United States              Air and Radiation         EPA 420-F-97-038
                    Environmental Protection                          October 1997
                    Agency

                    Office of Mobile Sources
vxEPA        Environmental
                   Fact Sheet
                    Approval of Urban  Bus Retrofit/
                    Rebuild Equipment
                    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is approving an engine
                    retrofit kit for certain urban transit buses that will significantly reduce
                    particulate matter (PM). As the second kit certified to the stringent 0.10
                    grams per brake horsepower-hour (g/bhp-hr) PM standard, EPA
                    expects that it will benefit the transit industry by providing additional
                    technology choices and reduced costs through competition in the
                    market place. Equipment certified to the 0.10 g/bhp-hr standard is
                    expected to reduce PM emissions by as much as 80 percent per bus
                    compared to pre-retrofit levels.
                    Urban Bus Retrofit/Rebuild Program

                    On April 23, 1993, EPA finalized the Urban Bus Retrofit/Rebuild Pro-
                    gram which is intended to reduce the ambient levels of PM in urban
                    areas. The program is limited to 1993 and earlier model year urban buses
                    operating in metropolitan areas with 1980 populations of 750,000 or
                    more, whose engines are rebuilt or replaced after January 1, 1995.
                    Approximately 50 urban areas are affected. Operators of the affected
                    buses are required to choose between two compliance options: Program
                    1 sets PM emissions requirements for each urban bus engine in an
                    operator's fleet which is rebuilt or replaced; Program 2 is a fleet averag-
                    ing program that establishes specific annual target levels for average PM
                    emissions from urban buses in an operator's fleet.
                                                             > Printed on Recycled Paper

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A key aspect of the program is the certifica-
tion of retrofit/rebuild equipment. To meet
either of the two compliance options,
operators of the affected buses must use
equipment which has been certified by
EPA.

Under Program 1, a transit operator must
use equipment certified by EPA to meet a
0.10 g/bhp-hr PM standard, if such equip-
ment is available for a life cycle cost of
$7,940 or less (in 1992 dollars). If such
equipment is not certified, then a transit
operator must use equipment certified by
EPA as achieving at least a 25 percent
reduction in PM, if such equipment is
available for a life cycle cost of $2,000 or
less. If such equipment is not available, a
transit operator must rebuild to the original
engine configuration, or a configuration
having the same or lower emissions. Equip-
ment used for Program 2 must be certified
to provide some level of PM reduction that
would in turn be claimed by urban bus
operators when calculating their average
fleet PM levels attained under the program.
New Retrofit Kit Approved

EPA has certified equipment manufactured
by Johnson Matthey, Incorporated, as
meeting the requirements of the Urban Bus
Retrofit/Rebuild Program. Johnson Matthey
requested EPA approval in December 1996,
and after a public review period and resolu-
tion of comments, EPA has granted the
approval. This certification applies to urban
buses with  1979 through 1989 model year
Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92TA en-
gines having mechanical unit fuel injectors.
This is the second retrofit kit that has
demonstrated compliance with the stringent
0.10 g/bhp-hr PM standard. It will reduce
PM emissions by as much as 80 percent per
bus compared to pre-retrofit levels. (Previ-
ously approved retrofit kits reduce PM
emissions by 25 to 40 percent per bus.)

Certification of the ETX-2002 kit (pro-
duced by the Engelhard Corporation) on
March 14, 1997 triggered the 0.10 g/bhp-hr
standard for the above-mentioned appli-
cable engines. That certification means that
rebuilds performed after September 14,
1997,  must use equipment certified to the
0.10 g/bhp-hr standard. Approval of the
Johnson Matthey equipment will benefit
the transit industry by providing additional
technology choices and reduced costs
through competition in the market place.

Approval of this new technology does not
affect engines certified by EPA to meet
California emissions standards. For urban
buses  other than those described above, the
requirement to install EPA-approved
equipment reducing PM by 25 percent will
remain in effect until such time as equip-
ment is certified for such buses which
complies with the 0.10 g/bhp-hr PM stan-
dard.
Health and Environmental
Benefits
This certification will result in reduced PM
emissions in approximately 50 urban areas
covered by the program, thus helping states
improve air quality. PM is a contributor to
air pollution in both urban and rural areas.
PM has been identified as a probable
human carcinogen. High levels of exposure
also cause increased frequency of bronchi-
tis, asthma attacks and respiratory infec-

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tions. Environmental impacts of PM
include reduced visibility and deterioration
of buildings.
Effect on Industry

Transit operators who rebuild 1979 through
1989 model year Detroit Diesel Corpora-
tion 6V92TA engines equipped with
mechanical unit fuel injection after Sep-
tember 14, 1997, are required to install
retrofit equipment certified by EPA to meet
a stringent 0.10 g/bhp-hr PM standard.
The cost of such equipment may be up to
$7,940 incremental to the cost of a typical
rebuild. EPA determined in the original
rulemaking for this program that such costs
resulted in a cost-effective PM reductions.

As a result of this approval, the transit
industry will have the benefit of additional
technology choices and reduced costs
through competition in the market place.
Additionally, to lessen the cost impact of
this certification, EPA has approved two kit
supply options aimed at providing in-
creased purchasing flexibility for the
transit industry.
Information is also available by calling
202-564 -9297,

or writing to:

U.S. EPA
Office of Mobile Sources
EPCD/ECPG (6403 J)
401 M Street  SW
Washington, DC 20460
For More Information
Information on the Urban Bus Retrofit/
Rebuild Program is available electronically
via the following EPA Internet server:

World Wide Web:
http ://www. epa.gov/OMSWWW

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