vvEPA
  United States
  Environmental Protection
  Agency
An Introduction to

Freshwater Fishes as

Biological Indicators

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                                                     EPA-260-R-08-016
                                                       November 2008
An  Introduction to Freshwater Fishes
           as Biological Indicators
                         Prepared by:
             Jeffrey D. Grabarkiewicz1 and Wayne S. Davis2

                 1Ecological Survey and Design, LLC
                     1517 W. Temperance Rd.
                     Temperance, Ml 48182

                2U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                 Office of Environmental Information
               Office of Information Analysis and Access
                     Washington, DC 20460
                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                 Office of Environmental Information
               Office of Information Analysis and Access
                     Washington, DC 20460
              Printed on chlorine free 100% recycled paper with
              100% post-consumer fiber using vegetable-based ink.

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             if.
    NOTICE
   This document has been reviewed and approved in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection
   Agency policy. Mention of trade names, products, or services does not convey and should not be
   interpreted as conveying official EPA approval, endorsement, or recommendation for use.

   Funding was provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Contract # 68-C-04-
   006, Work Assignment #4-79 with the Great Lakes Environmental Center, Inc.

   The appropriate citation for this report is:
   Grabarkiewicz, J. and W. Davis. 2008. An introduction to freshwater fishes as biological indicators.
      EPA-260-R-08-016. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Information,
      Washington, DC.

   The entire document can be downloaded from:
         http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/html/publications.html
   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
   We would like to thank the many individuals who provided manuscripts and papers for our review
   and reference. We would also like to thank the various reviewers who provided valuable comments
   regarding the format and content of this guide including James Kurtenbach, Louis Reynolds, Scott
   Stranko, and Richard Spear.
IV
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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CONTENTS
Notice	iv
Acknowledgements	iv
Introduction	1
Basic Fish Anatomy	3
Fish as Biological Indicators	4
Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)	6
Sampling Fish Populations	8
Fish Habitats	10
Family and Species Accounts	12
Lampreys (Petromyzontidae)	13
      Chestnut Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon castaneus)	15
      American Brook Lamprey (Lampetra appendix)	15
Sturgeons (Acipenseridae)	16
      Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)	18
      Shovelnose Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)	18
Minnows (Cyprinidae)	19
      Central Stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum)	22
      Redside Dace (Clinostomus elongatus)	22
      Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)	23
      Streamline Chub (Erimystax dissimils)	23
      Gravel Chub (Erimystaxx-punctatus)	24
      Crescent Shiner (Luxilus cerasinus)	24
      Striped Shiner (Luxilus chrysocephalus)	25
      Common Shiner (Luxilus cornutus)	25
      River Chub (Nocomis micropogon)	26
      Silverjaw Minnow  (Notropis buccatus)	26
      Rosyface Shiner (Notropis rubellus)	27
      Pugnose Minnow  (Opsopoeodus emiliae)	27
      Bluntnose Minnow (Pimephales notatus)	28
      Blacknose Dace (Rhynichthys atratulus)	28
      Longnose Dace (Rhynichthys cataractae)	29
      Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus)	29
Suckers (Catostomidae)	30
      Quillback (Carpiodes cyprinus)	31
      White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni)	31
      Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentileum nigricans)	32
      Smallmouth Buffalo (Ictiobus bubulas)	32
      Spotted Sucker (Minytrema melanops)	33
      Golden Redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum)	33
      Shorthead Redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum)	34
      Black Jumprock (Scartomyzon cervinus)	34
             An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators                 v

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    CONTENTS  (CON'T)
    Catfishes (Ictaluridae)	36
          Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)	38
          Stonecat Madtom (Noturus flavus)	38
          Tadpole Madtom (No torus gyrinus)	39
          Brindled Madtom (Noturus miurus)	39
    Trouts (Salmonidae)	40
          Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)	42
          Brown Trout (Salmo trutta)	42
          Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)	43
          Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush)	43
    Pikes (Esocidae)	44
          Grass Pickerel (Esox americanus vermiculatus)	46
          Northern Pike (Esox lucius)	46
    Topminnows and Killifishes (Fundulidae)	47
          Western Banded Killifish (Fundulus d. diaphanus)	49
          Blackstripe Topminnow (Fundulus notatus)	49
    Sculpins (Cottidae)	50
          Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi)	52
          Banded Sculpin (Cottus carolinae)	52
    Sunfishes (Centrarchidae)	53
          Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris)	55
          Bluespotted Sunfish  (Enneacanthus gloriosus)	55
          Redbreast Sunfish (Lepomis auritus)	56
          Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)	56
          Pumpkinseed Sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)	57
          Warmouth Sunfish (Lepomis gulosus)	57
          Orangespotted Sunfish (Lepomis humilis)	58
          Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)	58
          Dollar Sunfish (Lepomis marginatus)	59
          Longear Sunfish (Lepomis megalotis)	59
          Spotted Sunfish (Lepomis punctatus)	60
          Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu)	60
          Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides)	61
          Black Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)	61
    Perches (Percidae)	62
          Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida)	65
          Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides)	65
          Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum)	66
          Bluebreast Darter (Etheostoma camurum)	66
          Fantail  Darter (Etheostoma flabellare)	67
          Redband Darter (Etheostoma luteovinctum)	67
vi                 An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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CONTENTS  (CON'T)
      Spotted Darter (Etheostoma maculatum)	68
      Redline Darter (Etheostoma rufilineatum)	68
      Orangethroat Darter (Etheostoma spectabile)	69
      Speckled Darter (Etheostoma stigmaeum)	69
      Variegate Darter (Etheostoma variatum)	70
      Banded Darter (Etheostoma zonale)	70
      Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)	71
      Logperch (Percina caprodes)	71
      Channel Darter (Percina copelandi)	72
      Gilt Darter (Percina evides)	72
      Slenderhead Darter (Percina phoxocephala)	73
      Roanoke Darter (Percina roanoka)	73
      Dusky Darter (Percina sciera)	74
      Walleye (Stizostedion vitreus)	74
Literature Cited	75
             An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators               vii

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    FIGURES
     Figure 1. Mouth orientations	3
     Figure 2. Caudal fin shapes	3
     Figure 3. Branchiostegal membranes	3
     Figure 4: Basic body regions	3
     Figure 5: Basic fin anatomy	3
     Figure 6: Basic head anatomy	3
     Figure 7: A hypothetical watershed	10
    TABLES
     Table 1. Original IBI Metrics (Karr 1981; Karr et al. 1986)	6
     Table 2. Great River IBl Metrics (Simon and Emery 1995)	7
     Table 3. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Petromyzontidae	13
     Table 4. Tolerance designations for selected petromyzontids	14
     Table 5. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Acipenseridae	16
     Table 6. Tolerance designations for selected acipenserids	17
     Table 7. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Cyprinidae	19
     Table 8. Tolerance designations for selected cyprinids	21
     Table 9. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Catostomidae	30
     Table 10. Tolerance designations for selected catostomids	31
     Table 11. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Ictaluridae	36
     Table 12. Tolerance designations for selected ictalurids	37
     Table 13. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Salmonidae	40
     Table 14. Tolerance designations for selected salmonids	41
     Table 15. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Esocidae	44
     Table 16. Tolerance designations for selected esocids	45
     Table 17. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Fundulidae	47
     Table 18. Tolerance designations for selected fundulids	48
     Table 19. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Cottidae	50
     Table 20. Tolerance designations for selected cottids	51
     Table 21. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Centrarchidae	53
     Table 22. Tolerance designations for selected centrarchids	54
     Table 23. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for Family Percidae	62
     Table 24. Tolerance designations for selected percids	64
viii                 An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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PHOTOGRAPHS
Cover (all photos by Jeff Grabarkiewicz andTodd Crail)
Notice/Acknowledgements
  Blenny Darter (Top left), Duck River, TN (T. Crail)	iv
  Speckled Darter (Top right), unknown locality, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	iv
  Tennessee Snubnose Darter (Bottom left), Little Buffalo River, TN (T. Crail)	iv
  Rainbow Darter (Bottom right), Blanchard River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	iv
The Conservation of Fishes
  Photo 1: Spring Cavefish, Some Creek, TN (T. Crail)	 1
  Photo 2:Tangerine Darter, Tennessee Aquarium (W. Davis)	 1
  Photo 3: Greenfin Darter, Ivy Creek, NC (T. Crail)	2
  Photo 4: Mobile Logperch, Borden Creek, AL (J. Grabarkiewicz)	2
Basic Fish Anatomy
  All photos and drawings by J. Grabarkiewicz	3
Fish as Biological Indicators
  Photo 5: Cacapon River, WV (J. Grabarkiewicz)	4
Sampling Fish Populations
  Photo 6: A sampler using a backpack electroshocker, unknown state (W. Davis)	8
  Photo 7: A pair using a seine to capture various darters, Chagrin River,
         OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	8
  Photo 8: A downstream sampling blockade, unknown state (W. Davis)	9
Fish Habitats
  Photo 9: Floodplain during spring, Scioto River floodplain, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	11
  Photo 10: An agricultural headwater channel in a low-gradient region of the
           Midwest, Swan Creek,  OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	11
Lampreys
  Adult Chesnut Lamprey (top and  bottom), Little Buffalo River, TN (T. Crail)	13
  Sea Lamprey, Lake Erie, OH (T. Crail)	14
  Chestnut Lamprey (A and  B), Little Buffalo River, TN (T. Crail)	15
  American Brook Lamprey (A and B),  Macochee Creek headwater, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	15
Sturgeons
  Shovelnose Sturgeon (top and bottom), Missouri River, MO (T. Crail)	16
  Lake Sturgeon, Newport Aquarium (W. Davis)	17
  Lake Sturgeon (A and B), Newport Aquarium (W. Davis)	18
  Shovelnose Sturgeon (A and B), Missouri River, MO (T. Crail)	18
Minnows
  Bluenose Shiner, Yellow River,  FL (T. Crail)	19
  Tricolor Shiner, Swamp Creek,  AL (T. Crail)	19
  Pinewood Shiner, Eno River, NC (T. Crail)	20
  Stoneroller Minnow (A), Ten Mile Creek, OH (T. Crail)	23
  Stoneroller Minnow (B), Big Darby Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	23
  Redside Dace (A), Macochee Creek, OH (T. Crail)	23
  Redside Dace (B), St. Joseph Creek, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	23
  Common Carp mirror variety (A), Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	23
  Common Carp mirror variety (B), Blanchard River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	23
              An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators                 ix

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PHOTOGRAPHS (CON'T)
Minnows (con't)
  Streamline Chub (A), Big Darby Creek, OH (T. Crail)	23
  Streamline Chub (B), Clinch River, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	23
  Gravel Chub (A and B), Duck River, TN (T. Crail)	24
  Crescent Shiner (A), South Hyco Creek, NC (T. Crail)	24
  Habitat of the Crescent Shiner (B), Roanoke River, VA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	24
  Striped Shiner (A),  Big Darby Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	25
  Striped Shiner (B), Ten Mile Creek, OH (T. Crail)	25
  Common Shiner (A and B), French Creek (Schuylkill), PA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	25
  River Chub (A and  B), River Raisin, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	26
  Silverjaw Minnow (A), "The Outlet", OH (T. Crail)	26
  Silverjaw Minnow (B), Blacklick Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	26
  Rosyface Shiner (A), Blacklick Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	27
  Rosyface Shiner (B), River Raisin, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	27
  Pugnose Minnow (A and  B), Yellow River, FL (T. Crail)	27
  Bluntnose Minnow (A), Blanchard River, OH (T. Crail)	28
  Bluntnose Minnow (B), Maumee River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	28
  Blacknose Dace (A), French Creek (Schuylkill), PA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	28
  Habitat of the Blacknose  Dace (B), French Creek, PA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	28
  Longnose Dace (A), French Creek (Schuylkill),  PA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	29
  Habitat of the Longnose Dace (B), French Creek,  PA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	29
  Creek Chub (A and B), Indian Creek, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	29
Suckers
  White Sucker (top), French Creek (Schuylkill), PA  (J. Grabarkiewicz)	30
  Blacktail Redhorse  (bottom), Swamp Creek, AL (T. Crail)	30
  Blue Sucker, Albuquerque Aquarium exhibit (W. Davis)	31
  Quillback (A and B), Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	32
  White sucker  (A), French  Creek (Schuylkill), PA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	32
  White sucker  (B), Ottawa River (Toledo), OH (T. Crail)	32
  Northern Hog Sucker (A), Big Darby Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	33
  Northern Hog Sucker (B), St. Joseph Creek, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	33
  Smallmouth Buffalo (A and B), Newport Aquarium, KY (W. Davis)	33
  Spotted Sucker (A and B), East Fork West Branch St. Joseph River, Ml (T. Crail)	34
  Golden Redhorse (A and B), East Fork West Branch St. Joseph River, Ml (T. Crail)	34
  Shorthead Redhorse (A and B), Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	35
  Black Jumprock (A), upper Roanoke River, VA (J.  Grabarkiewicz)	35
  Habitat of the Black Jumprock (B), Roanoke River, VA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	35
Catfishes
  Tadpole Madtom, Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	36
  Mountain Madtom,  Big Darby Creek, OH (T. Crail)	36
  Stonecat Madtom, Big Darby Creek, OH (T. Crail)	37
  Channel Catfish (A and B), Maumee River, OH  (T. Crail)	38
  Stonecat Madtom (A), Fish Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	38
  Stonecat Madtom (B), Big Darby Creek, OH (T. Crail)	38
              An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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PHOTOGRAPHS (CON'T)
Catfishes (con't)
  Tadpole Madtom (A), Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	39
  Tadpole Madtom (B), The Outlet, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	39
  Brindled Madtom (A), Swan Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	39
  Brindled Madtom (B), Blanchard River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	39
Trouts
  Rainbow Trout, Tennessee Aquarium,TN (W. Davis)	40
  Brook Trout, Shinagawa Aquarium, Japan (W. Davis)	40
  Lake Trout, unknown location (W. Davis)	41
  Brook Trout, Tennessee Aquarium, TN (W. Davis)	41
  Rainbow Trout (A and B), Tennessee Aquarium, TN (W. Davis)	42
  Brown Trout (A), Denver Aquarium, CO (W. Davis)	42
  Introduced habitat of the Brown Trout (B), Macochee Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	42
  Brook Trout (A), Woodiebrook Creek, OH (T. Crail)	43
  Brook Trout (B), Shinagawa Aquarium, Japan (W. Davis)	43
  Lake Trout (A and B), Great Lakes Aquarium, MN (W. Davis)	43
Pikes
  Northern Pike, Ottawa  River, Toledo, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	44
  Grass Pickerel, ditch, Toledo, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	44
  Esoxspp., French Creek (Schuylkill), PA (J. Grabarkiewicz)	45
  Grass Pickerel (A), East Fork West Branch St. Joseph River, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	46
  Grass Pickerel (B), ditch, Toledo, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	46
  Northern Pike (A), East Fork West Branch St. Joseph River, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	46
  Northern Pike (B), Prairie Ditch, OH (T. Crail)	46
Topminnows
  Russetfin Topminnow, Blackwater River (T. Crail)	47
  Lined Topminnow, unknown (T. Crail)	47
  Longnose Killifish, tidal stream, Geiger Key, FL (T. Crail)	47
  Western Banded Killifish, Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	48
  Western Banded Killifish (A), Round  Lake,  Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	49
  Habitat of the Western  Banded Killifish (B), Devil's Lake, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	49
  Blackstripe Topminnow (A and B), The Outlet, OH (T. Crail)	49
Sculpins
  Mottled Sculpin  (top left), St. Joseph  Creek, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	50
  Mottled Sculpin  (top right), Fish Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	50
  Habitat of the Banded Sculpin (bottom center), unknown trib, AL (J. Grabarkiewicz)	50
  Banded Sculpin, unknown trib, AL (J. Grabarkiewicz)	51
  Mottled Sculpin  (A), St. Joseph Creek, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	52
  Mottled Sculpin  (B), Fish Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	52
  Banded Sculpin (A), unknown trib, AL (J. Grabarkiewicz)	52
  Habitat of the Banded Sculpin (B), unknown trib, AL (J. Grabarkiewicz)	52
              An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators                 xi

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    PHOTOGRAPHS  (CON'T)
    Sunfishes
     Dollar Sunfish (Top left), Tennessee Aquarium, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	53
     Spotted Bass (Top right), Cowarts Creek, AL (T. Crail)	53
     Smallmouth Bass (Bottom left), Unknown (T. Crail)	53
     Orangespotted Sunfish, Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	53
     Longear Sunfish, The Outlet, OH (T. Crail)	54
     Rock Bass (A), Fish Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	55
     Rock Bass (B), Maumee River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	55
     Bluespotted Sunfish (A), Tennessee Aquarium, TN (W. Davis)	55
     Bluespotted Sunfish (B), Yellow River, FL (T. Crail)	55
     Redbreast Sunfish (A), Saluda River drainage, SC (T. Crail)	56
     Redbreast Sunfish (B), Capacon River, WV (J. Grabarkiewicz)	56
     Green Sunfish (A), Maumee River,  OH (T. Crail)	56
     Habitat of the Green Sunfish (B), Fast Ditch, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	56
     Pumpkinseed Sunfish (A), Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	57
     Pumpkinseed Sunfish (B), Maumee River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	57
     Warmouth Sunfish (A), Lake Wilson, Ml (T. Crail)	57
     Habitat of the Warmouth Sunfish (B),  Lake Wilson, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	57
     Orangespotted Sunfish (A and B), Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	58
     Bluegill Sunfish (A), unknown aquarium (W. Davis)	58
     Bluegill Sunfish (B), Mohican River, OH (T. Crail)	58
     Dollar Sunfish (A), Tennessee Aquarium, OH  (J. Grabarkiewicz)	59
     Dollar Sunfish (B), unknown locality (T. Crail)	59
     Longear Sunfish (A), The Outlet, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	59
     Longear Sunfish (B), The Outlet, OH (T. Crail)	59
     Spotted Sunfish (A and B), Rainbow River, FL (T. Crail)	60
     Smallmouth Bass (A), Little Beaver Creek, OH (T. Crail)	60
     Smallmouth Bass (B), Cacapon River, WV (J. Grabarkiewicz)	60
     Largemouth Bass (A), unknown aquarium (W. Davis)	61
     Largemouth Bass (B), Cacapon River, WV (J. Grabarkiewicz)	61
     Black Crappie (A), Auglaize  River drainage, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	61
     Black Crappie (B), Delaware Creek, OH (T. Crail)	61
    Perches
     Greenside Darters (top), Swan Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	62
     Bloodfin Darter (bottom), Collins River, TN (T. Crail)	62
     Redline Darter, Duck River, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	63
     Redline Darter, Clinch River, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	63
     Eastern Sand Darter (A), Paint Creek, OH (T. Crail)	65
     Historic habitat of the Eastern Sand Darter (B), Green River, KY (J. Grabarkiewicz)	65
     Greenside Darter (A and B), Swan  Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	65
     Rainbow Darter (A), Blanchard River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	66
     Rainbow Darter (B), Scioto River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	66
     Bluebreast Darter (A), Big Darby Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	66
     Bluebreast Darter (B), Paint Creek, OH (T. Crail)	66
     Fantail Darter (A and B), Blanchard River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	67
xii                An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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PHOTOGRAPHS (CON'T)
Perches (con't)
  Redband Darter (A), unknown trib, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	67
  Habitat of the Redband Darter (B), unknown trib, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	67
  Spotted Darter (A and B), Green River, KY (J. Grabarkiewicz)	68
  Redline Darter (A), Duck River, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	68
  Redline Darter (B), Clinch River, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	68
  Orangethroat Darter (A and B), Ten Mile Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	69
  Speckled Darter (A), unknown trib, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	69
  Habitat of the Speckled Darter (B), unknown trib, TN (J. Grabarkiewicz)	69
  Variegate Darter (A and B), Big Darby Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	70
  Banded Darter (A), Big Darby Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	70
  Banded Darter (B), Green River, KY (J. Grabarkiewicz)	70
  Yellow Perch (A), Unknown Aquarium (W. Davis)	71
  Habitat of the Yellow Perch (B), Lake Wilson, Ml (J. Grabarkiewicz)	71
  Logperch (A), Big Darby Creek, OH  (J. Grabarkiewicz)	71
  Habitat of the Logperch (B), Blanchard River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	71
  Channel Darter (A and B), Green  River, KY (J. Grabarkiewicz)	72
  Gilt Darter (A and B), Green River, KY (J. Grabarkiewicz)	72
  Slenderhead Darter (A), Scioto River, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	73
  Slenderhead Darter (B), Little Miami River, OH (T. Crail)	73
  Roanoke Darter (A and B), Eno River, NC (T. Crail)	73
  Dusky Darter (A), Paint Creek, OH (J. Grabarkiewicz)	74
  Dusky Darter (B), Tippecanoe River, IN (T. Crail)	74
  Walleye (A and B), Maumee River, OH (T. Crail)	74
              An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators               xiii

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INTRODUCTION
The freshwaters of North America are populated by a rich tapestry of native fishes, some of
which possess enough charisma and color to rival their marine and tropical counterparts. While
names such as trout and bass are well-embedded into the American vernacular, the less familiar
monikers of darter, madtom, and dace remain relatively unknown. However, it is more often these
lesser known groups that function as valuable indicators of biological integrity, thereby providing
important information to scientists regarding the health of our nation's waterways.

