PREDICTION
This exercise lets students practice making predictions, experiment-
ing to test their hypotheses, and refining their predictions based on
the results.  It can be used with the activities called "Finding Sources
of Air Pollution" and "Climate and  the Greenhouse Effect," which
include use of prediction skills.

CRITICAL  OBJECTIVES
^  Recognize role of predictions in  science
^  Refine predictions based on observation and experimentation
^  Test hypotheses

SKILLS
    Forming and refining predictions
    Observing
    Comparing
    Interpreting and using results

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters for this exercise could include atmospheric scien-
tists,  environmental scientists, EPA environmental protection special-
ists, or meteorologists.

BACKGROUND
Making predictions and developing theories are central to the scien-
tific method. History is replete with examples of scentists using their
imagiNations and sound logic to hypothesize explaNations for things
they  observed and predict what should, or could, come next. While
scientific predictions generally speculate about future observations or
events, they also can focus on the past. For example, scientists may
use observations from the present to predict where evidence related
to the origins of humans might be found.

Environmental scientists and others use data collected in a variety of
different experiments to examine trends and changes in the atmo-
sphere and air quality.  Using their observations and data from these
experiments, they can predict, for example, whether the Earth's tem-
perature is warming or cooling, what conditions will influence these
changes, and how long it will  take for each increase or decrease in
temperature to occur.

There is always some  uncertainty involved  in making  such  predic-
tions, because we still do not know everything about how individual
                                                                       RELATED
                                                                     ACTIVITIES
                                                                             9,13
       REFER TO
       READING
      MATERIAL
  "Weather and Air
          Quality"

TARGET GRADE
          LEVEL
          5th - 8th

      DURATION
       45 minutes

  VOCABULARY
        Hypothesis
         Precursor
         Prediction
          Variable

     MATERIALS
      Current day's
        newspaper
Three 12-oz. glasses
  An 8-oz. plastic or
styrofoam container
(small enough to fit
   inside  one of the
          glasses)
   Tray of ice cubes
       Chalkboard
      Graph paper
           Pencils
Project A.I.R.E.
           Prediction

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                    environmental processes work, much less how they interact.  But the pro-
                    cess of making predictions is important because it helps us gain more knowl-
                    edge about unobserved phenomena and potential problems. (For example,
                    predictions enable local government officials to warn  health authorities
                    and the public of the potential for conditions, like air inversions and smog,
                    that could be harmful to  people with  respiratory difficulties and advise
                    them  how to protect themselves.)

                    The ability to make predictions like these has been honed over time by con-
                    tinuously testing predictions and hypotheses and revising them  based on
                    observed results. It is through this process, for example, that scientists have
                    been able to identify specific variables in the weather (called "precursors")
                    that signal the formation of smog. (See reading material on "Weather and Air
                    Quality.")

                    WHAT TO DO
                        Ask the class why we would want to know what will happen tomor-
                        row? Let students give their answers.  Try to have them analyze and
                        group their answers by category.  For example, which answers have
                        to do with  "feeling secure"? How  many relate to "being in control"
                        or "being able to plan"?  (This serves to illustrate the significance of
                        the process of prediction.)

                    2«  Hold  up today's newspaper.  Read the local weather forecast, includ-
                        ing the information on air quality.   Ask students how they think fore-
                        casters decide what to predict? What do they base their predictions
                        on?

                    J«  Explain that the class is going to do an experiment to see  how well
                        the students  make predictions.  (Make sure all students  have a sheet
                        of graph paper.)  Instruct students to draw a graph on  graph  paper
                        like the one shown below. Put a similar graph on the chalkboard.

                                     Minutes   £
                                                 #1        #2         #3
                                                           Glass
                    4«  Place the three glasses on a desktop or shelf in plain view of the class.
                         Explain that you are going to put the same amount of ice in each
                         glass.  (Do not do it yet.) Explain that the  ice will be surrounded by
                         water in glass #1, by another container in glass #2, and by air in glass
                         #3.
Prediction                                  2                                Project A.I.R.E.

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5«  (Group students in teams if you prefer.) Ask the students to predict
    how long it will take the ice in each glass to melt (completely). Ask
    them to mark their predictions on the graph.  (Glass #1 will  have the
    water, glass #2 the plastic cup, and glass #3 the ice cubes alone.)  In
    addition, have them write a hypothesis (basis for their reasoning) for
    each prediction (next to the graph or on another sheet of paper).

6«  Explain that you will be checking their predictions and hypotheses in 5
    minutes.  Explain that they will
    have  an opportunity to revise
    their predictions and hypotheses,
    if necessary, at that time. Call on
    a number  of students to share
    their initial predictions with the
    class. Record them on the graph
    on the chalkboard.

7«  Now put  three  ice  cubes  in
    glasses #1 and #3.  Put the same
    amount of ice in the plastic cup
    and  put it into glass  #2.   Pour
    water into  glass #1 to fill it half
    full.

8«  In the 5-minute interval, have stu-
    dents  discuss the predictions
    shown on  the chalkboard.   Do
    they  cluster?  Do they differ
    widely?  Why?  Ask students  to
    share  their hypotheses—how
    they arrived at their predictions.
    Then ask if predictions  or  fore-
    casts, like the examples on the
    chalkboard, are always right.  If
    not, what is the value  in making
    predictions? How do the stu-
    dents think forecasters—weather
    forecasters, for example—learn to make accurate predictions? (The dis-
    cussion should point out that accurate  weather forecasts result from
    forecasters' understanding of the scientific principles involved in weather
    and learning from their mistakes—analyzing the results of one predic-
    tion, making adjustments, and making  another, more informed pre-
    diction.)

9«  After five minutes, have  students examine the three  glasses. Did the
    ice melt in any of the glasses?  If not, in which glass has the ice melted
    the most?  Have the students participate in checking the predictions
    recorded on the chalkboard against the results at this point.  Did any-
    one  make  an accurate prediction?  How many students are on the
Project A.I.R.E.
Prediction

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                        right track in terms of choosing the glass in which the ice will melt the
                        fastest?

                    1O« Ask students to revise their predictions and hypotheses.  Have them
                        record their new predictions and hypotheses on the same graph. (Make
                        sure they mark which is the second prediction.)

                    11* Ask students to share their revised predictions (record these on the
                        graph on the chalkboard) and what they considered in revising the
                        predictions.

                    12* Have students examine the new set of predictions recorded on the
                        graph on the chalkboard. Is the pattern generally the same or different
                        than before? Ask students what conclusions they can draw about the
                        process for making predictions from this exercise?

                    SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
                    ^  Repeat the experiment on another day, but divide the class in half and
                        add a variable (the addition of heat).  Duplicate the original setup of
                        glasses for each half of the class and have each group select a student
                        to participate in the experiment. Explain that one group will use a hair
                        dyer to blow warm air at the side of the glasses.  The other group will
                        use a hair dryer to blow warm air down from above the glasses. Have
                        each group discuss and arrive at predictions about the ice in the other
                        group's glasses. Remind everyone to consider what happened in the
                        first set of trials. During the 5-minute interval, encourage students to
                        share their predictions (record them on the chalkboard) and discuss
                        how the heat variable affected their hypotheses. When the time has
                        passed, examine the  results and discuss what students observed, what
                        conclusions they can draw,  and  how they would use that information
                        in revising their predictions.

                    SUGGESTED READING
                    Cosgrove, Brian. Eyewitness Books: Weather. New York: Alfred A. Knopf (1991).

                    Gibbons, Gail.  Weather Forecasting.  New York: Chelsea  House Publishers
                        (1992).

                    Root-Bernstein, Robert. "Future Imperfect (Incomplete Models of Nature
                        Guarantees All Predictions Are Unreliable)." Discover, 14  (November
                        1993) p. 42.
Prediction                                  4                               Project A.I.R.E.

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READ  MY  DATA
Most environmental decisions and regulations are based upon large
quantities of numerical data and trends. This exercise introduces stu-
dents to the fundamentals of reading and analyzing data and extract-
ing comparisons and averages.  It can be delivered by the teacher or a
guest presenter, or by both together.  It is related to the "Breathing
Room," "The Greenhouse Effect," and  "Smog" activities.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
~@i  Understand how data is collected  and analyzed
^  Recognize air pollutants the government requires to be monitored

SKILLS
^  Computing
^  Analyzing data

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include air quality engineers, environmental
scientists, EPA risk assessment specialists, EPA environmental protec-
tion specialists, meteorologists, or statisticians.

BACKGROUND
No matter where you live, but especially in urban areas, each breath
you take contains gases or particles that may be unhealthy. We know
this from the analysis of air quality data from around the country.  We
also know that much of the air pollution  is invisible  and cannot be
detected by human senses.  Realistically, in our industrial society, it is
not practical to expect that air pollutants can be eliminated totally
anywhere, so it becomes important to determine what "acceptable"
concentrations will  be  allowed, and equally important to monitor
ambient air quality so that these "acceptable" limits are not exceeded.
Most air quality monitoring is done automatically by specialized equip-
ment located strategically throughout the country. These monitoring
stations collect vast quantities of data and  create  a record of the con-
centrations and durations of specific pollutants. The Clean Air Act
establishes certain "standards," or acceptable levels, for various "crite-
ria" pollutants.  Most laws and regulations have separate standards for
averaged concentrations over certain short- and  long-terms (such as
maximum 8-hour average concentrations).  The  Clean Air Act estab-
lishes National  Ambient Air Quality Standards for six criteria pollut-
ants:  carbon monoxide, sulphur  dioxide, nitrogen  oxides, ozone,
particulate matter, and lead.  The short-term National Ambient Air
Quality Standards (NAAQS) for several pollutants are shown on the
accompanying table.
                                                                        RELATED
                                                                      ACTIVITIES
                                                                          5,12,14
        REFER TO
        READING
      MATERIALS
  "The Clean Air Act"
      "Air Pollution"

  TARGET GRADE
            LEVEL
           5th-12th

      DURATION
      40 minutes (or
   additional session
with guest presenter)
   VOCABULARY
Air quality monitoring
        Ambient air
              Data
           Pollutant
          Standards
             Trend

      MATERIALS
             Paper
             Pencils
    WORKSHEETS
       INCLUDED
                 2
 Project A.I.R.E.
        Read My Data

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                    This exercise will look at concentrations for the first four pollutants in sev-
                    eral cities around the country. Just how clean is your air?  You could guess—
                    but check the accompanying data and find out.  (See reading materials on
                    "The Clean Air Act," and "Air Pollution.")

                    WHAT TO DO
                    1«   Write "1 ppm" on the chalkboard, and next to it write the fraction:

                                                     1
                                                 1,000,000

                        Explain that "ppm" means "parts per million" and is similar to "per-
                        cent" in that "percent" means "parts per hundred." Explain that, like
                        "percent," ppm has no units or dimensions (such  as grams or cubic
                        meters). Challenge the class to state which quantity is smaller, 1 ppm
                        or 1  percent.  For older students, ask them to compute how much
                        smaller 1 ppm is than 1 percent.  Point out that since there are  10,000
                        "hundreds" in a million,  1 ppm must be 10,000 times smaller than 1
                        percent.

                    2«  Using Student Worksheet 1, explain to the class what the numbers
                        represent and ask the students to answer the questions.  (For more
                        advanced students, request the answers in quantitative terms.)

                    3.   Using Student Worksheet 2, direct the students to calculate the per-
                        centage change in pollutant concentrations from 1975 to 1991 for the
                        listed pollutants.  Call students' attention to the fact that two of the six
                        pollutants have units of |ig/m3 which means micrograms per cubic
                        meter, while the other four pollutants have units of ppm, or parts per
                        million.  Explain to them that both represent concentrations of pollut-
                        ants  in the air. The four ppm pollutants are all gases, and most fluids
                        (gases and liquids) normally have concentrations expressed as millili-
                        ters per  liters (part per thousand) or microliters per liter (parts per mil-
                        lion). Lead and particulates are solids, and their density cannot be arbi-
                        trarily established in relation to air. Therefore, their concentrations are
                        normally expressed as a  unit of weight (mass) per volume of air. The
                        difference in the units of measure does not affect the calculation of
                        percentage change.

                    4.  Ask the students to identify significant changes.  Have them speculate
                        as to why the changes might have occurred.   Discuss their answers
                        with the guest speaker.

                    5«  Point out to the students that the standards are very different from
                        each other.  Ozone's permissible level, for instance, is 75 times lower
                        than that of carbon monoxide.  Ask the class to speculate why the
                        standards may be different for different substances. Explain that the
                        human health tolerances are different for each pollutant and each pol-
                        lutant may cause different health effects. The regulations account  for
                        these differences.
Read My Data                              6                                Project A.I.R.E.

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SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
~@i  Call your Regional EPA contact (see the Project A.I.R.E. Contacts listed
    at the back of this package) for information about where to obtain
    similar data for your geographic location. Conduct a similar analysis.

SUGGESTED READING
Baines, John. Conserving Our World, Conserving the Atmosphere. Austin, TX:
    Steck-Vaughn Company (1990).

Gay, Kathlyn. Acid Rain. New York: Franklin Watts (1983).

Pollution (Science Kit). Delta Education  (1990).
 Project A.I.R.E.                             7                              Read My Data

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                                                     WB
                         READ MY  DATA
                      MAJOR AIR POLLUTANTS FOR
             SELECTED CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES - 1991
City
(National Standards)
Atlanta
Boston
Chicago
Detroit
Houston
Indianapolis
Los Angeles
New Orleans
New York City
Pittsburgh
San Francisco
St. Louis
Carbon
monoxide*
9 ppm
7
4
6
8
7
6
16
4
10
6
8
7
Ozone**
0.12 ppm
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.13
0.20
0.11
0.31
0.11
0.18
0.12
0.07
0.12
Sulphur
Dioxide***
0.030 ppm
0.008
0.012
0.019
0.012
0.007
0.012
0.005
0.005
0.018
0.024
0.002
0.016
Nitrogen
Oxides***
0.053 ppm
0.025
0.035
0.032
0.022
0.028
0.018
0.055
0.019
0.047
0.031
0.031
0.026
                                                    Second highest 8-hour average
                                                    * Second highest 1-hour average
                                                    ** Yearly average
1.   Which cities have carbon monoxide levels above the National Standards?  Express the
    answers in percentages over or under the limit.

    For example, New York's 10 ppm is

            (10 -9) -s-9 = 1/9 = 0.111 = 11% over the National Standard.
            (data - permissible limit) •*• (permissible limit) = ? x 100 = % over limit

2.   Speculate why any of the cities would exceed the permissible limits.

3.   Do the same for the other three air pollutants.
Read My Data
Project A.I.R.E.

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                          READ MY  DATA
         CHANGES IN AVERAGE CONCENTRATION POLLUTANTS
                    IN THE UNITED STATES - 1975-1991
Pollutant
Carbon Monoxide
Lead
Nitrogen Oxides
Ozone
Particulates
Sulphur Dioxide
1975
10 ppm
0.68 u,g/m3
0.021 ppm
0.147 ppm
63 u,g/m3
0.0132 ppm
1991
6 ppm
0.048 u,g/m3
0.021 ppm
0.115 ppm
47 ux|/m3
0.0075 ppm
% Change

Show
increase
with plus
(+) sign
and
decrease
with a
minus (-)
sign in
front of
percentage.
Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Reports. 1981 and
1991
Calculate the percentage change for each pollutant. To do this, subtract the 1991 value from the
1975 value (to get the actual difference), then divide that answer by the 1975 value, to get the
percentage change since 1975.

1.   What was the percentage change (either increase or decrease) in each pollutant for
    each city from 1975 to 1991?

    For example, sulphur dioxide went down by 43%:

                   (0.0132 - 0.0075) + 0.0132 = 0.4318 x 100 = 43.18%
                   (rounded to 43%)
                   (1975 value -1991 value) H- (1975 value) = ? x 100 = % change

    Round your answers to whole percentages.

2.   Did any pollutant concentrations go up?

3.   Which pollutant changed the most?
 Project A.I.R.E.
Read My Data

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Read My Data
10
Project A.I.R.E.

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SEEING  THE  BIG  PICTURE
This exercise lets students examine our tendency for short-term versus
long-term thinking and how it affects the environment.  The exercise
highlights how short-term thinking has resulted in actions that have
contributed to air pollution. It stresses that individuals, by focusing
more on the future,  can help reduce air pollution. Related activities
include "How Green Are We?," "Action = Savings in CO2 + $," "Is Your
Air Clean?," "Acid Rain," "Smog," and "Deciding to Clean the Air."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Recognize the tendency for people to focus on the short-term
^  Appreciate the impact that short-term thinking has had on the
    problem of air pollution
~@i  Understand that every individual can have an impact  on air
    pollution
^  Identify ways to reduce air pollution

SKILLS
5^  Organizing data
^  Considering alternatives
^  Drawing conclusions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include conservationists, environmental scien-
tists, or EPA environmental protection specialists.

BACKGROUND
The expression "can't see the forest for the trees" means that most
people focus on the short-term. They get so overwhelmed by the little
things of daily life—all the "trees" around them—that the bigger, more
long-term picture, like the "forest," gets lost. For example, as popula-
tion grew and  our standard of living rose, consumption of natural re-
sources increased. We needed to burn coal, oil, wood, and other fuels
to run factories, cars, and the power plants that generate energy to
heat and light our homes.  The focus was on supporting immediate
needs rather than the long-term  environmental impact of these ac-
tions. But burning more fuels and increasing industrial activity helped
to pollute the air.

Every individual has the ability to help protect the environment. If we
all would set our thermostats to a lower temperature in winter and a
higher temperature in summer, walk or bike instead of always using
our cars, and turn off lights when we leave a room, we would cut
                                RELATED
                             ACTIVITIES
                         3, 4, 10, 11, 14, 15

                                REFER TO
                                READING
                             MATERIALS
                             "Air Pollution"
                        'Automobiles and Air
                                 Pollution"
                              "Clean Fuels"

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                  5th - 6th

                              DURATION
                          45 minutes (with
                         possible extensions)

                          VOCABULARY
                              Consumption
                                  Pollution
                          Standard of living

                             MATERIALS
                         Sheets of letter-size
                                    paper
                                    Pencils
                                    Chalk
                                Chalkboard
Project A.I.R.E.
11
Seeing the Big Picture

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                   down the amount of energy used and the amount of pollution released into
                   the atmosphere.

                   The cumulative effect of many individual actions can preserve the environ-
                   ment for future generations.  Often, however, we do not understand or
                   appreciate the value of their individual actions. While it can be hard to
                   always keep the big picture in mind, it is important.  And with practice,
                   everyone can contribute to cleaner air. (See reading materials on "Air Pol-
                   lution," "Automobiles and Air Pollution," and "Clean Fuels.")
                    WHAT TO DO
                    1«   Before telling students anything about the activity, have them write
                        down ten things they need to do or want to do. They can be anything
                        at all. Beside each, have them write down when they think they should
                        do it. Don't give any other instructions or information.

                        Once everyone has made  a list, draw a big  rectangle on the chalk-
                        board. Make five rows and five columns in the rectangle. Each of the
                        columns has to do with time.  Label the columns "tomorrow," "next
                        week," "sometime this year," "sometime in my life," and "sometime in
                        my children's lives." Each of the rows has to do with people. Label the
                        rows "family,"  "friends/neighbors," "city/region," "country/ethnic
                        group," and "world." (See sample.)
                                                               J« Have each student, in
                                                               turn,  put dots in the
                                                               boxes where the items on
                                                               his or her list belong. For
                                                               example, if someone
                                                               listed going to the shop-
                                                               ping mall with friends to-
                                                               morrow, a dot belongs in
                                                               the  box where  the
                                                               "friends/neighbors" row
                                                               meets the "tomorrow"
                                                               column.  If someone listed
                                                              joining the park clean-up
                                                               campaign next week, a
                                                               dot belongs in the box
                                                               where the "friends/neigh-
                                                               bors" row  meets the
                                                               "next week" column.
                       When everyone has filled in their dots, step back and look at the big
                       picture. Have the students discuss why most of the dots cluster in the
                       rows representing people they know and columns representing the
                       short-term (if they do). Have students speculate about how the results
                       of this exercise would apply to reducing air pollution.

Family
Friends and
Neighbors
City or Region
Country or
ethnic group
World
Tomorrow





Next
week





Sometime
this
year





Sometime
in my
life





Sometime
in my
children's
lives





Seeing the Big Picture
12
Project A.I.R.E.

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SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
~@i  Ask students to keep a diary of all the things they do to reduce air
    pollution.  Periodically, discuss  these efforts and their impact on
    future pollution.

~@i  Have an EPA representative visit the class to discuss efforts EPA is taking
    to address air pollution.

SUGGESTED READING
Baines, John. Exploring: Humans and  the Environment. Austin, TX: Steck-
    Vaughn Company (1993).

Elkington, John, et al. Going Green: A  Kid's Handbook to Saving the Planet.
    New York: Puffin Books (1990).

Greene,  Carol. Caring for Our Air. Hillside, NJ: Enslow Publishers (1991).

Gutnik, Martin J. The Challenge of Clean Air. Hillside, NJ: Enslow Company
    (1990).

Langone, John. Our Endangered Earth:  The Fragile Environment and What We
    Can Do  To Save It.  Boston:  Little, Brown (1992).

Leggett, Jeremy K. AirScare. New York, NY: Marshall Cavendish Corp. (1991).

Stille,  Darlene. Air Pollution. Chicago, IL: Children's Press (1990).
Project A.I.R.E.                            13                         Seeing the Big Picture

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Seeing the Big Picture                           14                                     Project A.I.R.E.

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                                  D
LEARNING FROM

STORIES

This exercise uses fiction designed for young children as a basis for les-
sons about ecology and environmental responsibility. It can be used
independently or in conjunction other classroom activities. It is related
to the "The Rain Forest Is Alive"  activity.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Recognize the relationship of plants, animals, and humans in the
    world
^  Explore and observe their environment
^  Recognize humans' influence on the environment,  as individuals
    and as a group

SKILLS
    Listening
    Observing
    Questioning
    Comparing ideas

BACKGROUND
Storytelling is a time-honored teaching tool used in many cultures. The
storybooks listed below all  have environmental themes. They can serve
as a starting point for conversations that call on children to synthesize
information and experiences and think creatively about themselves and
the world around them.
WHAT TO DO
    Choose a book from the following reading list:
      Keepers of the Earth by Michael J. Caduto and Joseph Bruchac
      Chadwick Forever by Pricilla Cummings
      The Violators by Gunnard Landers
      The Great Kapok Tree by Lynne Cherry
      The Talking Earth by Jean Craighea George
      Mushroom Center Disaster by N.M. Bodecker
      Alvin Fernald, Superweasel by Clifford B. Hicks
      Canyon Winter by Walt Morey
      Poison Factory by John Branfield
      Baney's Lake by Nan Hayden Agle
      Beaver Valley by Walter Dumau Edmonds
      Who Really Killed Cock Robin? by Jean Craighea George
      The Lorax (picture book) by Dr. Seuss
                              RELATED
                             ACTIVITY
                                      2
                               TARGET
                         GRADE LEVEL
                             K - 5th (with
                          modification for
                             grades 6 and
                                 higher)

                            DURATION
                         one or more class
                                 periods,
                         depending on the
                          choice of books

                           MATERIALS
                         One of the books
                         from the reading
                               list shown
 Project A.I.R.E.
15
Learning From Stories

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                           If I Built A Village (picture book) by Kazue Mizumura
                           All Upon A Stone (picture book) by Jean Craighea George
                           The Salamander Room (picture book) by Anne Mazer
                           Once There Was A Tree (picture book) by N. Natali  Romanov
                           Tree House Town (picture book) by Miska Miles

                        Depending on your students' reading level, you may choose to read
                        the story aloud to the class or have children take turns reading.

