diesels are now
                                          being developed.  EPA is also working to reduce emissions
                                          from large commercial marine diesel vessels, such as
                                          cruise and container ships, through the use of cleaner
                                          fuels and  engines.
Recently, EPA designated 474 counties as
"out of compliance" with the eight-hour
ozone standard and 208 counties as out of
compliance with the PM2.5 standard.
As a result of these designations, almost 180
million people are living in counties that are
out of compliance with the eight-hour NOx
standards. Almost 90 million people now live
in PM nonattainment areas.
     Voluntary Programs for the Existing  Diesel Engine Fleet
     Over the last five years, EPA has launched a number of successful voluntary programs designed
     to reduce emissions from the diesel fleet. Each program provides technical and financial assis-
     tance to stakeholders interested in reducing their fleet's emissions effectively and efficiently.
     The signals are clear—stakeholders want these programs to grow. Much of this growth will
     come from focused partnerships and collaborative efforts at the state and local level, including
     regional collaborative initiatives.
     In conjunction with state and local governments,
     public interest groups, and industry partners, EPA
     has established a goal of reducing emissions from
     the more than 11 million diesel engines in the
     existing fleet by 2014. Looking at these engines,
     EPA determined there were five sectors that pro-
     vided the best opportunity to obtain significant
     reductions, as described on the following page.
                                                      NCDC participants are committed to reducing
                                                      diesel emissions and finding innovative
                                                      ways to protect human health and t/ie
United States
Environmental Protection

School Bus Sector
                           By 2010, Clean School Bus USA aims to retrofit or replace the
                           400,000 diesel school buses in the United States and promote
                           idling reduction policies in 14,000 school districts. The program
                           works with communities to reduce school bus idling, retrofit current
                           school bus fleets with new technologies, introduce cleaner fuels,
                           and replace the oldest buses with new vehicles that meet stringent
pollution control standards. Through the program, EPA is partnering with educators, industry,
transportation experts, public health officials, and other community leaders to develop environmen-
tally clean school bus programs nationwide. As of 2004, more than 2 million children were riding to
school on approximately 20,000 cleaner buses due to the Clean School Bus USA program.

Ports Sector
                           The goal of Clean Ports USA is to reduce diesel emissions at mar-
                           itime ports. The NCDC is partnering with the American Association
                           of Port Authorities and numerous ports and their stakeholders to
                           develop appropriate incentives and strategies to reduce emissions
                           at U.S. ports. EPA is developing the program to help measure the
                           emissions from port activity and identify cost-effective ways to
                           improve the environmental performance of ports.
                          The goal of Clean Construction USA is to reduce emissions from
                          major construction projects in areas that do not meet national air
                          quality standards. Through the program, EPA is partnering with the
                          Associated General Contractors of America to develop incentives
                          for private fleets to reduce pollution from their vehicles. Government
                          and public interest groups are working together to develop guidance
                          and equipment specifications for public projects and fleets.
Construction Sector
                          The SmartWay Transport Partnership is a collaborative voluntary
                          program between EPA and the freight industry designed to increase
                          energy efficiency and promote strategies to reduce air pollution
                          associated with moving goods in the United States. SmartWay is
                          partnering with trucking companies (such as FedEx and UPS) and
                          major corporations that hire trucking services (such as Ikea and  The
                          Home Depot) to create a demand for cleaner, more efficient freight
services. SmartWay is also working with states, non-governmental organizations, and the freight
industry to eliminate unnecessary engine idling at truck stops, terminals, ports, and locomotive
switchyards. The ultimate goal for this program is to transform the fleet into one of high fuel effi-
ciency and low emissions.

                            Clean Agriculture USA is partnering with the farming community,
                            governmental organizations, and non-governmental organizations
                            (NGOs) to promote clean diesel strategies, including biodiesel and
                            renewable fuels, across the country.
Diesel Emission Reduction Technologies and Strategies
Retrofitting diesel engines is one of the most cost-effective ways to reduce diesel emissions. To
help stakeholders identify viable technologies, EPA has developed a list of verified technologies
that contains information on expected emission reduction benefits. This list provides information
on numerous innovative emission control technologies that EPA  has approved for use. Each EPA-
verified technology has undergone extensive testing and analysis. EPA has also signed a
Memorandum of Understanding with the California Air Resources Board (ARB) to recognize
ARB's list of verified emission control options. In addition, EPA has established a comprehensive
list of idle-control technologies.
Additionally, EPA has developed innovative guidance that air quality agencies can use to quantify
emission reductions achieved by reducing vehicle and  locomotive  idling. EPA plans to release guid-
ance for air quality agencies to quantify and use emission reductions from specific retrofit actions.
   Effective Strategies

   Strategies to reduce emissions from diesel engines include:

    Switching to Cleaner Fuels — using advanced fuels, such as ultra-low
    sulfur diesel, biodiesel, liquid petroleum gas, and compressed natural gas.