This guide is intended to act as a reference for environmental and fisheries professionals,
naturalists, and educators on the use of fishes as biological indicators. The species described
herein were not chosen for their familiarity, commercial, or recreational value, but rather their
distribution and utility as bioindicators. In addition, an effort was made to provide clear, concise
species descriptions to assist investigators in both the identification of fishes and their indicator
value.
The Conservation of Fishes
Over 1,000 species of freshwater fishes occur in the surface waters of North America (Williams
et al. 1989). This extraordinary component of our natural history is punctuated by the fishes of
the southeastern United States (Photos 1-4), a fauna possessing remarkable diversity and a high
degree of endemism. Recently, there has been an emerging awareness among biologists that a
significant proportion of these fishes have become threatened or endangered due to the activities
of humans. Williams et al. (1989) reviewed the conservation status of North American fishes and
estimated approximately 21.3 % of the 1,042 extant species were "imperiled." More recently,
Jelks et al. (2008) found that since that 1989 review, there was a 92% increase in the number of
imperiled taxa from 364 to 700. Over the past 100 years, a total of 28 species have gone extinct
(Boschung and Mayden 2004). In the United States, 139 species are currently listed as threatened
or endangered (USFWS 2008).
 Photo 1: Spring Cavefish (Forbesichthys
 agassizii).
Photo 2: Tangerine Darter (Percina
aurantiaca).
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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 Photo 3: Greenfin Darter (Etheostoma
 chlorobranchium).
Photo 4: Mobile Logperch (Percina kathae).
Any discussion on the reduction, extirpation, or extinction of a species inevitably requires a
diagnosis of the causal factors of decline. Extirpations and extinctions of fishes have been
attributed to habitat and landscape alterations such as channelization, impoundment, wetland
destruction, and deforestation (Angermeier 1995). The intersection of species traits incompatible
with various stressors and habitat alterations has unfortunately spelled doom for some fishes. For
example, the combination of a restricted range and habitat destruction were likely responsible for
the extinction of the Whiteline Topminnow (Fundulus albolineatus). Originally collected in Spring
Creek (Huntsville, AL) in 1891, the natural channel where the Whiteline Topminnow once occurred
is now an impounded, concrete lined canal in downtown Huntsville (Boschung and Mayden 2004).
Many authors and experts have called for an ecological approach to aquatic species conservation,
fisheries management, and water quality goals (Cook et al. 1972; Karr and Dudley 1981).

This philosophy advocates a holistic management methodology that recognizes the matrix of
interdependencies that exist in nature. These relationships may exist between closely or distantly
related taxa. A prime example of such  a relationship exists between the fishes and native
freshwater mussels of North America.  Because the freshwater mussel life cycle possesses an
obligate parasitic phase that requires a fish host, the composition of fish  communities is important
in maintaining mussel communities. Both game and non-game fishes (e.g. darters, daces,
madtoms, and suckers) have been confirmed by laboratory analysis to function as hosts for
numerous mussel species. Freshwater mussels are important members of aquatic ecosystems
- filtering paniculate matter, biodepositing nutrients, stabilizing substrates, and mixing sediments
(Vaughn and Hakencamp 2001). Perturbations or management philosophies that alter fish
communities are likely to adversely impact mussel communities, thereby altering nutrient and
sediment dynamics.
               An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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BASIC  FISH ANATOMY
   Figure 1. Mouth orientations. (A) Inferior
   (B) Subterminal (C) Terminal (D) Superior.
Figure 2. Caudal fin shapes.
(A) Truncate (B) Rounded
(C) Forked (D) Emarginate.
   Figure 3. Branchiostegal membranes. (A) Bound
   to isthmus (B) Gill membranes broadly joined
   and not bound to isthmus (C) Gill membranes
   moderately joined and not bound to isthmus
 Figure 4. Basic body regions.
   Figure 5. Basic fin anatomy.
                                                                   opordotlap
                                                            opwcular spine
                                                          check
                                                            pefopercle
                                                                  interppercle
                                                                       subopettfe
Figure 6. Basic head anatomy.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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FISH  AS  BIOLOGICAL  INDICATORS
 Photo 5: Cacapon River, WV.

The use of fish as biological indicators has been historically alluded to by several investigators
(Ortmann 1909; Forbes and Richardson 1913; Brinley 1942;Trautman 1957). More recently,
with the systematic sampling of fish populations to evaluate biological integrity, scientists have
described the specific advantages and disadvantages of fish as indicator organisms. What follows
is a list based largely on Karr (1981) and Hocutt (1981):

            Advantages
             1. Long-lived: some families possess long lifespans.
             2. Ubiquitous: fishes occur in a wide variety of habitats.
             3. Extensively studied; there is a large amount of published
               information regarding the occurrence, habits, and habitats of
               fishes.
             4. Diversity: North American fishes exhibit a wide range of feeding
               habits,  reproductive traits, and tolerances to environmental
               perturbations.
             5. Easily identified: relative to other groups of aquatic biota, fishes
               are among the easier groups to identify to the species level.
             6. Well-known: many fish species are familiar to the general public
               and provide recreational opportunities.
             7. Toxicity trends: presence/absence, growth, and recruitment data
               analysis may detect acute and sublethal effects.

             Disadvantages
             1. Manpower: with  most sampling equipment, a  three person crew
               is required to effectively and safely sample fish communities.
             2. Migratory: the movement of fishes may provide misleading data.
             3. Sampling bias: each sampling method (electroshocking,
               seining, etc.) has associated biases.
              An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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Commonly used terms

It is helpful to recognize commonly used terms for using freshwater fish as indicators of
ecological health as well as the trophic classification of fish which is a critical attribute
using in most fish indices.

   Biological Indicator: A numerical value(s) derived from actual measurements, has
   known statistical properties, and conveys useful information for environmental decision
   making. It can be a measure, an index of measures, or a model that characterizes an
   ecosystem or one of its critical components (USEPA 2008).
   Biological Integrity: The capability of supporting and maintaining a balanced,
   integrated, adapted community of organisms having a species composition, diversity,
   and  functional organization comparable to the natural habitats of the region (Karr and
   Dudley 1981, adapted from Frey 1975).
   Indicator Organism: An organism whose characteristics are used to point out the
   presence or absence of environmental conditions which cannot be feasibly measured
   from other taxa or the environment as a whole (slightly modified from Landres et al.
   1988).
   Ecological Health: A biological system can be considered healthy when its inherent
   potential is realized, its condition is stable, its capacity for self-repair when perturbed is
   preserved, and minimal external support for management is  needed (Karr et al. 1986).

Trophic Classification of  Fish

Trophic classifications of fish can be quite useful in bioassessments. For instance, the
predominance of one type of feeding group over another may be a sign of decreased food
supply  or the potential  harmful effects of pollutants. Typical trophic designations for fish
include:

   Piscivores
   Feed on other fish (e.g., Rock Bass, Northern Pike, Largemouth Bass).
   Herbivores
   Feed on plant material (e.g., Chiselmouth, Grass Carp, Eastern Silvery Minnow).
   Omnivores
   Feed on anything available (e.g., Fathead Minnow, White Sucker).
   Insectivores
   Feed on insects (e.g., Lake Chub, Spotfin Shiner).
   Filter feeders
   Feed on zooplankton by straining the water through the gill rakers  (e.g., Alewife,
   Paddlefish, Blueback Herring).
   Invertivores
   Feed on insects, mollusks, and crustaceans (e.g., Lake Sturgeon,  American Shad).
   Generalists
   Known to feed on fish and macroinvertebrates (e.g., Fallfish,  Blacknose Dace).
        An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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INDEX OF  BIOTIC  INTEGRITY  (IBI)
Originally developed by Dr. James Karr, the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) (see Karr 1981) has been
instrumental in evaluating the integrity of surface waters nationwide since the early 1980s. While
initially developed to assess wadeable Midwestern streams, the index has since been adapted and
calibrated for use in numerous regions and habitat types (e.g. Ohio EPA 1987; Simon and  Emery
1995). Today, it remains an effective and adaptable tool, capable of detecting changes in the
biological integrity of surface waters.

In general, the index is designed to evaluate changes in fish assemblages, using an integrated,
multimetric approach. Karr (1981) advocated a method based on two fundamental community
characteristics: species composition and richness and ecological factors. These two characteristics
can be further broken down into seven overarching community traits: species richness and
composition, presence of indicator species, trophic function, fish abundance, reproductive function,
            Table 1. Original IBI Metrics (Karr 1981; Karr et al. 1986).
              1.  Total number of species
                 - A measure of the total number of species weighted to biogeographic
                  region, stream size, and season.
             2.  Number of darter species
                 - Benthic fishes intolerant of environmental perturbations.
             3.  Number of sunfish species
                 - Quiet water inhabitants sensitive to changes in pool habitat; excludes
                  black basses.
             4.  Number of sucker species
                 - A long-lived taxa sensitive to environmental perturbations.
             5.  Number of intolerant species
                 - Species sensitive to various environmental perturbations.
             6.  Percentage of Green Sunfish
                 - A species tolerant to changes in habitat and water quality.
             7.  Percentage omnivores
                 - Omnivores increase as specialist feeders decrease.
             8.  Percentage insectivorous cyprinids
                 - Specialist feeders that indicate the presence of a sufficient
                  invertebrate food source.
             9.  Percentage top carnivores
                 - Top predators occur in balanced, trophically diverse ecosystems.
             10.  Number of individuals
                 - An overall measure of production; low catch per unit efforts may
                  suggest toxic stressors.
             11.  Percentage hybrids
                 - Habitat degradation often decreases reproductive separation.
             12.  Percentage disease, tumors, fin damage, and skeletal anomalies
                 - Associated with toxic pollutants and biological contaminants.
               An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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and condition. The community traits are measured by twelve metrics, which may vary according to
habitat type (e.g. wadeable stream vs. large river). The original IBI metrics proposed by Karr (1981)
and Karr et al. (1986) are presented in Table 1. A modification of the original IBI metrics proposed
by Simon and Emery (1995) for use in great rivers may be found in Table 2.

Once a study site is sampled, the results are compared to a baseline community or reference
condition which represents a relatively undisturbed or "least impaired" state (Stoddard et al. 2006).
Each  individual metric is then assigned  a numerical value by a qualified biologist in relation to the
reference condition (Fore et al. 2003).
              Table 2. Great River IBI Metrics (Simon and Emery 1995).
               1.   Total number of species
                   - A measure of species relative to including exotic species.
               2.  Proportion of round-bodied sucker species
                   - A long-lived taxa sensitive to environmental perturbations.
               3.  Proportion of large river fauna! group
                   - A group of typical large river inhabitants (Pflieger 1971) that declines
                    in proportion with habitat degradation.
               4.  Number of centrarchid species
                   - Quiet water inhabitants sensitive to changes in pool habitat; includes
                    black basses.
               5.  Number of sensitive species
                   - Species sensitive to various environmental perturbations.
               6.  Number of tolerant species
                   - Species tolerant of various environmental perturbations.
               7.  Percentage simple lithophilous spawning fish
                   - Reduced with degraded habitat.
               8.  Percentage insectivores
                   - Insectivores are generally associated with higher quality systems.
               9.  Percentage carnivores
                   - Top predators occur in balanced, trophically diverse ecosystems.
              10.  Percentage omnivores
                   - Omnivores increase as specialist feeders decrease; an indicator of
                    stream degradation.
              11.  Catch per unit effort
                   - An overall measure of production; low catch per unit efforts may
                    suggest toxic stressors.
              12.  Percentage of individuals with disease, eroded fins, lesions and
                   tumors
                   - Associated with toxic pollutants and biological contaminants.
             An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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   SAMPLING  FISH  POPULATIONS
                                            A wide array of procedures and protocols have
                                            been developed to sample inland fish populations.
                                            Electroshocking techniques (Photo 6) remain
                                            the most common approach to capture fishes,
                                            although seines (Photo 7) are also employed.
                                            Sampling designs and techniques are often based
                                            on several considerations,  including desired
                                            standardization, sampling objectives, target
                                            population, the resources available, and time
                                            constraints.
      Photo 6: A sampler using a backpack
      electroshocker.
   The site selection process depends heavily
   on the objectives of the study. Basin-wide
   studies may include multiple sites selected
   systematically or randomly to  reduce bias,
   or consist of sites sampled historically.
   Watercourse access is also an important
   consideration, as private property often
   requires landowner permission and may impact
   logistical planning (boat access, etc.).

   When sampling with the intent of performing
   a bioassessment of an individual study site, a
   representative stream reach is chosen, away
   from the influence of tributaries and bridges
   (Barbour et al. 1999). Sampling is conducted from a downstream barrier (photo 8) or
   riffle and proceeds in an upstream direction. U.S. EPA protocol calls for a minimum of two
   samplers to conduct one sweep of the sample area. Fishes are held in live wells before
   being identified, measured (if  needed), and enumerated. Dubious specimens are preserved
   for laboratory identification. Voucher collections are made with the purpose of having all
   identifications confirmed by a  second experienced taxonomist.
                              Photo 7: A pair using a seine to capture
                              various darters.
8
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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Electrofishing and seining techniques possess
their own advantages and disadvantages. In order
to understand how a sample may be biased, it's
important to recognize the shortcomings of an
individual methodology or technique. The following
is paraphrased from Barbour et al. (1999):

    Advantages/Disadvantages of
    electroshocking:
    1.  Time efficient
    2.  Appropriate for a wide array of habitats
    3.  Easily standardized
    4.  Selective of large fishes

    Advantages/Disadvantages of seining:
    1.  Inexpensive and easy to maintain
    2.  Minimal impact on fish populations
    3.  Generally less effective for large fishes
    4.  Standardization is difficult
Photo 8: A downstream sampling
blockade.
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
                                        9

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   FISH  HABITATS
   The fishes of North America occupy a variety of habitats, ranging from narrow roadside ditches
   to large rivers and lakes. The factors that may dictate the distribution of a particular species
   include climate, physiography, hydrology, stream size, biogeography, geochemistry, and human
   disturbance. The last factor has become increasingly important as a growing human population
   increases its demands on the natural environment.

   While some fish species may be well distributed throughout a watershed, others may possess a
   more restricted range. For example, on a watershed scale, a species list made at point A (Fig. 7)
   and point D would likely be quite different. However, seasonal spawning migrations may place the
   species commonly found at point D at point A. Many species use these headwater habitats as
   nurseries for their young, including well-known game fishes such as Northern Pike (Esox lucius).
   Humans often fragment such pathways by constructing dams or altering swamp-like headwaters
   by ditching and draining. When this occurs, the reproductive success of highly migratory species
   becomes precarious if alternative waters cannot be found.
                Figure 7: A hypothetical watershed. (A) Headwater, (B) Creek,
                (C) Small river, (D) Large river.
10
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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An interesting and often asked question is: "Why does species X occur in river system Y but not
Z?"The answer may be related to available habitat or "biogeography." Biogeography is the study
and interpretation of the past to explain present distributional patterns. It can greatly affect the
expected species in a waterway or even the pollution tolerance of a species. For instance, Fausch
et al. (1984) showed that the number of fish species will increase in proportion to the size of a
watershed. When assigning pollution tolerance, some fish species at the edge of their range may
be classified as intolerant since they are rare, so pollution tolerance throughout their entire range
should be considered. So to answer the question above, biogeographers may look at historical
connections between drainages, disturbance events (e.g. ice ages), and/or geology.
                  Photo 9: Floodplain during spring. The backwater channels
                  and pools of floodplains are often breeding sites for a
                  number of migratory fish species.
                  Photo 10: An agricultural headwater channel in a low-
                  gradient region of the Midwest. Such channels are often
                  highly modified and dominated by turbid flow regimes.
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
11

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   FAMILY AND SPECIES ACCOUNTS
   In North America, scientists have identified 1,151 extant fish species belonging to 37 taxonomic
   families (Jelks et al. 2008). This section details over 60 common freshwater species and
   subspecies and are organized within 11 families, with information on identification, habitat,
   pollution tolerance, and IBI use. The families include:

          Lampreys (Petromyzontidae)	13
          Sturgeons (Acipenseridae)	16
          Minnows (Cyprinidae)	19
          Suckers (Catostomidae)	30
          Catfishes (Ictaluridae)	36
          Trouts (Salmonidae)	40
          Pikes (Esocidae)	44
          Topminnows and Killifishes (Fundulidae)	47
          Sculpins (Cottidae)	50
          Sunfishes (Centrarchidae)	53
          Perches (Percidae)	62
12              An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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LAMPREYS (PETROMYZONTIDAE)
The lampreys are an ancient family of
fishes, with fossils dating back to at least
280 million years ago. They are among
the most distinctive fishes, lacking hinged
lower jaws, paired fins, and possessing
crudely developed skeletons. Some
species are parasitic, while others,
termed "brook lampreys," spend the
majority of their life filter-feeding from
the water column while in the larval
"ammocoete" stage.

Family Level Identifiers: Jaws and
paired fins absent. Seven gill openings
present on each side of fish. Body long,
slender, and "snake-like."

Habitat: The Petromyzontidae occur
primarily in the Northern Hemisphere
(Etnier and Starnes 1993), with
approximately 20 species found in North
America. They occupy a wide range
of habitats, from headwater creeks to
large glacial lakes. While probably most
abundant in sand and gravel substrates,
ammocoetes often burrow into organic
sands. Ammocoetes and adults  may
significantly differ in habitat requirements.

Pollution Tolerance: In general, the
lampreys  are considered "intermediate"
to "intolerant" of pollution and habitat
disturbance (Barbour et al. 1999).
Ammocoetes generally require clear water,
permanent flow, and stable beds of fine
textured substrates mixed with organic matter
(Pflieger 1997).Trautman (1981) reported the
sensitivity of a number of lamprey species to
disturbance and siltation, including the Silver
Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), Mountain
Brook Lamprey (Ichthymyzon greeleyi), and Least Brook Lamprey (Lamptera aepyptera). Jenkins
and Burkhead (1994) suggested that /. bdellium functions an "indicator of good water and substrate
quality". Rice and  Michael (2001) noted that the decline of the Ohio Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon
bdellium)  was likely a result of the systematic damming of the Ohio River.
        Adult Chestnut Lamprey
       (Ichthyomyzon castaneus)
Table 3. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
Family Petromyzontidae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1999)
Tolerant
0%
Intermediate
37%
Intolerant
63%
*8 species rated
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
                                           13

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    Ammocoetes
    The Petromyzontidae have a unique life cycle, where a significant period of time is spent as an
    "ammocoete," or larval lamprey. Ammocoetes are quite different than adult lamprey, lacking teeth,
    the disc-like mouth, and functional eyes. They feed by burrowing into fine substrates and filtering
    microorganisms and detritus until metamorphosis occurs.

                                           Use in IBI: The Petromyzontidae are not evaluated
                                           by a single metric, but may be accounted for under
                                           general metrics such as Metric 1: Total number of
                                           fish species and Metric 10: Number of individuals.
                                           If alternative metrics that account for exotic species
                                           are utilized, the Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)
                                           (photo left) may be enumerated under such a metric
                                           if collected outside its native range. In addition, due
                                           to a number of lamprey being intolerant species, the
                                           Petromyzontidae may also be included under Metric 5:
                                           Number of intolerant species.
        Table 4. Tolerance designations for selected petromyzontids.








Common Name

Ohio Lamprey
Chestnut Lamprey
Northern Brook Lamprey
Southern Brook Lamprey
Mountain Brook Lamprey
Silver Lamprey
Least Brook Lamprey
American Brook Lamprey
Sea Lamprey








Scientific Name

Ichthyomyzon bdellium
Ichthyomyzon castaneus
Ichthyomyzon fossor
Ichthyomyzon gagei
Ichthyomyzon greeleyi
Ichthyomyzon unicuspis
Lamptera aepyptera
Lamptera appendix
Petromyzon marinus



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14
An  Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                               Chestnut Lamprey
                           (Ichthyomyzon castaneus)
                                     Identification: Adult parasitic. Adults (A): Body long and
                                     cylindrical, with a low dorsal fin separated by a small notch.
                                     Coloration brown to brownish-olive dorsally; belly lighter in
                                     color. Sides may be mottled. Ammocoetes (B): Coloration
                                     generally paler than adults (Boschung and Mayden 2004).

                                     General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
                                     Mississippi River basin, Lake Michigan basin, Red River (of
                                     the North) basin, and a few Gulf drainages. Adults occur
                                     in rivers and reservoirs, while ammocoetes and breeding
                                     adults are found in small, headwater streams. Adults are
                                     generally found in current over sand and gravel, whereas
                                     ammocoetes are often more abundant in low-gradient
                                     headwaters in organic sand, muck, and silty substrates.

                                     Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): The Chestnut Lamprey is
                                     vulnerable to river and  stream modifications that fragment
                                     its habitat and disconnect historical spawning sites. State
                                     and regional tolerance  classifications rank /. castaneus as
                                     both an "intermediate" (Barbour et al. 1999) and "intolerant"
                                     species (Jester et al. 1992). The Chestnut Lamprey scores
                                     under IBI metrics 1 and 10. If considered a sensitive
                                     species, the Chestnut Lamprey also scores under metric 5.
                         American  Brook Lamprey
                              (Lamptera appendix)
Identification: Adult non-parasitic. Adults: Body long and
cylindrical, with "2" dorsal fins separated by a deep notch.
Coloration gray to grayish-olive dorsally; belly white; fins
may have a yellowish tinge. Ammocoetes: Dorsal fins may
be separate (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Coloration
generally brown dorsally; belly white.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widely but somewhat
disjunctly distributed throughout the Mississippi River
basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin, and Atlantic
slope. Generally found in large creeks and small rivers.
Adults occur over sand and gravel substrates, whereas
ammocoetes may be more common in organic sand or
organic sand and fine gravel substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,5,10): The American Brook Lamprey
is generally considered sensitive to pollution, turbidity,
siltation, and  migrational barriers such as dams (Eddy and
Underhill 1974; Becker 1983). State and regional tolerance
classifications rank L. appendix as an "intolerant" species
(Ohio EPA 1987; Halliwell et al. 1999). As a sensitive
species, the American Brook Lamprey scores under IBI
metrics 1,5, and 11.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
15

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   STURGEONS  (ACIPENSERIDAE)
   In the freshwater systems of North America, there are few creatures as large, primitive, and
   enigmatic as the sturgeon. Unfortunately, populations of these magnificent fishes have been
   declining since the turn of the century, a result of large river impoundment, siltation, and the
   overharvesting of females for caviar. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service currently lists four species
   of sturgeon as federally endangered.

   Family Level Identifiers: Body robust.
   Several rows of longitudinal plates. Dorsal
   and anal fin  set posteriorly. Four barbels
   underneath snout. Sturgeon  are among
   the largest fish found in the freshwater
   systems of North America.

   Habitat: Most sturgeon species
   inhabit large rivers, lakes, and marine
   environments. It should be noted that
   some species are chiefly marine, and
   migrate to freshwaters only to spawn
   (anadromous). Preferred substrates
   include clean sand and gravel, where
   they feed on snails, small mussels, and a
   variety of benthic organisms.