                    2«  Follow up the story by leading children in a conversation about it. Ask
                        questions that challenge their thinking. For example, explore why things
                        happened or people acted in given ways, what changed during the
                        story, how something in the story is alike (or different) from something
                        the child knows or believes.  Challenge students to find ways they can
                        use the lesson in the story. For example, what can they do to help save
                        the rain forests, or take care of animals, or help their parents conserve
                        energy?

                    J«  Whenever possible, create activities to follow up on the lessons taught
                        by the stories to enhance the experience. Use your imagination.  If the
                        story is about industrial pollution, take students for a walk and have
                        them point out smokestacks and other things that  might be visible
                        examples.

                    SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
                    ^  For students in grades 6 and above, you may wish to assign book re-
                        ports based on fiction involving environmental themes. Have students
                        present  book reports to the class and discuss the environmental mes-
                        sages gleaned from the stories.  Following is a list of books you may
                        want to consider for this purpose:
         TAKE NOTE1  These books should be reviewed to verify
         their appropriateness for your class. Your school  or local
         librarian  can help you  choose  other environment-related
         titles suited to your class.
                           Emerald River of Compassion by Rowena Pattee Kryder
                           A Most Unusual Lunch by Robert Bender
                           Dear Children of the Earth by Schim Schimmel
                           Necessary Risks: A Novel by Janet Keller
                           Winter in the Heart by David Poyer
                           California Blue by David Klass
                           In Cahoots: A Novel of Southern California by Malcolm Cook
                           McCampbell's War by Robert Herring
                           Oh, What a Paradise It Seems by John Cheever
                           Heyduke Lives: A Novel by Edward Abbey
Learning From Stories                       16                               Project A.I.R.E.

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                               The Monkey Wrench Gang by Edward Abbey
                               The Profeteers: A Novel by Max Apple
                               The Forest Prime Evil by Alan Russell
                               The Killing Winds: A Novel by Clare Francis
                               A View from the Air: Charles Lindbergh's Earth and Sky by Reeve
                                  Lindbergh
                               Covered Bridge by Brian Doyle
                               Bushmaster Fall by Carl A. Posey
Project A.I.R.E.
17
Learning From Stories

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Learning From Stories                          18                                    Project A.I.R.E.

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TRACKING  AIR  QUALITY

This exercise lets students graph changes in the weather that have
implications for air quality in the community. It is related to the activi-
ties called  "The Greenhouse Effect," and "Climate and the  Green-
house Effect."  This exercise is best conducted over a long period of
time (especially in the Fall) in order for students to observe significant
variations in the Air Quality Index and correlate them with weather
parameters.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Observe the impact of weather on air quality
^  Demonstrate data gathering, analysis, graphing, and presentation
    skills
^  Apply techniques of comparison and critical thinking

SKILLS
^  Researching
    Observing
    Collecting and analyzing
    Graphing
^  Interpreting

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include air quality engineers, environmental
scientists, or meteorologists.

BACKGROUND
Graphing—the ability to depict information, relationships, and trends—
is a basic skill for communicating ideas and sharing information. It is a
skill that supports endeavors in science and mathematics. It  is with
graphical analysis that scientists and engineers at EPA look for relation-
ships and processes that are  not immediately apparent with  single,
one-time measurements.

Conceivably, this activity could be conducted througsulphurhe  year or
periodically to build a data set large enough to establish seasonal trends
and determine indicators of change.  When the same collecting tech-
niques are applied to air pollutants, the accuracy, frequency, location,
and testing protocol become critical for obtaining useful data with which
to explain the movement of pollution in the environment and  the ex-
tent to which we are exposed to air pollutants.

Pollutants in the air come from many sources. Natural air pollution caused
by volcanoes, forest fires, and other natural sources has always existed,
                                                                        RELATED
                                                                     ACTIVITIES
                                                                            12, 13
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                              MATERIAL
                           "Weather and Air
                                   Quality"

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                 6th-10th

                              DURATION
                       Class #1: 15 minutes;
                        Classes #2-5 (over 2-
                        to-6-week period): 5
                              minutes each;
                        Class #6: 40 minutes

                          VOCABULARY
                            Air Quality Index
                          Carbon monoxide
                            Criteria pollutant
                                      Lead
                            Nitrogen oxides
                                     Ozone
                          Paniculate matter
                               Precipitation
                           Relative humidity
                            Sulphur dioxide
                               Temperature
                          Thermal inversion

                             MATERIALS
                         Five sheets of white
                            (or light colored)
                       poster board or heavy
                          construction paper
                       each  measuring 2 feet
                                  by 2 feet
                          Felt-tip markers in
                          black, green, blue,
                       red, purple, orange (1
                              in each color)
Project A.I.R.E.
19
Tracking Air Quality

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                                            and naturally produced pollutants are present in
                                            greater amounts than those made by humans.
                                            They do not present as serious a problem as man-
                                            made pollutants, however, because they are dis-
                                            persed over large areas and many are less harm-
                                            ful. Air pollutants from man-made sources are the
                                            result of our increasing use of large quantities of
                                            fuel to produce electricity and to run everything
                                            from factories to automobiles and other vehicles.
                                            Not only are some of these pollutants very harm-
                                            ful, but also they tend to be concentrated  in ur-
                                            ban areas where most people live and work. Six
                                            of the major man-made  pollutants—sulphur di-
                    oxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and particulate mat-
                    ter—have been designated  "criteria"  pollutants  and are regulated by the
                    federal government.

                    Daily weather conditions directly affect whether and how much we are ex-
                    posed to pollutants in the air. Shifting air masses (weather systems) and wind
                    can move pollutants from one place to another.  On the other hand, stationary
                    air systems, like thermal inversions, can trap harmful pollutants over an area for
                    days at a time. Rain, snow, and other forms of precipitation  help wash pollut-
                    ants from the air and onto the ground.  While precipitation cleanses the air we
                    breathe, it also may increase  pollution of the land and surface water.

                    Meteorologists use the Air Quality Index to classify and measure contami-
                    nants  in the air  and  report conditions to the public.  The index is used to
                    convert data from air monitoring stations at various locations around a com-
                    munity to a scale that indicates the potential  effects of measured levels of
                    various contaminants, including the "criteria" pollutants (listed above), on
                    human health,  property, and vegetation.  This information  enables  local
                    government  officials to take appropriate  protective  steps  in
                    thchalkboardarmful conditions like thermal inversions and smog.  (See read-
                    ing  material on  "Weather and Air Quality.")

                    WHAT TO DO
                    Class #1
                    1«  Divide the class into five teams and assign each team one of the follow-
                        ing five weather parameters:  Temperature, Wind Direction, Precipita-
                        tion, Air Quality Index,  and Relative Humidity.

                    2«  Explain that each team will record daily changes in these aspects of the
                        weather on posted graphs over a period of  time (specify the period).
                        At the end of the selected period,  each team will prepare their findings
                        and make a short presentation defining the aspect of the weather they
                        have  been  tracking.  Where appropriate, students should record the
                        range of values (for example, the high and  low temperatures for the
                        day) and a  mean value.
Tracking Air Quality
Project A.I.R.E.

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    Give each team a sheet of poster board. Instruct them to draw a graph
    on their posters that will allow them to track published information
    about the weather aspect they have been assigned.  (Teams should
    share the black markers for this task.) The "x" axis for all the graphs
    should be "date."
                        y
                                 date      x

4«  Encourage students to call the local weather bureau or the weather
    reporter at the local television station for help in determining the ap-
    propriate "y" axis range for the parameter they have been assigned.
    Suggest that the students obtain data to fill in their graphs from the
    local weather bureau, weather reporter, or newspaper.

5«  Hang or otherwise display the posters in the classroom where students
    can see them and record data on them each day.  The teams should be
    given the flexibility to  organize themselves to ensure that the record-
    ing of data is accomplished every day.

Classes #2-5
1«  Take five minutes during each class to call attention to the status of the
    graphs and give students a few questions to consider in preparation
    for the discussion at the end of the exercise.  For example: Would you
    expect some aspects of the weather to have more (or less) influence on
    the quality of the air we breathe? If so, which ones and why? The Air
    Quality Index is usually expressed for particular contaminants—such as
    ozone, sulphur dioxide, and ragweed pollen. From your observation,
    does it appear that changes in weather have more (or less) effect on air
    quality for some contaminants? If you have found no correlation, does
    that mean there is no  effect?  Is there another, better approach  for
    determining a correlation?

2«  During one of the classes near the end of the data collection period,
    give students a few additional questions to address in the presenta-
    tions to be made in the final class.  For example: How would you de-
    scribe the  weather in our area? What causes the weather to be like it
    is? Is the weather different elsewhere? If so, what causes it to be different
    in different places?   Suggest that students brainstorm with their team-
    mates and present the group's perspective in their presentations.

Class #6
1«  Before teams prepare their data for presentation, repeat the questions
    you posed during the periodic status checks—Would you expect some
    aspects of the weather to have more (or less) influence on the quality
    of the air we breathe? If so, which ones and why?  The Air Quality
Project A.I.R.E.                             21                            Tracking Air Quality

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                        Index is usually expressed for particular contaminants—such as ozone,
                        sulphur dioxide,  and ragweed pollen.  From your observations, does it
                        appear that changes in weather have more (or less) effect on air quality
                        for some contaminants? Encourage discussion.

                    2«  Have each team make 5-minute presentations defining the weather
                        parameter they have been assigned, reporting on the data collected,
                        and addressing the general  questions you posed in an earlier class.
                        (See item 2 in the previous section.)

                    J«   Ask the teams to compare the graphs.  Now that they have seen all the
                        data, ask if they would change their answers to any of the questions dis-
                        cussed at the beginning of class. Ask them to explain why (or why not).

                    4«  Give each team  one of the colored felt-tip markers. Encourage stu-
                        dents to use the markers to point out similarities (or wide variances) be-
                        tween data on different graphs to illustrate and support their answers.

                    5«   Encourage students to discuss what the results of this exercise might
                        mean  (for example, if the data collection period  is "typical" for this
                        time of year, how the weather might stress people with asthma or
                        other respiratory problems, and how it might affect plants and trees in
                        the area,  or even their pets.)  Have them discuss  possible options for
                        making the air quality better in these kinds of weather conditions.

                    6«  Ask the students how they would determine whether their assump-
                        tions and conclusions are correct. End the class by recording on the
                        chalkboard a list of their ideas.  (The  list should include going to the
                        library to do research  and talking to the local weather bureau, meteo-
                        rologists,  physicians, or local Health Department personnel.)

                    SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
                    ^  Assign each team to act on one of the ideas offered for verifying the
                        validity of conclusions and write a report to present in class.

                    ~@i  Look up historical weather data (go through local newspapers or other
                        sources recommended by the weather bureau) for the same period in
                        previous years. See if a pattern or relationship can be found between
                        the conditions in previous years and the data collection period for this
                        exercise by graphing  the historical data in the same manner as the
                        current data and comparing  it with the current graphs.

                    SUGGESTED READING
                    Albers, Daniel. "What Makes a Rainy Day?" Sierra, 74 (November 1989) p.
                        104.

                    Baines, John. Conserving Our World, Conserving the Atmosphere. Austin, TX:
                        Steck-Vaughn Company (1990).
Tracking Air Quality                       22                               Project A.I.R.E.

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Catherall, Ed. Exploring Weather. Austin, TX: Steck-Vaughn Company (1990).

Clark, John Owen Edward.  The Atmosphere. New York: Gloucester Press
    (1992).

"Climate: Worldwide Weather Threatens Millions." USA Today Magazine,
    117 (April 1989) p. 1.

Cosgrove, Brian. Eyewitness Books: Weather. New York: Alfred A. Knopf (1991).

Freiman, Ghana, and Nancy Karkowsky. "Weathering the Summer of 1993."
    Science World, 50 (22 October 1993) p. 10.

Gibbons, Gail. Weather Forecasting.  New York: Chelsea House Publishers
    (1992).

Trefil, James. "Modeling Earth's Future Climate Requires Both Science and
    Guesswork." Smithsonian, 21  (December 1990) p. 28.
 Project A.I.R.E.                            23                           Tracking Air Quality

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Tracking Air Quality                            24                                     Project A.I.R.E.

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 WHERE'S  THAT  ODOR!

This exercise lets students use their noses as monitoring devices to
determine the source of odors introduced into the classroom atmo-
sphere and to demonstrate the importance of monitoring air pollu-
tion sources.  It is related to the "Breathing Room," "Inventing a
Monitor," and "Finding Sources of Air Pollution" activities.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
%$  Recognize the importance of environmental monitoring
    Recognize that this experiment serves as a model for how moni-
    toring is accomplished
    Explain the purpose and placement of monitoring devices
    Recognize conflicting information
    Recognize the role citizens can play in environmental cleanup

SKILLS
    Observing
    Collecting and analyzing data
    Graphing

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include air quality engineers, environmental
scientists, EPA air quality monitoring specialists, or state or local air
quality managers.

BACKGROUND
The Earth's atmosphere is almost completely made up of invisible
gaseous substances.  Most of the major air pollutants also are invis-
ible, gaseous substances that can adversely affect human health, as
well as damage the environment. Among the major ambient air pol-
lutants that may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health
are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone,
and particulate matter.  (A table describing these pollutants, their
sources, and effects is included as a student handout.)  To protect
public health and welfare, the EPA has set national emissions stan-
dards for these pollutants.  However, in order to prevent these and
other potentially dangerous air pollutants from reaching harmful lev-
els, it is important to be able to detect their presence and to identify
their emission sources.

This exercise allows students to use their ability to detect and  recog-
nize odors as a model of an air monitoring device. Odor is the subjec-
tive perception of the sense of smell (olfaction). Odor intensity refers
                                                                       RELATED
                                                                    ACTIVITIES
                                                                           5,7,9
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                             MATERIALS
                             "Air Pollution"
                         "Indoor Air Quality"
                            "Health Effects"

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                 4th - 12th

                              DURATION
                                40 minutes

                           VOCABULARY
                             Concentration
                                   Intensity
                                Monitoring
                             Odor detection
                                  threshold
                           Odor recognition
                                  threshold

                             MATERIALS
                            6 shallow plastic
                         containers with lids
                             Vanilla extract
                         Nail polish remover
                        (use type with  strong
                                     odor)
                         Food coloring (blue,
                            red,  and yellow)
                                Chalkboard
                        Chalk (white and one
                                other color)

                            WORKSHEETS
                               INCLUDED
                                         1
Project A.I.R.E.
25
Where's That Odor?

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                    to the perceived strength of the odor stimulus.  The minimum concentra-
                    tion (threshold) of an odor that can be detected (smelled) and identified is
                    dependent primarily on the sensitivity of the olfactory  cells, which vary
                    considerably, and the method of presenting the odor stimulus (such as flow
                    rate and purity).  The odor detection threshold relates  to the minimum
                    concentration required to perceive the existence of the stimulus. An odor
                    recognition threshold relates to the  minimum concentration required to
                    identify the odor. Detection occurs at a lower concentration than recogni-
                    tion. For example, the detection threshold for ammonia is about 17  parts-
                    per-million (ppm) volume/volume, and the recognition threshold is 37 ppm
                    (v/v).  Odor thresholds are statistical  values determined by sampling indi-
                    viduals in a given population.  (See  reading materials on "Air Pollution,"
                    "Indoor Air Quality," and "Health Effects.")

                    WHAT TO DO
                    Before class begins
                    1«  Mix the blue, red,  and yellow food coloring to make a color that is
                        similar to the color of vanilla  extract.  (You may use  any substance or
                        combination of substances to approximate the color of the vanilla, but
                        they should create as little odor as possible. The idea is to use this
                        mixture as  blanks or decoys for the real vanilla extract.)

                    2«  Put a small amount (just enough to cover the lid surface) of vanilla
                        extract into one of the container lids.  (Sandwich-size containers with
                        lids that have a lip work best for this exercise.)

                    J«  Put an equal amount of nail polish remover in another container lid.

                    4«  Put equal amounts  of a look-alike liquid  in the remaining containers
                        lid.

                    5«  Place the lids around the room and cover them by inverting the con-
                        tainers over them.

                    6«  On the chalk board, draw two maps  (with white chalk) of the class-
                        room, one  for charting time and  the other for charting intensity. (Stu-
                        dents will have  one  worksheet for tracking both measures.)

                    When class begins
                    1«  Explain how determining what  and where air pollutants come from
                        (monitoring) is an important part of protecting people and the envi-
                        ronment.  Detection (what is there) of pollutants can be accomplished
                        by different kinds of monitoring  devices (tools). A simple example of
                        visual detection is the dirt on the classroom window where pollutants
                        have stuck to (or deposited on) the glass.  When you breathe, the hairs
                        in your nose act like a  monitoring tool by filtering dust, and special
                        cells (olfactory) in the back of the  nose allow  you  to identify some
                        chemicals in the air. Explain that because monitoring tools are expensive
                        and take longer to use than you have in class, the students are going to
Where's That Odor?                        26                               Project A.I.R.E.

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    use their noses to detect and identify air chemicals. Instruct them to
    use their noses like scientists would use a monitoring device to detect
    and estimate the strength (volume or intensity) of an odor and to de-
    termine the source of that odor.

2«  Explain that they will need to map the classroom to chart the results of
    the experiment.  Hand out the worksheets.  You fill in the maps on the
    chalkboard as each student fills in his or her own.  Fill  in the maps to
    show the location of each student. (Use white chalk.) Make
    sure the students understand where they are on the map.

J«  When the  maps  are complete, briefly describe the experi-
    ment.  Tell them the idea is to record when they first smell
    an odor and to measure how strong it is at various times. Go
    over the time and  intensity (strength) measurements and
    make sure everyone understands  how to fill out his or her
    worksheet.  (Plan on taking extra time for the lower grades.)

4«  Remove the covers from the sources throughout the room
    containing the liquids.  Leave the  lids uncovered for 2  min-
    utes.  Announce the time every 30 seconds (for example,
    "A" on the worksheet would be T+30 seconds; "B" would
    be T+60 seconds, and so on). Remind students to find  their
    place on their worksheet map and  fill in the letter (time) and
    number (intensity)  the FIRST TIME they smell an odor.  If
    they detect more than one odor, they should fill in the letter
    (time) and number (intensity) the first time they smell EACH
    odor.

5«  At the end of two minutes, cover all the sources again.
6«  Call on a number of students in different parts of the room.
    (If time permits, let all students participate.)  Have each, in
    turn, come forward and mark their location (in colored chalk)
    on each of the maps on the board with the time and inten-
    sity information they have recorded on their worksheet.

7«  Lead a student discussion of the  results of the experiment.
    Ask why some students recorded stronger odors sooner than
    others.  Did the odor move in one direction more than an-
    other? If so, what does that suggest about the way pollut-
    ants move in the  air?  Did anyone detect more than one
    odor?  Where did the odor(s) come from?  The students'
    answers should point you to the real  sources.  (If not, be
    prepared to point out the real sources and explain how real
    scientists might use additional trials or put out more moni-
    tors to be sure the results are accurate.)
Project A.I.R.E.
21
Where's That Odor?

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                   8«  Describe why it is necessary to determine where contaminants, par-
                       ticularly invisible ones, are coming from (health effects, environmental
                       and ecological effects).  Give some  examples. Explain that if the con-
                       taminants in the experiment had been harmful, finding out where they
                       were coming from would make it possible for their local  officials and
                       EPA to take steps to remove them.

                   SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS  (OPTIONAL)
                   ^  Expand the discussion following the experiment by suggesting vari-
                       ables (such as what if a door or window were opened? What if there
                       were more people in the room?) that could  influence the path and
                       speed with which the odor moves.  Encourage the students to discuss
                       the potential impact of these variables and, by extension, how vari-
                       ables complicate the process of monitoring air pollution.

                   ^  Ask the students how they might design a monitoring system that could
                       locate the worst source (that which releases the highest volume) of a
                       pollutant among multiple emission sources of the same pollutant? Sug-
                       gest that they use the classroom model to help structure their thinking.

                   SUGGESTED READING
                   Bailey, Donna. What Can We Do About Noise and Fumes. New York: Franklin
                       Watts  (1991).

                   Baines, John. Conserving Our World, Conserving the Atmosphere. Austin, TX:
                       Steck-Vaughn Company  (1990).

                   Bearden, Nancy. "Ah! The Aroma: Coming to Our Senses." Total Health, 13
                       (June 1991) p. 24.

                   Black, Pamela J. "No One's Sniffing at Aroma Research Now." Business Week,
                       (23 December 1991) p. 82.

                   Monmaney, Terence. "Are We Led  By the Nose?"  Discover, 8 (September
                       1987) p. 48.

                   Pacchiolo, David. "Potent Aromas." Discover, 12 (November 1991) p. 16.

                   Rifkin, Janey M. "When Breathing is Hazardous to Your Health." Let's Live,
                       59 (August 1991) p. 62.

                   "What Noses Don't Know (How the Brain Identifies Odors)." USA Today
                       Magazine, 120 (October 1991) p. 16.
Where's That Odor?                       28                              Project A.I.R.E.

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        FINDING SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION
              MAJOR MAN-MADE AIR POLLUTANTS
POLLUTANT
Carbon monoxide (CO)





Lead (Pb)



Nitrogen oxides (NOx)









Ozone (O3)






Particulate matter





Sulphur dioxide
(S02)








DESCRIPTION
• colorless, odorless gas





• metallic element



• gaseous compounds
made up of nitrogen and
oxygen







• gaseous pollutant






• very small particles of
soot, dust, or other
matter, including tiny
droplets of liquids


• gaseous compound
made up of sulphur
and oxygen







SOURCES
• vehicles burning gasoline
• indoor sources, including
kerosene, wood-burning,
natural gas, coal, or
wood-burning stoves and
heaters
• vehicles burning leaded
gasoline
• metal refineries

• vehicles
• power plants
burning fossil fuels
• coal-burning stoves






• vehicle exhaust and
certain other fumes
• formed from other air
pollutants in the presence
of sunlight


• diesel engines
• power plants
• industries
• windblown dust
• wood stoves

• coal-burning power
plants and industries
• coal-burning stoves
• refineries






SIGNS/
EFFECTS
• headaches,
reduced mental
alertness, death
• heart damage


• brain and kidney
damage
• contaminated
crops and livestock
• lung damage
• react in atmosphere
to form acid rain
• deteriorate
buildings and
statues
• damage forests
• form ozone &
other pollutants
(smog)
• lung damage
• eye irritation
• respiratory tract
problems
• damages vegeta-
tion
• smog
• lung damage
• eye irritation
• damages crops
• reduces visibility
• discolors buildings
and statues
• eye irritation
• lung damage
• kills aquatic life
• reacts in atmo-
sphere to form
acid rain
• damages forests
• deteriorates
buildings and
statues
Project A.I.R.E.
29
Where's That Odor?