    Retrofitting  — installing emission-reduction technologies, such as
    paniculate filters and oxidation catalysts.

    Repairing — repairing an engine to meet its original standards.

    Repowering — replacing an old engine with a newer, cleaner model.

    Replacing — replacing an old vehicle or equipment with a cleaner model.

    Reducing Idling — reducing a vehicle's idling time.

   • Increasing Energy Efficiency — incorporating low-rolling resistance
    tires and advanced aerodynamics for tractors and trailers.
                                                                     Strategies  for
                                                                        Cleaner Air

Verified Technologies
You can find more information on verified technologies
at these Web sites:
EPA's Verified Technology List at:

ARB's Verified Technology List at:

EPA's Idling Control Technology List at:
    Dynamic Tools and Resources

    Through the NCDC, EPA has developed a number of tools for stakeholder projects and partnerships,

    ' Verifying technologies to ensure that the emission performance claimed by manufacturers is, in fact,

     Creating peer-reviewed emission models and State Implementation Plan (SIP) guidance.

     Sharing best practices and recognizing environmental leaders.
Working Together for Cleaner Air
The NCDC will achieve immediate and significant environmental results by working collabora-
tively with businesses, government and community organizations, industry, and others. Regional
initiatives provide an excellent example of how the NCDC will use a proactive, incentive-based
approach to achieve environmental results. Members of these initiatives have agreed to collec-
tively leverage additional funds and take a local approach to diesel mitigation.
  Strong Stakeholder Support
    EPA has engaged hundreds of stakeholders nationwide from the public and private sector.
    Grant solicitations are met by demand 10 times greater than available resources.
   Winning grant programs have leveraged an average of two to four times additional resources.
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Environmental Protection

                    Regional Collaboratives and Partnerships
                    Benefiting from economies of scale while protecting against competitive disad-
                    vantages, numerous regional initiatives provide an ideal structure for significant
                    reductions across a large geographic area:
                  • West Coast Diesel Emissions Reductions Collaborative. One of the first of its
                    kind, this joint effort includes EPA, U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural
                    Resource Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of
                    Transportation, Canada and Mexico, as well as state, local, non-profit, and pri-
                    vate sector partners from California, Alaska, Washington, and Oregon to
                    reduce air pollution emissions from diesel engines along the West Coast. The
                    collaborative works across sector workgroups to identify, fund, and implement
                    regional  diesel emission reduction projects.
                  • Midwest Diesel Initiative. This new, cooperative, public-private effort is reduc-
                    ing diesel emissions along major transportation corridors and  various sectors,
                    including trucking, locomotive, construction, and ports, with an emphasis on
                    urban  areas.
                  • Northeast Diesel Collaborative. This program builds on  a foundation of
                    voluntary action and encourages participants to  engage in projects that will
                    reduce transportation-related air pollution to help address the high asthma
                    rates in the Northeast.

    Looking to the Future
    Building on past successes, the NCDC  has established several hundred projects that involve
    cleaner diesel, idle reduction,  and other environmental control strategies across the country,
    achieving emission reductions now that will yield benefits for years to come. Each  project serves
    as an innovative, cost-effective model for diesel emission reduction. In addition, many states are
    using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel well ahead of EPA's requirements. In total, hundreds of partners
    nationwide are successfully implementing cleaner diesel projects, resulting in a foundation for
    the NCDC's efforts to reduce diesel pollution and protect human health and the environment.
    How to Get Involved
    For more detailed information and a list of contacts, please  visit the National Clean Diesel
    Campaign Web site at
                                            National  Clean  Diesel Campaign
        Recycled/Recyclable—Printed with vegetable oil based inks
       ' on 100% postconsumer, process chlorine free recycled paper.
                                                           November 2005
United States
Environmental Protection