   Pollution Tolerance: Pollution tolerance
   among the sturgeons varies  from species
   to species. River modifications, mainly
   dams, have  perhaps had the greatest
   impact on this family, severely limiting
   the ability of many species to access
   historic spawning waters and silting
   formerly suitable habitats (Trautman
   1981).Trautman (1981) commented on
   the decline of Lake Sturgeon in Lake
   Erie and its tributaries: "The  decline in
   sturgeon abundance appears to have
   been chiefly caused by the inability of the
   fish to reach its  spawning grounds because
   of dams; by having the former spawning
   habitat destroyed by silting, pollution, or
   drainage; and by destruction of the great
   quantities of mussels and gastropods in
   both the streams and Lake Erie." Jenkins
   and Burkhead (1994) commented that the
   Acipenseridae may also be particularly
   susceptible to overfishing due to their long
   lifespans.
                                     Shpvelnose Sturgeon
                                 (Scaphirhynchus ptitorynchus)
                          Table 5. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
                          Family Acipenseridae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1 999)
Tolerant
0%
Intermediate
50%
Intolerant
50%
                           *4 species rated
16
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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Evolution, Diversity, and Distribution
The sturgeons are among the most ancient fishes found in North America, with fossils
dating back to at least the upper Cretaceous period (70 million years ago). At present
25 species have been identified worldwide, with the majority of species found in
central and eastern Europe. In North America, eight species belonging to two genera
occur, with diversity maximized in the waters of the southern United States.
                                         Use in IBI: Karr's (1981) IBI does not include
                                         a metric for the sturgeon family. When
                                         appropriate, intolerant sturgeon species
                                         might be included in Metric 5: Number of
                                         intolerant species. Otherwise, their presence
                                         is recorded under general metrics such as
                                         Metric 1: Total number of fish species and
                                         Metric 10: Number of individuals.
Table 6. Tolerance designations for selected acipenserids.






Common Name

Shortnose Sturgeon
Lake Sturgeon
Green Sturgeon
Atlantic Sturgeon
White Sturgeon
Pallid Sturgeon
Shovelnose Sturgeon






Scientific Name

Acipenser brevirostrum
Acipenser fulvescens
Acipenser medirostris
Acipenser oxyrhynchus
Acipenser transmontanus
Scaphirhynchus albus
Scaphirhynchus platorynchus



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-
-
-
-
-
   I = intolerant  M = intermediate  Ml = moderately intolerant  MT = moderately tolerant
      P = moderately tolerant  R = rare intolerant  S = special intolerant  T = tolerant
       An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
17

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                                        Lake Sturgeon
                                   (Acipenser fulvescens)
                                           Identification: Body elongate and robust, with a short,
                                           pointed, conical snout (B). Caudal peduncle partially
                                           plated. Barbels on lower snout 4, smooth in texture.
                                           Coloration dusky gray dorsally; sides gray; belly grayish
                                           white to white. Dorsal plates 9-17; dorsal fin rays 35-
                                           40; anal fin rays 25-30. Caudal fin forked and without a
                                           filament.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed in the upper
                                           Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin,
                                           and Hudson Bay  basin. Generally rare throughout is range.
                                           Occurs in large rivers and lakes. Often found over coarse
                                           substrates where mollusks, crustaceans, and insects are
                                           abundant.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): A highly migratory species, the
                                           decline of the Lake Sturgeon has been attributed to the
                                           widespread damming of rivers, pollution, siltation, and
                                           overfishing (Trautman 1981; Boschung and Mayden 2004).
                                           In a review of state and regional tolerance classifications,
                                           Barbour et al. (1999) reported an "intermediate" ranking
                                           for A. fulvescens. The Lake Sturgeon scores under IBI
                                           metrics 1 and 10, although may also score under metric 5
                                           if considered an "intolerant" species.
                                   Shovelnose Sturgeon
                             (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)
      Identification: Body elongate and robust, with a long, wide,
      pointed, and flattened snout (B). Tail tapering and slender;
      caudal peduncle completely plated. Barbels on lower snout
      4, coarsely fringed. Dorsal plates 13-19; dorsal fin rays 29-
      36; anal fin rays 18-24. Caudal fin asymmetrically forked and
      often with a long filament.

      General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
      Mississippi River basin and historically from the Rio Grande
      River (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Occurs mainly in rivers
      where the current is moderate to swift. Most abundant over
      clean-swept, coarse substrates.

      Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): The Shovelnose Sturgeon
      has experienced declines throughout its range due to
      the impoundment of large rivers, which inhibit access to
      historical spawning grounds and reduce current (Helms
      1974; Robison and Buchanan 1988; Etnier and Starnes
      1993). It has been reported to tolerate turbid waters
      (Robison and Buchanan  1988). Regional and state tolerance
      classifications range from "intermediate" (Barbour et al. 1999)
      to "intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992). The Shovelnose Sturgeon
      scores under IBI metrics  1 and 10, although may also score
      under metric 5 if considered an "intolerant" species.
18
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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MINNOWS (CYPRINIDAE)
Cyprinidae represents the most diverse family of fishes in all the world. Presently, over 2000
species and 210 genera have been described (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Of the 2000
identified species, nearly 300 are found in North America, with the greatest diversity occurring in
the waters of the southern United States. While often thought of as small, silvery fish, members of
the minnow family often possess elegant characters and magnificent coloration.

Family Level Identifiers: Body often elongate (with exceptions). Dorsal rays 9  or fewer. Fins
generally soft and flexible.

Habitat: Minnows occupy nearly every freshwater habitat found in North America, including
headwater streams, creeks, rivers, ponds, lakes, swamps, and marshes. They are well-known for
their tendency to form large schools, which they may utilize for protection, spawning, or enhanced
foraging (Morgan and Colgan 1987; Freeman and Grossman 1992; Pitcher 1993).

Pollution Tolerance: Pollution tolerance among the cyprinids varies from species to species.
To illustrate this, consider the following: two geographically ubiquitous minnows, the Bluntnose
Minnow (Pimephales notatus) and Spotfin Shiner (Cyprinella spiloptera) have exhibited tolerance
to turbidity, disturbance, and pollution (Trautman 1981). Another cyprinid with a more restricted
distribution, the Streamline Chub  (Erimystax
dissimilis), is only found in pristine large creeks
and rivers (Etnier and Starnes  1993), and
serves as an excellent indicator of high quality
habitat. Interspecific disparities like these
and the intolerance of some species to all but
near pristine habitats promote the use of the
Cyprinidae as sensitive indicators of waterway
integrity (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Table 7. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
Family Cyprinidae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1999)
Tolerant
17%
Intermediate
47%
Intolerant
36%
*76 species rated
    Bluenose Shiner (Pteronotropis welaka)
   Tricolor Shiner (Cyprinella trichroistia)
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
                                           19

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   Nest Builders
   Among the nest building behaviors exhibited by the Cyprinidae, the expertise of the genus
   Nocomis may be unmatched. While some minnow species excavate simple pits, the Nocomis
   chubs have been known to assemble nests consisting of several thousand stones (Reighard 1943).
   Nest construction such as this may take 20 to 30 hours (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994) while the
   male transports stones with his mouth.

   Use in IBI: Cyprinids are an integral part of IBI scoring
   in most regions. For example, Metric 8: Percentage
   insectivorous cyprinids, utilizes specialist minnow species
   who feed chiefly on insects. Alternatively, Metric 7:
   Percentage omnivores accounts for cyprinids that are
   generalist feeders, an indicator of stream degradation
   (i.e. specialists vs. generalists). Cyprinids such as the
   Creek Chub and some dace species are often substituted
   for Green Sunfish in Metric 6: Percent Green Sunfish.
   Additionally, pollution intolerant cyprinids would be
   accounted for in Metric 5: Number of intolerant species.
20
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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Table 8. Tolerance designations for selected cyprinids.
Common Name

Stoneroller Minnow
Redside Dace
Rosyside Dace
Spotfin Shiner
Tricolor Shiner
Common Carp
Streamline Chub
Gravel Chub
Crescent Shiner
Striped Shiner
Common Shiner
Pearl Dace
Hornyhead Chub
River Chub
Bigeye Chub
Bigeye Shiner
Silverjaw Minnow
Rosyface Shiner
Pugnose Minnow
Southern Redbelly Dace
Bluntnose Minnow
Fathead Minnow
Blacknose Dace
Longnose Dace
Creek Chub
Fallfish
Scientific Name

Campostoma anomalum
Clinostomus elongatus
Clinostomus funduloides
Cyprinella spiloptera
Cyprinella trichroistia
Cyprinus carpio
Erimystax dissimilis
Erimystax x-punctatus
Luxilus cerasinus
Luxilus chrysocephalus
Luxilus cornutus
Margariscus margarita
Nocomis biguttatus
Nocomis micropogon
Notropis amblops
Notropis boops
Notropis buccatus
Notropis rubellus
Opsopoeodus emiliae
Phoxinus erythrogaster
Pimephales notatus
Pimephales promelas
Rhinichthys atratulus
Rhinichthys cataractae
Semotilus atromaculatus
Semotilus corporalis
i-.
|
2
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R
M
-
-
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1
1
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R
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1
R
-
T
T
T
R
T
-
Jester etal. 1992
WQ
Ml
-
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I
-
T
-
I
-
Ml
-
-
-
-
I
Ml
-
I
-
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MT
T
-
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Ml
-
Habitat
Ml
-
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I
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T
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Whittier and Hughes 1998

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-
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Barbouretal. 1999

M
I
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M
M
M
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T
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Halliwelletal. 1999
Habitat
T
I
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T
I
I
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M
M
M
M
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Pirhalla 2004

Ml
-
Ml
Ml
-
-
-
-
-
-
I
-
-
I
-
-
I
I
-
-
Ml
T
T
Ml
T
Ml
    I = intolerant M =
       P = moderately
intermediate  Ml = moderately intolerant  MT = moderately tolerant
tolerant  R = rare intolerant  S = special intolerant  T = tolerant
        An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
                                                                      21

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                                    Stoneroller Minnow
                                 (Campostoma anomalum)
                                           Identification: Body somewhat cylindrical and robust
                                           anteriorly; becoming quite deep in older individuals.
                                           Coloration olive-brown dorsally with brassy and brown sides;
                                           belly white. Breeding males often covered with tubercles;
                                           also with dark medial bands present on the dorsal and anal
                                           fin. Mouth subterminal to slightly inferior, with cartilaginous
                                           edge on lower lip. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin rays 7; pectoral
                                           fin rays 15; pelvic fin rays 8. All fins somewhat small.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Well distributed throughout
                                           the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes basin, western Gulf
                                           slope, and mid-Atlantic region. Occurs in flowing sections of
                                           creeks and rivers, less common in lakes and impoundments
                                           (Becker 1983). Most abundant over coarse substrates.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): The Central Stoneroller may
                                           be best described as an "intermediate" species, capable
                                           of spawning under various conditions (Becker 1983) and
                                           tolerant of moderate turbidity (Trautman 1981; Becker 1983).
                                           Regional and state tolerance classifications  have ranked the
                                           Central Stoneroller as "tolerant" (Halliwell et al. 1999) as well
                                           "moderately intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992; Pirhalla 2004). C.
                                           anomalum under metrics that evaluate community diversity
                                           and abundance.
                                        Redside Dace
                                  (Clinostomus elongatus)
     Identification: Body slender, moderately deep, and laterally
     compressed. Coloration generally olive dorsally and silvery,
     with a conspicuous red streak or smudge posterior of opercle.
     Breeding males with small, irregularly spaced tubercles. Mouth
     terminal, large, with a projecting lower jaw. Dorsal fin rays 8;
     anal fin rays 9; pectoral fin rays 14-16; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal
     fin emarginate to forked.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Disjunctly distributed
     throughout the upper Mississippi basin, Great Lakes basin,
     and upper Susquehanna River basin. Generally confined to
     small, headwater streams and creeks. Thrives in flowing pools
     where the water is cool and clear. Most abundant over clean
     substrates of gravel and sand.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,5, 8,10): With somewhat narrow habitat
     requirements, the Redside Dace is a sensitive headwater
     species confined to relatively undisturbed habitats. It is
     reportedly sensitive to turbidity, thermal stress, and channel
     modification (Scott and Grossman 1973; Trautman 1981;
     Becker 1983). State and regional tolerance classifications
     generally rank C. elongatus as an "intolerant" species (Ohio
     EPA 1987; Halliwell  et al. 1999). As a sensitive insectivorous
     cyprinid, the Redside Dace scores  under numerous IBI
     metrics,  including metrics 1, 5, 8, and 10.
22
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                        Common  Carp  (Mirror variety)
                       	(Cyprinus carpio)	
Identification: Body robust, deep, with a "humped" profile
anterior of the dorsal fin. Coloration dark olive to smoky brown;
color fading on belly to yellow-white. Mouth subterminal, with
two barbels present on each side of mouth. Breeding males
with fine tubercles. Dorsal fin with 1 spinous ray and 15-23 soft
rays; anal fin with 1  spinous ray and 4-6 soft rays; pectoral fin
rays 14-17; pelvic fin rays 8-9. Caudal fin emarginate to forked.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widespread throughout the
United States. A habitat generalist, the carp is found in creeks,
rivers, lakes, and marshes. It is most abundant in shallow,
warmwater habitats where the current is sluggish. The carp
may be found over coarse or soft substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI: A tolerant exotic species introduced into
North America during the 1800s, the Asian Carp is capable of
tolerating low dissolved oxygen levels, thermal stress, turbidity,
and pollution (McKay 1963; Becker 1983). Several state and
regional tolerance classifications rank the carp as a "tolerant"
species (Ohio EPA 1987; Jester et al. 1992; Halliwell et al.
1999; Whittier 1999). As an exotic species, the Asian Carp
may or may not be included in general community diversity
and abundance metrics. If exotic species are included in the
IBI, Asian Carp may be enumerated under Metric 7: Percent
Omnivores.
                                  Streamline Chub
                                (Erimystax dissimilis)
                                      Identification: Body slender, elongate, and terete. Coloration
                                      olive dorsally with a silvery belly; several lateral blotches
                                      present extending from the opercle to caudal peduncle.
                                      Mouth small and horizontal. Breeding males with very small
                                      tubercles. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin rays 7; pectoral fin rays
                                      16-19; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin forked.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Disjunctly distributed
                                      throughout the Ohio River basin. Typically found in large
                                      creeks and  rivers in relatively shallow water (<1.5 m) and
                                      moderate current. Most abundant over substrates of clean
                                      sand, gravel, and rubble.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1,5, 8,10): The Streamline Chub occurs
                                      in clear, relatively pristine large creeks and rivers  (Etnier and
                                      Starnes 1993).Trautman (1981) noted the disappearance of
                                      E. dissimilis from several silted riffles and shoals throughout
                                      Ohio. The return of the Streamline Chub to historically
                                      disturbed or polluted creeks and rivers may indicate progress
                                      towards recovery. State and regional tolerance classifications
                                      generally rank the Streamline  Chub as an "intolerant"
                                      species (Ohio EPA 1987; Halliwell  et al. 1999). As a sensitive
                                      insectivorous cyprinid, the Streamline Chub scores under
                                      numerous IBI metrics, including metrics 1, 5, 8, and 10.
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
23

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                                          Gravel  Chub
                                   (Erimystax x-punctatus)
     Identification: Body slender, elongate, and terete. Coloration
     generally olive dorsally with a silvery belly and conspicuous
     mid-lateral "X" or "Y" markings (B). Mouth small and
     horizontal. Breeding males with very small tubercles. Dorsal
     fin rays 8; anal fin rays 7; pectoral fin rays 13-16; pelvic fin
     rays 8. Caudal fin forked.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
     Mississippi River basin. Occurs in large creeks and rivers in
     moderately shallow water (<2 m) and slow to swift current.
     Generally most abundant over substrates of clean sand,
     gravel, and rubble. Trautman (1981) noted that the Gravel
     Chub  may utilize habitats deeper and slower than the
     Streamline Chub (E. dissimilis).

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,8,10): Like its close relative the
     Streamline Chub, the Gravel Chub is found mainly in
     pristine large creeks and rivers. It is considered sensitive
     to turbidity, siltation, impoundment, and pollution (Trautman
     1981;  Becker 1983; Robison and Buchanan 1988). Regional
     and state tolerance classifications have conferred both an
     "intermediate" (Ohio EPA 1987) and "intolerant" status (Jester
     et al. 1992; Halliwell 1999) to this species. As an insectivorous
     cyprinid, the Gravel Chub generally scores under IBI metrics
     1,8, and  10.
                                       Crescent Shiner
                                      (Luxilus cerasinus)
                                           Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed; often
                                           with darkened and distinctive "crescents." Body coloration
                                           silvery; olive dorsally. Fins often with red edges. Breeding
                                           males with brilliant cherry red fins, lips, and body; moderate
                                           sized tubercles. Mouth terminal. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin rays
                                           9; pectoral fin rays 14-17; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin forked.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Restricted to the mid-Atlantic
                                           slope, perhaps most abundant in the Roanoke drainage
                                           (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994)  (B). Occurs in creeks and
                                           small rivers in flowing pools, runs, and riffles. Generally found
                                           in moderate to  high-gradient stream sections (Jenkins and
                                           Burkhead 1994). May be found over both coarse and soft
                                           substrates.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,8,10): Although the Crescent Shiner
                                           may be sensitive to sharp decreases in temperature and
                                           dissolved oxygen, L. cerasinus has been reported as tolerant
                                           of turbidity (Matthews and Styron 1981; Jenkins and Burkhead
                                           1994). Due to its relatively restricted range, tolerance rankings
                                           have not been developed for L. cerasinus. As an insectivorous
                                           cyprinid, the Crescent Shiner scores under IBI metrics 1, 8,
                                           and 10.
24
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                                   Striped Shiner
                             (Luxilus chrysocephalus)
                                       Identification: Body somewhat robust and moderately
                                       compressed. Coloration olive-gray dorsally with silvery sides;
                                       may have a metallic sheen. Mouth terminal. Breeding males
                                       (A-B) with a brassy sheen, pinkish-red fin margins, and
                                       moderate to large tubercles (B). Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin
                                       rays 9; pectoral fin rays 14-16; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin
                                       forked.

                                       General Distribution/Habitat: Widespread throughout the
                                       Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes basin, and Gulf slope.
                                       Most common in small and large creeks, although it may be
                                       found in rivers. Usually occurs in flowing pools where the
                                       current  is moderate. Generally found over both coarse and
                                       fine substrates.

                                       Indicator Use/IBI (1, 8,10): In Ohio, Trautman commented
                                       that the Striped Shiner seemed to adapt better to warmer
                                       and turbid water than the Common Shiner (Luxilus cornutus).
                                       Interestingly, Pflieger (1971) observed that the Common
                                       Shiner was more common in turbid, prairie streams while
                                       the striped shiner was abundant  in cool, clear, upland
                                       streams. State and regional tolerance classifications range
                                       from "moderately intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992) to "tolerant"
                                       (Halliwell et al. 1999). As an insectivorous cyprinid, the
                                       Striped Shiner scores under IBI metrics 1, 8, and 10.
                                  Common  Shiner
                                  (Luxilus cornutus)
Identification: Body somewhat deep and moderately
compressed. Coloration olive-blue or olive-gray dorsally with
silvery sides; may have a metallic sheen. Scales crowded
anterior of dorsal fin. Mouth terminal. Breeding males (A) with
a brassy sheen, pinkish-red fin margins, and moderate to
large tubercles. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin rays 9; pectoral fin
rays 15-17; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin forked.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed  in the upper
Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes basin, and northern
Atlantic slope. Typically occurs in creeks (B) and rivers,
although L. cornutus may also be found in lakes (Becker
1983). Most abundant in sluggish or moderate current over
coarse and fine substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,8,10): In Ohio, Trautman (1981)
considered the Common Shiner more sensitive to silt and
turbid waters than the Striped Shiner (L. chrysocephalus).
Becker (1983) noted that the "common shiner in nature
adjusts to a wide range of average temperatures". State
and regional tolerance classifications for L. cornutus range
from "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999; Whittier 1999) to
"intolerant" (Pirhalla 2004). As an  insectivorous cyprinid, the
Common Shiner scores under IBI metrics 1, 8, and 10.
            An  Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
25

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                                           River Chub
                                    (Nocomis micropogon)
                                           Identification: Body robust with small eye. Coloration dark
                                           olive to yellow dorsally, often with a faint rosy hue present
                                           on the belly and head (especially breeding males). Breeding
                                           males with conspicuous tubercles on snout (B). Mouth
                                           subterminal. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin rays 7; pectoral fin
                                           rays 15-19; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin emarginate to slightly
                                           forked.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
                                           eastern Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes basin, and
                                           Atlantic slope. Occurs in creeks and rivers in shallow water
                                           where the current is moderate to strong. Generally found
                                           over coarse substrates such as gravel, cobble, boulder, and
                                           bedrock rubble.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,5,8,10): The River Chub is an
                                           inhabitant of high quality stream reaches of clear water and
                                           good current. Excessive turbidity and siltation often results
                                           in rapid population declines or outright extirpation (Trautman
                                           1981). State and regional tolerance classifications rank N.
                                           micropogon as both an "intermediate" (Halliwell 1999) and
                                           "intolerant" species (Ohio EPA 1987; Halliwell et al. 1999;
                                           Pirhalla 2004). As a sensitive insectivorous cyprinid, the river
                                           chub scores under numerous IBI metrics, including  metrics 1,
                                           5, 8, and 10.
                                      Silverjaw Minnow
                                      (Notropis  buccatus)
     Identification: Body elongate and head dorsally depressed.
     Large "chambers" occur on the cheek and jaw (B, see
     arrow). Coloration olive or yellowish dorsally; side silvery with
     a dark lateral line. Breeding males with minute tubercles.
     Mouth subterminal. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin rays 8; pectoral
     fin rays 14-16; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin forked.