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                   WHERE'S THAT ODOR?
                          CLASSROOM MAP
                            Front of
  classroom
                            Back of
  classroorr
          TIME
     A =
     B = .
     C =
     D =
     E =
 1
 2
 3
 4
 INTENSITY
No odor detected at all
Begin to smell the odor
Odor is strong
Odor is very strong
Where's That Odor?
30
                    Project A.I.R.E.

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MAKING  DECISIONS
This exercise lets students explore how decisions are made and prac-
tice solving problems that require choices. It is related to the activities
entitled "Lifestyles and the Environment," "The Radon Game," "De-
signing a Clean-Air Environment," "Is Your Air Clean?," "Deciding the
Clean the Air," "Choosing a Better Future," "The Business of Clean
Air," "Air Pollution Allowance Trading," and "The Cost of Polluting."

CRITICAL  OBJECTIVES
    Understand that solving problems requires a strategy or plan
    Recognize that "common sense" is really practiced decision-making
    Recognize that decisions involve trade-offs
^  Understand that making decisions is part of everyone's life

SKILLS
    Listening
    Asking questions
    Comparing ideas
    Drawing conclusions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include air quality engineers, economists, EPA en-
vironmental protection specialists, EPA policy analysts, or meteorologists.

BACKGROUND
Making decisions is an important  part of life for everyone—students,
executives, homemakers, shopkeepers, or scientists.  Solving a prob-
lem requires  comparing alternatives and thinking about the probable
results of one's choices.   Every choice,  or decision,  leads to  certain
direct results and  more indirect results.  Many choices will end up in-
fluencing or limiting future decisions. For example, choosing a ham-
burger for lunch might mean that one is less inclined to choose meatloaf
for dinner. Or deciding to spend money for a new bike now may mean
forfeiting the money for a new computer game.  The worst kind of
decisions are those made on a whim, without thinking through the
consequences. The best kind of decisions are those made after think-
ing about the possible alternatives, and the advantages and disadvan-
tages  of each.

One way to begin a thoughtful decision-making process is to ask your-
self questions and find honest answers for them. Typically, a number
of limitations affect the quality or cost of the decisions we make. Cost
does not necessarily mean money. It could also be any valuable thing
                                RELATED
                             ACTIVITIES
                         1,6,8,10,15,  16,
                                 17, 18, 19

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                   3rd-9th

                              DURATION
                                40 minutes
                          VOCABULARY
                                    Benefit
                                      Cost
                                      Risk

                             MATERIALS
                                     Chalk
                                Chalkboard
                           (or flip chart and
                             marking pens)
Project A.I.R.E.
31
Making Decisions

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                   that is given up in order to implement the choice, such as time or  lost
                   opportunities. Clearly, there is a trade-off between getting all the best in-
                   formation and spending too much time fussing over the choice.  Some-
                   times, one can spend so much  effort collecting or weighing alternatives
                   that you run out of time or money or both and loose much of the benefits
                   of careful decision-making.  Sometimes, what we all call "common sense"
                   is the best decision, but if you think about it, simple common sense usually
                   has a good reason behind it.

                   Many important decisions are made after a careful and formal analysis, some-
                   times called a "benefit-cost" analysis.  It usually is structured by writing
                   down all the advantages or "pros" on one side of a page, and  all the disad-
                   vantages or "cons," on the other side.  Then by comparing the pros and
                   cons one can systematically arrive at a "best" decision. One mark of a good
                   decision based on careful thought is that none of the results or consequences
                   of the decision—good or bad—should come as a surprise.  If  one makes a
                   decision with too little information about its consequences, then there is a
                   greater "risk" involved that the decision may not solve the problem or that
                   the decision may cause some other problem  not thought of.

                   Making good decisions is a skill that comes about with practice and experi-
                   ence.  Nobody is "born" with it.  Also, the confidence that comes with
                   practice often  results in better and quicker decisions.

                   There are seven steps in good public decision-making:

                   (1)  What is the problem or issue?  Ignore all the complicating  issues, or
                        "red herrings," and articulate a clear, simple problem. Identify who
                        and what may be affected by the problem, and who and what may
                        benefit from the decision.
                   (2)  What are the options for solving the problem?  Leave out all the really
                        unlikely solutions, and just list the ones that are most realistic.  Keep
                        them as straightforward as possible.
                   (3)  Do I know enough about each alternative?  Compare each alternative
                        solution to the problem, and write down what is known and what we
                        need to find out about each alternative.
                   (4)  What are the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative? Some-
                        times,  advantages or disadvantages include the effort required to get
                        all the necessary information. If it seems that the effort,  or "cost," of
                        getting the necessary information outweighs  the benefits,  the deci-
                        sion-maker may need to consider his or her willingness to accept the
                        consequent risks.
                   (5)  Which advantages and disadvantages are critical? Cross out those that
                        don't really matter; these arejust confusing extras.
                   (6)  Which of the options seem to best solve the problem, considering the
                        advantages and  disadvantages of each?
                   (7)  Finally, share and discuss results publicly and with those affected by
                        the decision even if you have already involved some of them in  the
                        process.
Making Decisions                          32                              Project A.I.R.E.

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WHAT TO DO
1«  Introduce the topic of decision-making to the class, write the seven
    decision-making steps on the chalkboard or flip chart and explain them.

    Have the students suggest several real or invented air-pollution prob-
    lems that require decisions to solve, such as, "Should I convert all my
    electric lights to energy-savers at home?" or "Why should we work to
    save the rain forest?" or "What is the best way I  can contribute to the
    reduction of greenhouse gases?" or "How can we control the quality
    of the air in the  classroom or school?" Assign one student to record on
    the chalkboard  or flip chart suggestions by the students during the
    problem-solving process. You can use current events articles that raise
    issues yet unresolved as a means of jogging students' thoughts on se-
    lecting problems. Have students formulate a problem statement for
    each question suggested.

J«  Select  a few problems to focus on and have students volunteer an-
    swers to each of the first six problem-solving steps.  For each answer,
    get the student  to specify which problem it addresses and which step it
    fits under.  Note that the class can be considering all the problems at
    once.  Allow students to question or comment on each others' sugges-
    tions.

4«  Once each problem has answers under each of the first six steps, begin
    narrowing the selections by encouraging the class to evaluate each of
    the steps.  Have the scribe annotate the chalkboard or easel as deci-
    sions are made. Encourage dissenters or skeptics, but get the class to
    consider all angles.

SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
^  For lower grades, decision-making can be fun but also frustrating. Use
    a decision-making exercise that addresses group activities such as the
    best way to spend time.  Let the students decide how the day or an
    hour should be spent, and why. Modify the seven decision-making
    steps, as appropriate, and use them to facilitate such a discussion. For
    lower grades, the decision-making steps may have to be stated more
    simply to help students participate in the process.

^  For upper grades, have students develop a subset of questions (be-
    tween  the lines) to explore each of the seven decision-making steps in
    more depth. Use the expanded list to facilitate the discussion.

^  You may want to ask a guest  presenter to add  to the list some real-
    world problems or issues with which he or she is currently working.

^  Have students select a news clipping that raises a problem or issue that
    others are working to resolve. Assign a special  project in which  stu-
    dents will use the steps presented here to research and develop a po-
    tential  resolution. When completed have the student present his or her
    findings and the rationale for the selected option.
Project A.I.R.E.                             33                            Making Decisions

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                    SUGGESTED READING
                    Berry, Joy. Every Kid's Guide to Decision Making and Problem Solving. Children's
                        Press (1987).

                    Citizenship with Bambi and Friends (Filmstrip). Walt Disney (1988).

                    The Environment (Apple II computer program). Tom Snyder (1990).
                        A role playing simulation in which students address crucial environ-
                        mental questions.

                    I Don't Know What To Do: Decision-Making Skills (Videotape). Guidance (1988).

                    A Kid's Guide to Decisions (Filmstrip). Learning Tree (1988).

                    The Oil Game (Apple II computer program). AV System (1988).

                    Smith, Sandra Lee. Coping with Decision-Making. New York, NY: Rosen Pub-
                        lications Group (1989).

                    Ulrich-Hagner, Linda. Decisions in Action. South-Western Publishers (1988).

                    Understanding Decisions (Filmstrip). Learning Tree Publishing (1990).

                    Yes? No? Maybe? Decision Making Skills (VMS videotape). Sunburst (1990).
Making Decisions                          34                               Project A.I.R.E.

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KALES,  RULES,  POLICY,

STANDARDS  AND

SCIENCE
This exercise examines the role of opinions, values, attitudes, beliefs,
and science on the development of standards. Students will answer a
series of abstract questions designed to demonstrate how a standard
is developed. Students also will answer questions related to ecologi-
cal standards. From the results of the survey, classroom-wide stan-
dards will be developed to reflect the "consensus" of the class. This
exercise is related to the "Writing Environmental Laws" and "Translat-
ing Science into Public Policy" activities.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
    Identify methods to obtain information for developing standards
    Recognize conflicts that may exist between what people want
    and  what can be achieved
    Translate objective and subjective data into standards

SKILLS
^  Collecting, tabulating, and analyzing data
^  Drawing conclusions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include environmental scientists, EPA environ-
mental protection specialists, or EPA risk assessment specialists.

BACKGROUND
Governments rely on the development of standards as the basis of
most regulations. For example, most environmental regulations are
based on public or environmental health standards that help  gauge
the dangers posed by a certain level of pollution or contamination.
However, people should understand that such standards are not purely
scientific: "hard" scientific data is always subject to the political pro-
cess before it is written into regulations. What's more, there is often
much disagreement within the scientific community over the data
itself. Standards, then, are the result of these processes.

This exercise poses the question "How do we decide what a standard
should be?" and focuses on the interplay of personal belief, opinion,
and scientific facts and evidence in the development of standards and
rules. Air quality policy and regulations are a result of the synthesis of
scientific information and public attitudes  and values. What costs
                                                                    RELATED
                                                                 ACTIVITIES
                                                                       20, 21
                              REFER TO
                              READING
                            MATERIALS
                        "The Clean Air Act"
                            "Air Pollution"

                        TARGET GRADE
                                 LEVEL
                                7th - 12th

                             DURATION
                               30 minutes

                         VOCABULARY
                                    Scale
                                Standards

                          WORKSHEETS
                             INCLUDED
                                       1
Project A.I.R.E.
35
Scales, Rules, Policy, Standards and Science

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                    people are willing to tolerate to maintain air quality is as critical  to the
                    development of air quality standards as the scientific health risks posed by
                    air pollution.

                    In one sense, an air  pollution standard reflects how much air quality the
                    public is willing to buy. Often, there is a conflict between what people are
                    willing to tolerate and what may be good for them. For example, smog is
                    a major health  concern in southern California,  but people in Los Angeles
                    have consistently resisted the imposition of restrictions on automobile driv-
                    ing even though auto exhaust is a major factor in smog production. Be-
                    tween the two extremes on this issue  lies a position which,  presumably,
                    most people would be willing to adopt.  This exercise demonstrates how
                    such conclusions are reached.  (See reading materials on "The Clean Air
                    Act" and "Air Pollution.")

                    WHAT TO DO
                        Discuss scales and methods by which things are measured: size, weight,
                        volume, time, temperature.  For example, time passes whether or not
                        it is broken up into days.  Discuss how it is reduced to discrete units
                        (days, hours, weeks, years) in ways that all agree upon so that it may
                        be used.  In what ways are scales and measures useful?  (Answer: so
                        that one thing may be compared with another thing.)

                        Discuss standards and where they come from.  For example, how would
                        your class decide what the temperature of the room should be? Each
                                         person could be asked, and the result would be a
                                         range of temperature values.  From there, the sta-
                                         tistical mean temperature would represent a "fair"
                                         determination of the classroom-wide consensus.
                                         Mention Goldilocks and the Three Bears and the
                                         "just right" standard.  How do  we know what is
                                         "just right?" What effect does  custom and con-
                                         vention have on an individual's belief?

                                         J« Discuss the concept  of rules and how standards
                                         are fashioned into rules. Ask students for examples
                                         of rules that govern their lives. What is the ratio-
                                         nale for these rules? Distinguish the roles of objec-
                                         tive facts and subjective beliefs. For example, young
                                         children may have a certain bedtime. Is this the
                                         result of extensive studies on the effects of sleep
                                         deprivation or because parents think it is a good
                                         idea? Discuss how sound rule-making requires in-
                                         formation collection and the application of shared
                                         values.

                                         4«  Distribute the student worksheet.  Ask each of
                        the survey questions and  have students mark their answers.  Collect
                        and tabulate the results.  Discuss how to  determine the classroom-
Scales, Rules, Policy, Standards and Science    36
Project A.I.R.E.

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    wide standards based on the results?  Discuss the tradeoffs that are
    inherent in developing standards based on opinions and beliefs rather
    than strictly scientific conditions. (For example, how did they decide
    how much is "too much" pollution?)

5«  Discuss the roles of scientific evidence and personal belief in answering
    these questions. Ask individual students what led them to answer a
    question  in a certain way.  Select students who answered the same
    question in opposite ways to "make their case."

SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
^  For grades 10 through  12, have students follow up this exercise  by
    researching how generally accepted standards get translated into gov-
    ernment policies, regulations, or laws.  Have them make short presen-
    tations of their findings.

SUGGESTED READING
"Green, Greener, Greenest." Economist, 311 (6 May 1989) p. 67.
Project A.I.R.E.                            37      Scales, Rules, Policy, Standards and Science

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                                                             ti

    SCALES,  RULES,  POLICY,  STANDARDS, AND

                                   SCIENCE
                                     SURVEY

This questionnaire will be used to determine a classwide standard for a healthy environment.  It
also will ask questions about what individuals would be willing to do to achieve a healthy environ-
ment. Since it is Clean Air Month™, the questions focus on air pollution reduction and prevention.

                   AIR POLLUTION: HOW MUCH IS TOO MUCH?
1) Air pollution is not a major problem in the United States.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

2) Air pollution is not a major problem in our town.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

3) Air pollution should be reduced to levels that do no harm to the environment or to people.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

4) Air pollution should be reduced to  levels that do no harm to people and the environment
   regardless of cost.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

5) There is a safe level of air pollution (that is,  some level of air pollution should be tolerated).
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

6) A safe level of air pollution should be achieved regardless of cost.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

7) The cost of air pollution reduction and prevention should determine the amount of pollution
   permitted.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

8) Activities that  pollute the air should  be prohibited.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree
                  AIR POLLUTION: WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?
1)  Human activity is the source of most air pollution.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

2  Visible air pollution is the most significant problem.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree

3)  Most air pollution is the kind that can be seen coming from smokestacks.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree  5 - strongly disagree
Scales, Rules, Policy, Standards and Science    38                              Project A.I.R.E.

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4) Most air pollution is emitted from automobiles.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree   5 - strongly disagree

5) If it can not be smelled or seen, it does not matter.
   1 - strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree   5 - strongly disagree
                     AIR POLLUTION: WHAT IS THE SOLUTION?
1) I am willing to change some of my everyday habits and ways of doing things that may cause
   air  pollution (for example, conserve energy, use mass transit rather than drive, purchase envi-
   ronmentally friendly products).
   1 -  strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree   5 - strongly disagree

2) I am willing to pay reasonably higher prices when necessary if it will help reduce air pollution.
   1 -  strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree   5 - strongly disagree

3) Future changes in technology will probably eliminate most causes of pollution  by the time I
   am an adult.
   1 -  strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree   5 - strongly disagree

4) I am willing to have the government tell me how to reduce pollution.
   1 -  strongly agree   2 - agree    3 - neutral    4 - disagree   5 - strongly disagree
Project A.I.R.E.                             39      Scales, Rules, Policy, Standards and Science

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Scales, Rules, Policy, Standards and Science    40                                   Project A.I.R.E.

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 LIFESTYLES  AND  THE
 ENVIRONMENT
 This activity demonstrates that our lifestyles are supported by com-
 plex industrial activities that consume vast quantities of natural re-
 sources and result in large quantities of air pollution. As the popula-
 tion grows and the standard of living increases, the consumption of
 resources and emission of pollutants also increase. These trends have
 significant implications for the lifestyles of students and their families.
 This activity is related to the warm-up exercise called "Making Deci-
 sions." Related activities include "Deciding To Clean  the Air" and
 "Choosing a Better Future."

 CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
 %$  Distinguish between  renewable, non-renewable, and recyclable
    resources
 %$  Recognize the impact that lifestyle changes have had on the level
    of industrial activities that cause air pollution
 ^  Recognize the relationship between population and consumption
 ^  Understand the effect of supply and demand on the price of
    resources
 ^  Identify ways to use less resources and to reduce air pollution

 SKILLS
    Graphing
    Comparing data
    Defining problems
    Drawing conclusions

 GUEST PRESENTERS
 Guest presenters could include conservationists, economists, envi-
 ronmental scientists, or EPA environmental protection specialists.

 BACKGROUND
 The manufacture and consumption of many goods  and services
 results in the production of pollution as a side effect.  Much pollu-
 tion, if not controlled, can cause diseases in humans and  other
 species, as well as property damage. In addition,  these air pollut-
 ants can cause changes  in the  Earth's climate that may make it
 more  difficult and, therefore, more costly to produce food and
 the resulting melting of  polar icecaps may cause the sea level to
 rise to dangerous levels.
                                                                    RELATED
                                                                  WARM-UP
                                                                            G
                              REFER TO
                              READING
                           MATERIALS
                           "Air Pollution"
                         "The Greenhouse
                                  Effect"
                      "Automobiles and Air
                               Pollution"

                       TARGET GRADE
                                 LEVEL
                               9th - 12th

                            DURATION
                        40 minutes in class
                      #1, with a take-home
                              assignment;
                     40 minutes in class #2

                         VOCABULARY
                               Free good
                          Non-renewable
                                resource
                             Raw material
                       Recyclable resource
                       Renewable resource
                             Scarce good
                       Supply and demand

                           MATERIALS
                                   Chalk
                              Chalkboard
                             Two student
                              worksheets

                          WORKSHEETS
                             INCLUDED
                                      2
Project A.I.R.E.
41
Lifestyles and the Environment

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                    There have always been pollutants in the atmosphere, both from natural
                    and human sources.  The most important human source is combustion of
                    fuels (wood, coal, natural gas, petroleum) for transportation, heating and
                    cooling, electricity generation, and manufacturing.  In the past,  human
                    sources represented just one of many sources of pollutants.  However, the
                    importance of human sources has increased in recent years because of sev-
                    eral developments:

                    ^  The products we use in our everyday lives (automobiles, electric equip-
                        ment) have been growing more  and more sophisticated, thereby re-
                        quiring more industrial processes that emit large quantities of pollut-
                        ants.  Some chemicals are toxic even in small amounts.
                    ^  The per  person  consumption of goods and services has increased
                        substantially.
                    ~@i  The U.S.  and world populations have increased substantially over the
                        past 100 years.

                    Because the Earth's atmosphere is a finite size, it will not sustain the contin-
                    ued growth  of  the current patterns of  consumption.  The following are
                    among options  available to us:

                    ^  Continue our current practices: this strategy ultimately might result in
                        a crisis sometime in the future.
                    ^  Change our consumption patterns and, as necessary, our lifestyles to
                        use fewer resources and use resources that pollute less.
                    ^  Improve our technology so we can produce the materials and offer the
                        services we want with fewer resources. For example, a solid state radio
                        may consume less steel, plastic, and glass, and use less electricity, than
                        an old vacuum-tube-based radio, and more efficient electronic data
                        communications may lead to a reduction of travel, because many people
                        can work at home several days a week.

                    WHAT TO DO
                    Class #1
                    1«  Distribute the student handout called "Major Man-Made Air Pollut-
                        ants." Review the sources and the basic health and environmental
                        effects of air pollution with the class.

                    2«  Present and discuss the concepts of a "free good," "scarce good," "sup-
                        ply and demand," "renewable," "non-renewable," and "recyclable"
                        resources.  After defining each concept, ask the class for examples.

                    J«  Put the following table on the chalkboard and assign a student to fill it
                        in as  the class discussion progresses. Have  the class list things they
                        currently have (such as a car, TV, Walkman, Nintendo) and their typical
                        activities (such as traveling to school, playing softball, going to the
                        movies).  Then list the associated  raw materials and direct and indirect
                        pollutants.  (The first entry is provided as an  example.)
Lifestyles and the Environment
Project A.I.R.E.

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Current Goods
and Activities
Driving to
school
Raw Materials
Required
Fuel, oil, lubri-
cants
Pollutants Directly
Resulting
CO2, NOx, lead,
hydrocarbons
Pollutants/ Activities
Indirectly Resulting
Steel, rubber, glass, electric-
ity to manufacture car
4«  Put a second table  (shown below) on the chalkboard and assign a
    student to fill it in as before.  Have the class list things they would like
    to have and activities they would like to undertake in the future. Then,
    list the associated raw materials and pollutants.  (A call to local manu-
    facturing companies prior to the class may be useful in helping stu-
    dents with the quality and quantity of the information.)
Future Goods and
Activities

Raw Materials
Required

Pollutants Directly
Resulting

Pollutants/ Activities
Indirectly Resulting

5«  Compare the two tables. Ask the class what conclusions they can draw
    from the comparison and speculate about the implications for our store
    of raw materials and pollution.

6«  Distribute the student worksheet called "Growth in the Use of Critical
    Resources," which provides examples of historical trends in consump-
    tion of raw materials, as well as trends of population and energy con-
    sumption.  Have students enumerate products and activities in our
    daily lives that use these materials and speculate what the future con-
    sumption of these materials might be.  In discussing the data in the
    table, you may note the following  as needed:

    Per capita use of lumber has been declining. This decline was caused
    by several factors: Diminishing supply and relative to the growing popu-
    lation, substitution of other materials such as plastics and metals for
    wood, and increased price of wood over time.

•   Although  the United States accounts for 26 percent of world petro-
    leum consumption,  it is only 5 percent of the world population.  If per
    capita consumption does not change, the U.S. would consume 26.8
    million barrels of oil per  day, which is  about 26  percent of current
    annual production.  It is not known whether there is enough petroleum
    in the ground to increase world production substantially higher than cur-
    rent production.

•   The per person consumption  of steel and  aluminum decreased from
Project A.I.R.E.
43
Lifestyles and the Environment

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                        1960 to 1990. This is not necessarily indicative of the long-term trend.
                        During this period, imports of products such as automobiles and elec-
                        trical and electronic equipment that contain these metal have also in-
                        creased.

                    7«  Assign different students or teams of students to take a different raw
                        material and prepare a graph illustrating the data on the handout and
                        their projections for the future.

                    Class #2
                    1«  Review the graphs prepared in the previous class.

                    2«  Have the class discuss potential problems if we continue our current
                        consumption and production patterns.  Focus the discussion on the
                        following questions:
                        What does this imply for the prices and availability of the goods you
                        want?
                        If you earned a fixed amount each month, would you be able to afford
                        all the things you want?
                        If everyone could afford all the things they wanted in the future, what
                        would happen to air quality?

                    J«  Ask for ideas on how we could reduce these problems and obtain the
                        things we want. If necessary, prompt students with the following:
                        Change our desires?
                        Change how products are designed to use fewer resources and pollute
                        less (smaller cars, simpler packaging of consumer products)?
                        Use more recyclables and renewable materials?
                        Reduce consumption of fuels for transportation, heating, and cooling?

                    SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
                    ~@i  Give students a library assignment to compare the energy use of differ-
                        ent models of cars.  Include small, medium, large, sports, "muscle"
                        and  utility  vehicles, and vans.  They can estimate the average miles
                        driven per year by their families, compare these to National averages,
                        and  look up EPA fuel consumption estimates for specific car models.
                        (Consumer Reports, which is available at most libraries, publishes this
                        information in the April edition each year.) Have them do the calcula-
                        tions in both gallons of fuel and dollars per year. Then  have them
                        discuss the following questions:
                        If the cost of gasoline doubles by the year 2004, will you buy a differ-
                        ent car?
                        What characteristics of the car (size, comfort, acceleration, safety) would
                        you  be willing to trade for better fuel consumption?

                    ^  Ask the students to take an inventory of their families' energy use for a
                        typical week (or year) using the student worksheet called "Family Re-
                        source Use."  Have them take the worksheet home, fill it in with their
                        family's help, and bring it back to class. After the worksheets have
Lifestyles and the Environment                44                             Project A.I.R.E.

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    been completed, have students discuss the reasons for differences and
    how their families could improve their resource use.  (To facilitate this
    discussion, you may want to divide students into groups according to
    the type of fuel used, then record the fuel usage on the chalkboard for
    heating, cooling,  and  water heating. Within each group, have stu-
    dents discuss differences by  referring to the other factors on the
    worksheet such as insulation, storm windows and doors, and the use
    of set-back thermostats.)

^  Ask students to look up in the library, or in articles you may supply, the
    energy  required (in kilowatt-hours) and  the  air pollution emitted (in
    pounds or tons) in the manufacture a ton of aluminum, steel, and paper.

SUGGESTED READING
Bright, Michael. Traffic Pollution. New York, NY: Gloucester Press (1991).

"Green, Greener, Greenest." Economist,  311 (6 May 1989) p. 67.

"A Guilt-Free Guide to  Garbage." Consumer Reports (February 1994) p. 91.

Lowe, Marcia D. "Reinventing the Wheel: From Denmark to Japan." Tech-
    nology Review, 93  (May 1990) p. 60.

Rauber, Paul. "Key to  Gridlock? The Free Ride  Goes the  Way of the Free
    Lunch." Sierra, 79 (March 1994) p. 45.

"Recycling, Is It Worth the Effort?" Consumer Reports (February 1994) p. 92-
    98.

Saunders, Linda. "Uneasy Riders (Cars and Pollution)." Health, 22 (February
    1990) p. 46.

Stambler, Irwin. "'We Can Meet Energy Needs and Not Destroy Our Envi-
    ronment'  (William Ruckelshaus Tells Engineers)." Research  and Devel-
    opment, 30 (September 1988) p. 32.

What You Can  Do To Reduce Air Pollution. Washington, DC: U.S. Environ-
    mental Protection Agency EPA/450/K-92/002 (1992).

"Where Household Goods Go." Consumer Reports (February 1994) p. 99-
    100.

Wood, Daniel S. "L.A. Sends Its Workers Home—To Work." Christian Science
    Monitor, 86 (1 December 1993) p. 7.
Project A.I.R.E.                             45                Lifestyles and the Environment

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                                          TI
      LIFESTYLES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
            GROWTH IN USE OF CRITICAL RESOURCES
             TAPE SID'S TABLE HERE
Lifestyles and the Environment           46                    Project A.I.R.E.

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        LIFESTYLES AND THE  ENVIRONMENT

                            FAMILY RESOURCE USE
 Use the following questions and table to record your family's energy use for a typical year or
week. This information is most likely available in your home. Discuss it with your family.

Home Heating:
Indicate the followin:
Type of fuel (for example, oil, natural gas, coal)	
Volume used last year (in gallons, cubic feet, therms, or other measure)	
Cost last year $	
Do you use a set-back thermostat?	,
Days of the week are they used?	, hours used?	
Size of your house in square feet, not including garage, basement, or unfinished attic	
Water Heating:
Indicate the following:
Type of fuel (for example, natural gas, electricity)	
Do you use a set-back thermostat?	,
Days of the week are they used?	, hours used?	
Size of water heater in gallons	

Home Cooling:
Indicate the following:
Type of fuel (for example, natural gas, electricity)	
Volume used last year (in cubic  feet, therms, or kilowatt hours)	
Cost last year $	
Do you use a set-back thermostat?
Days of the week are they used?	hours used?	
Size of your house in square feet, not including garage or basement
Home Insulation:
Indicate the following:
Roof insulation Material (for example fiberglass, rockwool, cellulose, none)	
Roof insulation thickness (for example, 3.5 inches, 6 inches, 7.5 inches)	
Wall insulation material (for example fiberglass, rockwool, cellulose, none)	
Wall insulation Thickness (for example, 3.5 inches, 6 inches, 7.5 inches)	
Type of wall (for example, masonry, wood frame)	
Do most of the windows have storm windows?	
Do most of the windows have double glazing (two pains of glass separated by an air space)?
Project A.I.R.E.                             47                Lifestyles and the Environment

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Recycling:
What products do you recycle in your home (plastic, aluminum foil, aluminum cans, steel cans,
plastic jars and bottles, newspaper, other paper)?
Travel:
How do you get to school (school bus, public transportation, auto, car pool)?
Distance from house to school?	How long would it take to walk?	,  Bike?
Skate? 	
How do your other family members travel to school or work?	
What other methods might they use?	Why are these not used?
Lifestyles and the Environment                48                              Project A.I.R.E.

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THE  RAIN  FOREST  IS
ALIVE
This activity uses role-playing and empathy to encourage students to
learn about the life and purpose of the rain forest.  Students create
stick puppets to represent animal  inhabitants of a South American
rain forest and  use the puppets to act out the story in "The Great
Kapok Tree."  The activity serves as a  useful illustration of how to
adapt environmental reading material for classroom learning.  It is
related to the warm-up exercise called  "Learning from Stories."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
%$  Appreciate that animals, plants, and humans need each other to
    maintain the balance in nature
~^t  Work with others on environmental projects
~$i  Understand that the destruction of the rain forests may cause
    some animals to become extinct
^  Recognize that plants and trees in rain forests absorb carbon di-
    oxide
~$i  Recognize that carbon dioxide absorption is important in regu-
    lating climate

SKILLS
^  Asking questions
^  Cooperating with others
%$•  Coloring, cutting, pasting
^  Acting out

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters for this activity could include EPA environmental pro-
tection specialists, conservationists, or environmental scientists.

BACKGROUND
Rain forests are very large and very dense. They are usually in tropical
areas—areas near  the equator where the temperature is very warm
and where rain is very heavy throughout the year. The largest tropical
rain forest covers a large part of South America, including the Ama-
zon River and parts of the country of Brazil. Rain forests are made up
mainly of evergreens (trees and shrubs that have leaves or needles all
year round), but they also are the home for many rare flowering plants,
ferns, and herbs. In addition, rain forests provide a habitat for a rich
variety of animals and have been the home for many people through-
out history.
                                                                    RELATED
                                                                  WARM-UP
                                                                            D
                             REFER TO
                             READING
                           MATERIAL
                      "Greenhouse Effect"

                      TARGET GRADE
                                LEVEL
                                  K-2nd

                           DURATION
                        1 class period (40
                        minutes) to create
                               puppets;
                        1 class period (40
                        minutes) for role-
                            play exercise

                        VOCABULARY
                          Carbon dioxide
                                Climate
                              Rain forest

                           MATERIALS
                        Brown paper (3 ft.
                                by 6 ft.)
                       Green construction
                         paper (optional)
                      Popsicle sticks (1 per
                                student)
                      Crayons or marking
                           pens in various
                                  colors
                                 Scissors
                              Clear tape
                       Glue or stapler and
                                 staples
                        "The Great Kapok
                           Tree" by Lynne
                                 Cherry

                         WORKSHEETS
                            INCLUDED
                                    20
Project A.I.R.E.
49
The Rain Forest Is Alive

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                    All rain forests have five main layers, and each layer is populated with plant
                   and animal life specifically suited to it.  The Emergent layer is made up of
                   the tallest trees, some as high as 165 feet.  In this layer, Harpy eagles and
                   other birds of prey watch for animals to feed on, and  it is here that the
                   "great kapok tree" in the story grows. The Canopy is 100 to 130 feet above
                   ground and about  30 feet thick. The majority of plants, vines, and animal
                   life is found in this layer.  The Understory, made up of the tops of small
                   trees, gets less light than the Canopy. Palm trees are typical of growth in
                   this layer. The Shrub layer contains shrubs and small trees. Sunlight can
                   reach this layer and help the plants to grow wherever there is a gap in the
                   Canopy.  The Herb layer,  closest to the ground, is made up of ferns and
                   herbs. It is the habitat for ground  dwelling animals, such as the tapir, and
                   many varieties of insects.

                   Tropical rain forests play an important role in regulating the world's climate
                   by rapidly recycling dead plants and by absorbing carbon dioxide that is
                   produced when humans breathe, coal and other materials are burned, and
                   exhaust is emitted by car engines. Without the rain forests our climate
                   could change, causing droughts, damaging food crops,  and causing some
                   types of  animal life to die out.  In addition, rare animals could become
                   extinct without the rain forest, and rare plant life, useful in making many
                   medicines for treating human diseases, could disappear.  (See the reading
                   material called "Greenhouse Effect.")

                   Many  rain  forests are  being destroyed because people are cutting them
                   down, using the plants and trees to  produce products like rubber, oils, medi-
                   cines, and dyes, and clearing the land for timber and farming. This not only
                   affects the environmental  balance  but also has caused people, like Brazil's
                   Indian population,  to be driven from their homes.

                   A number of organizations have programs to help save the rain forests.
                   Some give deeds as tokens for monetary contributions that they use to buy
                   up rain forest land to protect it from destruction. Information about these
                   organizations should  be available  in the local library.  Organizations that
                   provide information about how to help  save rain forests and the animals,
                   insects, and people who live in them are listed below.

                       Friends of the  Earth (FOE),  Earth Action (the youth section), 530  7th
                       St., NE, Washington,  DC 20003
                       Rainforest Action Network, 466 Green St., San Francisco, CA 94133
                       Defenders of Wildlife, 1244 19th St., NW, Washington, DC 20036
                   •   World-Wide Fund for  Nature (WWF), 1250 24th St., NW, Washington,
                       DC  20037
                       Survival InterNational, 2121 Decatur Place, NW, Washington, DC 20008
                   •   Intermediate Technology, 777 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY
                       10017
The Rain Forest Is Alive                      50                              Project A.I.R.E.

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WHAT TO DO
Before class begins
Make enough copies of the worksheets so that the class will have the
following:

1 Boa Constrictor      1 Cock of the Rock            1 Bumble Bee
1 Tree Frog            4 Night Monkeys (Troupe)     1  Hummingbird
1 Leaf Cutter Ant       1 Jaguar                     1  Tarantula
1 Iguana              1 Amazonian Umbrella Bird    2  Anteaters
1 Scarlet Macaw       1 Three-Toed Sloth            1  Macaw
4 Tree Porcupines      1 Black-handed Monkey       1  Ocelot
1 Butterfly             1 Blue Morpho Butterfly

Other characters will include two men and one child. These characters will
be acted out by the students.

When class begins
1«  Show the class the map of South America inside "The Great  Kapok
    Tree."  Explain the  make-up of rain forests.

2«  Read the story of "The Great Kapok Tree" to the class.

J«  Have students draw and color a kapok tree on the brown paper.  (If you
    have green construction paper, have students draw  leaves, cut them
    out, and glue or  staple them on the tree.)  The picture will be used as
    background for the role-playing activity.

4«  Have each student choose a picture of one of the rain forest animals or
    insects from the  selection included at the back of this activity. (You
    may prefer to copy or paste the pictures onto more rigid material be-
    fore using them in class.)  Have students color their pictures using the
    illustrations in the  book as examples. When the pictures have been
    colored, have students  cut out and glue or staple their pictures to a
    Popsicle stick to make a puppet.

5«  While the students are making their puppets, tape the picture of the
    kapok tree to a wall in the classroom that has enough room in front of
    it for all the students to sit.

6«  Gather the students with their puppets in front of the tree and read the
    story again. Have  students use their puppets to act out the story as
    you read it. At the  end of the story, discuss the importance of the rain
    forests to  humans and to the Earth's environment.  Use some of the
    following questions to stimulate discussion:

       How tall do you  think the great kapok tree is?
       How can all these animals and insects live in just one tree?
       How are rain forests important to you?
       What can you do to help save our rain forests?
Project A.I.R.E.                              51                      The Rain  Forest Is Alive

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                   SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
                   ^  In making puppets, a number of options exist. The puppet idea and
                       pictures included  can  be modified  depending on the type of class,
                       skills of students, and willingness of the teacher. Modifications include
                       making face masks using colored construction paper and crayons or
                       using papier mache and tempera paints; creating the animals' and in-
                       sects' shapes using glued-together pieces of construction paper; or cre-
                       ating a coloring book.  Pictures of animals and insects cut from maga-
                       zines also may be used in addition to or in place of the included pic-
                       tures.

                   ^  If the students become proficient with the puppet show, consider pre-
                       senting the show for other classes and for parents on a Parents' Night.

                   ~@i  Take students on  a field  trip to see  rain forest exhibits at local zoos,
                       museums, or botanical gardens.

                   ^  Use this activity as a model for adapting other environmental stories,
                       such as those listed in the Warm-up exercise  called "Learning from
                       Stories."

                   ^  For students proficient at reading, encourage them to read all or parts
                       of the story.

                   ^  For higher grades, students need  not make paper puppets. They can
                       use face paints to paint their own faces with a schoolmate or alone.
                       They can paint one hand and arm to resemble the species, and using
                       their painted arm  as the puppet.

                   ^  Encourage students to empathize with their species and  learn more
                       about them.
The Rain Forest Is Alive                      52                             Project A.I.R.E.

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            THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                    BOA CONSTRICTOR
Project A.I.R.E.                   53               The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                      BUMBLE BEE
The Rain Forest Is Alive              54                    Project A.I.R.E.

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                NIGHT MONKEY (MAKE 4)
Project A.I.R.E.                   55              The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                   LEAF CUTTER ANT
The Rain Forest Is Alive              56                   Project A.I.R.E.

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                      TARANTULA
Project A.I.R.E.                   57              The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
               AMAZONIAN UMBRELLA BIRD
The Rain Forest Is Alive              58                   Project A.I.R.E.

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                    SCARLET MACAW
Project A.I.R.E.                  59              The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                       MACAW
The Rain Forest Is Alive              60                   Project A.I.R.E.

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                    COCK OF THE ROCK
Project A.I.R.E.                   61              The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                       TREE FROG
The Rain Forest Is Alive              62                    Project A.I.R.E.

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                                        tra
            THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                      HUMMINGBIRD
Project A.I.R.E.                   63              The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                       JAGUAR
The Rain Forest Is Alive              64                   Project A.I.R.E.

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                       IGUANA
Project A.I.R.E.                   65              The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                  ANTEATER (MAKE 2)
The Rain Forest Is Alive              66                   Project A.I.R.E.

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                                        us
            THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                    THREE-TOED SLOTH
Project A.I.R.E.                   67               The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                TREE PORCUPINE (MAKE 4)
The Rain Forest Is Alive              68                    Project A.I.R.E.

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            THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                       BUTTERFLY
Project A.I.R.E.                   69               The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                        OCELOT
The Rain Forest Is Alive              70                   Project A.I.R.E.

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              THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                    BLUE MORPHO BUTTERFLY
Project A.I.R.E.                   71               The Rain Forest Is Alive

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           THE RAIN FOREST IS ALIVE
                BLACK-HANDED MONKEY
The Rain Forest Is Alive              72                   Project A.I.R.E.

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HOW  GREEN ARE WEI
This activity enables students to audit their homes, their school, and
their community to evaluate steps being taken to prevent or reduce air
pollution.  It is related to the "Seeing the Big Picture" warm-up.  Re-
lated activities include "Lifestyles and the Environment," "Designing a
Clean-Air Environment," "Deciding to Clean the Air," and "Action =
Savings in CO2and $."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
~@i  Understand the importance of energy efficiency in connection with
    air pollution
^  Communicate with families and peers about ways to more effec-
    tively contribute to cutting down on air pollution

SKILLS
    Collecting data
    Observing
    Drawing conclusions
    Making oral presentations

GUEST  PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could includes an air quality engineer, economist, ecolo-
gist, or conservationist.

BACKGROUND
Air pollution has become a major problem in many areas of the United
States. Even though some of this pollution comes from natural sources,
such as volcanoes, forest fires, and other natural occurrences, much of
it can be traced to man-made sources. Air pollution from human sources
is the result of our increasing use of large quantities of fuel to produce
electricity and to power automobiles, trucks, and other vehicles.  Many
of these air pollutants come from burning coal, oil, wood, and other
fuels used to run factories, cars, and  the power plants that generate
heat and light for our homes.

Many air  pollutants are not only harmful, but also tend to be concen-
trated in urban areas where industrial activity is greatest and energy use
by the community is highest.  Even though these areas are affected the
most by pollutants, there are things that individuals and families, schools,
and communities can do to reduce this effect.

Individuals and families can play a role in cutting down on air pollution
by cutting electrical and fuel costs.  Electrical costs can be reduced by
                                                                        RELATED
                                                                      WARM-UP
                                                                                C
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                              MATERIALS
                              "Air Pollution"
                                   "Smog"
                           "Automobiles and
                               Air Pollution"
                               "Clean Fuels"

                          TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                               3rd - 6th with
                            modifications for
                                  7th - 12th

                               DURATION
                           Two class sessions
                            and one week to
                           conduct the audit

                           VOCABULARY
                                  Compact
                                 fluorescent
                            Energy-efficiency
                               Incandescent

                              MATERIALS
                                      Paper
                                     Pencil
                                      Chalk
                                Chalkboard

                            WORKSHEETS
                               INCLUDED
                                         5
Project A.I.R.E.
73
How Green Are We?

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                                                   using fluorescent or compact fluorescent
                                        _^»        bulbs in the home, adjusting the setting
                                       *""VV       of the thermostat during the summer and
                                                   winter, turning off appliances when they
                                                   are not in use, and using alternative
                                                   sources for accomplishing tasks that tra-
                                                   ditionally use electricity, such as drying
                                                   clothes outdoors instead of always using
                                                   the clothes dryer.  Other measures can
                                                   be taken, such as using sunlight instead
                                                   of electricity for warmth and light, buy-
                                                   ing appliances with low wattages and fa-
                                                   vorable efficiency  ratings, and  keeping
                    filters clean on furnaces, air conditioners,  and refrigerators. Fuel costs can
                    be reduced by walking or driving instead  of using the car orby consolidat-
                    ing errands so that only one trip needs to be made to accomplish every-
                    thing.

                    Schools also can cut down on electrical  and fuel costs  by taking similar
                    measures that individuals can take in the home.  Turning off lights at night,
                    using solar energy instead of electricity to  heat the homes, and keeping the
                    temperatures at 68°F (20°C)  in the winter and 77°F (25°C) in the  summer
                    arejust a few measures they can take to conserve energy. In addition, they
                    can alter bus routes to accommodate more students so that fewer buses are
                    on the road and encourage their employees to use public transportation,
                    walk, bike, or carpool to get to work.

                    Communities can help  cut down on air  pollution by participating in the
                    "Green Lights" program, which is a "clean-air" effort sponsored by EPA.
                    The program works with business and industry to help them cut down  on
                    electricity  while at the same time  save money. The program focuses  on
                    upgrading lighting systems and encourages the use of fluorescent and com-
                    pact fluorescent light bulbs, which  last ten times as  long as traditional  in-
                    candescent bulbs and emit more light per watt.  The direct result is im-
                    proved lighting and cost savings for participating businesses, as well as a
                    reduction  in air pollution.  Communities also can reduce air pollution  by
                    promoting use of public transportation, designating High-Occupancy Ve-
                    hicle lanes on major roads during rush-hour, improving bus routes to reach
                    more citizens,  and designating bike routes to  encourage use of bikes  in-
                    stead of cars.  This could reduce harmful emissions from  cars, as well as
                    heavy congestion on major roads.

                    The focus  of this exercise is to learn about energy conservation practices in
                    the home  and  to find out how energy efficient your students' families are.
                    To do this, the students will compile an audit. This audit will be conducted
                    by filling out the student worksheet on conservation practices in the home.
                    (See reading materials on "Air Pollution," "Smog," "Automobiles and  Air
                    Pollution," and "Clean Fuels.")
How Green Are We?                        74                               Project A.I.R.E.

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WHAT TO DO
Class #1
1«  Explain to students the causes of air pollution and how air pollution
    can be reduced through the use of energy efficient appliances and
    light bulbs and fuel efficient cars.

2«  Introduce the exercise by telling the students that they will be con-
    ducting an audit.  Explain to them that the audit will be a formal ex-
    ami Nation of each student's home and family practices related to en-
    ergy use.  Data will be collected and observations will be recorded on
    the student worksheets.

J«  Hand out "Student Worksheet 1" with specific instructions to answer
    all of the questions.  Explain to the class that data collected from the
    audit will  be used as part of a future in-class discussion to assess the
    energy efficiency of their homes and to discuss the importance of en-
    ergy conservation.

4«  Give the students one week to complete the audit of their home. Be
    sure to tell them that they should feel free to make additional observa-
    tions and to collect data related to energy use that is not necessarily on
    the student worksheets.

Class #2
1«  Meet with the class to discuss the data collected  from their audits.

2«  Discuss the importance of energy conservation and how it relates to
    reduced air pollution. Tell students that there are many measures their
    families can take to  conserve energy,  such as purchasing  new appli-
    ances that have energy efficiency ratings or setting the thermostat to
    68°F (20°C ) in the winter and 77°F (25°C) in the summer.

J«  Explain how energy conservation measures not only reduce air pollu-
    tion, but save money as well.

4«  Discuss the importance of fuel conservation  and how it relates to air
    pollution.

5«  Discuss how car emissions contribute to the air pollution problem, but
    that this can be combatted by more people using public transporta-
    tion, carpools, and biking or walking.
SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
^  In addition to the extended audits, have students fill out "Student
    Worksheets 4 and 5," an exercise that enables students to calculate the
    costs of running common appliances in the home and the school.  This
Project A.I.R.E.                             75                          How Green Are We?

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                        exercise could be used as part of a discussion of how reduced electrical
                        costs not only save a family or a school money, but also can reduce air
                        pollution.

                    SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
                    ^  For grades 7-9, have students conduct an audit
                        of the school in addition to auditing their homes.
                        Using "Student Worksheet 2," they can answer
                        questions related to energy conservation by the
                        school and its students and personnel.