     General  Distribution/Habitat: Generally (and disjunctly)
     distributed throughout the eastern Mississippi River basin,
     Great Lakes basin, mid-Atlantic slope, and Gulf slope.
     Occurs in creek and rivers in sluggish to moderate current.
     Often most abundant in sandy pools, although may occur
     over a variety of substrates.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1, 8,10): The Silverjaw Minnow is
     moderately tolerant of turbidity, industrial pollutants, and
     has been documented to persist in streams impacted by
     coal mining waste (Trautman 1981; Jenkins and Burkhead
     1994). However, Trautman (1981) noted that it may be
     sensitive to excessive siltation. State and regional tolerance
     classifications rank N. buccatus as both "tolerant" (Halliwell
     1999) and "intolerant" (Pirhalla 2004). As an insectivorous
     cyprinid,  the Silverjaw Minnow scores under IBI metrics 1, 8,
     and 10.
26
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                                  Rosyface  Shiner
                                 (Notropis rubellus)
Identification: Body elongate and laterally compressed.
Coloration olive-gray dorsally with a silvery side; lateral stripe
often faint. Breeding males with a brilliant rose colored snout
and cheek (B); small tubercles may also be present. Mouth
terminal. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin rays 10; pectoral fin rays
12-14; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin forked.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
the Mississippi River basin,  Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin,
Red River (of the North) basin, and Atlantic slope. Most
common in creeks and rivers where the water is shallow and
the current moderate. Generally found over sand, gravel,
cobble, and boulder substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,5,8,10): The Rosyface Shiner is
intolerant of turbidity and siltation, with marked declines
occurring where such conditions predominate (Trautman
1981; Robison and Buchanan 1988). Interestingly, Becker
(1983) noted the development of a turbidity resistant strain
in the Pecatonica and Sugar River basins of southwestern
Wisconsin. State and regional tolerance classifications
consistently rank the Rosyface Shiner as an "intolerant"
species (Ohio EPA 1987; Jester et al. 1992; Halliwell et al.
1999; Jennings et al. 1999; Pirhalla 2004). As a sensitive
insectivorous cyprinid, N. rubellus scores under IBI metrics 1,
5, 8, and 10.
                                 Pugnose Minnow
                              (Opsopoeodus emiliae)
                                      Identification: Body slender and somewhat compressed
                                      laterally. Coloration brownish-yellow to greenish dorsally;
                                      silvery sides, with a distinctive lateral stripe. Breeding males
                                      with tubercles around snout; anal and caudal fins may have a
                                      pinkish-red hue. Mouth distinctive, small, and superior (B, see
                                      arrow). Dorsal fin rays 9; anal fin rays 8; pectoral fin rays 15;
                                      pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin forked.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed in the
                                      Mississippi River basin, Gulf slope, southern Atlantic slope,
                                      Lake Michigan drainage, and Lake Erie drainage. Most
                                      abundant in large creeks and rivers where the current is
                                      sluggish to absent. May also occur in lakes. Often found near
                                      stream vegetation over both fine and coarse substrates.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1, 5,8,10): The Pugnose Minnow has
                                      been considered intolerant of siltation and turbidity (Smith
                                      1979; Trautman 1981). Becker (1983) noted that populations
                                      were being reduced or extirpated throughout its northerly
                                      distribution. State and regional tolerance classifications
                                      have ranked the Pugnose Minnow as an "intolerant" species
                                      (Ohio EPA 1987). As a sensitive insectivorous cyprinid, the
                                      Pugnose Minnow scores under IBI  metrics 1, 5, 8, and 10.
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
27

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                                     Bluntnose Minnow
                                    (Pimephales  notatus)
     Identification: Body cylindrical and somewhat compressed.
     Coloration olive-gray dorsally with silvery sides; often with a
     prominent lateral stripe. A wedge-shaped blotch on the caudal
     peduncle may be present. Breeding males with moderately-
     sized tubercles on snout (B). Mouth subterminal. Dorsal fin
     rays 8; anal fin rays  7; pectoral fin rays 15-16; pelvic fin rays 8.
     Caudal fin forked.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
     the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence
     basin, northern and mid-Atlantic slope, Gulf slope, and Red
     River (of the North)  drainage. Occurs in headwater streams,
     creeks, river, impoundments, and glacial lakes. May be found
     in sluggish or moderate current over both coarse and fine
     substrates.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,7,10): A habitat generalist, the
     Bluntnose Minnow is one of the most successful fishes in
     the United States (Trautman 1981; Becker 1983). It has
     been reported to tolerate disturbance, turbidity, and siltation
     (Trautman 1981; Becker 1983; Boschung and Mayden 2004).
     State and regional tolerance classifications rank P. notatus
     as "moderately intolerant" (Pirhalla 2004) to "tolerant" (Ohio
     EPA 1987; Halliwell  et al. 1999). As an omnivorous cyprinid, P.
     notatus scores under IBI metrics 1, 7, and 10.
                                       Blacknose  Dace
                                    (Rhinichthys atratulus)
                                           Identification: Body elongate and somewhat robust.
                                           Coloration brown-gray dorsally; side yellowish-white or silvery,
                                           often with a prominent dark brown or black lateral stripe.
                                           Breeding males characterized by bright red fins and rusty
                                           colored lateral band (A). Mouth subterminal. Dorsal fin rays 8;
                                           anal fin rays 7; pectoral fin rays 13-16; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal
                                           fin forked.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
                                           the upper Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence
                                           basin,  Red River of the North drainage, and northern to
                                           mid-Atlantic slope. Generally confined to headwater streams
                                           and creeks (B) where the water is cool to warm and the
                                           current moderate to strong. Occurs over both coarse and fine
                                           substrates.

                                           Indicator Use (1,7,10): In Ohio, Trautman (1981) observed
                                           that R. atratulus was susceptible to habitat alterations that
                                           modify headwater streams. However, regional and state
                                           tolerance classifications generally confer a "tolerant" ranking
                                           to Ft. atratulus (Ohio EPA 1987; Halliwell 1999;  Pirhalla 2004).
                                           The use of the Blacknose Dace as an indicator species is
                                           somewhat precarious due to its propensity for being abundant
                                           in both high quality and marginal  habitats. The Blacknose
                                           Dace scores under IBI metrics 1, 7, and 10.
28
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                                  Longnose Dace
                             (Rhinichthys cataractae)
                                      Identification: Body elongate and somewhat compressed;
                                      snout long and overhanging. Body with charcoal-gray
                                      coloration and a dusky, faint lateral stripe. Breeding
                                      males with red lips and fins. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin
                                      rays 7; pectoral fin rays 13-15; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin
                                      moderately forked.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Sporadically distributed
                                      throughout Canada, the upper Mississippi River basin, Great
                                      Lakes-St. Lawrence basin, the northern and mid-Atlantic
                                      slope, and the northwestern United States south to Mexico.
                                      Occurs in mainly in creeks (B) and rivers, although may be
                                      found in lakes. Most abundant in shallow water where the
                                      current is moderate to swift. Generally found over sand,
                                      gravel, cobble, and boulder substrates.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1,8,10): Becker (1983) reported that the
                                      Longnose Dace may tolerate  abrupt environmental changes
                                      (e.g. low D.O., high temperatures, and turbidity) for short
                                      periods of time. State and regional tolerance classifications
                                      have ranked the Longnose  Dace as both an "intermediate"
                                      (Halliwell 1999) and "moderately intolerant" species (Pirhalla
                                      2004). As an insectivorous cyprinid, the Longnose Dace
                                      scores under IBI  metrics  1, 8, and 10.
                                     Creek Chub
                            (Semotilus atromaculatus)
Identification: Body elongate and cylindrical; head large.
Large individuals often robust. Coloration dark olive dorsally
with iridescent blue overtones; belly white. Prominent dusky
lateral line. Breeding male with tubercles and rose colored fins.
Mouth large and terminal (B). Anterior base of dorsal fin with
black blotch. Dorsal fin rays 8; anal fin rays 8; pectoral fin rays
16-17; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin emarginate to forked.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widespread east of the Rocky
Mountains. Generally found in small headwater streams and
creeks, less common in rivers and lakes. May be abundant
in moderate or sluggish current. Occurs over both fine and
coarse substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,7,10): An adaptable species, the Creek
Chub is tolerant of disturbance, pollution, and moderate levels
of silt (Smith 1979; Trautman 1981; Becker 1983). Becker
(1983) wrote that S. atromaculatus possessed the "tenacity
of a weed" while Trautman and Gartman (1974)  noted its
increased abundance following stream channelization.
State and regional tolerance classifications have ranked S.
atromaculatus as both "tolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987; Pirhalla
2004) and "moderately intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992). The
Creek Chub scores under IBI metrics 1, 7, 10.
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
29

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   SUCKERS (CATOSTOMIDAE)

                       $
    Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentilium nigricans)
                             The relatively large family of Catostomidae
                             contains roughly 70 species, the vast majority of
                             which are native to North America. Catostomids
                             can serve as excellent indicators of habitat and
                             water quality as they are primarily benthic or
                             epibenthic in nature. Small groups are often
                             seen in foraging for food in clear, gravelly runs of
                             creeks and rivers.
   Family Level Identifiers: Abdominal pelvic fin. Cycloid scales. Dorsal fin with ten or more rays.
   Many species have fleshy, downturned lips that are either plicate or papillose.

   Habitat: Suckers are found in a variety of habitats, including ditches, streams, rivers, and glacial
   lakes. They often account for the majority of the fish biomass in healthy large creeks and rivers. As
   a group, they prefer clear water and clean, coarse substrates such as sand, gravel, and cobble.
   Pollution Tolerance: The suckers of North
   America are, for the most part, sensitive to
   pollution and habitat degradation (see table
   10, Karr 1981; Trautman 1981; Becker 1983).
   Because they are a long-lived taxon, commonly
   reaching 10-20 years old, they are ideal long-
   term biomonitors. Etnier (1997) noted that
   sucker imperilment is most often attributed
   to stream alterations and nonpoint source
   pollution.
     Identifying Suckers - Lips
     A helpful tip in identifying
     the various sucker species
     is to examine the texture,
     form, and dissection of the
     lip(s). Generally, the lip(s)
     are either described as
     papillose or plicate, with
     some species exhibiting an
     intermediate form between
     the two. See the individual
     species descriptions for
     detail on lip morphology.
                               Table 9. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
                               Family Catostomidae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1 999)
Tolerant
22%
Intermediate
43%
Intolerant
35%
                               *23 species rated
                      Plicate
                      Papillose
      White Sucker
(Catostomus commersoni)
                                                                 Blacktail Redhorse
                                                               (Moxostoma poecilurum)
30
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                                     Use in IBI: Metrics that directly evaluate the
                                     presence and diversity of the sucker family include
                                     Metric 4: Number of sucker species. Ohio EPA
                                     substitutes % round-bodied suckers for Metric 2:
                                     Number of darter species in large streams and
                                     rivers (boat sampling sites). When appropriate,
                                     pollution intolerant suckers would be used in
                                     Metric 5: Number of intolerant species. Due to the
                                     pollution tolerance of the White Sucker, this species
                                     is sometimes utilized as an alternative to Metric 6:
                                     Percent Green Sunfish. On a generic level, suckers
                                     would also be used in a few other metrics, such as
                                     Metric 1: Total number of species and Metric 10:
                                     Number of individuals.
Table 10. Tolerance designations for selected catostomids.
Common Name

River Carpsucker
Quillback Carpsucker
Highfin Carpsucker
White Sucker
Blue Sucker
Creek Chubsucker
Lake Chubsucker
Northern Hog Sucker
Smallmouth Buffalo
Bigmouth Buffalo
Spotted Sucker
Silver Redhorse
River Redhorse
Black Redhorse
Golden Redhorse
Greater Jumprock
Shorthead Redhorse
Greater Redhorse
Scientific Name

Capiodes carpio
Carpiodes cyprinus
Carpiodes velifer
Catostomus commersoni
Cycleptus elongatus
Erimyzon oblongus
Erimyzon sucetta
Hypentilium nigricans
Ictiobus bubalus
Ictiobus cyprinellus
Minytrema melanops
Moxostoma anisurum
Moxostoma carinatum
Moxostoma cervinum
Moxostoma erythrurum
Moxostoma lachneri
Moxostoma macrolepidotum
Moxostoma valenciennesi
1
2
m
.0
IS
O

X
X
X
T
R
X
X
1
X
X
X
M
1
1
M
X
M
R
Jester etal. 1992
WQ
T
MT
MT
Ml
Ml
Ml
Ml
I
MT
MT
Ml
X
I
Ml
Ml
X
I
X
Habitat
T
MT
MT
I
I
I
Ml
I
MT
MT
I
X
Ml
Ml
Ml
X
I
X
3
O)
VI
I

X
X
X
T
X
X
X
I
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
I
Whittier and Hughes 1998

X
X
X
MT
X
M
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Barbouretal. 1999

M
M
I
T
I
M
M
I
M
M
M
M
I
I
M
I
M
I
Halliwelletal. 1999
Habitat
-
T
-
T
-
I
-
M
-
-
-
M
I
I
I
-
M
I
Pirhalla 2004

X
X
X
Ml
X
T
X
I
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
   I = intolerant  M = intermediate  Ml = moderately intolerant  MT = moderately tolerant
      P = moderately tolerant  R = rare intolerant  S = special intolerant  T = tolerant
       An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
31

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                                            Quillback
                                     (Carpiodes cyprinus)
                                            Identification: Body deep, stout, and somewhat
                                            compressed. Dorsal fin long, with elongated anterior rays.
                                            Coloration olive-gray to brassy dorsally; sides silvery; belly
                                            white. Fins dusky. Mouth inferior with thin lips (B). Dorsal fin
                                            rays 22-30; anal fin rays 7-8; pectoral fin rays 15-17; pelvic
                                            fin rays 8-10. Caudal fin forked.

                                            General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed
                                            throughout the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St.
                                            Lawrence basin, mid-Atlantic slope, and eastern Gulf
                                            slope. Known mainly from rivers, lakes, and impoundments.
                                            It generally occurs in quiet waters over coarse and fine
                                            substrates.

                                            Indicator Use/IBI (1,4,10): The Quillback is reportedly
                                            tolerant of turbidity, although less so than a close relative,
                                            the River Carpsucker (C. carpid) (Etnier and Starnes 1993).
                                            In some regions, the Quillback has apparently expanded
                                            its range and increased in abundance  since the turn of the
                                            20th century (Smith 1979). State and regional tolerance
                                            classifications for C. cyprinus range from "intermediate"
                                            (Barbour et al. 1999) to "tolerant" (Jester et al. 1992; Simon
                                            and  Emery 1995). The Quillback scores under IBI metrics 1,
                                            4, and 10.
                                         White Sucker
                                 (Catostomus commersoni)
     Identification: Body tubular with a rounded snout. Coloration
     olive-gray dorsally with dark mottles; sides often with patches
     of dark gray or black (especially in young individuals [A]);
     belly white. Fins dull yellow or orange. Mouth inferior with
     fleshy, papillose lips (B). Dorsal fin rays 9-14; anal fin rays
     7-8; pectoral fin rays 16-19; pelvic fin rays 9-11. Caudal fin
     forked.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
     the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin,
     Atlantic slope, and north into Canada. Known from creeks,
     small rivers, and lakes. Highly migratory; may be found in
     very small or ephemeral habitats when  spawning. Occurs
     over coarse and fine substrates.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,4,10): The White Sucker is a wide-
     ranging species apparently tolerant of low oxygen levels,
     siltation, and organic and  inorganic pollutants (Trautman
     1981). Saint-Jacques et al. (2000) found the White Sucker
     to be a flexible feeder adaptable to changing environmental
     conditions. State and regional tolerance classifications for
     C. commersoni range from "tolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987; Lyons
     1992; Halliwell et al. 1999) to "moderately intolerant" (Jester
     et al. 1992; Pirhalla 2004). The White Sucker scores under IBI
     metrics 1, 4, and 10, and  may be substituted for metric 6.
32
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                              Northern  Hog Sucker
                              (Hypentilium nigricans)
Identification: Body thick and robust anteriorly; tapering
posteriorly. Head concave between eyes. Coloration light
brown, olive-green or bronze, with dark saddles and mottles;
belly white. Mouth inferior with fleshy, papillose lips. Pectoral
fins broad and large. Dorsal fin rays 10-12; anal fin rays 7;
pectoral fin rays 15-18; pelvic fin rays 10. Caudal forked.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widespread in the Mississippi
River basin, Great  Lakes basin, and sporadically occurring
throughout the Atlantic slope. Disjunctly distributed on the Gulf
slope. Occurs in creeks and rivers in flowing glides, runs, and
riffles. Generally most abundant over clean sand, gravel, and
cobble substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,4,5,10): Sensitive to heavy siltation,
pollution, and channel modification, the Northern Hog Sucker
is most abundant in clean streams with good current (Smith
1979; Trautman 1981; Boschung and Mayden 2004). State
and regional tolerance classifications for H. nigricans range
from "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999) to "intolerant" (Ohio
EPA 1987; Jester et al. 1992; Lyons 1992; Pirhalla 2004). As a
sensitive benthic inhabitant, the Northern Hog Sucker scores
under IBI metrics 1, 4, 5, and 10. In addition, "% round-bodied
suckers"(which includes H. nigricans) may replace Metric 2:
Number of darter species at boat sites.
                               Smallmouth Buffalo
                                  (Ictiobus bubalus)
                                      Identification: Body deep and compressed with large
                                      scales. Coloration dusky brown, olive-brown, or gray
                                      dorsally; sides light gray, often with a coppery or bronze
                                      cast; belly white. Fins dusky to dark gray. Mouth small and
                                      inferior, with a thick upper lip. Dorsal fin rays 26-31; anal fin
                                      rays 9; pelvic fin  rays 9-11. Caudal fin widely forked.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
                                      Mississippi River basin and Gulf Slope. Typically found in
                                      large rivers where the current is moderate, although may
                                      adapt to impounded conditions (Boschung and Mayden
                                      2004). Occurs over both coarse and fine substrates.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1,4,10): Trautman (1981) and Etnier
                                      and Starnes (1993) noted that the Smallmouth Buffalo is
                                      less tolerant of turbidity and more common in swift current
                                      than its congeners. Becker (1983) reported the Smallmouth
                                      Buffalo as a species that "prefers clean, clear water". State
                                      and regional tolerance classifications for /. bubalus range
                                      from "tolerant" (Simon and Emery 1995) to "intermediate"
                                      (Barbour et al. 1999). The Smallmouth Buffalo scores
                                      under IBI metrics 1, 4, and 10. The genus Ictiobus may be
                                      excluded from metric 4 under some IBI interpretations.
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
33

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                                       Spotted Sucker
                                   (Minytrema melanops)
                                          Identification: Body somewhat cylindrical, slender, and
                                          elongate. Lateral line incomplete to absent. Coloration olive-
                                          brown to bronze with numerous dark spots (A); belly silvery-
                                          white. Mouth inferior with thin, plicate lips (B). Dorsal fin rays
                                          11-12; anal fin rays 7; pectoral fin rays 16-18; pelvic fin rays
                                          9-10. Caudal fin widely forked.

                                          General Distribution/Habitat: Well-distributed throughout
                                          the Mississippi River basin, lower Great Lakes, southern
                                          Atlantic slope, and Gulf slope. Occurs in creeks, rivers, lakes,
                                          and reservoirs. Typically found in lowland habitats where
                                          the current is sluggish to moderate. May be found over both
                                          coarse and fine substrates.

                                          Indicator Use/IBI (1,4,10): The Spotted Sucker is reportedly
                                          intolerant of industrial pollutants, siltation, and turbidity (Smith
                                          1979;Trautman 1981). White and Haag (1977) suggested
                                          that "changes in range and abundance of Minytrema may
                                          be related to stream alterations that alter its food supply and
                                          feeding habits". Regional and state tolerance classifications
                                          range from "intermediate" (Barbour et a. 1999) to "intolerant"
                                          (Jester et al. 1992). The  Spotted Sucker scores under IBI
                                          metrics 1,  4, and 10. In addition, "% round-bodied suckers"
                                          (which includes Minytrema) may replace Metric 2: Number of
                                          darter species at boat sites.
                                      Golden Redhorse
                                  (Moxostoma erythrurum)
     Identification: Body elongate and somewhat robust. Lateral
     line generally 40-43 scales. Coloration brassy or gold; belly
     white. Fins dusky gray or reddish-orange. Mouth inferior with
     plicate lips that form a U-shape posteriorly. Breeding males
     with conspicuous tubercles on the snout, cheek, anal, and
     caudal fins. Dorsal fin rays 12-14; pectoral fin rays 17-18; anal
     fin rays 7; pelvic fin rays 9. Caudal fin forked.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
     Mississippi River basin, the lower Great Lakes, Red River
     (of the North) drainage, Mobile basin, and a few mid-Atlantic
     drainages. Typically found in creeks and rivers, less common
     in lakes and impoundments. Most abundant in sluggish to
     moderate current where clean substrates of sand, gravel,
     cobble, and bedrock are present.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,4,10): The Golden Redhorse is
     intolerant of domestic and organic pollutants, continuous
     turbidity, and heavy siltation (Trautman 1981; Becker 1983).
     Becker (1983) noted that it is intolerant of cold and warm
     water, preferring instead to find an intermediate temperature.
     Regional and state tolerance classifications range from
     "intermediate" (Ohio EPA 1987) to "intolerant" (Halliwell et al.
     1999). The Golden Redhorse scores under IBI metrics 1, 4,
     and 10.
34
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                              Shorthead Redhorse
                         (Moxostoma macrolepidotum)
Identification: Body elongate and somewhat robust.
Coloration brown-olive dorsally; sides silver with olive-
yellow overtones; belly white. Fins reddish-orange to silvery
translucent. Mouth inferior and somewhat small; lips plicate;
lower lip much deeper than upper lip (B). Breeding males
with minute tubercles. Dorsal fin rays 12-14; anal fin rays 7;
pectoral fin rays 16-17; pelvic rays 9. Caudal fin forked.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widespread in the Mississippi
River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin, Atlantic slope,
and Hudson Bay basin. Typically found in small to large rivers,
although may be found in lakes and impoundments. Occurs
in sluggish to moderate current over both coarse and fine
substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,4,10): In Arkansas, Robison and
Buchanan (1988) reported M. macrolepidotum as the most
tolerant Moxostoma sucker to turbidity. It has also been
documented as intolerant of heavy siltation and pollution
(Trautman 1981; Sule and Skelly 1985). Regional and state
tolerance classifications for M.  macrolepidotum range from
"intermediate" (Ohio EPA 1987; Halliwell et al. 1999) to
"intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992). The Shorthead Redhorse
scores under metrics 1, 4, and 10. In studies where % round
bodied suckers replace Metric  3: Number of darter species,
the Shorthead would be included in this substitute metric.
                                 Black Jumprock
                             (Scartomyzon cervinum)
                                         Identification: Body cylindrical, slender, and elongate.
                                         Coloration greenish-yellow to brassy, with irregular
                                         dark blotches or mottles; belly white. Dorsal and caudal
                                         fin with distinctive dark edges. Mouth inferior and
                                         small; lips plicate. Dorsal fin rays 10-12; anal fin rays
                                         7; pectoral fin rays 14-16; pelvic fin rays 9. Caudal fin
                                         forked.