                    ^  For grades 10-12, expand the activity to include
                        an audit of the community.  Have students use
                        "Student Worksheet 3." This additional activity will
                        require time to do research outside of class and in-
                        cludes an evaluation of energy use by industry and businesses in the
                        community and the efforts that the community  takes to encourage
                        energy efficient practices by its citizens.
                    £U&dECTdiPI-RElADiNGid Maureen Sangiorgio. "Pollution-Fighting
                        Plants." Prevention, 44 (September 1992) p. 10.

                    Javna, John, et al. 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do To Save the Earth. Andrews
                        and McMeel (1990).

                    What You Can Do To Reduce Air Pollution. Washington, DC: U.S. Environ-
                        mental Protection Agency EPA/450/K-92/002 (1992).

                    Willis, Terri, and Wallace B. Black. Cars: An Environmental Challenge. Children's
                        Press (1992).
How Green Are We?
76
Project A.I.R.E.

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                                                            n
                      HOW  GREEN ARE  WEI
                                 HOME AUDIT
1.   How many light bulbs do you have in your home?.
2.   How many are fluorescent or compact fluorescent bulbs?.

3.   What is the total wattage of all bulbs in your home?  	
4.   What temperature does your family set your thermostat set at in the winter?	
    Summer?	

5.   Is your home properly insulated to help keep the house warm in the winter and cool in the
    summer?	

6.   What locations in the house should be insulated the most?	
7.   Does your family wait until there is a full load of laundry to wash clothes?_

8.   Do you dry washed clothes outside or use a clothes dryer?	

9.   How many miles per gallon does your family's car get?	

10.  How many gallons of gas does your car use in a week?	

11.  What kind of gas does your family use in their car?	
12.  How often do you walk, ride your bike, or use public transportation instead of riding in a car
    per month?	
Project A.I.R.E.                           77                         How Green Are We?

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                       HOW  GREEN ARE WEI
                                 SCHOOL AUDIT

1.   How long do the lights stay on in the school after the students have left for the day?.

2.   Who is responsible for turning off the lights?	
3.  Do you ever see the lights turned on in the evening hours?
4.  What kinds of light bulbs are used in the lighting fixtures at the school?
5.  Are the windows in the school properly insulated?  (Find this out by holding a piece of tissue
    paper or a ribbon next to the windows. If it moves, there is probably a draft, which means
    that cold air is getting in and the school's furnace has to use more electricity to keep the
    school warm.)	

6.  What  are ways to fix the windows? 	
7.  Who is responsible for getting this done?
8.  How do you and your friends get to school each day?
9.  Does the bus system reach enough students so that no one has to rely on other transporta-
    tion? 	

10. If a parent drives you, do other students ride with you?	
11. What alternate modes of energy-efficient transportation could students use to get to school?
12. Can you make arrangements to pick up a friend or several friends to ride to and from school
    with you and your parents?	

13. How do most teachers and other school personnel (such as the principal, teachers, or your
    guidance counselor) get to school each day?	

14. What other forms of transportation  would you suggest them to use for getting to and from
    school each day?	

15. Do you see parents picking up children from school?	

16. If so, do they leave their car running while they wait?	
17. What measures could the school take to discourage drivers from doing this?
How Green Are We?                       78                              Project A.I.R.E.

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                       HOW  GREEN  ARE WEI
                             COMMUNITY AUDIT

1.   What industries in your community are major polluters?	
2.   What federal regulations that relate to air pollution affect their business?.
    Do they abide by these regulations?

    If not, why?	
3.   What local regulations affect their business?.
4.   What other businesses in your community indirectly contribute to air pollution?
5.   What measures do these companies take to cut down on air pollution?.
6.   Are there enough buses and subways to help people get around town easily without having
    to get into their car?	

    Could the routes be changed to accommodate more people?	
7.   Do major streets have bicycle lanes to make it easier for people to ride bikes as an alternative
    to driving their car?	

8.   Does the community sponsor a car pool program?	

    How many people are participating?	
9.   Do the major roads in your community encourage carpooling by designating High-Occu-
    pancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes during rush hour?	

10. Are traffic signals timed to reduce the amount of time that cars sit at lights?	
11.  Are gas stations required to install special devices on pumps to capture gas fumes that can be
    released into the atmosphere, causing air pollution? 	

12.  Does your community require emissions inspections for all registered vehicles?	

    How often are these inspections required?	
Project A.I.R.E.                            79                         How Green Are We?

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                 WORKSHEET S (SCHOOL)
How Green Are We?                   80                          Project A.I.R.E.

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WORKSHEET 6 (HOME)
Project A.I.R.E.                        81                       How Green Are We?

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How Green Are We?                         82                                 Project A.I.R.E.

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ACTION  =  SAVINGS  IN
This activity uses a take-home survey to inventory current use and cal-
culate the savings a household could achieve in dollars and carbon
dioxide (CO2) emissions by undertaking certain conservation measures.
It is related to the "Seeing the Big Picture" warm-up and the "How
Green Are We?," "The Greenhouse Effect," and "Climate and the Green-
house Effect" activities.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
~@i  Identify sources of CO2 emissions
^  Measure savings in CO2 emissions resulting from undertaking en-
    ergy conservation measures
^  Recognize additional dollar savings resulting from lower energy
    consumption

SKILLS
    Collecting data
    Organizing data
    Analyzing and interpreting data
    Computing

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include EPA environmental protection special-
ists or economists.

BACKGROUND
This exercise  requires an understanding and appreciation of the car-
bon cycle and the importance of maintaining global equilibrium be-
tween oxygen and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by-
product of most living things  and many commercial processes.  Or-
ganisms "burn" food (fuel) to release the energy required for life activi-
ties. Humans also burn fossil fuels such as coal and oil for energy. CO2
is a waste product of these processes.  Plants use carbon dioxide for
photosynthesis, but concern is growing that the amount of CO2 is ac-
cumulating in the atmosphere because fossil fuel consumption world-
wide is  outpacing plants' ability to use it.

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere absorbs and traps heat emitted by
the Earth, much as heat is trapped in a greenhouse. The concern of
scientists is that if the amount of CO2 and similar gases in the atmo-
sphere  continues to  rise, the average temperature of the Earth could
                                                                    RELATED
                                                                  WARM-UP
                                                                            C
                              REFER TO
                              READING
                           MATERIALS
                         "The Greenhouse
                                  Effect"
                           "Air Pollution"
                                 "Smog"
                            "Automobiles
                         and Air Pollution"

                       TARGET GRADE
                                 LEVEL
                                8th-12th

                            DURATION
                         40 minutes in first
                           class, plus take-
                          home survey; 40
                         minutes in second
                                    class

                         VOCABULARY
                             Carbon cycle
                           Carbon dioxide
                               Emissions
                               Fossil fuel
                         Greenhouse effect
                           Photosynthesis

                           MATERIALS
                                   Chalk
                              Chalkboard

                          WORKSHEETS
                             INCLUDED
                                      2
Project A.I.R.E.
83
Action = Savings in CO + $

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                     rise 8 to 10°F (4 to 6°C). This is called the "greenhouse effect." While such
                     an increase may sound small, climatologists foresee dramatic impacts on
                     future climates.  For example,  it could cause polar  ice cap melting and a
                     subsequent rise in sea levels, possibly inundating coastal cities and  popula-
                     tions.  In addition, it could cause species that cannot adapt to these relatively
                     sudden climate changes to die out. (See reading materials on "The Green-
                     house Effect," "Air Pollution," "Smog," and "Automobiles and Air Pollution.")

                     There are many simple energy conservation steps an individual can take to
                     help reduce fossil fuel consumption and cut CO2 emissions.  In addition to
                     the benefits conservation provides for the environment, conservation is a
                     money-saver as well and can provide dollar savings through lower fuel
                     bills.  This  activity stresses the both of these types of benefits of energy
                     conservation.

                     WHAT TO  DO
                     First class
                     1«   Review with the students the greenhouse effect concept, including the
                         process by which  global CO2 levels rise and the ramifications for the
                         global climate.

                         Distribute both student worksheets. Explain that the worksheet called
                         "Inventory of Current  Use" will help them collect information about
                         the way they and their families use the family car, lighting, and home
                         heating and cooling systems, and  their recycling practices.  This, in
                         turn, will let them calculate how much CO2 they may be releasing to
                         the atmosphere.  The worksheet called "CO2 and $ Savings" will let
                         them calculate the CO2 their families could save  by taking some simple
                                                    conservation steps.  In  addition, the
                                                    worksheet can be used to calculate how
                                                    much money the family can save by
                                                    conserving.

                                                    J«   Instruct the students  to take the
                                                    worksheets home and fill them out with
                                                    their parents.  Set a date for them to
                                                    bring the completed worksheets back,
                                                    so the class can discuss the results. (If
                                                    you want to calculate the class-wide CO2
                                                    use and savings  potential prior to the
                                                    class discussion,  have students turn in
                                                    the completed worksheets several days
                                                    in advance of the discussion.)

                                                    Second class
                                                    1«   Put the potential conservation mea-
                                                    sures from the "CO2  and $ Savings"
                                                    worksheet on the chalkboard.  Beside
                                                    the list draw two columns.  Label  one
Action = Savings in CO2 + $
84
Project A.I.R.E.

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    "Current" and the other "Future."  With a show of hands, count the
    number of students whose families currently conserve in each of the
    ways listed and record it on the chalkboard beside each item.  Encour-
    age students to share the reasons for taking  (or not taking) specific
    conservation actions.

2«  With a show of hands, count the number of students whose families
    are willing to conserve in the future in each of the ways listed and
    record it on the chalkboard in the "Future" column.  Explore whether
    financial savings are expected to result from these actions.  If so, ask
    how much the students'  families considered  that in the  decision to
    conserve.  Would they have done it anyway? Or were the  prospect of
    financial savings a major motivation?

J«  Calculate  (you may have done this already)  current class-wide CO2
    conservation.  Congratulate them on a job well done. Calculate (you
    may have done this already) potential class-wide savings in CO2
    and in dollars.

5«  Suggest that the class consider a year long (or school-year long) analy-
    sis to see if there is a limit to what they can save as individuals and as a
    group. If students express interest, divide up and coordinate assignments.

SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS (OPTIONAL)
^  For upper grades, encourage students  to make predictions on CO2
    savings that may be achieved by their school, town or city, region, or
    the entire United  States if conservation  steps are undertaken. These
    measures  could include, for example, increased use of mass transit,
    more  efficient insulation and lighting of public buildings,  developing
    High-Occupancy Vehicle  (HOV) programs for local  highways to en-
    courage car pooling, and  restricting traffic in specific areas of the city.
    Results could be presented to the local school board or the city (town)
    council to introduce students to the political aspects of conservation.

SUGGESTED READING
Baker, Susan. First Look at Using Energy. Milwaukee, Wl: Gareth Stevens (1991).

Javna, John, et al. 50 Simple Things Kids Can Do  To Save the Earth. Andrews and
    McMeel (1990).

Klaber, K. A., K. N. Weiss, and J. W. Gallagher. "Charting a Course through the
    Clean Air Act Amendments." National Environmental Journal,  (November
    1993)

U.S. EPA. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air: Program Description. Washington,
    DC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air and Radiation EPA/402/K-93/002 (June 1993).

Yanda, Bill.  Rads, Ergs, and  Cheeseburgers: The Kid's Guide to Energy and the
    Environment. Norton (1991).
Project A.I.R.E.                             85                    Action = Savings in CO + $

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              ACTION  =  SAVINGS IN CO2  +  S
                       INVENTORY OF CURRENT USE
 1) AUTOMOBILES

 Rule of thumb:  Every gallon of gasoline used by an automobile costs approximately $1.10
 and releases about 20 Ibs. of CO2.

 For each automobile in your household, calculate the daily and annual fuel cost and CO2
 emissions:
                                     TABLE 1

Miles per Gallon (MPG)
Cost per Mile (CPM) = $1.1CMVIPG
CO? Emissions per Mile (EPM) = 20 Ibs.-MPG
Daily Miles (DM)
Daily Cost = CPM x DM
Daily Emissions of CO2 = EPM x DM
Annual Miles (AM) = DM x 365 or actual mileage if known
Annual Cost = CPM x AM
Annual Emissions of CO2 = EPM x AM
Auto 1









Auto 2









Auto 3









 Daily commuting:  A bus gets about 8 miles per gallon of gasoline (CPM = $0.14) and releases
 about 22 Ibs. of CO2 per gallon (EPM = 2.75 Ibs.). Using the above daily cost and emission figures
 for Auto 1, calculate the savings if 20 people rode the bus rather drove the same distance in the
 same type of car.

 20 Cars
 Daily Cost (from above) x 20 =
 Daily Emissions (from above) x 20 =
 1 Bus

 Daily Cost = DM (from above) x $0.14 =
 Daily Emissions = DM (from above) x 2.75 Ibs. =
 If you or anyone in your family uses an alternative to driving for daily commuting (for example, to
 work or school), calculate the total annual savings in money and CO2:
Action = Savings in CO2 + $
86
Project A.I.R.E.

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2) ELECTRIC LIGHTING

Rule of thumb: Every kilowatt-hour of electricity consumed costs $0.085 releases 0.5
Ibs. of CO2.

Calculate the CO2  and money you save at home now.

For each 27-watt compact fluorescent light bulb:
       160 Ibs. of CO2 and $58/year                                 	

 For each 18-watt compact fluorescent light bulb:
       120 Ibs. of CO2 and $43/year                                 	
3) HOME HEATING AND COOLING
Type of heating fuel (for example, electric, oil*, natural gas*):
* Dollar figures associated with oil and natural gas savings are not available.

If you turn the heat down in your home overnight or when no one is home:

By 10 degrees, save:  electric:    2,070 Ibs. CO  and $745/year          	

By 5 degrees, save:
oil:
gas:
electric:
oil:
gas:
1,260 Ibs./year
900 Ibs./year
1,000 Ibs. CO2 and $360/year
610 Ibs./year
440 Ibs./year
If your furnace has received tune-up within last year:
                    electric:   1,030 Ibs. CO2 and $371/year
                    oil:       640 Ibs./year
                    gas:      450 Ibs./year

If your air conditioner has received tune-up within last year:
                             220 Ibs. CO2 and $80/year

If doors and windows are insulated (weather-stripping):
                    electric:   1,600 Ibs. CO2 and $576/year
                    oil:       1,000 Ibs./year
                    gas:      700 Ibs./year

If your home water heater has an insulation jacket:
                    electric:   600 Ibs. CO2 and $216/year
                    oil:       360 Ibs./year
                    gas:      260 Ibs./year
Project A.I.R.E.                            87                    Action = Savings in CO + $

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 4) RECYCLING

 What products do you recycle in your home (aluminum cans, steel cans, plastic jars and bottles,
 newspaper)?

 Estimate the number of aluminum and steel cans and the number of glass bottles that you recycle
 annually. If you are not sure, keep track of the number of items recycled in one week and multiply
 by 52.

 Every 10 aluminum or steel cans recycled saves 4 Ibs. of CO2. Every 10 glass bottles recycled saves
 3 Ibs. of CO2. Calculate the amount of CO2 you currently save annually by recycling aluminum,
 steel, and glass:                                                  	

 If you recycle newspapers: 50 Ibs./year                              	

 5) TOTAL

 Add up the amount of CO2 and the money you and your family save every year as a result of the
 steps listed above:

 C02=                                                          	
 $=                                                             	
Action = Savings in CO2 + $                88                              Project A.I.R.E.

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              ACTION  =  SAVINGS IN CO2 + S
                             CO. AND S SAVINGS
1) AUTOMOBILES

CPM (from Table 1 of the Inventory of Current Use):

EPM (from Table 1 of the Inventory of Current Use):
Automobile miles and gasoline consumption may be reduced in a number of ways:
~@i  a person walks, bikes, or takes public transportation instead of driving
^  car errands are combined
^  car pooling

In addition, if your family switches to a more fuel efficient car, it will save money and reduce CO2
emissions.  If your family1 car(s) gets less than  30 miles per gallon (MPG), compare to a car that
gets 30 MPG.  Use the data from Table 1 of the Inventory of Current Use to complete Table 2 for
up to two cars.
                                    TABLE 2

Miles per Gallon (MPG)
Cost per Mile (CPM) = $1.1CMVIPG
CO, Emissions per Mile (EPM) = 20 Ibs.-MPG
Daily Miles (DM)
Daily Cost = CPM x DM
Daily Emissions of CO2 = EPM x DM
Annual Miles (AM) = DM x 365 or actual mileage if known
Annual Cost = CPM x AM
Annual Emissions of CO2 = EPM x AM
Auto 1









Auto 2









Compare
30
$0.037
0.67






How much would you and your family save if you switched to more fuel efficient cars?
$=                                                       	
C02 =
For every annual mile saved from current automobile usage, add one CPM and EPM unit.  Total
your savings in fuel costs and CO2 if you reduce driving and switch to fuel efficient automobiles:
$=                                                       	
C02 =
Project A.I.R.E.
89
Action = Savings in CO + $

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 2) ELECTRICITY

 Rule of thumb:  Every kilowatt-hour of electricity consumed costs $0.085 releases 0.5 Ibs. of
 C02.

 If you replace conventional incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, you will
 save money on electricity and reduce CO2 emissions. (27-watt compact fluorescent bulbs replace
 75-watt incandescent bulbs; 18-watt fluorescent bulbs replace 60-watt incandescent bulbs.)

 For each 27-watt compact fluorescent light bulb:
 160 Ibs. of CO2 and $58/year                                    	
 For each 18-watt compact fluorescent light bulb:
 120 Ibs. of CO2 and $43/year                                    	
 3) HOME HEATING AND COOLING

 Type of heating fuel (for example, electric, oil*, natural gas*):        	
 * Dollar figures associated with oil and natural gas savings are not available.

 If you begin to turn the heat down in your home overnight or when no one is home:
 By 10 degrees, save:
       electric:       2,070 Ibs. CO2 and $745/year                	
       oil:           1,260 Ibs./year                             	
       gas:          900 Ibs./year                               	
 By 5 degrees, save:
       electric:       1,000 Ibs. CO2 and $360/year
       oil:           610 Ibs./year
       gas:          440 Ibs./year
 If your furnace receives a tune-up within the next year:
       electric:       1,030 Ibs. CO2 and $371/year
       oil:           640 Ibs./year
       gas:          450 Ibs./year

 If your air conditioner receives a tune-up within the next year:
       220 Ibs. CO2 and $80/year
 If you insulate doors and windows with weather-stripping:
       electric:       1,600 Ibs. CO2 and $576/year
       oil:           1,000 Ibs./year
       gas:          700 Ibs./year
 If you put an insulation jacket on your home water heater:
       electric:       600 Ibs. CO2 and $216/year
       oil:           360 Ibs./year
       gas:          260 Ibs./year
Action = Savings in CO2 + $                  90                              Project A.I.R.E.

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4) RECYCLING

Every 10 aluminum or steel cans recycled saves 4 Ibs. of CO2.  Every 10 glass bottles recycled
saves 3 Ibs. of CO2. What products can you begin to recycle in your home (aluminum cans, steel
cans, plastic jars and bottles, newspaper)?

Estimate the number of aluminum and steel cans, and the number of glass bottles that you will
recycle annually. If you are not sure, keep track of the number of items recycled in one week and
multiply by 52.

Calculate the amount of CO you can save annually by recycling aluminum, steel, and glass:
If you begin to recycle newspapers:
50 Ibs./year                                                   	

5) TOTAL

Add up the amount of CO2 and the money you and your family could save every year as a result
of the steps listed above:
C02=                                                        	
$=                                                          	
Project A.I.R.E.                            91                   Action = Savings in CO + $

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Action = Savings in CO2 + $                   92                                  Project A.I.R.E.

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BREATHING  ROOM
This activity lets students calculate the volume of air in the classroom
and illustrates the importance of preserving the quality of indoor air.
It also introduces concepts of human exposure, and draws a parallel
between indoor air and ambient air. This activity is related to the warm-
ups called "Read My Data" and "Where's That Odor" and the activity
called "The Radon Game."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
%$  Define some visible or invisible and odorous and non-odorous
    indoor air pollutants
~^t  Describe the link between illness and breathing polluted air
~$i  Explain how the amount of air in a given space is related to the
    size of the space
^  Calculate the amount of air in the classroom and how much air
    people breathe per minute and in one hour

SKILLS
    Observing
    Collecting data
    Organizing data
    Computing
    Drawing conclusions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include air quality engineers, architects,
EPA environmental protection specialists, or heating and ventila-
tion technicians.

BACKGROUND
Most people are aware that outdoor air pollution can damage their
health but may not know that the quality of the air indoors can be
very poor, too. Studies of human exposure to air pollutants indicate
that indoor levels of many pollutants may be two to five times, and
occasionally more than 100 times, higher than outdoor levels.  Com-
parative risk studies performed by EPA have consistently ranked in-
door air pollution among the top five environmental risks to public
health. Carpeting,  manufactured wood products, and combustion
appliances (gas and oil cooking stoves and furnaces, for example)
are the three most important sources of hundreds of indoor air pol-
lutants. Typical examples are methyl methacrylate, aliphatic hydro-
carbons, ketones, formaldehyde, xylene, lead,  bacteria, mold, dust
mites, and known carcinogens like benzene, trichloroethylene, vinyl
                                                                      RELATED
                                                                   WARM-UPS
                                                                            B, F
                               REFER TO
                               READING
                            MATERIALS
                        "Indoor Air Quality"
                           "Health Effects"

                        TARGET GRADE
                                  LEVEL
                                9th - 12th

                             DURATION
                               40 minutes

                         VOCABULARY
                    Odor detection threshold
                          Odor recognition
                                 threshold
                              Tidal volume
                       Total minute volume
                            Ventilation rate

                            MATERIALS
                         Metric conversions
                      Ventilation volumes in
                              human lungs
                          Tape measure for
                         teacher/presenter
                       Large wall clock with
                              second hand
                             Adhesive tape
                                    Paper
                                  Marker

                          WORKSHEETS
                              INCLUDED
                                       1
Project A.I.R.E.
93
Breathing Room

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                    chloride, and tobacco smoke.  Some three hundred volatile organic com-
                    pounds are known, and many of them are common in houses. Some houses
                    are filled with synthetic materials that can release a wide range of hazard-
                    ous chemicals into the air over time. In addition, many common house-
                    hold products, used without proper ventilation, and gases like radon, pose
                    a serious health threat to people—most of whom spend over 90 percent of
                    their time indoors. To make matters worse, while insulating our homes is
                    important for energy conservation, it can decrease air exchange and in-
                    creases pollutant concentrations indoors. The air in tightly sealed homes
                    and buildings can constitute a health hazard.  Air pollutants  enter the body
                    primarily through the lungs, which have a total surface area about 25 times
                    greater than that of the body's skin surface. This large surface area makes
                    the lungs an excellent filter. (Seethe reading materials on "Indoor Air Qual-
                    ity" and "Health Effects.")

                    WHAT TO DO
                    1«  Ask students where they spend most of their time. Have students esti-
                       mate the percentage of time they spend at home,  at school, in the car,
                       and so on.  Have them draw a pie chart on a sheet of paper, illustrating
                       this information.  This process should reveal that most  of their time is
                       spent indoors.  Ask students to estimate how much of a 24-hour day
                       they spend indoors in winter and summer.