                                         General Distribution/Habitat: Restricted to several
                                         Atlantic slope drainages in Virginia and North Carolina.
                                         Occurs in creeks and small rivers (B, upper Roanoke
                                         River). Most abundant in moderate current where the
                                         streambed is comprised of coarse, clean substrates.
                                         Juveniles may be found in silty and detritus laden
                                         pools or backwaters (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

                                         Indicator Use/IBI (1,4,10): Perhaps due to its limited
                                         distribution, there is little information available on the
                                         tolerance of S. cerinum to environmental changes.
                                         Likewise, tolerance classifications have not been
                                         developed for S. cervinum. By default, the Black
                                         Jumprock would score under IBI metrics 1, 4, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
35

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   CATFISHES (ICTALURIDAE)
           Brindled Madtom (Noturus miurus)
                                             With their barbels and scaleless bodies,
                                             ictalurids are among the most distinctive
                                             fishes in North America. Some might also be
                                             surprised to learn that Ictaluridae is the largest
                                             family of fishes indigenous to North America
                                             (Burr and Mayden 1992). Most of this diversity
                                             is found in the genus  Noturus, a taxon  of
                                             small, cryptic catfish known commonly as
                                             madtoms.
   Family Level Identifiers: Head either depressed or moderately depressed. Body scaleless. Dorsal
   fin short and usually with 1 spine. Mouth with 8 barbels. Adipose fin present.

   Habitat: Catfish occupy a variety of freshwater habitats, from wetlands and lakes to rivers and
   small streams. Most of the physically larger species occupy medium to large river habitats, in
   addition to lakes and reservoirs. The smaller species (Noturus genus) vary to such a degree that it
   is difficult to make general  statements regarding habitat preference.
                                               Table 11. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
                                               Family Ictaluridae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1999)
Tolerant
12%
Intermediate
53%
Intolerant
35%
                                                "17 species rated
Pollution Tolerance: Generally, catfishes of
the Ameirus, Ictalurus, and Pylodictis genera
are "intermediate species" in terms of pollution
tolerance. The pollution intolerant ictalurids are
primarily from the Noturus genus  (madtoms).
The madtoms also account for the majority
of the imperiled catfish species, which Etnier
(1997) attributes to pollution, altered stream
flows, and small ranges. Of the 25 described
madtom species, five are federally listed as endangered or threatened (Burr and Stoeckel 1999).

Madtoms. The common name "madtom" refers to the genus Noturus, currently represented by 25
species (Sabaj  et al. 2006). Due to their small size, cryptic coloring, and reclusive behavior, these
small catfishes  have gone largely unnoticed by the general public and may even be overlooked
during fish surveys. They are also among the most sensitive aquatic taxa to disturbance and
pollution. In  fact, Boschung and Mayden (2004) commented that madtoms are the ultimate
"ecological canary" and are often  "the first to disappear as a result of ecological downturns".
       Tadpole Madtom (Noturus gyrinus)   .
                                              Mountain Madtom (Noturus eleutherus)
36
              An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                                      Use in IBI: While there is not a specific metric
                                      that measures ictalurids, there are circumstances
                                      when they are used in conjunction with other
                                      benthic species. The genus Noturus (madtoms), for
                                      example, might be used in conjunction with darters
                                      or other benthic insectivores in Metric 2: Number
                                      and darter species. Many madtoms are also
                                      considered intolerant species, and therefore would
                                      be used under Metric 5: Number of intolerant
                                      species. It should also be noted that where
                                      alternative insectivore metrics are used, madtoms
                                      might also be included in this grouping, as many
                                      smaller species feed primarily on aquatic  insects.
Table 12. Tolerance designations for selected ictalurids.
Common Name

White Catfish
Black Bullhead
Yellow Bullhead
Brown Bullhead
Blue Catfish
Channel Catfish
Elegant Madtom
Mountain Madtom
Slender Madtom
Yellowfin Madtom
Stonecat Madtom
Tadpole Madtom
Margined Madtom
Speckled Madtom
Brindled Madtom
Freckled Madtom
Northern Madtom
Scioto Madtom
Flathead Catfish
Scientific Name

Ameiurus catus
Ameiurus me/as
Ameiurus natalis
Ameiurus nebulosus
Ictalurus furcatus
Ictalurus punctatus
Noturus elegans
Noturus eleutherus
Noturus exilis
Noturus flavipinnis
Noturus flavus
Noturus gyrinus
Noturus insignis
Noturus leptacanthus
Noturus miurus
Noturus nocturnus
Noturus stigmosus
Noturus trautmani
Pylodictis olivaris
i-.
|
2
HI
o
O

X
p
T
T
X
X
X
R
X
X
1
X
X
X
1
X
R
S
X
Jester etal. 1992
WQ
T
T
T
MT
X
MT
X
I
Ml
X
I
Ml
X
X
I
Ml
X
X
MT
Habitat
MT
T
MT
Ml
X
MT
X
I
I
X
I
I
X
X
I
Ml
X
X
MT
CM
|
(A
C
O
5

X
X
T
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Whittier and Hughes 1998

M
X
MT
T
X
M
X
X
X
X
X
Ml
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Barbour etal. 1999

M
M
T
T
M
M
X
I
I
X
I
M
M
X
I
M
I
I
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Halliwelletal. 1999
Habitat
M
X
T
T
X
M
X
X
X
X
M
M
M
X
M
X
X
X
X
Pirhalla 2004

X
X
T
T
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
T
Ml
X
X
X
X
X
X
   I = intolerant  M = intermediate  Ml = moderately intolerant  MT = moderately tolerant
      P = moderately tolerant  R = rare intolerant  S = special intolerant T = tolerant
       An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
37

-------
                                       Channel Catfish
                                     (Ictalurus punctatus)
     Identification: Body elongate, slender, and scaleless; head
     small. Older individuals often robust. Coloration brownish-olive
     dorsally; sides with irregularly spaced dark spots; belly white.
     Mouth large and subterminal. Dorsal fin rays 6; anal fin rays
     24-29; pectoral fin rays 9; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin forked.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Widespread throughout
     the United States; except for discrete areas in the Atlantic
     drainage and  the western United States. Occurs in small and
     large rivers, reservoirs, lakes, and ponds. Often occupies
     deep runs and pools during the day, frequents shoals to feed
     at night. Typically found over sand, gravel, cobble, bedrock,
     and rubble substrates.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): An adaptable and wide-ranging
     species, the Channel Catfish is capable of maintaining
     populations in turbid streams where the rate of silt deposition
     is not too severe (Trautman 1981; Robison and Buchanan
     1988). State and regional tolerance classifications for /.
     punctatus range from "intermediate" (Whittier and Hughes
     1998; Halliwell et al. 1999) to "tolerant"  (Simon and Emery
     1995). The Channel Catfish scores under IBI metrics 1 and
     10. In great rivers, the Channel Catfish  scores as a tolerant (6)
     and great river species (3) (Simon and  Emery 1995).
                                      Stonecat Madtom
                                        (Noturus flavus)
                                           Identification: Body elongate, slender posteriorly and
                                           scaleless; head depressed. Adipose fin joined to caudal with
                                           a notch present between the two Coloration olive-brown or
                                           gray dorsally, becoming grayish-white or yellowish-white
                                           ventrally. Mouth subterminal. Dorsal fin rays 6; anal fin rays
                                           15-18; pectoral fin rays 9-11; pelvic fin rays 8-10. Caudal fin
                                           truncate to slightly rounded.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed in the Mississippi
                                           River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin, and Red
                                           River (of the North) drainage. Typically occurs in creeks and
                                           small rivers where the current is moderate to rapid. Most
                                           abundant over gravel, cobble, boulder, or bedrock rubble
                                           substrates.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): Of the madtoms found in the
                                           Noturus genus,  the Stonecat  Madtom may be among
                                           the more adaptable species (Cross 1967). Becker (1983)
                                           commented that the Stonecat tolerates "pollution and
                                           oxygen depletion which few other fish can survive".
                                           Regional and state tolerance  classifications for N.
                                           flavus range from "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999)
                                           to "intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987; Jester et al. 1992). The
                                           Stonecat Madtom scores under IBI metrics 1 and 10.
38
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

-------
                                 Tadpole Madtom
                                  (Noturus gyrinus)
Identification: Head and trunk stout before posterior
base of dorsal fin; tail thin. Coloration brown, brownish-
yellow or brownish-gray; usually with a conspicuous lateral
stripe on body. Mouth terminal and moderately large for
size. Adipose fin joined to caudal fin; small notch present
between the two. Dorsal fin rays 6; anal fin rays 14-16;
pectoral fin rays 7; pelvic fin rays 8. Caudal fin rounded to
slightly emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Occurs in the Mississippi
River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin, Atlantic
slope, and Gulf slope. Typically found in creeks, rivers,
lakes, marshes, backwaters, and ditches. Prefers sluggish
or lentic habitats where the substrate is comprised of mud,
sand, or organic matter.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): From Ohio to Alabama,
experts have reported the extirpation of Tadpole Madtom
populations due to ditching, draining, turbidity, and siltation
(Trautman 1981; Boschung and Mayden 2004). Regional
and state tolerance classifications for N. gyrinus range from
"tolerant" (Pirhalla 2004) to "intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992).
The Tadpole Madtom scores under IBI metrics 1 and 10.
                                 Brindled  Madtom
                                  (Noturus miurus)
                                      Identification: Head and trunk moderately robust before
                                      posterior base of dorsal fin. Coloration light yellowish-tan
                                      with numerous dark mottles and speckles. Distinctive dark
                                      blotch on anterior/distal edge of dorsal fin (see drawing on
                                      page 29). Black band continuous over adipose fin. Mouth
                                      subterminal. Dorsal fin rays 6; anal fin rays 13-17; pectoral
                                      fin rays 8; pelvic fin rays 9. Caudal fin truncate to slightly
                                      rounded.

                                      General  Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
                                      Mississippi River basin and lower Great Lakes. Typically
                                      occurs in creeks and small  rivers where the current is
                                      sluggish to moderate. Most abundant in lightly silted sand
                                      and gravel substrates. Often found underneath organic
                                      debris or freshwater mussel shells (A-B).

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1,5,10): The  Brindled Madtom has
                                      been described as relatively intolerant of siltation and
                                      industrial pollutants (Trautman 1981; Parker 1987). State
                                      and regional tolerance classifications for N. miurus range
                                      from "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999) to "intolerant"
                                      (Ohio EPA 1987; Jester et al. 1992). The Brindled Madtom
                                      scores under IBI metrics 1, 5, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
39

-------
   TROUTS  (SALMONIDAE)
   There are few families as attractive to fisherman as the salmonids. No other taxa has been so
   extensively stocked, introduced, researched, and genetically altered as this group (Boschung and
   Mayden 2004). In fact, trout species have been so widely stocked that most do not realize their
   status as an "exotic." The Brown Trout (Salmo trutta), for example, is native to Europe, while the
   Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is indigenous to the Pacific Northwest.

   Family Level  Identifiers: Scales very small. Head missing scales. Adipose fin present. Fins do not
   have spines.

   Habitat: Salmonids occupy a variety of habitats, but most require clean, cool  water where food
   is plentiful and dissolved oxygen is high. Many stockings have failed due to water temperatures
   exceeding 70 F in the summer months. While some salmonids are primarily marine dwelling
   species (e.g. Pacific Salmon), all reproduce in freshwater.
                                              Table 13. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
                                              Family Salmonidae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1999)
Tolerant
0%
Intermediate
76%
Intolerant
24%
                                              *21 species rated
Pollution Tolerance: Like other families,
salmonids vary in pollution tolerance.
Many species, as previously mentioned,
are temperature sensitive. Etnier and
Starnes (1993) commented that Brook Trout
(salvelinus fontinalis) do not tolerate maximum
water temperatures much higher than 61 F.
Consequently, native Brook Trout populations
are confined to streams fed by groundwater,
and are likely susceptible to stressors such as siltation, urbanization and riparian destruction, all of
which are known to raise stream temperatures. Another indirect stressor to native trout populations
involves the introduction of exotic species, such as the Rainbow and Brown Trout in Tennessee
and Northern Georgia, where success of these exotic species has been to the detriment of the
native Brook Trout (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Finally, although some dams have been made
"fish friendly" (fish ladders, etc.), many of these structures still impede highly migratory (and
anadromous) salmonids from carrying out essential life migrations.
                                                       Brook Trout (Salvelinus foutinalis)
        Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
40
              An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

-------
                        Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush)
                                            Use in IBI: While a specific metric does not
                                            evaluate the presence and diversity of the
                                            Salmonidae, they are often substituted into
                                            numerous metrics throughout the United
                                            States. For example, salmonids may be
                                            substituted for, or used in conjunction with,
                                            sunfish in Metric 3: Number of sunfish
                                            species. Salmonid diversity and abundance
                                            may also be substituted for intolerant
                                            species in Metric 5: Number of intolerant
                                            species. The salmonids are also evaluated
                                            under Metric 9: Percent top carnivores and
                                            general metrics such as Metric 1: Total
                                            number of species and Metric 10: Total
                                            number of individuals.
Table 14. Tolerance designations for selected salmonids.






Common Name

Lake Herring
Cutthroat Trout
Pink Salmon
Coho Salmon
Rainbow Trout
Chinook Salmon
Atlantic Salmon
Brown Trout
Brook Trout
Lake Trout






Scientific Name

Coregonus artedi
Oncorhynchus clarki
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Salmo salar
Salmo trutta
Salvelinus malma
Salvelinus namaycush

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       An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
                                                                   41

-------
                                         Rainbow Trout
                                   (Orcorhynchus mykiss)
     Identification: Body elongate and slender. Coloration
     silvery to olive dorsally with numerous dark spots; sides with
     many to few dark spots and a pinkish-red streak (A-B); belly
     silvery to white. Caudal, adipose, and dorsal fin with dark
     spots. Mouth moderate to large and terminal. Dorsal fin rays
     10-13; anal fin rays 10-13; pectoral fin rays 11-17; pelvic fin
     rays 9-10. Caudal fin truncate to slightly emarginate.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Native to Asia and the
     Pacific coast.  Extensively stocked and now disjunctly
     distributed throughout the United States and Canada.
     Generally occurs in cool creeks and rivers where the flow is
     moderate to swift (Becker 1983).  Reportedly thrives in the
     cool tailwaters of dams (Robison and Buchanan 1988).

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): Of the  trout species, the Rainbow
     is considered  the most tolerant of high temperatures
     (Becker 1983). State and regional tolerance classifications
     for O. mykiss range from intermediate (Barbour et al. 1999)
     to intolerant (Jester et al. 1992; Halliwell et al. 1999). The
     Rainbow Trout generally scores under IBI metrics 1 and 10.
     When appropriate, it may be considered a top carnivore
     under metric 9. In addition, in some regions,  O. mykiss may
     score as an intolerant species (metric 5).
                                          Brown Trout
                                          (Salmo trutta)
                                            Identification: Body elongate and slender. Coloration
                                            tannish-olive to brown dorsally with dark sports, usually with
                                            a pale outline; sides with numerous red spots possessing a
                                            pale outline; belly yellowish. Caudal fin without dark spots.
                                            Mouth moderate to large and terminal. Dorsal fin rays 12-14;
                                            anal fin  rays 10-12; pectoral fin rays 13-14; pelvic fin rays
                                            9-10. Caudal fin truncate to forked.

                                            General Distribution/Habitat: Native to Asia and Europe.
                                            Extensively stocked and now disjunctly distributed
                                            throughout the United States and Canada. May occupy a
                                            wide range of habitats, including cool creeks, rivers, lakes,
                                            and ponds. Occurs in sluggish to swift current and over both
                                            fine and coarse substrates.

                                            Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): Like the Rainbow Trout, the Brown
                                            Trout is  more tolerant of higher temperatures than many
                                            of its relatives (Etnierand Starnes 1993). Becker (1983)
                                            considered the Brown Trout tolerant to episodic turbidity,
                                            persisting in areas intolerable to the Brook Trout. State and
                                            regional tolerance classifications for S. trutta range from
                                            "intermediate" (Barbour et al. 1999) to "intolerant" (Jester et
                                            al. 1992; Halliwell et al. 1999). If exotic species are included,
                                            the Brown Trout scores under IBI metrics 1 and 10. It may
                                            also be  considered a top predator by  some programs.
42
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

-------
                                     Brook Trout
                               (Salvelinus fontinalis)
Identification: Body elongate, slender, and laterally
compressed. Coloration smoky olive to brassy dorsally with
numerous small vermiculations; sides with dark vertical bars
and red spots; belly red, yellowish, or white. Caudal, adipose,
and dorsal fin with dark spots or blotches. Mouth large and
terminal. Dorsal fin rays 10-14; anal fin rays 9-13; pectoral fin
rays 11-14; pelvic fin rays 8-10. Caudal fin  emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widespread throughout
eastern North America. It has also been widely introduced
outside of its native range (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
Typically occurs in cool, well-shaded sections of headwater
streams and creeks that possess considerable influxes of
groundwater. Generally found over both fine and coarse
substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI  (1,5,10): An intolerant native salmonid
species, the Brook Trout is more sensitive to changing
environmental conditions and higher temperatures than the
exotic Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout (Etnier and Starnes
1993). The formerly mentioned species may complicate
matters by competing with native Brook Trout (Kelly et al.
1979; Etnier and Starnes  1993). State and regional tolerance
classifications for S. fontinalis range from "moderately
intolerant" (Pirhalla 2004) to "intolerant" (Lyons 1992).
                                      Lake Trout
                             (Salvelinus namaycush)
                                     Identification: Body slender and laterally compressed.
                                     Coloration grayish-olive dorsally with numerous irregular,
                                     pale spots; may have a rosy tinge subdorsally (A); sides also
                                     with numerous spots; belly white. Mouth large and terminal.
                                     Dorsal fin rays 8-10; anal fin rays 8-10; pectoral fin rays 12-
                                     17; pelvic fin rays 8-11. Caudal fin forked.

                                     General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
                                     the northern United States and Canada. It has also been
                                     extensively introduced. Typically occurs in lakes at depths
                                     of up to 300 feet (Becker 1983). May be found over fine or
                                     coarse substrates.

                                     Indicator Use/IBI (1, 5, 9,10): The Lake Trout is a species
                                     adapted to cruising deep, cold waters while searching for
                                     food. At the southern boundary of its range, this species has
                                     apparently severely declined as a result of Sea Lamprey
                                     predation and overfishing (Trautman 1981; Becker 1983).
                                     Becker (1983)  noted that reproducing populations no
                                     longer occur in Lake Michigan and stocked populations
                                     have limited reproductive success. State and regional
                                     tolerance classifications generally for S. namaycush range
                                     from "moderately intolerant" (Whittier and Hughes 1998) to
                                     "intolerant" (Lyons 1992; Halliwell et al. 1999). The Lake Trout
                                     scores under IBI metrics 1,5,9, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological  Indicators
43

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   PIKES (ESOCIDAE)

              Northern Pike (Esoxlucius)
                                  Family Esocidae contains some of the most
                                  popular sport fishes in North America,
                                  including the well known Northern Pike and
                                  Muskellunge. Diversity among the family is
                                  limited to just one genus, with four species
                                  native to areas east of the Rocky Mountains.
                                  Stocking has occurred throughout the
                                  United States, however, as the "Northern"
                                  and "Muskey" continue to be fisherman
                                  favorites.
   Family Level Identifiers: Body elongate. Dorsal fin and anal fin set posteriorly. Abdominal pelvic
   fins. Mouth often described as "duckbill-like." Cycloid scales.

   Habitat: The pike family occurs in both lotic and lentic habitats where an abundance of aquatic
   vegetation, woody debris, or other cover is present. During breeding season, esocids may be found
   in small channels or even ephemeral habitats, including ditches, wet prairies, backwaters, and
   marshes.
   Pollution Tolerance: In general terms, family
   Esocidae is moderately tolerant of pollution
   and habitat disturbance. It should be noted,
   however, that pikes are susceptible to channel
   and backwater modification (ditching, dredging
   and draining) due to their habitat and spawning
   requirements. For example, White et al.
   (1975) found that Northern Pike populations
   in Lake Erie and its tributaries have continued
                              Table 15. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
                              Family Esocidae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1999)
Tolerant
0%
Intermediate
1 00%
Intolerant
0%
                              *5 species rated
   to decline since 1885 where dredging and draining were extensive. Several experts have also
   suggested that members of this family are sensitive to excessive turbidity (Trautman 1981; Robison
   and Buchanan 1988; Etnierand Starnes 1993).
                    Northern Pike
                     (Esoxlucius)
                                              Grass Pickerel
                                      (Esox americanus vermiculatus)
44
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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Ambush Predators
With nicknames like "water wolf," "perch killers," and "slew sharks," members of family Esocidae
are clearly fearsome predators beloved by fishermen. The hunting strategy of an esocid is pretty
straightforward; lie-in-wait for unsuspecting prey and strike with lightning-quick acceleration and
razor sharp teeth. Pikes use this stealthy technique to feed on a wide assortment of prey, including
aquatic insects, fish, crayfish, turtles, frogs, and even muskrats and ducks!

                                              Use in IBI: Family Esocidae contains top-tier
                                              predators that are reported under Metric 9:
                                              Percent top carnivores. In addition, the general
                                              presence of this family is accounted for in
                                              several other metrics, such as Metric 1: Total
                                              number of fish species and Metric 10: Total
                                              number of individuals.

                                              Notes/Comments: The pike family is holartic in
                                              distribution, with the Amur Pike (Esox reicherti)
                                              endemic to the Amur River of Siberia and the
                                              Northern Pike occurring in North America,
                                              Europe,  and Asia. The remaining species are
                                              only found in North America.
     Table 16. Tolerance designations for selected esocids.