                    2«  Discuss the importance of ensuring that the places they spend most of
                       their time are free of pollutants that could  make them sick.  Ask students
                       if they know of any pollutants in their homes that could make them sick.
                       If necessary, prompt students by suggesting, for example, tobacco smoke,
                       dust, particulates, paint thinners, grease cleaners, pesticides,  radon gas
                       seeping into the house through cracks in the basement walls or floor, dry-
                       cleaned clothing and drapes, chemically formulated personal care prod-
                       ucts, faulty heating units, cooking appliances, wood  burning  fireplaces
                       and stoves, some synthetic building materials, wall coverings, carpet, and
                       furniture.

                    J«  Ask students how they would know whether there are pollutants in the
                       air at home or school?  Can such pollutants be seen or smelled?  Dis-
                       cuss the fact that only some indoor air pollutants like tobacco smoke
                       and insecticides are visible or smelly enough to detect easily at certain
                       concentrations.

                    4«  Explain that many pollutants,  such  as radon, have no odor and are
                       invisible.

                    5«  Burn a candle or incense to produce visible and invisible (carbon diox-
                       ide) pollutants.  Ask the students if all pollutants smell bad.  Discuss
                       odor detection threshold (minimum odorant concentration required
                       to perceive the existence of the pollutant) and odor recognition threshold
                       (minimum odorant concentration required to identify the pollutant). For
                       example, ammonia has a detection threshold of 17 parts per million (ppm)
                       and a recognition threshold of 37 ppm. Ask the students if they think that
                       if they can't smell a pollutant it is safe to breathe.
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6«  Explain that concentrations in the air are measured as parts per million
    (ppm), not as percentages (as in the pie chart they drew).

7«  Explain that pollutants in the air can make people sick depending in
    large part on how much air is in the space people occupy, how much
    pollutant is in that space, how much air people breathe, and the sensi-
    tivity of the individual.

8«  Explain that it is often necessary to rely on specialized scientific equip-
    ment to measure the presence and amounts of such substances in the
    air.

9«  Introduce the activity. Hand out the student worksheet. Go over with
    students the formulas on the worksheet for calculating cubic feet and
    to convert cubic feet to liters for easy comparison to human lung vol-
    umes. Tape measurements to the walls to show the height of the room.
    Tape measurements to the floor showing the length and width. (If you
    prefer,  do this before class begins).  Point out the location of the mea-
    surements, and notify the students that they have three minutes to
    gather and record the measurements on their worksheets.  (You also
    could  challenge the students to make these measurements without
    your assistance.)

1O« Ask the students to do the calculations on their worksheets using the
    room measurements they have gathered.

11* Go  over with students the  formula on the worksheet for calculating
    human ventilation volumes.  Ask the students to measure their own
    ventilation rates per minute and  to compare their own rates with the
    average adult rate (14 breaths/minute) at rest. Using the formula and
    assumptions (0.5 L tidal volume) provided on the worksheet, ask the
    students to calculate total minute volume and the ventilation volumes
    over one hour.
12* Compare the calculated ventilation volumes in liters
    with the amount of air in the room and discuss the
    implications to health if air pollutants are present.
    Have students consider the following questions:

    How much air do you and your classmates need to
    breathe comfortably?
    Is there enough air in the room for you and all your
    classmates too?
    Where is the fresh air you need in the classroom com-
    ing from? Is it really fresh?
    If the room were  sealed (no outside air coming into
    the room), how long would you and your classmates
    survive at your current breathing rates?
Project A.I.R.E.
95
Breathing Room

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                   SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
                   ^  Compare ventilation volumes over eight hours with the volume of air
                       in the room.  Facilitate a student discussion of how increased physical
                       activity would affect their exposure to air pollution.

                   SUGGESTED READING
                   Becker, Brenda L. "Is Your Home Hazardous to Your Health." Woman's Day,
                       56 (21 September 1993) p. 36.

                   "Can a Building Really Make You Sick?" University of California, Berkeley
                       Wellness Letter, 7 (July 1991) p. 1.

                   Delaney, Lisa. "The Air Doctors' Report: How to Protect Yourself from Dan-
                       gers Blowing Through Your House." Prevention, 43  (August 1991) p.
                       44.

                   Greenfield, Ellen J.  House Dangerous: Indoor Pollution in Your Home and Of-
                       fice—And What You Can Do About It. New York, NY: Random/Vintage
                       (1987).

                   "How to Improve Indoor Air." University of California, Berkeley Wellness Let-
                       ter, 8 (February 1992) p. 6.

                   "Indoor Air Pollution." Mayo Clinic Health Letter, 11 (November 1993) p. 4.

                   Lecard, Marc. "Better Homes in Gardens." Sierra, 78 (January 1993) p. 20.

                   Rifkin, Janey  M. "When Breathing is Hazardous to Your Health." Let's Live,
                       59 (August 1991) p. 62.

                   Safran, Claire.  "Schools That Make Kids Sick."  Good Housekeeping, 214
                       (March 1992)  p. 176.

                   Turiel, Isaac.  Indoor Air Quality and Human Health. Stanford, CA: Stanford
                       University Press (1985).
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                INDOOR AIR MEASUREMENT
Measure Indoor Air Volumes
1.   Follow your instructor's directions for collecting the measurements of the room.
2.   Put the room measurements in their appropriate places on the lines below and calculate the
    volume of air in the room in cubic feet:
       Length,
                (ft) x Width.
(ft) x Height,
(ft) =
ft3
3.   To convert cubic feet to liters (L), multiply by 28.317.
Calculate Human Ventilation Volumes
1.
Use the following formula to calculate the ventilation volume per minute (total minute vol-
ume). Assume the tidal volume is 0.5 L of air for each breath.  Follow your instructor's direc-
tions for measuring the number of breaths you take per minute (ventilation rate). Put your
measurement and the 0.5 L tidal volume in their appropriate places on the lines below and
calculate total minute volume:
     Tidal volume
                   (L) x Ventilation rate_
          (breaths/min) =
            L/min
2.   Multiply the total minute volume by 60 minutes to obtain the volume of air breathed during
    one hour.

Compare Volumes
1.   Compare the volume of air you breathe in one hour with the total volume of air in the
    room.

2.   Calculate how much air is breathed by all those in the room. Multiply the total hourly
    volume by the number of people in the room, and compare this value to the total volume
    of air in the  room
            TAKE NOTE!
            This exercise does not consider the exchange of fresh air in an enclosure depend-
            ing on the ventilation capacity. Be sure to discuss this with your students so that
            they do not get the impression that their classroom is hazardous to their health.
Project A.I.R.E.
                                    97
                               Breathing Room

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Breathing Room                               98                                 Project A.I.R.E.

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                       w  ©


RADON  GAME

This activity lets students test what they may have heard or know
about radon and challenges them to think about why radon is differ-
ent in many ways from other indoor air pollutants. It is related to the
"Making Decisions" warm-up. Related activities include "How Green
Are We?" and "Breathing Room."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
    Identify the special aspects of radon pollution that distinguish it
    from other indoor air pollutants
    Identify correct from incorrect information about radon
    Devise methods for minimizing indoor radon levels

SKILLS
^  Comparing
    Organizing
    Explaining
    Developing solutions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include EPA environmental protection special-
ists, heating and ventilation technicians or engineers, or radon detec-
tion experts.

BACKGROUND
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, produced from the
radioactive decay of uranium in rocks such as granite.  Uranium and
radon gas are widely distributed throughout the Earth's crust in virtu-
ally all types of rock and soil.  Radon continually escapes from soils
and rock into the atmosphere. Most of the radon in homes enters
through cracks and holes in the foundation. Other sources include
drinking water  (especially well water) and bricks and concrete.  As
radon decays, it emits radioactive particles that could damage lung
tissue and lead to lung cancer. An estimated 7,000 to 30,000 radon-
related deaths occur each year in the United States (about 10 percent
of the lung cancer deaths attributed to cigarette smoking).  Radon
detection is easy and inexpensive. The  most common home detec-
tors are the charcoal canister, alpha track monitor, and electret ion
chamber. Common mitigation strategies include natural ventilation
(such as open windows) on the lower levels, forced ventilation with or
without heat recovery into (never out  of) the  lower levels, sealing
entry  points  (such as foundation cracks and floor drains), and soil
ventilation.
                                 RELATED
                               WARM-UP
                                         G

                                REFER TO
                                READING
                               MATERIAL
                                   "Radon"
                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                   7th - 8th

                              DURATION
                       20 minutes (additional
                        time may be needed
                         for the presenter to
                        illustrate some of the
                        answers, and display
                       equipment if possible)

                           VOCABULARY
                               Radioactivity
                             Radon detector
                                   Vacuum

                             MATERIALS
                       Student worksheet (or
                         large chalkboard on
                       which the information
                              can be listed)

                            WORKSHEETS
                               INCLUDED
                                         1
 Project A.I.R.E.
99
Radon Game

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                      Because the radon problem involves large numbers of private homes and
                      varies greatly in concentration in these homes, the EPA and the states work
                      together to address the problem. EPA developed a non-regulatory, technical
                      assistance and  public information program in 1985 to help citizens make
                      informed decisions about radon. This program involves the states and over
                      a dozen National organizations, such as the American Lung Association. In
                      1989, EPA published guidance for radon testing in schools and began a
                      survey of schools Nationwide. Legislation requires federal agencies to test
                      for radon in its own  buildings.  EPA developed the  New Construction
                      Demonstration Program and standards for use by states to develop building
                      codes and issued guidance on techniques to reduce radon in schools. EPA
                      also is involved in a voluntary program to test the proficiency of companies
                      that measure indoor radon levels. (See reading material on "Radon.")

                      WHAT TO  DO
                      1«   Hand out  a student worksheet  or write the following points on the
                          chalkboard (mix the true and false information if you use a blackboard):

                      2«  Split the class into groups of two to five students, and give each stu-
                          dent  a worksheet.  Give each group  one extra worksheet and appoint
                          someone in  each group to record the group's answers on the extra
                          worksheet. Ask each group to put a check mark by all of the informa-
                          tion points on the worksheet that are true for radon.  Discourage them
               True for Radon

     Not synthetic (occurs naturally)
     Can't see, smell, or taste at any concentration
     Radioactive gas
     Comes from rocks and soil
     Enters the house through cracks and  holes in
     the foundation/basement
     Is in the water supply, especially well water
     Building materials like concrete and brick can
     be a source of the pollutant
     Accumulates in basements and lower floors
     Levels of the pollutant in one house can vary a
     lot from the house next door
     Levels of the pollutant tend to be higher indoors
     when its cold outside
     Emits particles (radioactive decay products) that
     damage lungs
     Causes lung damage that leads to lung cancer
     Only cigarette smoking causes more lung can-
     cer deaths than this pollutant
     Testing indoor air for the pollutant is easy and
     inexpensive
     Using exhaust fans (stove top/bathroom) tends
     to increase the pollutant levels in the house
     Using a fireplace tends to increase the pollutant
     levels in the house
                 NOT True for Radon

        Synthetic (human-made) air pollutant
        Made by manufacturing  or refining it from other
        chemicals
        Smells vaguely like ammonia
        Smells slightly metallic
        Can be produced in the house by a faulty heating
        unit like a furnace
        Comes from petroleum
        Can  enter indoor air from  improperly sealed
        canisters stored in the house
        Found in some household cleaners
        Levels of the pollutant tend to be higher indoors
        when the temperature outside is 70-80° F (21 -27°C)
        Health problems occur when the pollutant is used
        without proper ventilation
        Causes liver damage that leads to liver cancer
        Causes vomiting, diarrhea,  sweating, cramps,
        coughing, and nerve disorders
        Damages kidneys
        Irritates eyes
        Radon can only be detected or tested by using spe-
        cial equipment operated  by professionals
        Using exhaust fans that vent to the outdoors (stove
        top/bathroom) tends to decrease the pollutant lev-
        els in the house
        Using a fireplace tends to decrease pollutant levels
        in the house
Radon Game
WO
Project A.I.R.E.

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    from guessing without a good explaNation. (If you have to use a chalk-
    board to list the information points, ask students to write their answers
    on paper.)

J«  After each group has completed its list, ask one of the groups to read its
    first entry and explain the reason for the answer.  Continue querying
    each group until all information points have been discussed. Ask the
    students why venting air out of a house, such as through a bathroom
    exhaust fan or fireplace, may increase indoor radon levels.  Discuss the
    difference between natural ventilation, such as opening windows, and
    forcing air out of the house.  You may keep score and determine a
    winner among the groups.

4«  Ask the students to devise some methods for minimizing radon levels in
    a house or other building.

SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
^  Hand out copies of the attached map  of the United States that indi-
    cates where the greatest levels of radon are found.   Have the students
    discuss what the map  means. For example, should  homes in areas with
    low levels of radon be tested?

^  Invite a radon detection expert to demonstrate radon detection equip-
    ment and devices used to lower indoor radon levels.

^  Build a model (using smoke, glass, or a plastic cylinder and a balloon)
    to illustrate the effect of a vacuum on the amount of radon seeping into
    a house.

SUGGESTED READING
Indoor Radon and Its Hazards. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press (1987).

Lafavore,  Michael. Radon: The Invisible  Threat (What It Is, How To Keep  Your
    House Safe). Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press (1987).

"Radon Detectors: How to Find out if Your  House Has  a Radon Problem."
    Consumer Reports, 52 (July 1987) p. 440.

"Radon: Risk or Rubbish?" Medical Update, 14 (March 1991) p. 2.

Silberner,  Joanne. "What To Do about Radon." U.S. News and World Report,
    105 (26 September 1988) p. 62.

Stone, Richard. "New Radon Survey: No Smoking Gun."  Science  (28 January
    1994)

U.S. EPA. A Citizen's Guide to Radon. Washington, DC:  U.S. EPA, Office of Air
    and Radiation EPA/402/K-92/001 (1992).
 Project A.I.R.E.                            101                               Radon Game

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                                           RADON
                                POLLUTANT DESCRIPTIONS

Place a check mark by the following points that apply to radon. If you guess, you should have a good reason for your
answer.

	1.   Synthetic (human-made) gas
	2.   Comes from automobile exhaust
	3.   Radioactive gas
	4.   Made by manufacturing or refining it from other chemicals
	5.   Smells vaguely like ammonia
	6.   Smells slightly metallic
	7.   Can't see, smell, or taste at any concentration
	8.   Comes from rocks and soil
	9.   Comes from petroleum
	10.  Can be produced in the house by a faulty heating unit like a furnace
	11.  Enters the house through  cracks and holes in the foundation/basement
	12.  Can enter the house from improperly sealed canisters stored in the house
	13.  Found in some household cleaners
	14.  Is in the water supply, especially well water
	15.  Building materials like concrete and brick can be a source of the pollutant
	16.  Accumulates in basements and  lower floors
	17.  Levels of the pollutant in one house can vary a lot from the house next door
	18.  Levels of the pollutant tend to be  higher indoors when it's cold outside
	19.  Levels of the pollutant tend to be higher indoors when the outside temperature is 70-80° F (21-27° C)
	20.  Health problems occur when the pollutant is used without proper ventilation
	21.  Only cigarette smoking causes more lung  cancer deaths than this pollutant
	22.  Causes liver damage that leads to liver cancer
	23.  Only carbon tetrachloride causes more deaths from liver disease than this pollutant
	24.  Causes vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, cramps, coughing, and nerve disorders
	25.  Emits particles (radioactive decay  products) that damage lungs
	26.  Damages kidneys
	27.  Causes lung damage that could lead to lung cancer
	28.  Irritates eyes
	29.  Testing indoor air for the pollutant is easy  and  inexpensive
	30.  Radon can only be detected/tested by using special equipment operated by porfessionals
	31.  Using exhaust fans (stove  top/bathroom) tends to decrease the pollutant levels in the house
	32.  Using exhaust fans (stove  top/bathroom) tends to increase the pollutant levels in the house
	33.  Using a fireplace tends to  increase the pollutant levels in the house
	34.  Using a fireplace tends to  decrease the pollutant levels in the house
Radon Game                                  102                                    Project A.I.R.E.

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 Project A.I.R.E.
                                 103
Radon Game

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                           THE  RADON  CAME
                       FACTS ABOUT THE MAP OF  AREAS
                   WITH POTENTIALLY HIGH RADON LEVELS
PURPOSE:
•   EPA is required to identify and list areas of U.S. with the potential for elevated indoor radon levels.

•   EPA's Map of Radon Zones assigns each of the 3,141 counties in the United States to one of three zones
    based on radon potential:

    - Zone 1 counties have a predicted average indoor screening level greater than 4 pCi/L (dark grey)
    - Zone 2 counties have a predicted average screening level between 2 and 4 pCi/L (light grey)
    - Zone 3 counties have a predicted average screening level less than 2 pCi/L (white)

AUDIENCES:
•   National, state, and local governments and organizations - to assist in targeting their radon program
    activities and resources.

•   Building code officials - to help  determine areas  that are the highest priority for adopting radon-
    resistant building practices.

MAP DEVELOPMENT:
•   Five factors were used to determine radon  potential:
    - indoor radon measurements, geology, aerial radioactivity, soil permeability and foundation type

•   Radon potential assessment is based on geologic provinces:
    - Radon Index Matrix is the quantitative assessment of radon potential
    - Confidence Index Matrix shows  the quantity and  quality of the data used to assess radon potential

•   Geologic provinces were adapted to county boundaries for the Map of Radon Zones.

MAP DOCUMENTATION:
•   Detailed booklets are available for each state that discuss the matrices and data used.

•   State booklets are an essential tool in employing the map's information.

IMPORTANT  POINTS:
•   All homes should test for radon, regardless of geographic location or zone desigNation.

•   There are many thousands of individual homes with elevated radon levels in Zones 2 and 3. Elevated
    levels can be found in Zone 2 and Zone 3 counties.

•   All users of the map should carefully review the map documentation for information on within-county
    variations in radon potential and supplement the map with locally available information before making
    any decisions.

•   The map is  not to be used instead of testing during real estate transactions.
Radon Game                              104                                Project A.I.R.E.

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INVENTING  A
MONITOR
This activity lets students brainstorm and problem-solve to find meth-
ods for collecting particulates as a first step in finding what pollutants
may be in their classroom or outdoors.  It is related to the "Where's
That Odor?" warm-up.  Related activities include "Breathing Room,"
"Finding Sources of Air Pollution," and "Is Your Air Clean?"

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Explain the importance of monitoring air pollution
^  Describe various methods that  could be used to  monitor air
    pollution
^  Participate in problem-solving to determine the  most effective
    method for particulate matter (as an example)

SKILLS
    Defining problems
    Comparing ideas
    Drawing conclusions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could  include air quality engineers,  environmental
scientists, EPA air quality monitoring specialists, state or local air qual-
ity managers, or toxicologists.  (Give preference to presenters who can
display and describe some monitoring equipment for particulates).

BACKGROUND
Air pollution is caused by many types of contaminants, including chemi-
cals, microorganisms, and  particulate matter.  Particulate matter in-
cludes visible and invisible particles of liquids and solids, including dust,
smoke, and other matter carried in the air. Particulate matter contain-
ing acids (dry deposition) can deteriorate buildings and other  struc-
tures.  Particulate matter larger than about ten micrometers (microns)
in diameter is filtered out in the nose or caught by mucus in the respi-
ratory tract and propelled  up  to the throat by tiny hairs (cilia).  Al-
though the cilia can be damaged by air pollutants, the particulate matter
below ten microns (PM-10) in diameter is of greatest concern to
human health, because it is not filtered and thus reaches the critical
areas of the lungs where oxygen exchange takes  place and where
there are no cilia or  mucus to remove it. (See reading material on
"Air Pollution.")
                                                                        RELATED
                                                                      WARM-UP
                                                                                F

                                                                       REFER TO
                                                                       READING
                                                                      MATERIAL
                                                                     "Air Pollution"
                                                                TARGET GRADE
                                                                          LEVEL
                                                                        6th - 12th

                                                                     DURATION
                                                                       45 minutes

                                                                 VOCABULARY
                                                                 Carbon monoxide
                                                                             Cilia
                                                                             Lead
                                                               Micrometer (micron)
                                                                       Monitoring
                                                                           Mucus
                                                                   Nitrogen oxides
                                                                           Ozone
                                                                 Particulate matter
                                                                   Sulphur dioxide
                                                              Toxic Release Inventory

                                                                    MATERIALS
                                                                       Chalkboard
                                                                            Chalk
                                                             Monitoring equipment
                                                                       (if available)
                                                                            Paper
                                                                           Pencils
Project A.I.R.E.
                                      105
Inventing a Monitor

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                    The most common source of PM-10 and other suspended particles in air is
                    smoke from commercial and industrial combustion sources, forest fires, burn-
                    ing leaves, fireplaces, wood stoves, diesel engines, and poorly maintained
                    motor vehicles.  Dust is another important source of particulate matter.
                    Wind storms carry dust and fine sand. Farmland, when plowed or left ex-
                    posed to wind, construction sites of all kinds (including highway sites), and
                    logging and  mining operations are major sources of dust.

                    WHAT  TO DO
                    1«   Explain the importance of monitoring to determine if air pollutants are
                        being released. The air around us is more polluted than ever before,
                        and with the increasing number of pollution sources, especially in ur-
                        ban and industrialized areas, reducing the risks to human health and
                        the environment presents a major challenge to  society. In order to
                        design and evaluate pollution reduction  programs,  it is necessary to
                        determine which air pollutants are reaching harmful levels.  An exten-
                        sive monitoring and emissions tracking program  is in place for ambi-
                        ent carbon monoxide, lead, nitrous oxides, sulphur dioxide, ozone,
                        and PM-10,  but there is no similar program for the emissions of 189
                        hazardous air pollutants considered toxic to people. The EPA's Toxic
                        Release  Inventory (TRI) is currently the  only database available for as-
                        sessing trends in emissions of these air toxics.  The TRI requires certain
                        facilities emitting above specified quantities of air toxics to submit an-
                        nual  reports to EPA on their releases. Some non-manufacturing facili-
                        ties such as  mining, electric utilities, and mobile sources are not re-
                        quired to report.  Monitoring equipment generally is expensive and
                        difficult  to maintain.  Consequently, cost-effective air monitoring de-
                        vices are needed.

                    2«  Explain  that for the purposes of this activity students are  to assume
                        they  have to design a monitoring device  to collect particulate matter
                        (PM) in  the air in this classroom.  Ask what would be their first step?
                        Remember, many pollutants cannot be easily seen or smelled. If nec-
                        essary, prompt the discussion with some of the following questions:
                        What kind of particulate matter is likely to  be in the classroom—smoke,
                        dust?
                        How is it likely to enter the classroom air—via the ventilation system,
                        windows, peoples' clothing?
                        Is there  likely to be  more than one type  of particulate  matter  in the
                        classroom air?
                        Would it be  necessary to monitor them all,  or would monitoring one
                        be adequate to draw conclusions about the others?
                        Could molds, bacteria, and other pollutants affect monitoring results?
                        Could the humidity (high or low) of the air in  the room  affect the
                        accuracy of the results?
                        Would it be necessary to control the movement of air through the room?
                        If so,  how would you do it?
Inventing a Monitor                       106                                Project A.I.R.E.

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J«  Help students brainstorm different ideas for collecting particulates (for
    example, filters, collection dishes, electrostatic materials).  Record their
    ideas on the chalkboard. Encourage students to explain how and why
    their suggestions would work. (Their suggested designs should show
    consideration of the size of the particulate matter they are trying to
    monitor,  how to eliminate bogus materials, and how the particulate
    matter collected in the monitor could be measured—for example, with
    a microscope, by washing  and counting electronically, or through
    chemical analysis.)

4«  Poll the rest of the class to see if they agree or disagree with each
    suggestion. Ask them to explain why.  When you have elicited two or
    three good, supportable alternatives, ask the class to choose the best
    one and ask several to explain their choices.

5«  When some consensus has been reached on the best method for col-
    lecting particulates, ask if one of the chosen monitoring devices will be
    sufficient to get accurate results. What would be the advantage, if any,
    in locating monitors in several locations around the classroom? Record
    students' answers on the chalkboard.

6«  Have students draw the outline of the classroom  on a sheet of paper.
    Instruct them to mark the locations of the classroom's doors and win-
    dows. Assuming they would use the monitor chosen by the class, have
    students mark on this  "map"  where they
    think the device, or devices, should be placed
    to ensure the best results.  When the activity
    is completed, encourage students to  share
    their suggestions and explain why. (You may
    want to  draw a classroom "map"  on the
    chalkboard for students to use in presenting
    their ideas.)

7«  Have students discuss the alternatives pre-
    sented and choose the best one.  Suggest
    that  accurate monitoring only yields part of
    the answer to what is in the air.

8«  Help the students examine what they can do
    to reduce particulate air pollution  in their
    classroom.  If necessary, prompt the discus-
    sion  by asking the following questions:
    What factors influence the quality of the air
    in the classroom? For example, what kinds
    of pollutants do humans generate? Which
    of those do we bring into the indoor envi-
    ronment?  Can all of these pollutants be
    measured?  Can you or the school  change
    any of those factors?
Project A.I.R.E.
107
Inventing a Monitor

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                   9«  Record answers on the chalkboard.  (Make sure the following sugges-
                        tions are brought out in the discussion: Change the filters in the ven-
                        tilation system; clean the ventilation system regularly; close the win-
                        dows on high smog days (not relevant for many schools with sealed
                        windows); increase the air humidity.

                   SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
                   ^  If a light microscope is available and the classroom  has an electronic
                        device like a computer or television that is used often, place a glass
                        slide on the electronic device (for example, on top of the computer
                        monitor) for at least three days  before the lesson.  (Electronic devices
                        tend to attract particulates.) During the lesson, examine the slide under
                        the microscope, and discuss the magnification limits of the microscope.

                   SUGGESTED READING
                   Gutnik,  Martin J. The Challenge of Clean Air. Hillside, NJ: Enslow Company
                        (1990).
Inventing a Monitor                      108                               Project A.I.R.E.

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 DESIGNING A  CLEAN
 AIR  ENVIRONMENT
This activity gives students an opportunity to explore how air pollution
in a city can be minimized by the arrangement of living areas, working
areas, and landscaping. It is related to the warm-up called "Making
Decisions" and the activities "How Green Are We?," "Deciding to Clean
the Air," and "Lifestyles and the Environment."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Recognize that the arrangement of living areas, workplaces, and
    landscaping affects air pollution levels
^  Realize that necessary choices are not always clear cut
^  Understand that automobile  exhaust and the power  produc-
    tion required to run air conditioning units contribute to air pollution

SKILLS
^  Making decisions
^  Hypothesizing

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters for this activity could include architects,  EPA environ-
mental protection specialists, or urban planners

BACKGROUND
By giving some thought to the location of different required elements
of a city, we can reduce the use of polluting fuels and use environmen-
tal processes to aid us  in  our goals. If the places we go to often are
near one another, we drive less and pollute the air less.

The nitrogen oxides (NOx) and  carbon dioxide  (CO2) in automobile
exhaust contribute to the greenhouse effect.  The global  temperature
rise that is a predicted result of the greenhouse effect could cause ma-
jor shifts in global weather patterns and a rise  in sea-levels.  These
same components of automobile exhaust are also the ingredients that
react with sunlight to form "smog."

By planting trees near  highways, CO2  in  automobile exhaust will be
absorbed by the leaves and turned into oxygen through photosynthe-
sis.  By planting trees and shrubs to shade the roofs, windows, and air
conditioning units of our homes in the summer, we don't need to run
the air conditioner as much. This, in turn, reduces air  pollution be-
cause it reduces electricity generation at power plants.  Power plants
                                                                    RELATED
                                                                  WARM-UP
                                                                             G
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                             MATERIALS
                              "Air Pollution"
                                   "Smog"
                              "Automobiles
                           and Air Pollution"

                          TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                  4th - 9th

                              DURATION
                           30 minutes in first
                          class; 40 minutes in
                           second class with
                             guest presenter

                           VOCABULARY
                               Carbon cycle
                                 Electricity
                                    Energy
                           Greenhouse effect
                                  Planning
                                     Smog

                             MATERIALS
                                     Chalk
                                Chalkboard
                                    Pencils

                            WORKSHEETS
                               INCLUDED
                                         1
Project A.I.R.E.
109
Designing a Clean Air Environment

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                    that run on fossil fuels typically emit many pollutants, including sulphur
                    dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and suspended particulates.
                    Perhaps more  importantly, burning fossil fuels or wood produces large
                    amounts of carbon dioxide, which contributes to the greenhouse effect.

                    While designing a city with these considerations in mind, students will see
                    that their choices have important consequences and that not all problems
                    have satisfactory solutions. This is related to real tradeoffs  such as short-
                    term gain versus long-term benefit and convenience versus  conservation.

                    WHAT TO DO
                        Explain that the students are going to do two related activities.  They
                        will work alone on the first project. Hand out a copy of the attached
                        worksheet to each student and ask them to cut out and arrange the
                        elements from the worksheet  on another piece of paper to layout a
                        "city" that looks like the one they live in.  For this exercise, define the
                        boundaries of the city:  the  neighborhood near the school, each
                        student's home neighborhood, or the whole city. You may want to get
                        them  started by identifying the relative location of a  few important
                        landmarks or highways. You can decide which of the elements on the
                        worksheet the students are to use.

                    2.  While the  students are working, lead a discussion about how much
                        time families must spend driving around  in their cars because of the
                        distances between places. Does the layout of the city contribute to air
                        pollution by separating, for example, working and living areas? Stu-
                        dents can analyze their city layouts as the discussion progresses. Have
                        them save their layouts for the second part of the exercise on another
                        day.

                    J«  For the second exercise, you or the guest presenter will need to review
                        with students the concepts of the carbon cycle, the greenhouse effect,
                        smog, and how the production and use of energy (heating, electricity,
                        cooling) causes air pollution. This second exercise will be done in small
                        groups.  Form the groups and hand  out a clean worksheet to each
                        group.  Explain that the students  are going to pretend to be urban
                        planners. Urban planners are professionals who determine the arrange-
                        ment of roads, buildings, and parks in a city. Students are to design a
                        city from the ground up.  When deciding on the placement of the
                        necessary elements and choosing  energy sources,  their primary
                        goal will be to minimize air pollution.

                    J«  After the students have designed their "perfect" cities, lead a discus-
                        sion with the goal of coming to consensus on the best location  for
                        each element. Layout the elements on the students' worksheets. Erase
                        and reposition the elements as students debate the best arrangement
                        of elements.
Designing a Clean Air Environment          110                               Project A.I.R.E.

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4«  Compare the drawings of the actual cities from the first class to the
    "perfect" cites designed in the second.  Have the class discuss the fol-
    lowing questions:

•   How are the two cities different?

•   What are some reasons you would want the workplaces—factory, of-
    fice building—near homes?  Far from homes? (They are more conve-
    nient if they are nearby. The farther  away, the more pollution caused
    by cars.)

    Does the city have a public transportation system? Why or why not?
    Do people use them? Why or why not?

•   What are the advantages of urban  areas and their high population
    density? Disadvantages? (Fewer trees per person need to be cut down
    in order to build apartments as compared to suburban single family
    homes.  Smog is more apparent in downtown areas.)

    What are advantages of  suburban areas and their lower population
    density?  Disadvantages? (Residents have to use cars more  often for
    everyday activities, but residents get  to have yards, trees, landscaping,
    gardens.)

•   Is there a limit to the size a city can be for it to be efficient?

•   How can the placement  of trees help lower the use of utilities? (For
    example, by shading buildings to lower the use of air conditioning and
    as windbreaks to lower use of heating.)

SUGGESTED  EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
^  Students may enjoy trying this activity using commercially available
    computer programs like Sim City™. While the program allows the user
    to design a city, numerous built-in modules reflect the effects of the
    user's decisions. For example, if the user builds a freeway, air pollution
    levels rise and are displayed  in a pop-up graph. If the user builds ten
    new office buildings, smoke starts belching from the stacks at the power
    plant.

SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
^  For higher grades, expand the project to be a  multi-session activity,
    exploring in more depth  each of the pollutant sources and reduction
    measures discussed in the activity. A different guest presenter could be
    invited to discuss each topic.

^  For grades 8 and 9, have students collect data to support the  decisions
    they made during the discussions in the second exercise. For example,
    they may locate actual figures on energy savings from not running the
    air conditioner, data on air pollution from cars,  and case studies that
Project A.I.R.E.                           111              Designing a Clean Air Environment

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                        show how the use of public transportation reduces pollution or ways
                        factories can cut emissions. Have them make presentations on their
                        findings.

                    SUGGESTED READING
                    Bruning, Nancy.  Cities Against Nature. Chicago, IL: Children's Press (1992).

                    Shaffer, Carolyn. City Safaris: A Sierra Club Explorer's Guide to Urban Adven-
                         tures for Grownups and Kids. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books (1987).
Designing a Clean Air Environment          112                                Project A.I.R.E.

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   DESIGNING A CLEAN AIR ENVIRONMENT
  single-family
     homes
 apartments &
  townhouses
bike trails
    schools
highways
                                  LX~"\V
                            office buildings
                       industries
                       playgrounds &
                         ballfields
                      gas stations
                      DRESS BARN  PEOPLES  AUID PORTS
                           stores &
                        shopping malls
                                                   walking &
                                                  jogging trails
                                            trees, parks, forests
                                                  JLJ/VTSJ
                                                  restaurants
                                                  bus & subway
                                                     routes
Project A.I.R.E.
                         113
Designing a Clean Air Environment

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Designing a Clean Air Environment          114                                 Project A.I.R.E.

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FINDING  SOURCES  OF
AIR  POLLUTION
This activity calls for students to locate on a map the potential areas of
air pollution in their community.  It is related to the "Prediction" and
"Where's That Odor?" warm-ups.  Related activities include "Is Your
Air Clean?" and "Deciding to Clean the Air."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Identify the possible sources and types of air pollution in the com-
    munity based on observations
~@i  Predict and locate on a map potential areas of pollution  in the
    community

SKILLS
^  Researching
    Observing
    Organizing information
    Predicting

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include EPA enforcement specialists, EPA envi-
ronmental protection specialists,  EPA policy analysts, lawyers, or state
air pollution permit writers.

BACKGROUND
The atmosphere is necessary for plants, animals, and people to live.
Air pollution is any visible or invisible particle or gas found in the air
that is not part of the normal composition of air. Natural air pollution
caused by volcanoes, forest fires, and other  natural occurrences has
always existed. Naturally produced pollutants are  present in greater
amounts than those of human origin. They do not present as serious a
problem as man-made pollutants, however, because they are dispersed
over large areas, and many are less harmful than man-made ones.  Air
pollution from man-made sources is the result of our increasing  use of
large quantities of fuel to produce  electricity and to power automo-
biles, trucks, and other vehicles and industrial activity.  Not only are
some of these pollutants very harmful, but also they tend to be con-
centrated in urban areas where many people live and work. Many of
these air pollutants come from burning the coal, oil, wood, and other
fuels we use to run factories, cars, and the power plants that generate
heat and light for our homes.  Six have been designated "criteria"
pollutants:  particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, car-
                           ,     RELATED
                              WARM-UP
                                        A

                                REFER TO
                                READING
                             MATERIALS
                             "Air Pollution"
                            "Health Effects"
                                  "Smog"
                           "Acid Deposition"
                        "Automobiles and Air
                                 Pollution"
                         "The Clean Air Act"

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                 8th - 12th

                              DURATION
                                40 minutes

                           VOCABULARY
                         Ambient air quality
                                 standards
                           Carbon monoxide
                               Clean Air Act
                           Criteria pollutants
                                      Lead
                            Nitrogen oxides
                                    Ozone
                           Particulate matter
                            Sulphur dioxide
                               Toxic Release
                                 Inventory

                             MATERIALS
                        A large street map of
                            the community
                         Push pins in several
                                    colors
                                Chalkboard
                                     Chalk

                            WORKSHEETS
                               INCLUDED
                                        1
Project A.I.R.E.
115
Finding Sources of Air Pollution

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                     bon monoxide, ozone, and lead. (A table describing these pollutants, their
                     sources, and their effects is included as a student handout.) The EPA has set
                     National ambient air quality standards to protect health and welfare in con-
                     nection with these pollutants. When these standards are exceeded, the EPA
                     can take steps to control pollutant emissions.  (See  reading materials on
                     "Air Pollution," "Health Effects," "Smog," "Acid Deposition," "Automobiles
                     and Air Pollution," and "The Clean Air Act.")

                     WHAT TO  DO
                     1«   Explain that in a  few days  (use specific date if you have it) someone
                         who works for the EPA is coming to visit the class. To prepare for the
                         visit, the class is going  to talk about pollution, air pollution in particu-
                         lar.

                     2«  Pass out the worksheets.  Ask the students  if they think there is air
                         pollution  in your community.  If they say yes,  ask if air pollution is
                         always visible. If they say no, ask how they can tell it's there. What are
                         some of the signs of pollution that  they might see?  Record the signs
                         of air pollution suggested by students on the chalkboard and instruct
                         students to list them on their worksheets under the "Signs of Pollu-
                         tion"  heading.   If necessary, prompt the brainstorming  by listing
                         "smoke" as a sign of pollution.  The completed list should include smoke,
                         odors, smog, stunted or discolored plants and trees, and damaged or
                         discolored buildings and statues.
                                                  J«  Ask the students if air pollution affects
                                                  people.  If they say yes, ask how. Record
                                                  students' answers on the chalkboard and
                                                  instruct them to list them on  their
                                                  worksheets under the " Health Effects of Pol-
                                                  lution" heading.   (If necessary, prompt
                                                  students by  asking if they know anyone
                                                  who has asthma or other breathing prob-
                                                  lems. The criteria air pollutants can cause
                                                  or contribute to problems like these, plus
                                                  headaches; irritated eyes; and brain,  heart,
                                                  kidney, and lung damage.)

                                                  4«  Ask students where they think the
                                                  pollution in your community comes from.
                                                  What are the  sources  of the pollution?
                                                  Record the sources suggested by students
                                                  on the chalkboard and instruct students to
                                                  list them on their worksheets under the
                                                  "Sources of Pollution" heading.  (If neces-
                                                  sary, prompt students by listing "cars and
                                                  trucks" as the first example. The completed
                                                  list should include cars and trucks, local in-
                                                  dustries, and local electric power plants, at
Finding Sources of Air Pollution
116
Project A.I.R.E.

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    a minimum.  Other possibilities could include dry cleaners, gas sta-
    tions, and windblown dust.)

5«  Place the map on an easel or hang it on a wall where it can be seen by
    the students. Point out significant landmarks such as the school, the
    city/town hall, major factories, and shopping malls.  Ask students to
    help you mark on the map some of the possible sources of air pollution
    in the community. Explain that the map will be used as a starting point
    for discussion when the EPA official comes to visit.

6«  Divide the class into  teams.  Assign  each  team the responsibility for
    gathering information outside of class to help refine the map by add-
    ing other pollution sources and  finding out what pollutants various
    sources release. Suggest that the local  health department, planning
    department, or environmental board (office) can provide information
    on sources of pollution in the community.  In addition, access to EPA's
    Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) may be available in your area.  The TRI is
    a database containing information about the amount of toxic chemi-
    cals released into the air by manufacturing and other facilities.  Infor-
    mation on the libraries and other facilities in your area with access to
    the database can be obtained  by calling the Emergency Planning and
    Community Right-To-Know Hotline, 1-800-535-0202.

7«  Select (or let the class nominate) students to make short presentations
    on the information the students have developed about signs, effects,
    and sources of air pollution at  the beginning of the EPA official's visit.

SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS  (OPTIONAL)
^  Assign each team the responsibility of designing an attractive way (pos-
    sibly a poster) to present the lists developed in today's class. For ex-
    ample, one  team  could  prepare  a poster on signs of pollution; one
    team could  work on health effects  of pollution; the third team on
    sources.

SUGGESTED READING
Air and Water: Concerns for Planet Earth (VHS videotape). United Learning (1991).

Bailey, Donna. What Can We Do About  Noise and Fumes. New York: Franklin
    Watts (1991).

Baines, John. Conserving Our World, Conserving the Atmosphere. Austin, TX: Steck-
    Vaughn Company (1990).

Becklake, John. Thinking for the Future: Pollution. New York: Gloucester Press
    (1990).

Gutnik, Martin J. The Challenge of Clean Air. Hillside, NJ: Enslow Company (1990).

Hare, Tony. Save Our Earth: Acid Rain. New York: Gloucester Press (1990).
Project A.I.R.E.                            117                 Finding Sources of Air Pollution

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                     Leinwand, Gerald. The Environment: American Issues.  New York: Facts on
                         File (1990).

                     Moos, Shawna. "Pollution-Prevention Power to the People (EPA's Toxics
                         Release Inventory Database)." Technology Review, 95 (October 1992)
                         p. 15.

                     O'Neill, Catherine. "Cleaner Air! Cough! Wheeze! Gasp!" Washington Post
                         (Washington Health), 115 (6 October 1992) p. WH18.

                     Penny, Malcolm. Our World: Pollution and Conservation. Englewood Cliffs,
                         NJ: Silver Burdette Press (1988).

                     Stille, Darlene. The Ozone Hole. Chicago: Children's Press (1991).
Finding Sources of Air Pollution              118                                Project A.I.R.E.

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                                          fl
        FINDING SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION
SIGNS OF POLLUTION










HEALTH EFFECTS OF POLLUTION








SOURCES OF POLLUTION








Project A.I.R.E.
119
Finding Sources of Air Pollution

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         FINDING SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION
               MAJOR MAN-MADE AIR POLLUTANTS
POLLUTANT
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Lead (Pb)

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)



Ozone (O3)

Particulate matter
Sulphur dioxide
(S02)




DESCRIPTION
• colorless, odorless gas
• metallic element

• gaseous compounds
made up of nitrogen and
oxygen



• gaseous pollutant

• very small particles of
soot, dust, or other
matter, including tiny
droplets of liquids
• gaseous compound
made up of sulphur
and oxygen




SOURCES
• vehicles burning gasoline
• indoor sources, including
kerosene, wood-burning,
natural gas, coal, or
wood-burning stoves and
heaters
• vehicles burning leaded
gasoline
• metal refineries

• vehicles
• power plants
burning fossil fuels
• coal-burning stoves



• vehicle exhaust and
certain other fumes
• formed from other air
pollutants in the presence
of sunlight

• diesel engines
• power plants
• industries
• windblown dust
• wood stoves
• coal-burning power
plants and industries
• coal-burning stoves
• refineries




SIGNS/
EFFECTS
• headaches,
reduced mental
alertness, death
• heart damage
• brain and kidney
damage
• contaminated
crops and livestock
• lung disorder
• react in atmosphere
to form acid rain
• combines to
deteriorate build-
ings and statues
• adds to forest
damage
• form ozone & other
pollutants (smog)
• lung disorder
• eye irritation
• respiratory tract
problems
• damages vegeta-
tion
• smog
• lung disorder
• eye irritation
• damages crops
• reduces visibility
• discolors buildings
and statues
• eye irritation
• lung damage
• kills aquatic life
• reacts in atmo-
sphere to form
acid rain
• damages forests
• deteriorates
buildings and
statues
Finding Sources of Air Pollution
120
Project A.I.R.E.

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IS  YOUR  AIR  CLEAN!
This activity is a follow-up to the activity called "Finding Sources of Air
Pollution" in  which students located potential areas of air pollution
on a map of the community. It calls on students to develop an action
plan for investigating air pollution in the community more thoroughly
and communicating their findings to different audiences. The activ-
ity begins with student presentations of the map and  information
developed  in the earlier activity.  It also is related to the warm-ups
called "Seeing the Big Picture" and "Making Decisions."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
~^t  Identify local, state, and federal resources for obtaining accurate
    information on air pollution
%$  Identify local laws governing air pollution control
^  Identify individuals and organizations responsible for enforcing
    air pollution control in the community
~$i  Plan how to determine what the local government is doing to
    enforce air pollution  control  laws and what local industry  and
    other organizations are doing to control air pollution

SKILLS
    Researching
    Observing
    Investigating
    Developing and carrying out plans
    Making oral presentations

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include EPA environmental protection special-
ists, EPA policy analysts, or EPA risk assessment specialists.

BACKGROUND
Every citizen has the ability to participate in building and protecting
his or her community. But, in order to do so, citizens must be aware
of the problems that exist.  Citizens also  must have some sense of
confidence that they can have an impact. Knowing how to recognize
pollution and identify its  sources is the first step in protecting the
environment in a community.  This awareness, however, serves little
purpose if students do not also learn to use research and investigation
skills to verify their assumptions. Determining who controls sources
of pollution and finding out what they are doing to limit adverse im-
pacts are important next steps in becoming a responsible citizen. (See
reading materials on "Air Pollution," "Health Effects," "Smog," "Acid
                                                                   ,     RELATED
                                                                     WARM-UPS
                                                                              C, G

                                                                        REFER TO
                                                                        READING
                                                                     MATERIALS
                                                                     "Air Pollution"
                                                                    "Health Effects"
                                                                           "Smog"
                                                                  "Acid Deposition"
                                                               "Automobiles and Air
                                                                         Pollution"
                                                                 "The Clean Air Act"

                                                                 TARGET  GRADE
                                                                           LEVEL
                                                                           8th-12th

                                                                      DURATION
                                                                   45 minutes (with
                                                                 possible extensions)

                                                                  VOCABULARY
                                                                           Pollution
                                                                       Toxic Release
                                                                          Inventory

                                                                     MATERIALS
                                                               The map prepared by
                                                               students in the warm-
                                                                        up exercise
                                                                   An easel or some
                                                                   other method of
                                                                displaying the poster
                                                                             Chalk
                                                                        Chalkboard
Project A.I.R.E.
                                      121
Is Your Air Clean?

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                    Deposition," "Automobiles and Air Pollution," and "The Clean Air Act.")

                    WHAT TO DO
                    Before class begins
                    1«   Display the map prepared by the students in the "Finding Sources of
                        Air Pollution" activity.

                    2«  Call on the three previously selected students for 5-minute presenta-
                        tions.  These presentations are to describe the signs, health effects, and
                        possible sources of pollution in the community and the reasoning that
                        led students to these conclusions.