Common Name

Redfin Pickerel
Grass Pickerel
Northern Pike
Muskellunge
Chain Pickerel








Scientific Name

Esox americanus americanus
Esox americanus vermiculatus
Esox lucius
Esox masquinongy
Esox niger


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            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
45

-------
                                        Grass Pickerel
                             (Esox americanus vermiculatus)
                                           Identification: Body elongate and tubular, with a duckbill-
                                           like snout. Coloration usually dark green, brown, or yellow
                                           with whitish-yellow vermiculations; belly white. Distinctive
                                           tear-drop marking below eye. Cheek and opercle scaled.
                                           Teeth conspicuous. Dorsal fin rays 12-13; anal fin rays 11-
                                           12; pectoral fin rays 14-15; pelvic fin rays 9-10. Caudal fin
                                           moderately forked.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
                                           Mississippi River basin and southern Great Lakes. Typically
                                           inhabits ditches and small creeks where the current is
                                           sluggish or absent. May also occur in marshes and inland
                                           lakes. Generally found near cover; may be found over both
                                           fine and coarse substrates.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): This small pike species requires
                                           in-stream cover and clear to moderately turbid water to
                                           thrive. In agricultural or urban areas where stream or ditch
                                           vegetation is routinely removed, E.a. vermiculatus may be
                                           reduced in numbers or eliminated (Trautman 1981). It has
                                           been documented to tolerate elevated temperatures and
                                           low dissolved oxygen levels (Scott and Grossman 1973).
                                           State and regional classifications range from "intermediate"
                                           (Barbour et al. 1999) to "moderately intolerant" (Jester et al.
                                           1992). The Grass Pickerel scores under metrics 1 and 10.
                                         Northern Pike
                                          (Esox lucius)
     Identification: Body tubular and robust, with a large, duckbill-
     like snout (A). Coloration dark olive-green dorsally; sides with
     numerous, irregular spots; belly white. All fins with dark blotches
     except pectorals. Cheek fully scaled; opercle scaled on the
     upper half. Dorsal fin rays 15-19; anal fin rays 12-15; pectoral fin
     rays 14-17; pelvic fin rays 10-11. Caudal fin moderately forked.

     General Distribution/Habitat: The Northern Pike is
     distributed throughout the Mississippi River basin and Great
     Lakes basin all the way north into the Arctic. It has also been
     widely introduced. Typically found in creeks,  rivers, lakes,
     impoundment, and marshes. It may move into small, ephemeral
     habitats during the breeding season, including ditches and
     wetlands. Occurs  over both fine and coarse substrates.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1, 9,10): The Northern Pike is vulnerable
     to habitat alterations that modify backwater and swamp-like
     spawning grounds including dredging and draining activities
     (Trautman 1981). This large predator may tolerate low dissolved
     oxygen levels, but is sensitive to elevated temperatures
     (Casselman 1978; Becker 1983). Regional and state tolerance
     classifications range from "intermediate" (Whittier and Hughes
     1998) to "intolerant" (Halliwell et al. 1999). The Northern Pike
     scores under IBI metrics 1, 9, and 10.
46
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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TOPMINNNOWS AND KlLLIFISHES  (FUNDULIDAE)
The Fundulidae are an attractive and rather unfamiliar group of native fishes widely distributed
throughout North America. The family contains 4 genera, with Fundulus being the largest and
most prevalent group in the United States. Fundulids possess interesting adaptations that enhance
surface feeding capabilities and allow them to dwell in  hypoxic environments.

Family Level Identifiers: Overall body size small; often with a flattened head. Fins without spines;
dorsal fin often set posteriorly; pelvic fin abdominal. Mouth small and terminal to superior. Often
strongly sexually dimorphic.

Habitat: Topminnows and killifishes occur in small headwaters, creeks, rivers, lakes, and wetlands.
They are generally most abundant where the current is sluggish or absent; occurring in both open
water or near aquatic vegetation. They are found over coarse or fine substrates.
Pollution Tolerance: The killifishes and
topminnows of North America are, like many
other families, variable in their tolerance to
pollution and habitat disturbance. Some, such
as the Western Banded Killifish (Fundulus
diaphanus menona), inhabitat clear, vegetated
waters where substrates are free of silts
(Trautman 1981). Etnierand Starnes (1993)
noted that channelization had eliminated the
Table 17. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
Family Fundulidae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1999)
Tolerant
17%
Intermediate
50%
Intolerant
33%
*6 species rated
swamp habitat needed to support Northern Starhead Topminnow (Fundulus dispai) populations
in western Tennessee. Interestingly, fundulids may be found in hypoxic environments due to
morphological adaptations that allow them to utilize the oxygen-rich surface layer of the water
column (Lewis 1970; Killgore and Hoover 2001).
             Russetfin Topminnow
             (Fundulus escambiae)
           Lined Topminnow
         (Fundulus lineolatus)
                                   Longnose Killifish
                                   (Fundulus si mills)
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
                                           47

-------
                                                   Use in IBI: As originally proposed by Karr
                                                   (1981), fundulids are not directly evaluated
                                                   under a specific IBI metric. However, the
                                                   presence and abundance of the Fundulidae
                                                   may be included under general metrics such
                                                   as Metric 1: Total number of fish species
                                                   and Metric 10: Total number of individuals.
                                                   Alternative metrics to Metric 8: Percent
                                                   insectivorous cyprinids may enumerate
                                                   all insectivorous species, which would
                                                   include most of the Fundulidae. Pollution
                                                   intolerant topminnows and killifishes would
                                                   be enumerated under Metric 5: Number of
                                                   intolerant species.
         Table 18. Tolerance designations for selected fundulids.






Common Name

Blair's Starhead Topminnow
Northern Studfish
Golden Topminnow
Banded Killifish
Starhead Topminnow
Mummichog
Blackstripe Topminnow
Blackspotted Topminnow
Plains Topminnow
Plains Killifish






Scientific Name

Fundulus blairae
Fundulus catenatus
Fundulus chrysotus
Fundulus diaphanus
Fundulus dispar
Fundulus heteroclitus
Fundulus notatus
Fundulus olivaceus
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48
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                           Western Banded  Killifish
                         (Fundulus diaphanus menona)
Identification: Body elongate and noticeably wider anteriorly
than posteriorly; head flattened. Coloration light olive-yellow
dorsally, often with dark speckles; sides lighter with irregular,
narrow vertical bars; belly pale yellow-white. Mouth terminal
and small to moderate in size. Males generally with large
dorsal and anal fins. Dorsal fin rays 12-13; anal fin rays 9-11;
pectoral fin rays 16-17; pelvic fin rays 6. Cadual fin rounded to
truncate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed in the upper
Mississippi River basin and lower Great Lakes basin. Typically
found in lakes (B) and sluggish sections of creeks and rivers.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): The Western Banded Killifish
is generally most abundant in clear, quite waters. In
Ohio, F.d. menona has reportedly undergone population
reductions due to loss of habitat and siltation (Trautman
1981). However, small populations still persist in streams
degraded by channelization, siltation, and agricultural runoff
(Poly and Miltner 1995). Most regional and state tolerance
classifications do not separate between the two subspecies
- the Western  Banded and Eastern Banded Killifish (F.d.
diaphanus). The Western Banded Killifish scores under IBI
metrics 1 and  10.
                            Blackstripe Topminnow
                                 (Fundulus notatus)
                                      Identification: Body elongate and moderately robust; head
                                      flattened. Coloration olive-yellow dorsally; sides with a
                                      distinctive longitudinal stripe that extends from the snout to
                                      caudal peduncle (diamond shaped accented with vertical
                                      bars in males [B]); belly silvery-white. Mouth oblique and
                                      small. Dorsal fin rays 9-10; anal fin rays 12; pectoral fin rays
                                      14-15; pelvic fin rays 6. Cadual fin rounded.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
                                      the Mississippi River basin, lower Great Lakes basin, and
                                      several Gulf slope drainages. Occurs in small creeks to
                                      rivers, lakes, and impoundments. Typically present where
                                      the current is sluggish or absent. Found over both fine and
                                      coarse substrates.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): The Blackstripe Topminnow is
                                      reportedly tolerant of low dissolved oxygen and turbidity
                                      (Trautman 1981; Boschung and Mayden 2004). This
                                      adaptative topminnow appears to have recently expanded its
                                      range and invaded new habitats where it was not previously
                                      recorded (Trautman 1981; Becker 1983; Poly and Miltner
                                      1995). State and regional tolerance classifications generally
                                      rank F. notatus as an "intermediate" species (Jester et al.
                                      1992; Barbour et al. 1999). The  Blackstripe Topminnow
                                      scores under IBI metrics 1 and 10.
            An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
49

-------
   SCULPINS  (COTTIDAE)
   Family Cottidae is largely marine in distribution, with the northern Pacific Ocean maintaining the
   majority of the species. In the freshwater systems of North America, two genera and less than
   30 species have been identified. Much like the darters (Ammocrypta, Crystallaria, Etheostoma,
   and Percina), sculpins are primarily benthic-dwelling fishes lacking a swim bladder. They are
   aggressive predators, feeding chiefly on macroinvertebrates, crayfish, and smaller fishes.

   Family Level Identifiers: Head and mouth large. Body dorsally depressed. Often scaleless,
   although a few ctenoid scales may be present.  Pectoral fins large. Pelvic fin with one spine and two
   to five rays.

   Habitat: Most sculpin species dwell in of areas swift current and considerable groundwater
   influence (cool water streams). Although they are often more common in small to medium-sized
   streams, they are also found in rivers  and lakes. Favored substrates include gravel, cobble, and
   boulders.
   Pollution Tolerance: Pollution tolerance varies
   among this cool water-dwelling family. In general,
   sculpins are intolerant to moderately tolerant
   of polluted conditions. Trautman (1981) found
   that Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi) populations
   decreased in the presence of silts, pollution,
   and disturbance, while flourishing populations
   occurred in the clearest and cleanest brooks of
   higher gradients.
                               Table 19. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
                               Family Cottidae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1999)
Tolerant
0%
Intermediate
60%
Intolerant
40%
                                *5 species rated
                                 Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi)
                                    Headwater habitat of the
                                Banded Sculpin (Cottus carolinae)
50
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                                    Use in IBI: Family Cottidae is sometimes used
                                    as an alternative taxa to Metric 2: Number and
                                    identity of darter species or in conjunction with
                                    other benthic taxa such as madtoms or darters.
                                    These taxa are generally more vulnerable to stream
                                    degradation because they feed and reproduce in
                                    benthic habitats (Kuehne and Barbour 1983, Ohio
                                    EPA 1987). Cottids that are intolerant of pollution
                                    are included in Metric 5: Number and identity of
                                    intolerant species. The general  presence and
                                    abundance of sculpin is enumerated under Metric
                                    1: Total number of fish species and Metric 10: Total
                                    number of individuals.
Table 20. Tolerance designations for selected cottids.









Common Name

Prickly Sculpin
Mottled Sculpin
Paiute Sculpin
Banded Sculpin
Slimy Sculpin









Scientific Name

Coitus asper
Coitus bairdi
Cotus beldingi
Coitus carolinae
Coitus cognatus



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       An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
51

-------
                                        Mottled Sculpin
                                          (Cottus bairdi)
      Identification: Body robust and dorsally depressed.
      Coloration cryptic; body grayish-brown with patchy dark
      speckles and black saddles. Breeding males often with
      brilliant orange bands on the first dorsal fin. Mouth very large
      and terminal. Pectoral fins large. First dorsal fin spines 6-9;
      second dorsal rays 15-18; anal fin rays  12-14; pectoral fin
      rays 14-17. Caudal fin rounded.

      General Distribution/Habitat: Widely and disjunctly
      distributed in the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St.
      Lawrence basin, Atlantic slope, the western United States,
      and north into Canada. Occurs in cool water creeks and
      rivers. Found over coarse substrates such as gravel, cobble,
      boulder, and bedrock rubble.

      Indicator Use/IBI (1,5,10): Mottled Sculpin require clear,
      cool, oxygenated water that is relatively free of clayey silts
      and pollutants (Trautman 1981). Due to their propensity
      for small cool water streams, they are vulnerable to
      thermal stress resulting from riparian corridor destruction
      or groundwater lowering. Regional and  state tolerance
      classifications for C. bairdi range from "moderately intolerant"
      (Pirhalla 2004) to "intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987; Lyons  1992;
      Halliwell et al.  1999). The Mottled Sculpin scores under IBI
      metrics 1, 5, and  10.
                                        Banded Sculpin
                                       (Cottus carolinae)
                                            Identification: Body robust and dorsally depressed.
                                            Coloration cryptic; body often reddish-brown with 4 dark
                                            saddles. First dorsal fin with a reddish-orange band. Chin
                                            mottled. Mouth very large and terminal. Pectoral fins large.
                                            First dorsal fin spines 6-9; second dorsal rays 14-18; anal fin
                                            rays 11-15; pectoral fin rays 12-18; pelvic fin rays 3-4. Caudal
                                            fin rounded.

                                            General Distribution/Habitat:  Distributed throughout the
                                            Mississippi River basin and Mobile basin. Occurs in small
                                            creeks (B) to rivers where the current is moderate to swift.
                                            Most abundant over clean sand, gravel, cobble, and rubble
                                            substrates.

                                            Indicator Use/IBI (1,5,10): Generally widespread and
                                            common throughout its range, the Banded Sculpin inhabits
                                            clear, cool to coldwater habitats. However, Pflieger (1975)
                                            observed that C. carolinae may be more tolerant of warmer
                                            waters than its congeners. Regional and state tolerance
                                            classifications for C. carolinae range from "intermediate"
                                            (Barbour et al. 1999) to "intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992).
                                            The Banded Sculpin scores under IBI metrics 1 and 10. As
                                            benthic inhabitants, the Cottidae may also be substituted for
                                            Metric 2: Number of darter species in certain regions.
52
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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SUNFISHES (CENTRARCHIDAE)
Beloved by anglers, this well-known family contains about 30 species, including popular fishes
such as the Smallmouth Bass, Largemouth Bass, Black Crappie, and Bluegill Sunfish.The term
"panfish" often refers to the tasty, smaller fish species of the sunfish family. The sunfish are among
the most notorious of the hybridizing fishes, especially species belonging to the genus Lepomis.

Family Level Identifiers: A spinous dorsal fin with 6-13 spines followed by a soft dorsal fin. Three
or more anal fin spines. Scales ctenoid.

Habitat: Most sunfish species inhabit quiet waters, such as sluggish stream and river reaches,
pools, wetlands, and lakes. Many favor the cover of macrophytes and woody debris.
                                           Table 21. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
                                           Family Centrarchidae.*
Pollution Tolerance: Generally, the sunfish
family is moderately tolerant of pollution
and habitat alterations. As pool inhabitants,
centrarchids are vulnerable to pool degradation
and the loss of adequate midwater and
benthic food items (Ohio EPA 1987). Intolerant
species are represented by fishes such as
the Blackbanded Sunfish (Enneacanthus
chaetodori) and Longear Sunfish (Lepomis
megalotis). Well known sunfishes, such as the Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and Bluegill
Sunfish (Lepomis macrochims), are among the more hardy tolerant North American fishes,
reportedly tolerant of low dissolved oxygen and habitat disturbance (Baker 1983; Matthews 1987;
Killgore and Hoover 2001).
(Review by Barbour et al. 1 999)
Tolerant
5%
Intermediate
86%
Intolerant
9%
                                           *22 species rated
       Dollar Sunfish (Lepomis marginatus)
                                             Spotted Bass (Micropterus punctulatus)
    Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu)     Orangespotted Sunfish (Lepomis humilis)
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
                                                                                     53

-------
                                      Use in IBI: The sunfish family is an integral part of IBI
                                      scoring. Metrics that evaluate the family directly include
                                      Metric 3: Number of sunfish species. Hybrid sunfishes are
                                      often excluded from this metric. Metric 6: Percent Green
                                      Sunfish measures the quality of headwater fish communities
                                      by calculating the abundance of Green Sunfish versus  other
                                      fish species. In addition to these metrics, sunfishes are
                                      speciated and enumerated for a number of other metrics that
                                      evaluate the fish community as a whole (e.g. Metric 1: Total
                                      number of species and Metric 5: Total number of intolerant
                                      species). Due to the extensive hybridization observed in this
                                      family, the sunfish may also be a large part of Metric 11:
                                      Percentage hybrids.
         Table 22. Tolerance designations for selected centrarchids.
Common Name

Mud Sunfish
Rock Bass
Flier
Banded Pygmy Sunfish
Blackbanded Sunfish
Bluespotted Sunfish
Banded Sunfish
Redbreast Sunfish
Green Sunfish
Pumpkinseed Sunfish
Warmouth Sunfish
Orangespotted Sunfish
Bluegill Sunfish
Dollar Sunfish
Longear Sunfish
Redear Sunfish
Spotted Sunfish
Smallmouth Bass
Spotted Bass
Largemouth Bass
White Crappie
Black Crappie
Scientific Name

Acantharchus pomotis
Ambloplites rupestris
Centrarchus macropterus
Elassoma zonatum
Enneacanthus chaetodon
Enneacanthus gloriosus
Enneacanthus obesus
Lepomis auritus
Lepomis cyanellus
Lepomis gibbosus
Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis hum His
Lepomis macrochirus
Lepomis marginatus
Lepomis megalotis
Lepomis microlophus
Lepomis punctatus
Micropterus dolomieu
Micropterus punctulatus
Micropterus salmoides
Pomoxis annularis
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
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           I = intolerant  M = intermediate  Ml = moderately intolerant  MT = moderately tolerant
             P = moderately tolerant  R = rare intolerant S = special intolerant  T = tolerant
54
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                                      Rock Bass
                              (Ambloplites rupestris)
Identification: Body deep and somewhat robust. Coloration
olive or brown dorsally; sides lighter with dark patches and
spots; belly white. Eye red. Mouth terminal to slightly oblique
and large. Dorsal fin spines 10-12; second dorsal fin rays
10-12 ; anal fin spines 5-7 and 9-11 soft rays; pectoral fin
rays 13-15; pelvic fin rays 1 spine and 5 rays. Caudal fin
emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Well-distributed throughout
the upper Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence
basin, Hudson River basin, Red River (of the North)
drainage, and Atlantic slope. Occurs in creeks, rivers, glacial
lakes, and  impoundments. Most abundant in sluggish current
or still water where plenty of cover is present. Found over
both coarse and fine substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,3,10): The Rock Bass is reportedly
intolerant of high turbidity, siltation, and low dissolved
oxygen levels (Bouck 1972; Robison and Buchanan 1988;
Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Regional and state tolerance
classifications range from "intermediate" (Whittier and
Hughes 1998; Halliwell et al. 1999) to "intolerant" (Lyons
1992). The Rock Bass scores under IBI metrics 1, 3, and 10.
It may also be considered a top carnivore.
                               Bluespotted Sunfish
                            (Enneacanthus gloriosus)
                                      Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed.
                                      Coloration somewhat olive-gray and dusky; numerous light
                                      blue, light green or gold spots irregularly scattered on body
                                      and fins. Males with enlarged second dorsal and anal fin.
                                      Mouth terminal and moderate in size. Dorsal fin spines 8-9;
                                      second dorsal fin rays 10-12; anal fin spines 3 and 9-10 soft
                                      rays; pectoral fin rays 12-13. Caudal fin rounded to slightly
                                      emarginate.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed along the
                                      Atlantic slope and Gulf slope. Generally confined to lowland
                                      and circumneutral or acidic streams, rivers, swamps, and
                                      oxbow backwaters (Peterson and VanderKooy 1997). Most
                                      abundant in heavily vegetated habitats in sluggish current
                                      or still water. Found over both coarse and fine substrates.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1, 3,10): An inhabitant of silt-free,
                                      vegetated backwaters, the habitat of the Bluespotted
                                      Sunfish may be compromised where coastal development
                                      has occurred (Boschung and Mayden 2004). Regional
                                      and state tolerance classifications for E. gloriosus range
                                      from "intolerant" (Halliwell et al.  1999) to "tolerant" (Pirhalla
                                      2004). The Bluespotted Sunfish scores under IBI metrics 1,
                                      3, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
55

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                                     Redbreast Sunfish
                                       (Lepomis auritus)
                                           Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed.
                                           Opercle flap dark, long, and thin (A). Often less distinctive
                                           in younger individuals (B). Coloration dark olive dorsally;
                                           sides with orange and blue mottling; cheek with blue-
                                           green mottles. Breeding males with a bright red-orange
                                           breast. Mouth terminal and somewhat small to moderate
                                           in size. Dorsal spines 10-11; dorsal fin rays 11-12; anal
                                           spines 3; anal fin rays 9-10; pectoral rays 14-15. Caudal fin
                                           emarginate.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed on the
                                           Atlantic slope and sporadically occurring throughout the Gulf
                                           slope. It has also been introduced to a number of drainages.
                                           Occurs chiefly in creeks and rivers in flowing pools, although
                                           it may be found in lakes and impoundments.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,3,10): The Redbreast Sunfish has
                                           exhibited considerable tolerance to thermal stress, occurring
                                           in waters up to 39 C (102.2 F) (Saecker and Wolcott
                                           1988).  State and regional tolerance classifications for L.
                                           auritus range from "moderately intolerant" (Pirhalla 2004)
                                           to "moderately tolerant" (Jester et al. 1992). The Redbreast
                                           Sunfish scores under IBI metrics 1, 3, and 10.
                                        Green Sunfish
                                     (Lepomis cyanellus)
     Identification: Body somewhat elongate for Lepomis genus;
     robust. Coloration dark olive dorsally; with blue-green flecks
     and yellow-orange belly. Snout and cheek with blue-green
     mottles. Conspicuous black blotch present near posterior
     base of dorsal fin. Mouth terminal and large. Dorsal spines
     9-11; dorsal fin rays 10-11; anal spines 3; anal fin rays 9-10;
     pectoral fin rays 13-14. Caudal fin emarginate.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed
     throughout the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes basin,
     and Gulf slope. Introduced elsewhere throughout the
     United States (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Found in small
     streams, ditches (B), creeks, lakes, ponds, and marshes.
     Usually most abundant in shallow water where the current
     is sluggish or absent. Found over both coarse and fine
     substrates.

     Indicator  Use/IBI (1, 3, 6,10): An adaptive species, the
     Green Sunfish is known to tolerate turbidity, siltation,
     and elevated temperatures (Sigler and  Miller 1963;
     Trautman 1981; Becker 1983). State and regional tolerance
     classifications for L. cyanellus range from "moderately
     intolerant" (Pirhalla 2004) to "tolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987;
     Jester et al. 1992; Lyons 1992; Halliwell et  al. 1999). The
     Green Sunfish scores under IBI metrics 1,  3, 6, and 10.
56
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                             Pumpkinseed  Sunfish
                               (Lepomis gibbosus)
Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed.
Coloration dark olive dorsally; sides with blue-green and
orange-yellow mottling; belly orange-yellow. Ear flap with a
pale margin; with or without red spot on posterior end. Mouth
terminal and small. Dorsal fin spines 10; dorsal fin rays 11-12;
anal fin spines 4; anal fin rays 9-10; pectoral fin rays 12-13.
Caudal fin emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Well-distributed throughout
the upper Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence
Basin, and Atlantic slope. It has been modestly introduced
elsewhere (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Occurs in creeks,
rivers, ponds, lakes, and reservoirs. Most abundant where the
current is sluggish or absent. May be found over both coarse
and fine substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1, 3,10): The Pumpkinseed is often most
abundant in clear, vegetated waters (Trautman 1981; Becker
1983). It has demonstrated some tolerance to acidic waters
and high temperatures (Becker 1983; Graham and Hastings
1984). Regional and state tolerance classifications range
from "tolerant" (Pirhalla 2004) to "intermediate" (Halliwell et al.
1999). The Pumpkinseed scores under IBI metrics 1, 3, and
10.
                               Warmouth Sunfish
                                (Lepomis gulosus)
                                    Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed.
                                    Coloration dusky dorsally; sides brownish or brassy with a
                                    greenish sheen; belly greenish-yellow. Distinctive dark bands
                                    radiate from eye. Mouth terminal to oblique and somewhat
                                    large. Dorsal fin spines 10; dorsal fin rays 9-10; anal fin
                                    spines 3; anal fin rays 8-10; pectoral fin rays 12-13. Caudal fin
                                    emarginate.

                                    General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
                                    the Mississippi River basin, Atlantic slope, Gulf slope, and
                                    lower Great Lakes Basin. Occurs in creeks, ponds, lakes
                                    (B), impoundments, and swamps. Most abundant where
                                    the current is sluggish or absent and profuse vegetation is
                                    present. May be found over both coarse and fine substrates.

                                    Indicator Use/IBI (1, 3,10): The Warmouth has been
                                    associated with silt-free, clear water conditions (Trautman
                                    1981) as well as turbid, muddy habitats (Becker 1983).
                                    Matthews (1987) and Killgore and Hoover (2001) have
                                    documented L. golosus to occur in  hypoxic (D.O. <1 mg/L)
                                    environments. Regional and state tolerance classifications
                                    range from "moderately tolerant" (Jester et al. 1992) to
                                    "intermediate" (Barbour et al. 1999). The Warmouth scores
                                    under IBI metrics 1, 3, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
57

-------
                                 Orangespotted  Sunfish
                                       (Lepomis hum His)
                                          Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed.
                                          Coloration olive-gray dorsally; side, cheek, and opercle with
                                          large orange spots; belly orange. Breeding males display
                                          magnificent colors and possess a metallic sheen (B). Ear
                                          flap elongate; often with a strong white margin (A-B). Mouth
                                          terminal and small. Dorsal fin spines 10-11; dorsal fin rays
                                          10; anal fin spines 3; anal fin rays 8-9; pectoral fin rays 14-15.
                                          Caudal fin emarginate.

                                          General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
                                          the Mississippi River basin, Gulf Slope, and lower
                                          Great Lakes basin. Occurs in creeks, rivers, lakes, and
                                          impoundments. Most abundant in sluggish current or still
                                          water. Found over both coarse and fine substrates.

                                          Indicator Use/IBI (1,3,10): Becker (1983) reported the
                                          Orangespotted Sunfish as the most tolerant centrarchid to
                                          turbidity. Boschung and Mayden (2004) considered L. humilis
                                          tolerant to low flow conditions, warm water, and silt. It has
                                          also demonstrated tolerance to hypoxia (Gould and Irwin
                                          1962). State and regional tolerance classifications generally
                                          range from "tolerant" (Jester et al. 1992) to "intermediate"
                                          (Barbour et a. 1999). The Orangespotted Sunfish scores
                                          under IBI metrics 1, 3, and 10.
                                       Bluegill Sunfish
                                   (Lepomis macrochirus)
     Identification: Body moderately deep and laterally
     compressed. Coloration variable; olive to olive-brown dorsally;
     sides often a patchy matrix of blue, brown, and green; belly
     white to orange. Dark, chain-like vertical bars often visible in
     younger individuals (B). Mouth terminal to oblique and small to
     moderate in size. Dorsal spines 10; dorsal fin rays 10-12; anal
     spines 3; anal fin rays 10-12; pectoral fin rays 13-14. Caudal
     fin emarginate.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
     the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St.  Lawrence basin,
     southern Atlantic slope, and Gulf slope. Widely introduced.
     Found in creeks, rivers, lakes, ponds, and impoundments.
     Often most abundant in still water or sluggish current. Found
     over both coarse and fine substrates.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1, 3,10): An adaptive species, the Bluegill
     Sunfish is known to tolerate turbidity, moderate variations in
     pH, and low dissolved oxygen (Becker 1983; Graham and
     Hastings 1984; Matthews 1987; Killgore and Hoover 2001).
     State and regional tolerance classifications for L macrochirus
     range from "tolerant" (Whittier and Hughes 1998; Halliwell et
     al. 1999; Pirhalla 2004) to "intermediate" (Barbour et al. 1999).
     The Bluegill Sunfish scores under IBI metrics 1, 3, and 10.
58
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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              ^i
                                   Dollar Sunfish
                               (Lepomis marginatus)
Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed.
Coloration variable; olive-brown to olive-blue dorsally; sides
blue-green, red, orange, and olive-brown; belly orange or
red with blue-green flecks. Ear flap elongate and expanded,
with a well-defined pale margin. Breeding males often with a
brilliant, blood red cast (B). Mouth terminal and small. Dorsal
fin spines 10; dorsal fin rays 10-11; anal fin spines 3; anal fin
rays 9-10; pectoral fin rays 12. Caudal fin emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
southern Atlantic slope and Gulf slope. Occurs in  creeks,
backwaters, lakes, and swamps. Most abundant where
the current is sluggish or absent and profuse vegetation is
present. Generally found over fine substrates and detritus.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,3,10): The  Dollar Sunfish is most
abundant in higher quality backwater habitats. Etnier and
Starnes (1993) reported that L. marginatus was likely more
abundant historically in western Tennessee, which they
attributed to stream channelization. Jester et al. (1992)
ranked the Dollar Sunfish as "moderately tolerant" of water
quality degradation and "moderately intolerant" of habitat
degradation. The Dollar Sunfish scores under IBI  metrics 1,
3, and  10.
                                  Longear Sunfish
                                (Lepomis megalotis)
Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed.
Coloration generally olive-brown dorsally; sides grading to
light olive with dull blue-green mottling (A); belly yellowish.
Fins often with longitudinal red bands. Breeding males
magnificently colored (B); sides of contrasting blue-green,
olive, and orange; fins blood red or brown-red; belly orange.
Mouth terminal to oblique and small to moderate in size.
Dorsal fin spines 10; dorsal fin rays 10-11; anal fin spines
3; anal fin rays 9-10; pectoral fin rays 13-15. Caudal fin
emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes basin, and Gulf Slope.
Occurs in creeks, rivers, ponds, lakes, and impoundments.
Most abundant where the current is sluggish or absent and
profuse vegetation is present. May be found over both coarse
and fine substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1, 3 10): Populations of Longear Sunfish
have reportedly been extirpated by soil erosion and siltation in
Wisconsin (Becker 1983).  In Ohio, Trautman (1981) correlated
Longear population reductions with increases in turbidity and
siltation. Regional and state tolerance classifications range
from "moderately tolerant" (Jester et al. 1992) to "moderately
intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987). The Longear Sunfish scores
under IBI metrics 1, 3, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
                                                         59

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                                       Spotted Sunfish
                                     (Lepomis punctatus)
     Identification: Body small, deep, and laterally compressed.
     Coloration olive-brown or dark blue dorsally; sides olive
     with a brassy or metallic blue-green cast; belly greenish
     yellow, yellow, or white. Sides, cheek, opercle, and fins
     may have dark spots. Ear flap short and dark; often with a
     narrow, pale margin. Mouth terminal and small. Dorsal fin
     spines 10; dorsal fin rays 10-11; anal fin spines 3; anal fin
     rays 10; pectoral fin rays 13. Caudal fin emarginate.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed
     throughout the Mississippi River basin, southern  Atlantic
     slope, and several Gulf slope drainages. Occurs in creeks,
     rivers, swamps, and estuaries. Most abundant where the
     current is sluggish or absent and vegetation is present. May
     be found over both fine and coarse substrates.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1, 3,10): While it may occur in
     moderately turbid waters (Robison and Buchanan 1988),
     the Spotted Sunfish is generally considered a species
     of higher quality lowland streams and backwaters. State
     and regional tolerance classifications have designated L.
     punctatus as both "intermediate" (Barbour et a. 1999) and
     "intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992). The Spotted Sunfish scores
     under IBI  metrics 1, 3, and 10.

                                      Smallmouth  Bass
                                   (Micropterus dolomieu)
                                          Identification: Body elongate and robust. Coloration olive
                                          to brown dorsally; sides with several chain-like vertical bars
                                          (often more distinctive in young individuals); belly yellowish
                                          white to white. Eye often red. Mouth terminal to slightly
                                          obliquely and large. Dorsal fin spines 10; dorsal fin rays 13-
                                          15; anal fin spines 3; anal fin rays 10-11; pectoral fin rays
                                          16-18; Caudal fin emarginate to moderately forked.

                                          General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed throughout
                                          the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence
                                          basin, Red River (of the North drainage), and northern to
                                          mid-Atlantic drainage. Experts have had trouble deducing
                                          the native  range of M. dolomieu due to extensive stocking
                                          throughout the United States (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).
                                          Most abundant in creeks, rivers,  lakes, and impoundments
                                          in flowing or quiet pools. May be found over both coarse and
                                          fine substrates.

                                          Indicator Use/IBI (1,3, 9,10): The Smallmouth Bass is
                                          generally considered more sensitive to turbidity and siltation
                                          than other black basses (Robison and Buchanan 1988). State
                                          and regional tolerance classifications for M. dolomieu range
                                          from "intermediate"  (Whittierand Hughes 1998; Halliwell et
                                          al. 1999) to "intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992; Lyons 1992). The
                                          Smallmouth scores under IBI metrics 1, 3, 9, and 10.
60
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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                                 Largemouth  Bass
                             (Micropterus salmoides)
                                      Identification: Body elongate and moderately robust.
                                      Coloration green to olive-brown dorsally; sides lighter, with
                                      a distinctive longitudinal stripe, often present as a series
                                      of irregular blotches in younger individuals (B); belly white.
                                      Mouth terminal to slightly oblique and large; upper jaw
                                      extends to (at least) the posterior edge of eye. Dorsal fin
                                      spines 10; dorsal fin rays  12-14; anal fin spines 3; anal fin
                                      rays 10-12; pectoral fin rays 14-15. Caudal fin emarginate to
                                      slight forked.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Widespread throughout the
                                      United States and  into parts of southern Canada. Occurs
                                      in creeks, rivers, lakes, ponds, and impoundments. Most
                                      abundant in quiet water or flowing pools where cover is
                                      present. May be found over both coarse and fine substrates.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1,3, 9,10): The Largemouth Bass is
                                      reportedly more tolerant of turbidity than the other basses of
                                      the genus Micropterus (Etnier and Starnes 1993), especially
                                      in waters where food is abundant (Miller 1975). State and
                                      regional tolerance classifications for M. salmoides range from
                                      "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999) to "tolerant" (Whittier
                                      and Hughes 1998; Pirhalla 2004). As a top predator, the
                                      Largemouth Bass scores under IBI metrics 1, 3, 9, and 10.
                                    Black Crappie
                            (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)
Identification: Body deep and laterally compressed.
Coloration dusky dorsally; sides with irregular, dark mottles
(A-B); belly white. Fins darkly pigmented and mottled. Mouth
oblique and moderate to large in size. Dorsal fin spines 7-8;
dorsal fin rays 15-16; anal fin spines 6-7; anal fin rays 16-19;
pectoral fin rays  13-15. Caudal fin emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout
the Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence
basin, Gulf slope, and southern Atlantic slope. Widely
introduced through its native range and elsewhere (Jenkins
and Burkhead 1994). Occurs in rivers, ponds, lakes, and
impoundments. Most abundant in quiet waters where cover is
present. May be found over both coarse and fine substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,3,10): The Black Crappie is
often considered less tolerant of turbidity, siltation, and
eutrophication than the White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis)
(Robison and Buchanan 1988; Etnier and Starnes 1993).
During a fish kill  in Wisconsin, Woodbury (1941) reported
the Black Crappie as the most sensitive species to waters
supersaturated with oxygen resulting from an algal
bloom. Regional and state tolerance classifications for P.
nigromaculatus range from "tolerant" (Whittier and Hughes
1988) to "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999). The Black
Crappie scores under metrics 1, 3, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
61

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   PERCHES  (PERCIDAE)
   With roughly 200 species, Percidae is one of the most diverse fish families in North America. The
   majority of the species belong to two genera,  Etheostoma and Percina, commonly called "darters,"
   which are colorful, benthic dwelling fishes. Also found in this family are popular sport fishes such
   as Walleye, Sauger, and Yellow Perch.

   Family Level Identifiers: Two dorsal fins that are separated or narrowly joined. Anal spines 1  or
   2. Pelvic fins with 1 spine and 4 rays. Branchiostegal membranes not bound to isthmus. Scales
   ctenoid. Male darters often display bright colors and/or different patterning than females.

   Habitat: The perch family may be found in nearly every type of freshwater habitat east of the
   Rocky Mountains. The larger family members, including such fishes as the Yellow Perch, Walleye,
   and Sauger, are more common to lakes, reservoirs, and rivers. The smaller members (darters)
   inhabit streams of all sizes, in addition to lakes and wetlands.
   Pollution Tolerance: Many darter species are
   intolerant of siltation, pollutants, and habitat
   disturbance. Like the sculpin and madtoms,
   these small fishes are generally more vulnerable
   to stream degradation because they feed and
   reproduce in benthic habitats (Kuehne and
   Barbour 1983; Ohio EPA 1987). It should be
   noted that Percids, and more specifically the
   darters, are the most imperiled group of North
   American fishes, with one-third of all darters in
   some degree of decline (Boschung and Mayden 2004).
                               Table 23. Overview of Pollution Tolerance for
                               Family Percidae.*
(Review by Barbour et al. 1999)
Tolerant
0%
Intermediate
59%
Intolerant
41%
                               *39 species rated
                                                 Sexual Dimorphism: Many percids
                                                 are sexually dimorphic, or have
                                                 characteristics that differentiate
                                                 male from female. Most of the darter
                                                 (Etheostoma and Percina) males have
                                                 spectacular color during the breeding
                                                 season, while female coloring is
                                                 somewhat mottled and dull.
                             Bloodfin Darter (Etheostoma sanguifluum)
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An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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            Redline Darter (Etheostoma ruflinineatum)
                 Use in IBI: Darter presence and identity is measured directly by
                 Metric 2: Number of darter species and, when appropriate, Metric
                 5: Number of intolerant species. When evaluating large river
                 habitats, darters are often replaced by alternative metrics such
                 as Percentage round bodied suckers or Percentage large river
                 faunal group (Ohio EPA 1987; Simon and Emery 1995). However,
                 in large river habitats, darters may still be accounted for under
                 various metrics, including Percentage large river faunal group
                 and Percentage insectivores.\Na\\eye and Sauger populations
                 are enumerated under Metric 9: Proportion of individuals as top
                 carnivores. The general presence of family Percidae is accounted
                 for in several other metrics, such as Metric 1: Total number of fish
                 species and Metric 10: Total number of individuals.
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
63

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          Table 24. Tolerance designations for selected percids.
Common Name

Eastern Sand Darter
Greenside Darter
Rainbow Darter
Bluebreast Darter
Iowa Darter
Fantail Darter
Swamp Darter
Harlequin Darter
Greenbreast Darter
Redband Darter
Spotted Darter
Johnny Darter
Orangethroat Darter
Speckled Darter
Tippecanoe Darter
Variegate Darter
Banded Darter
Yellow Perch
Logperch
Gilt Darter
Blackside Darter
Slenderhead Darter
Dusky Darter
River Darter
Sauger
Walleye
Scientific Name

Ammocrypta pellucida
Etheostoma blennioides
Etheostoma caeruleum
Etheostoma camurum
Etheostoma exile
Etheostoma flabellare
Etheostoma fusiforme
Etheostoma histrio
Etheostoma Jordan!
Etheostoma luteovinctum
Etheostoma maculatum
Etheostoma nigrum
Etheostoma spectabile
Etheostoma stigmaeum
Etheostoma tippecanoe
Etheostoma variatum
Etheostoma zonale
Perca flavescens
Percina caprodes
Percina evides
Percina maculata
Percina phoxocephala
Percina sciera
Percina shumardi
Stizostedion canadense
Stizostedion vitreum
1
i
HI
o
O

Rl
Ml
Ml
Rl
X
X
X
X
X
X
Rl
X
X
X
X
Cl
Cl
X
Ml
SI
X
Rl
Ml
X
X
X
Jester etal. 1992
WQ
X
I
X
X
X
Ml
Ml
I
X
X
X
Ml
Ml
Ml
X
X
I
T
Ml
X
Ml
Ml
Ml
Ml
MT
MT
Habitat
X
I
X
X
X
I
I
I
X
X
X
I
Ml
Ml
X
X
I
MT
Ml
X
I
Ml
Ml
I
Ml
Ml
(A
!

X
X
I
X
I
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
I
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Whittier and Hughes 1998

X
X
X
X
X
X
M
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
MT
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Barbour etal. 1999

I
M
M
I
M
M
M
I
X
X
I
M
M
X
I
I
I
M
M
I
M
I
M
M
M
M
Halliwelletal. 1999
Habitat
I
I
I
I
M
M
I
X
X
X
I
M
X
X
X
M
I
M
M
I
M
X
X
X
X
M
Pirhalla 2004

X
Ml
X
X
X
Ml
T
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
T
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
             I = intolerant  M = intermediate  Ml = moderately intolerant  MT = moderately tolerant
                P = moderately tolerant  R = rare intolerant  S = special intolerant  T = tolerant
64
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                               Eastern Sand  Darter
                             (Ammocrypta pellucida)
Identification: Body terete. Coloration translucent; yellowish-
olive dorsally with 12-16 dark spots; sides with a series
of 12-16 longitudinal dark blotches or spots; belly pale
yellowish-green. No opercular spine. First dorsal fin spines
9-11; second dorsal fin rays 8-11; anal spine 1; anal fin rays
8-10. Caudal fin emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat:  Distributed in parts of the
Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin and upper Ohio River
drainage (B). Typically an inhabitant of creeks, rivers, and
lakes. In lotic habitats, it is most abundant where the current
is sluggish to moderate and substrates comprised of clean,
fine to medium-grained sand.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,2,5,10): The Eastern Sand Darter is
known to burrow into sandy substrates leaving only the eyes
and forehead exposed (Jordan  and Copeland 1877). The
Eastern Sand Darter is sensitive to siltation  (Trautman 1981;
Kuehne and Barbour 2003), and it has been suggested that
siltation may interfere with its burrowing tendencies (Spreitzer
1979). Regional and state tolerance classifications rank
A. pellucida as "intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987; Halliwell et al.
1999). The Eastern Sand Darter scores under IBI metrics 1,
2, 5, and 10.
                                 Greenside Darter
                            (Etheostoma blennioides)
                                     Identification: Body elongate and moderately robust.
                                     Breeding males with darkened bodies, brilliant blue-green
                                     pelvic and anal fins, and vertical green bars posteriorly.
                                     Females with mottled coloration consisting of various shades
                                     of green (B, near). Blunt snout overhangs small, terminal
                                     mouth. First dorsal fin spines 13-14; dorsal fin rays 12-14; anal
                                     fin spines 2; anal fin rays 7-9; pectoral fin rays 14-16. Caudal
                                     fin slightly emarginate.

                                     General Distribution/Habitat: Occurs in the Mississippi
                                     River basin, lower Great Lakes basin, and parts of the mid-
                                     Atlantic drainage. Most abundant in creeks and rivers where
                                     the current is moderate to swift. Often found over coarse
                                     substrates comprised of sand, gravel, cobble, and rubble.
                                     Apparently favors areas of rooted aquatic vegetation, algae, or
                                     mosses. Studies have shown this vegetative affinity is due to
                                     olfactory stimuli (McCormick and Aspinwall 1983).

                                     Indicator Use/ IBI (1, 2,10): The Greenside Darter is often
                                     abundant in clear or slightly turbid waters where the current is
                                     moderate to swift. Regional and state tolerance classifications
                                     for E. blennioides range from "moderately intolerant" (Ohio
                                     EPA  1987; Pirhalla 2004) to "intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992).
                                     The Greenside Darter scores under IBI metrics 1, 2, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
65

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                                       Rainbow Darter
                                  (Etheostoma caeruleum)
     Identification: Body somewhat deep and moderately
     robust. Breeding males with intense electric blue and orange
     coloration (A). Females generally yellow-brown with dark,
     irregular mottles (B). Both sexes with several dark dorsal
     saddles, with 2-3 often more conspicuous than the rest. First
     dorsal fin spines 9-11; dorsal fin rays 12-14; anal fin spines 2;
     anal fin rays 6-8; pectoral fin rays 13. Caudal fin rounded.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Widely distributed in the
     Mississippi River drainage and Great Lakes basin. Occurs in
     small creeks to small rivers where the current is moderate to
     swift. Most abundant over sand, gravel, and cobble substrates.
     Juveniles often favor the shallow margins of runs and riffles.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,2,10): The  Rainbow Darter is reportedly
     sensitive to siltation and impoundment (Robison and Buchanan
     1988; Boschung and Mayden 2004).Trautman (1981)
     considered the Rainbow Darter less tolerant of pollutants than
     the Johnny Darter (Etheostoma nigrum) but more so than
     the Bluebreast Darter (Etheostoma camurum) or Variegate
     Darter (Etheostoma variatum). State and regional tolerance
     classifications for E. caeruleum range from "moderately
     intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987) to "intolerant" (Lyons 1992;
     Halliwell et al. 1999). The Rainbow Darter scores under IBI
     metrics 1, 2, and 10.
                                      Bluebreast  Darter
                                  (Etheostoma camurum)
                                           Identification: Body robust and elongate; snout short.
                                           Coloration smoky olive dorsally; sides checkered; belly
                                           light olive, blue-green, or yellow. Males with irregular red
                                           spots on body (bright in breeding males [A]). Females with
                                           duller coloration, spots grayish-brown (B). Mouth small and
                                           terminal. First dorsal fin spines 10-13; second dorsal fin rays
                                           11-13; anal fin spines 2; anal fin rays 7-9; pectoral fin rays
                                           13-15. Caudal fin round to truncate.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Disjunctly distributed
                                           throughout the Ohio River basin. Occurs in large creeks and
                                           rivers where the current is moderate to swift. Prefers riffles
                                           where the water is clear, deep, and swift. Most abundant
                                           over substrates of gravel, cobble, and boulders.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,2, 5,10): The Bluebreast Darter
                                           requires high quality, undisturbed habitats free of silts and
                                           pollutants. Stream impoundment and siltation have likely
                                           extirpated numerous populations throughout the eastern
                                           United States (Etnier and Starnes,  1993). This percid is an
                                           excellent indicator of high quality water resources. Regional
                                           and state tolerance classifications rank E. camurum as
                                           "intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987; Halliwell et al. 1999). The
                                           Bluebreast Darter scores under IBI metrics 1, 2, 5,  and 10.
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                                    Fantail  Darter
                              (Etheostoma flabellare)
                                      Identification: Body elongate and shallow. Coloration dark
                                      olive to light tan with dusky vertical bars that fade ventrally
                                      (A). Breeding males characterized by a charcoal colored
                                      head and large orange-yellow dorsal spine knobs (A). Mouth
                                      terminal. First dorsal fin spines 7-8; dorsal fin rays 13-15;
                                      anal fin spines 2; anal fin rays 8-9; pectoral fin rays 11-13.
                                      Caudal fin broadly rounded.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Occurs in the Mississippi
                                      River basin, lower Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin, and
                                      parts of the mid-Atlantic drainage. Typically found in small
                                      to large creeks and rivers where the current  is moderate to
                                      swift. Most abundant over substrates of gravel, cobble, and
                                      rubble. This small, wiry darter often seeks refuge in narrow
                                      crevices or voids.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1, 2,10): The Fantail Darter is tolerant
                                      to moderate turbidity and intermittent hypoxia (Jenkins and
                                      Burkhead 1994; Matthews and Styron 1981). The adhesive
                                      eggs of this species are attached to the  undersides of flat
                                      stones, likely reducing its sensitivity to siltation. Regional  and
                                      state tolerance classifications for E. flabellare range from
                                      "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999) to "moderately intolerant"
                                      (Jester et al. 1992; Pirhalla 2004). The Fantail Darter scores
                                      under IBI metrics 1, 2, and 10.
                                  Redband Darter
                           (Etheostoma luteovinctum)
Identification: Body moderately deep. Males (A) with
alternating, red-orange vertical bars located on the breast,
belly, and caudal region. Breeding males with bold, blue-
green ventral coloration (B). Females mottled olive-brown
with dark lateral blotches. Snout somewhat blunt and short.
First dorsal fin spines 9-11; second dorsal fin rays 12-14;
anal fin spines 2; anal fin rays 7-8; pectoral fin rays 12-13.
Caudal fin slightly emarginate.

Habitat: Geographically restricted to the Duck and
Cumberland River drainages where it  may be locally
abundant (Etnier and Starnes, 1993). Occurs in small to
medium-sized creeks (B) where the current is sluggish to
moderate. Typically found over gravel and rubble with a
shallow layer of silt.

Indicator Use (1,2,10): Perhaps due to its restricted
distribution, the use of the Redband Darter as an indicator
species has not been assessed. Regional and state
tolerance classifications have not evaluated the sensitivity of
E. luteovinctum to environmental perturbations. By default,
the Redband Darter scores under IBI metrics 1, 2, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
67

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                                        Spotted Darter
                                  (Etheostoma maculatum)
     Identification: Body elongate and robust. Males (A) dark
     olive dorsally; sides lighter with darkly margined red spots;
     fins dusky with or without whitish border; breast blue-green.
     Females olive with dusky, less distinctive spots or mottles;
     breast dusky white. Pectoral fins generally short. Snout sharp
     with a terminal mouth. First dorsal fin spines 11-13; anal fin
     spines 2. Caudal fin rounded.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Disjunctly distributed in the
     Ohio River drainage. Found in large creeks and rivers where
     the current is moderate to strong. Most common over sand,
     gravel, cobble, and boulder substrates (A-B, Green River [KY],
     in-situ photos).

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,2, 5,10): The Spotted Darter is
     essentially an obligate inhabitant of shallow, swiftly flowing
     sections of large creeks and rivers. Clean, heterogeneous
     mixtures of gravel and cobble are apparently important to
     the life history of E. maculatum (Kessler and Thorp 1993). A
     recent range-wide assessment of Spotted Darter populations
     suggested that this small  percid is sensitive to siltation,
     impoundment, stream flow alteration, and adverse changes
     in water quality (Mayasich et al. 2004). State and regional
     tolerance classifications rank E. maculatum as "intolerant"
     (Ohio EPA 1987; Halliwell et al. 1999).
                                        Redline  Darter
                                 (Etheostoma rufilineatum)
                                           Identification: Body moderately deep and robust. Males (A)
                                           with a blue-green breast and checkered red-brown body. Soft
                                           dorsal, anal, and caudal fins often with narrow red band and
                                           white-gray margin. Females olive-brown without bright red
                                           fins or body coloration; usually with dark spots on fins. First
                                           dorsal fin spines 11-13; second dorsal fin rays 11-12; anal fin
                                           spines 2; anal fin rays 7-9; pectoral fin rays 12-15. Caudal fin
                                           rounded or slightly emarginate.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Geographically restricted to
                                           the Cumberland and Tennessee drainages. Occurs in creeks
                                           and rivers where the current is moderate to swift. Most
                                           abundant over sand, gravel, cobble, and boulder substrates
                                           (B, Powell River [TN], in-situ photo). Unlike other species of
                                           the subgenus Nothonotus, the redline may be found in 2nd or
                                           3rd order streams (Etnier and Starnes, 1993).

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1, 2,10): Generally abundant throughout
                                           its restricted range, the Redline Darter inhabits clear,
                                           swiftly flowing waters. It has been reported as intolerant of
                                           hypoxic conditions (Ultsch et al. 1978). Perhaps owing to its
                                           restricted range, regional and state tolerance classifications
                                           have not evaluated the sensitivity of E. rufilineatum to
                                           environmental perturbations. By default, the Redline Darter
                                           scores under IBI metrics 1, 2, and 10.
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                               Orangethroat Darter
                             (Etheostoma spectabile)
Identification: Body moderately robust and deepest just
before first dorsal fin. Males (A) with alternating blue and
brick red vertical bars; usually more distinctive posteriorly.
Females (B) generally olive-brown with dark mottles. Fins
often clear or with brownish coloration. First dorsal fin spines
9-11; second dorsal fin rays 12-13; anal fin spines 2; anal fin
rays 5-7; pectoral fin rays 11-12. Caudal fin rounded to slightly
emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Fairly widespread in the
Mississippi River basin (especially the western drainages) and
lower Great Lakes. Occurs in ditches and headwater creeks
where the current is sluggish to moderate. Often found over
substrates of sand, gravel,  cobble, and bedrock rubble.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,2,10): The Orangethroat Darter has
exhibited tolerance to moderate levels of turbidity and silt
(Pflieger 1975;Trautman 1981). However, Orangethroat
numbers are often reduced when siltation and turbidity
become excessive, or channelization increases stream
discharge (Trautman, 1981). Regional and state tolerance
classifications for E. spectabile range from "intermediate"
(Barbour et al. 1991) to "moderately intolerant" (Jester et al.
1992). The Orangethroat scores under metrics 1, 2, and 10.
                                  Speckled Darter
                            (Etheostoma stigmaeum)
                                      Identification: Body elongate and terete. Males (A) with
                                      electric blue vertical bars from the posterior edge of opercle
                                      to caudal peduncle. Spinous dorsal banded with orange
                                      and blue. Females generally light brownish with dark lateral
                                      blotches or mottles. Snout rather blunt. First dorsal fin spines
                                      11-13; second dorsal fin rays 10-13; anal fin spines 2; anal
                                      fin rays 7-9; pectoral fin rays 12-15. Caudal fin slightly
                                      emarginate.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed in the mid to lower
                                      Mississippi River basin and several Gulf slope drainages.
                                      Occurs in creeks (B) and small rivers where the current is
                                      sluggish to moderate. Most abundant in sand and gravel
                                      substrates.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1, 2,10): A species of good quality
                                      streams, the Speckled Darter may be more sensitive to
                                      habitat alterations than other common darter species (Etnier
                                      1972; Etniesr and Starnes 1993). In Arkansas,  Robison
                                      and Buchanan (1988) noted that the Speckled  Darter
                                      was likely more common historically in  streams altered
                                      by channelization activities. Regional and state tolerance
                                      classifications have not been developed for E. stigmaeum. By
                                      default, the Speckled Darter would score under IBI metrics 1,
                                      2, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
69

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                                       Variegate Darter
                                   (Etheostoma variatum)
     Identification: Body elongate and robust. Males with bright
     blue vertical bars and irregular red blotches. Females with
     duller colors and less distinctive bands, bars, and spots.
     Mouth terminal and nearly horizontal. Snout blunt. Pectoral
     fins large. First dorsal spines 12-13; second dorsal fin rays
     13-14; anal fin spines 2; anal fin rays 9-10; pectoral fin rays
     15. Caudal fin truncate to slightly emarginate.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
     upper Ohio River drainage. Occurs in large creeks and
     rivers where the current is moderate to swift. Generally
     most abundant over substrates of sand, gravel, cobble and
     boulders.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1, 2, 5,10): The Variegate Darter is
     reportedly susceptible to siltation, mine wastes, and other
     pollutants (Trautman 1981). Jenkins and Burkhead (1994)
     considered E. variatum "a canary of the health of rivers
     of the coal region." Because much of their life history is
     carried out on riffles (May 1969), they are vulnerable to
     stream alterations that homogenize channel dynamics
     such as impoundment and channelization. Regional and
     state tolerance classifications for E. variatum range from
     "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999) to "intolerant" (Ohio EPA
     1987). The Variegate scores under metrics 1,2,5, and  10.
                                        Banded  Darter
                                     (Etheostoma zonale)
                                           Identification: Body elongate, somewhat robust, and
                                           laterally compressed. Males (A-B) yellowish-white and
                                           mottled dorsally; sides with vertical bright green bars; first
                                           and second dorsal fin with a red longitudinal stripe; breast
                                           and head green. Females intensely colored; sides with dusky
                                           mottles or blotches; breast white. Pectoral fins large. First
                                           dorsal fin spines 10-12; second dorsal fin rays 11-13; anal fin
                                           spines 2; anal fin rays 7-9; pectoral fin rays 13-15. Caudal fin
                                           truncate to slightly emarginate.

                                           General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout
                                           the Mississippi River basin, Lake Michigan drainage,
                                           Susquehanna drainage, and Savannah drainage. Typically
                                           found in creeks and small rivers where the current is
                                           moderate to swift. Most abundant over clean sand, gravel,
                                           and cobble substrates.

                                           Indicator Use/IBI (1,2,5,10): The Banded Darter has
                                           reportedly declined in parts of Indiana and Illinois where
                                           heavy siltation has occurred (Etnier and Starnes 1993).
                                           Trautman (1981) noted the Banded Darter as tolerant
                                           of organic pollutants. Regional and state tolerance
                                           classifications rank E. zonale as "intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987;
                                           Jester et al. 1992; Lyons 1992; Halliwell et al. 1999). The
                                           Banded Darter scores under IBI metrics 1,2,5, and 10.
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                                     Yellow  Perch
                                  (Perca flavescens)
                                       Identification: A moderately deep and laterally compressed
                                       percid. Body coloration olive-yellow dorsally with several
                                       dark saddles; saddles extending ventrally; dark blotch on
                                       posterior of first dorsal fin; belly white. Mouth large, terminal,
                                       and with small teeth. First dorsal fin spines 13-15; second
                                       dorsal fin spines 1-2; second dorsal fin rays 12-15; anal fin
                                       spines 2; anal fin rays 6-8; pectoral fin rays 13-16. Caudal fin
                                       moderately forked.

                                       General Distribution/Habitat: Well-distributed in the
                                       Mississippi River basin, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence basin,
                                       Hudson Bay basin, Atlantic slope, and north into Canada.
                                       Widely introduced historically (Boschung and Mayden 2004).
                                       Occurs in large creeks, rivers, backwaters, and lakes (B).
                                       Often most abundant in quiet waters over both fine and
                                       coarse substrates.

                                       Indicator Use/IBI (1,10): The Yellow Perch is capable of
                                       adapting to a wide range of habitat types and is relatively
                                       tolerant of low dissolved oxygen levels (Becker 1983;
                                       Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Regional and state tolerance
                                       classifications for P. flavescens range from "tolerant" (Jester
                                       et al. 1992; Pirhalla 2004) to "intermediate" (Halliwell et al.
                                       1999). The Yellow Perch scores under IBI metrics 1 and 10.
                                       Logperch
                                 (Percina caprodes)
Identification: Body elongate and robust; snout long and
pointed. Coloration greenish-yellow with numerous thin, dark,
dorsal saddles extending ventrally; belly whitish-yellow. First
dorsal fin spines 14-16; second dorsal fin rays 15-17; anal
spines 2; anal fin rays 10-11; pectoral fin rays 14-15. Caudal
fin truncate to slightly emarginated.

General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed in the Mississippi
River basin, Great Lakes-St Lawrence basin, Hudson Bay
drainage, and Potomac drainage. Occurs in creeks (B) and
rivers where the current is moderate. May also be found in
lakes. Generally most abundant over clean sand, gravel, and
cobble substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI  (1,2,10): The Logperch is sensitive to
river impoundment and heavy siltation, which has contributed
to population reductions in several Ohio rivers, including
the Ohio River (Trautman 1981). In Virginia, Jenkins and
Burkhead (1994) associated population reductions in the
upper Big Sandy drainage and North Fork Holston River
with siltation and pollutants, respectively. Regional and
state tolerance classifications for P. caprodes range from
"intermediate" (Halliwell  et al. 1999) to "moderately intolerant"
(Ohio EPA 1987; Jester et al. 1992). The Logperch scores
under IBI metrics 1, 2, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological  Indicators
71

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                                        Channel Darter
                                      (Percina copelandi)
      Identification: Body elongate and moderately slender;
      snout somewhat blunt. Coloration light brown or yellowish
      dorsally with dark mottles; sides with irregularly spaced,
      small lateral blotches. Dorsal fin spines 11-13; dorsal fin
      rays  12; anal fin spines 2; anal fin rays 8-9; pectoral fin rays
      13-15. Caudal fin emarginate.

      General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout the
      Mississippi River basin and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence
      basin. Occurs  in rivers and large creeks where the current
      is moderate to swift. Most abundant in runs and riffles
      comprised of clean sand, gravel, and cobble substrates.
      However, the habitat preference of P. copelandi may vary
      depending on  season (Etnierand Starnes 1993).

      Indicator Use/IBI (1,2, 5,10): The Channel Darter is
      generally most abundant in silt free habitats (Trautman
      1981; Robison and Buchanan 1988; Pflieger 1997).
      Regional and state tolerance classifications for P. copelandi
      range from "moderately intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992) to
      "intolerant" (Ohio EPA  1987). The Channel Darter scores
      under IBI metrics 1, 2, 5, and 10.
                                           Gilt  Darter
                                        (Percina  evides)
                                             Identification: Body elongate and robust. Males light
                                             tannish-yellow to olive dorsally; sides with thick, oval
                                             blotches below dorsal  saddles. Breeding males may
                                             possess brilliant red or goldish-orange coloration. Females
                                             brown to olive dorsally with blotches and saddles; lacking
                                             brilliant colors. First dorsal fin spines  11-13; second dorsal
                                             fin rays 12-13; anal spines 2; anal fin  rays 10; pectoral fin
                                             rays 13-15. Caudal fin emarginate.

                                             General Distribution/Habitat: Disjunctly distributed
                                             throughout the Mississippi River basin and lower Great
                                             Lakes basin. Occurs in large creeks and rivers (B) where
                                             the current is moderate to swift. Most abundant over sand,
                                             gravel, cobble, and rubble substrates.

                                             Indicator Use/IBI (1,2,10): The Gilt  Darter inhabits high
                                             quality, flowing reaches of large creeks and rivers where
                                             the streambed is free of silt (Becker 1983; Etnier and
                                             Starnes 1993). It has apparently been extirpated from
                                             numerous localities across the Midwest (Trautman 1981;
                                             Becker 1983). Regional and state tolerance classifications
                                             rank P. evides as "intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987). The Gilt
                                             Darter scores under IBI metrics 1, 2,  5, and 10.
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                               Slenderhead Darter
                             (Percina phoxocephala)
                                      Identification: Body elongate and laterally compressed;
                                      snout long and pointed. Coloration olive or yellowish
                                      dorsally with dark mottles; sides with lateral blotches; belly
                                      white to yellow. First dorsal fin with a yellow or orange band.
                                      Mouth subterminal and small. Dorsal fin spines 11-14;
                                      dorsal fin rays 11-15; anal fin spines 2; anal fin rays 7-10;
                                      pectoral fin rays 13-15. Caudal fin truncate to rounded.

                                      General Distribution/Habitat: Fairly widespread in the
                                      Mississippi River basin. Occurs in large creeks and rivers
                                      where the current is moderate to swift. Most abundant over
                                      clean sand, gravel, and cobble substrates.

                                      Indicator Use/IBI (1,2,10): In Wisconsin, Becker (1983)
                                      noted that the Slenderhead Darter is often found in
                                      slightly turbid to turbid waters. Trautman (1981) attributed
                                      decreases of P. phoxocephala in Ohio to siltation of
                                      sand and gravel habitats. Boschung and Mayden (2004)
                                      commented that the Slenderhead is "tolerant of turbidity
                                      but intolerant of siltation". Regional and state tolerance
                                      classifications for P. phoxocephala range from "moderately
                                      intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992) to "intolerant" (Ohio EPA
                                      1987). The Slenderhead Darter scores under IBI metrics 1,
                                      2, and 10.
                                  Roanoke Darter
                                 (Percina roanoka)
Identification: Body elongate and moderately robust; snout
short and blunt. Males (A-B) light tannish-yellow to olive
dorsally; sides with thick, vertical bars to oval blotches; belly
orange. Females brown to olive dorsally; sides with mid-
lateral stripe; belly tannish-yellow to olive. First dorsal fin
spines 10-11; second dorsal fin rays 10-11; anal spines 2;
anal fin rays 8-9; pectoral fin rays 13-14. Caudal fin slightly
emarginate.

General Distribution/Habitat: Distributed throughout
several mid to southern Atlantic drainages. Occurs in creeks
and rivers where the current is moderate to swift. Most
abundant over sand, gravel, cobble, and rubble substrates.

Indicator Use/IBI (1,2,10): The Roanoke Darter inhabits
well-oxygenated, flowing habitats and has demonstrated
sensitivity to low dissolved oxygen levels under laboratory
conditions (Matthews and Styron 1981). In Virginia, the
Roanoke Darter is apparently expanding its range. Jenkins
and Burkhead (1994) noted that P. roanoke may outcompete
native darter species when invading new drainages.
Regional and state tolerance classifications have not been
developed for E. roanoka. The Roanoke Darter scores under
IBI metrics 1, 2, and 10.
           An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators
73

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                                          Dusky Darter
                                         (Percina sciera)
     Identification: Body elongate and laterally compressed;
     moderately deep; snout short to moderate. Coloration olive
     dorsally with dark mottles; sides with lateral blotches; belly
     white to yellow. Mouth small and terminal. First dorsal fin
     spines 12-13; second dorsal fin rays 12-14; anal fin spines
     2; anal fin rays 9-10; pectoral fin rays 13-15. Cadual fin
     truncate to slightly emarginate.

     General Distribution/Habitat: Well distributed throughout
     the Mississippi River basin and Gulf slope. Occurs in
     large creeks and rivers where the current is sluggish
     to moderate. Often associated with woody debris. Most
     abundant over substrates of clean sand and gravel.

     Indicator Use/IBI (1,2,10): Extirpations of Dusky
     Darter populations in Arkansas have been attributed to
     "channelization, agricultural practices, and other habitat-
     altering activities" (Robison and Buchanan 1988). This
     species may be vulnerable to "stream maintenance"
     activities that remove woody debris or aquatic vegetation.
     Regional and state tolerance classifications generally rank
     P. sciera as "moderately intolerant" (Ohio EPA 1987; Jester
     et al. 1992). The Dusky Darter scores under IBI metrics 1,
     2, and 10.
                                              Walleye
                                     (Stizostedion vitreus)
                                            Identification: Body elongate and slightly compressed.
                                            Coloration brown to greenish-yellow dorsally; sides with
                                            irregular mottles and speckles; belly white. First dorsal fin
                                            with a dark blotch on posterior. Mouth large, terminal, and
                                            with sharp teeth (B). First dorsal fin spines 13-14; second
                                            dorsal fin rays 19-22; anal fin spines 2; anal fin rays 12-14;
                                            pectoral fin rays 13-16. Caudal fin emarginate.

                                            Distribution/Habitat: Widespread throughout the United
                                            States and north into Canada. Occurs in rivers and lakes;
                                            generally less successful in impoundments. Found over both
                                            coarse and fine substrates. In lotic habitats, the Walleye is
                                            frequently associated with deeper, darker water during the
                                            day and shoals during the evening hours (Becker 1983).

                                            Indicator Use/IBI (1, 9,10): Population reductions of the
                                            highly migratory S. vitreum have been associated with the
                                            damming of rivers, excessive siltation, and turbidity (Smith
                                            1979;Trautman 1981). Rohde et al. (1994) noted that the
                                            Walleye is intolerant of pollution and siltation. Regional
                                            and state tolerance classifications rank the Walleye
                                            as "intermediate" (Halliwell et al. 1999) to "moderately
                                            intolerant" (Jester et al. 1992). As a top carnivore, the
                                            Walleye scores under IBI metrics 1, 9, and 10.
74
An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes as Biological Indicators

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