                    J«   Following the presentations, begin the discussion by commenting on
                        (encouraging,  offering constructive criticism) their observation and
                        mapping effort.

                    4«  Now that they have developed a theory about the pollution sources in
                        the community, ask how they would investigate and verify their infor-
                        mation.  How would they find out what is being done to control the
                        pollution? Through this discussion students will identify some specific
                        ways to carry out a more detailed investigation of the air pollution in
                        the community. Most of the work involved may have to be done out-
                        side of class.

                    5«   Ask for a student volunteer to record ideas contributed during the dis-
                        cussion  on the chalkboard, and ask for a second volunteer to record
                        them on paper, so they can be copied and distributed to the class later.

                    6«  To begin, ask who in the community students would expect to know
                        about air pollution.  (If necessary, prompt  students by asking if the
                        local health department  would know.) The completed list might in-
                        clude the local health department,  the local library, doctors, someone
                        who works for the EPA, the local Heart or Lung Association, and others.

                    7«  Ask students which of these knowledgeable people they would want
                        to talk to.  Do they think any one of these people would be able to
                        answer all their questions?  If not,  how many others would  they talk
                        with?  Ask what they would  do if they got different, conflicting infor-
                        mation from their sources.  How would they decide what is correct?
                        (The point  here is to reinforce that it may be necessary to  examine
                        information from several sources to sort out the most definitive infor-
                        mation.) You may want to take this opportunity to describe the Toxic
                        Release Inventory (see Glossary for definition) and discuss how it might
                        be used in this investigation. A sample record from the TRI is shown on
                        Student Handout 1.

                    8«  Besides verifying that the information on the map is correct,  ask what
                        other kinds of information they would want to get? For example, would
Is Your Air Clean?                         122                              Project A.I.R.E.

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    it help to know if the government has made any laws requiring the
    control of air pollution?  How would they find out what laws exist?
    What would they need to know about them? (The list should include
    items such as what the requirements are, who is responsible for enforc-
    ing them, how they are being enforced, the penalties for breaking the
    laws, if there are plans for making the laws stricter or more lenient, and
    why these changes are being considered.)

9«  Ask how they would go about finding out what currently is being done
    to control air pollution.  (If necessary, prompt students by suggesting
    they might interview some of the polluters they have identified.)  En-
    courage them to suggest others who might be doing things to control
    pollution? (The point here is to help students recognize that the local
    government and other organizations may  be taking other actions to
    control pollution in the community and, therefore, they should be in-
    terviewed also.)

1O« Ask how they would use  all the information once they have gathered
    it. Who would they want to tell about it? What would be the best,
    most  effective way to present the information?  (The point here is to
    elicit some ideas for presentation formats. The list might include writ-
    ing a  report, writing an article for the school newspaper, designing a
    display and putting it in  the school lobby  or taking it to local  malls,
    making a presentation at a school assembly or at a PTA meeting.)

11* Explain that through this discussion the students have begun to de-
    velop an "action plan."   At this point, suggest that copies of the plan
    be made and distributed  to all students in the class and that they dis-
    cuss (in class on another day) which, if any, of the actions they want to
    pursue.

SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
^  Assign a student or a team of students to write an article for the school
    newspaper about the visit from the EPA representative and the action
    plan the class developed.

^  Divide the class into teams and assign each team a part of the "action
    plan" to pursue. (For example, one team would be responsible for in-
    terviewing potentially polluting industries and others about what kinds
    and how much pollutants they release and about what they are doing
    to control releases. Another team  would research existing pollution
    control laws. Another would interview appropriate sources about what
    the local government is doing to control pollution. When their work is
    completed, the same EPA employee could be invited back to hear each
    team  report on their activities.  Teams also could be tasked to present
    the information in one of the formats suggested during the class dis-
    cussion (see step 10).
Project A.I.R.E.                           123                            Is Your Air Clean?

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                   SUGGESTED READING
                   Edelson, Edward. Clean Air. New York: Chelsea House Publishers (1992).

                   Moos, Shawna. "Pollution-Prevention  Power to the People (EPA's Toxics
                        Release Inventory Database)."  Technology Review, 95 (October 1992)
                        p. 15.

                   O'Neill, Catherine. "Cleaner Air! Cough! Wheeze! Gasp!" Washington Post
                        (Washington Health), 115 (6 October 1992) p. WH18.
Is Your Air Clean?
124
Project A.I.R.E.

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                                                                L!
                         IS  YOUR  AIR  CLEAN?
                              SAMPLE RECORD FROM
                        THE TOXIC RELEASE  INVENTORY
FACN - 20851SMITH2355L
FNM - XXX PAINT WORKS CO.
FAD - 0000 SMITH AVE.
FCTY - ROCKVILLE
FST - MD (MARYLAND)
FZIP-20851-1234
PUBC - JOHN SMITH
TEL -(301)555-5555
SIC - (2851) Paints and allied products
SIC -NA
FDBN - 00-324-1234
NAME - ETHYLENE GLYCOL
RN - 107-21-1
MUSE - NO DATA
FUSE - (2b) As a formulation component
OUSE - NO DATA
MAX - (03) 1,000-9,999 lbs.(5,OOOM)
o AIRNR- NON-POINT AIR RELEASE  : 11 -499 Ibs. (250m)/rep yr - 1991
o AIRNB- BASIS OF ESTIMATE    : (O) Other Approaches
o AIRPR- POINT AIR RELEASE    : 1-10 Ibs. (5m)/rep yr - 1991
o AIRPB- BASIS OF ESTIMATE    : (O) Other Approaches
AIRT-255 Ibs./repyr-1991
o RSTR - RECEIVING STREAM    : NA
oWR -WATER RELEASE      : 0/0 Ibs./repyr-1991
oWB - BASIS OF ESTIMATE    : NA
o SPER - PERCENT FROM STORMWATER : 0.00%
o RSTR - RECEIVING STREAM    : NA
oWR -WATER RELEASE      : 0/0 Ibs./repyr-1991
oWB - BASIS OF ESTIMATE    : NA
o SPER - PERCENT FROM STORMWATER : 0.00%
o RSTR - RECEIVING STREAM    : NA
oWR -WATER RELEASE      : 0/0 Ibs./repyr-1991
oWB - BASIS OF ESTIMATE    : NA
o SPER - PERCENT FROM STORMWATER : 0.00%
WT -0 Ibs./repyr-1991
o LANDM- DISPOSAL METHOD    : (D02) On-site Landfill
o LANDR- LAND RELEASE      : 0/0 Ibs./rep yr -1991
o LANDB- BASIS OF ESTIMATE   : NA
o LANDM- DISPOSAL METHOD    : (DOS) Land Treatment/Application/Farming
o LANDR- LAND RELEASE      : 0/0 Ibs./rep yr -1991
o LANDB- BASIS OF ESTIMATE   : NA
o LANDM- DISPOSAL METHOD    : (DOS) Surface Impoundment
o LANDR- LAND RELEASE      : 0/0 Ibs./rep yr -1991
o LANDB- BASIS OF ESTIMATE   : NA
o LANDM- DISPOSAL METHOD    : (D99) Other Disposal
o LANDR- LAND RELEASE      : 0/0 Ibs./rep yr -1991
o LANDB- BASIS OF ESTIMATE   : NA
LANDT-0 Ibs./repyr-1991
o UTNJR- UNDERGROUND INJECTION   : 0/0 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
 RELEASE
o UTNJB- BASIS OF ESTIMATE   : NA
UTNJT-0 Ibs./repyr-1991
Project A.I.R.E.                            125                             Is Your Air Clean?

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ERELT- 255 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
o TWNM - NAME         : NA
o TWNM - NAME         : NA
POTWT- 0/0 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
o OTR - OFF-SITE LOCATION TRANSFER: 0 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
OLOCT-0 Ibs./rep yr-1991

o QREL - QUANTITY RELEASED
o ONRV - ON-SITE ENERGY RECOVERY
o OFRV - OFF-SITE ENERGY RECOVERY
o ONCC - ON-SITE RECYCLING
o OFCC - OFF-SITE RECYCLING
o ONTRT- ON-SITE TREATMENT
o OFTRT- OFF-SITE TREATMENT

    PRIOR(90)   CURRENT(91) % CHANGE
QREL
ONRV|
OFRV|
ONCC|
OFCC
ONTRTI
OFTRTI
156
0
0
0
0
0
0
| 123
0
0 1
0
o 1
1 o
1 o
|-21.15%|
0.00%|
0.00%|
0.00%|
0.00%|
| 0.00%|
0.00%|
TOTAL   156
123
-21.15%
o SRRTP- SOURCE REDUCTION & RECYCLING TOTAL PRIOR YEAR  : 156 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
o SRRTC- SOURCE REDUCTION & RECYCLING TOTAL CURRENT YEAR : 123 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
o SRRTN- SOURCE REDUCTION & RECYCLING TOTAL NEXT YEAR  :  100 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
o SRRTF- SOURCE REDUCTION & RECYCLING TOTAL FUTURE YEAR  : 80 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
ARELT- 0 Ibs./rep yr - 1991
FCO -MONTGOMERY
Is Your Air Clean?
                        126
                                                    Project A.I.R.E.

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ACID  RAIN  AND  PLANTS
This activity lets students observe the effects of acid rain on plants in a
simulated experiment using vinegar or lemon water. The results from
the experiment could be used as an introductory presentation to an
EPA representative who is an expert on acid rain. The representative
could then follow up with a presentation to the class about EPA's ef-
forts to reduce acid rain in the United States and internationally. This
activity is related  to the "Seeing the Big Picture"  warm-up and the
"Finding Sources of Air Pollution" and "Is Your Air Clean?" activities.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Observe the impact of acids on plants
^  Recognize how acid rain can affect the environment

SKILLS
^  Observing
^  Comparing

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include EPA acid rain specialists, botanists, chem-
ists, ecologists, EPA environmental protection specialists, or environmen-
tal scientists.

BACKGROUND
Acid  rain is precipitation that is more acidic than normal. The terms
"acidic" and "basic" (or "alkaline") are used to describe two chemical
extremes, much like hot and cold describe two temperature extremes.
Mixing acids and bases can cancel out their extreme effects, much like
mixing hot and cold water moderate the temperature.  A substance
that is neither acidic or basic is called "neutral." The pH scale measures
how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH lower than 7 is acidic; higher than 7 is basic.
Pure water is neutral. But when chemicals are mixed with water, the
mixture can become either acidic or basic. For example, lemon juice is
acidic;  the pH of  lemonade is between 2  and  3.  Ammonia, on the
other hand, is alkaline; its pH is just over 11.  Each unit of pH is ten
times greater or smaller than the next unit. For example, a pH of 5 is 100
times more acidic than a pH of 7. This is called a "logarithmic" scale.

Air pollution is a major cause of acid rain. When precipitation becomes
more acidic than normal, it can damage soil, water, building materials,
plants,  animals, and humans. The effects of acid rain may not  be im-
mediately apparent in all places. For example, at a glance, a lake might
                                                                        RELATED
                                                                      WARM-UP
                                                                                C
                                  REFER TO
                                  READING
                               MATERIALS
                               "Air Pollution"
                            "Acid  Deposition"

                                   TARGET
                             GRADE LEVEL
                                    4th - 6th

                                DURATION
                            45 minutes (with
                                     possible
                                  extensions)

                            VOCABULARY
                                    Acid rain
                                      Acidic
                                     Alkaline
                                        Base
                                   Logarithm
                                     Neutral
                                         pH
                                 Precipitation

                               MATERIALS
                              Three small and
                               healthy potted
                                plants, all the
                                   same type
                              Three large jars
                                    with lids
                                     Vinegar
                                      Water
                               Measuring cup
                                Masking tape
                                       Paper
                                        Pen
Project A.I.R.E.
127
Acid Raid and Plants

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                   look clear and beautiful.  But when you look closely, you might begin to see
                   some problems.  Where are the fish? Why are there few or no plants?
                   Many lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, the upper midwest,
                   and many streams in the Appalachian Mountains,  in particular, have expe-
                   rienced losses of aquatic life.  Nature can cope with some changes in acid-
                   ity. Areas with limestone (which reacts with acid)  are able to neutralize
                   acidic rainfall so the damage  is reduced. However, large parts of the world
                   do not have this acid rain coping ability and, in any case, no area can handle
                   very large amounts of acid rain.

                   Acid rain can affect  plants in  many ways.  It takes  nutrients away from the
                   soil so that plants can't  grow.  It weakens trees so that they become dis-
                   eased more easily. Branches at the top of trees lose their leaves. Tree leaves
                   might be an unusual color. Trees may not have as  many leaves or may lose
                   their leaves earlier each year.  Eventually, trees die.  In this experiment, with
                   potted plants, the more acid rain in the plant water, the sooner a plant dies.
                   The plants are watered with solutions that have a lower pH than most rain-
                   fall. (See reading materials on "Air Pollution" and "Acid Deposition.")

                   WHAT TO DO
                   1«  Divide the class into 3 teams. Give each group a 1-gallon container (a
                       milk container would work). Have one team fill their container with 1
                       gallon (3.8 liters) of tap water. They can use a  piece of masking tape to
                       label the container "tap  water."

                   2« Have another team fill their container with 1 pint (0.5 liters) of vinegar
                       and 7 pints (3.3 liters) of tap water. Have them use a piece of masking
                       tape to label the container "slightly acidic."

                   J«  Have the third team fill their container with 2 pints (0.9 liters) of vin-
                       egar and 6  pints (2.8 liters) of tap water.   Have them use a piece of
                       masking tape to label the container "very acidic."

                   4« Give each team one of the plants and  have them label it the same as
                       their container. Make each team responsible for watering their plant
                       from the container with  the matching label.

                   5«  Place all three plants in the same spot so that they get the same amount
                       of light.  Students  should water the  plants when they need  it (every
                       two to four days). Make sure the plants get the same amount of water
                       in each watering cycle.   Have team members examine their plants
                       every day and write down what they look like—what color they are, if
                       their leaves are dropping, whether they look healthy.

                   6« Continue this activity for two to three weeks.  Then have students ex-
                       amine the  plants and  discuss the results of the experiment.  What
                       happened to the plants watered with acid solutions? How long did it
                       take to see the effects of the acid? Do the plants differ in color?  If so,
                       why?  Which plant showed the most effects?
Acid Raid and Plants                      128                               Project A.I.R.E.

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SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
~@i  If you live in an area affected by acid rain, take students on a field trip
    and have students write down what they observe about the area. Can
    they see dying or dead plants or trees, stained or eroded building sur-
    faces or statues?  If there is a lake or stream nearby, can they see any
    wildlife? Discuss ways that the area may be saved. Discuss the sources
    of the pollution that may have contributed to the acid rain that falls in
    the area.

5^  In a follow-up class with an EPA representative working on acid rain,
    have the students present their results from the experiment. The EPA
    representative could discuss the results and provide some additional
    information on acid rain.

SUGGESTED READING
Acid Rain Kids Handbook. Washington, DC:  National Geographic Society
    (1988).

Acid Rain: The Invisible Threat (VHS videotape). Scott Resources (1992).

Baines, John. Conserving Our World, Conserving the Atmosphere. Austin, TX:
    Steck-Vaughn Company (1990).
Berreby, David. "The Parasol Effect."
    Discover, 14 (July 1993) p. 44.

Boyle,  Robert  H., and  Alexander  R.
    Boyle. Acid  Rain.  New York:
    Schocken Books (1983).

Gay, Kathlyn.  Acid Rain.  New York:
    Franklin Watts (1983).

Gould, Roy. Going Sour: Science and
    Politics of Acid Rain. Cambridge,
    MA: Birkhauser Boston,  Inc.
    (1985).

Gutnik, Martin J. The Challenge of Clean
    Air. Hillside, NJ: Enslow Company
    (1990).

Hare, Tony. Save Our Earth: Acid Rain.
    New  York:  Gloucester Press
    (1990).

Lucas, Eileen.  Acid Rain. Chicago:
    Children's  Press (1991).
Project A.I.R.E.
129
Acid Raid and Plants

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                    McCormick, John. Acid Rain. Gloucester Press (1986).

                    Miller, Christina G., and Louise A. Berry. Acid Rain: A Sourcebook for Young
                        People. New York: Julian Messner (1986).

                    O'Neill, Catherine. "Saving Statues from Acid Rain." Washington Post (Wash-
                        ington Health), 116 (6 April 1993) p. WH18.

                    Pringle, Laurence P. Rain of Trouble: The Science and Politics of Acid Rain. New
                        York,  NY: Macmillan (1988).

                    Problems of Conservation: Acid Rain (VMS videotape). EBE (1990).

                    Stubbs, Harriet, Mary Lou Klinkhammer, and Marsha Knittig. Acid Rain Reader.
                        Raleigh, NC: Acid Rain Foundation (1989).
Acid Raid and Plants                       130                                Project A.I.R.E.

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THE GREENHOUSE  EFFECT
This activity introduces the concepts of climate change and the "green-
house effect." While global warming may sound great, thinking through
the possible effects upon plants, sea levels, and the world's food sup-
ply may cause the students to better appreciate how complex a role
the atmosphere has in our lives.  It is related to the "Read My Data"
and "Tracking Air Quality" warm-ups and the "Climate and the Green-
house Effect" activity.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Understand that  the atmosphere traps heat and makes the sur-
    face of the Earth warm enough for life
^  Recognize that air pollution can cause a  rise in temperature and
    ecological decline
^  Recognize that human activities can cause air pollution

SKILLS
^  Observing
    Comparing
    Interpreting test results
    Drawing conclusions

GUEST PRESENTER
Guest presenters could include air quality engineers, chemists, ecolo-
gists, meteorologists,  or physicists.

BACKGROUND
The greenhouse effect is a term scientists use to describe the trapping
of heat on the surface  of the Earth by the atmosphere, a normal atmos-
pheric occurrence.  As a result of this, the Earth's surface is about 53°F
(12°C) warmer than it would be without this trapping.  This effect is
magnified by certain greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, most nota-
bly carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and chlorofluorocar-
bons (CFCs). Methane is a product of natural decay from living (or
once-living) things; nitrogen oxides are generally a result of man-made
burning and automobile and similar internal-combustion engines; and
CFCs are a class of chemicals used often in air conditioners, refrigera-
tors, and as the pressurizing gas in aerosol spray cans. While all of
these pollutants contribute to air pollution, and contribute to the green-
house effect, carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas.

Scientists believe that concentrations of greenhouse gases in  the at-
mosphere will double  over the next hundred years, producing average
                                                                      RELATED
                                                                   WARM-UPS
                                                                            B, E
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                             MATERIALS
                             "Air Pollution"
                           "The Greenhouse
                                    Effect"

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                  5th - 7th

                              DURATION
                       20 minutes (suggested
                         optional extensions
                           can further time).

                           VOCABULARY
                                    Albedo
                             Carbon dioxide
                        Chlorofluorocarbons
                           Greenhouse effect
                            Greenhouse gas
                                  Methane
                            Nitrogen oxides

                             MATERIALS
                        Two clean, dry, wide-
                        mouth glass jars with
                                lids (such as
                            mayonnaisejars)
                        Heavy aluminum foil
                        Piece of dark cloth or
                          construction paper
                        Stop watch or watch
                         with a second hand
                              Two identical
                        thermometers that fit
                       into the jars ("Instant-
                                read" meat
                         thermometers work
                                     well)
                                     Paper
                                    Pencils
Project A.I.R.E.
131
Climate and the Greenhouse Effect

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                    temperature rises of about 8 to 10°F (4 to 6°C). While most scientists believe
                    that the greenhouse effect will gradually warm up the Earth's climate, there
                    are some who believe that increased cloud cover will eventually reflect more
                    sunlight away from the Earth  and lower the average temperature.  This
                    increased  reflectivity is called the Earth's albedo.  (See reading material on
                    "Air Pollution" and "The Greenhouse Effect.")
                    WHAT TO DO
                        Divide the class into two work groups. Give each group one of thejars.
                        Have each group put a piece of dark cloth or paper into theirjar. Have
                        them put a thermometer in each jar so that the scale can be read
                        through the side.  Have one group screw the cover onto theirjar. Have
                        the other group leave theirjar open.
                        Have the groups place thejars, on their
                        sides, in the sunshine so that their bot-
                        toms face the sun.

                        Instruct each group to watch the ther-
                        mometers and have one person from the
                        group record the temperature shown in
                        theirjar every minute. Instruct the group
                        with the closed jar to announce when the
                        thermometer in  theirjar levels  off or
                        reaches 140°F (60°C). Stop the experi-
                        ment at that point.
                    4«  Have students discuss the following
                        questions:
                        In which jar does the temperature rise
                        fastest?
                        How much faster did it rise? Why?
                        How is this like a greenhouse?
                        How is this like the real world's atmosphere?
                        What was the  role of the dark cloth in thejars?

                    SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
                    ^  Have students wrap one of thejars with aluminum foil, leaving a clear
                        area away from the sun to read the thermometer. Repeat the experi-
                        ment, and compare the times to reach 140°F (60°C).  Discuss why it
                        took longer.

                    ^  Have students try the experiment on a cloudy day.  Discuss the differ-
                        ence in results. Have them try the experiment without the dark cloths
                        and discuss the difference in results.
Climate and the Greenhouse Effect
132
Project A.I.R.E.

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SUGGESTED READING
Berreby, David. "The Parasol Effect." Discover, 14 (July 1993) p. 44.

Bright, Michael. The Greenhouse Effect. New York: Gloucester Press (1991).

Gay, Kathlyn. Ozone. New York, NY: Franklin Watts (1989).

Morgan, J. "Greenhouse America." Scientific American  (January 1989) p.
    20.

Jones, P. D., and T. M. L. Wigley. "Global Warming Trends." Scientific Ameri-
    can  (August 1990) p. 89.

Nardo, Don. Ozone. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books (1991).

Schneider, S. H. "The Changing Climate." Scientific American (September
    1989) p. 89.
 Project A.I.R.E.                            133              Climate and the Greenhouse Effect

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Climate and the Greenhouse Effect           134                                  Project A.I.R.E.

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CLIMATE  AND THE
GREENHOUSE  EFFECT
This module is intended to help educators guide an experiment to
demonstrate the greenhouse effect and to stimulate discussion among
students on the effects of global climate changes upon the environ-
ment. While global warming may sound great ("endless summer"),
thinking through the possible effects upon plants, sea levels, and the
world's food supply may cause the students to better appreciate how
complex a role the atmosphere plays in the way we live.  This activity
is related to the warm-ups called "Prediction"  and "Tracking Air Qual-
ity."  Related activities include "The Greenhouse Effect."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Recognize that relatively small  changes to our environment can
    stimulate significant climate changes
^  Understand that the "scientific method" is a process of testing
    hypotheses
^  Appreciate that global climate  changes will affect us far beyond
    simply warming the outdoor air temperatures

SKILLS
^  Observing
^  Forming hypotheses
5^  Predicting
^  Graphing

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include chemists, ecologists, environmental
scientists, EPA environmental protection specialists, meteorologists,
or physicists.

BACKGROUND
Most of the electromagnetic energy (light) radiated from the sun that
reaches the Earth passes through our atmosphere and is absorbed at
the surface. Some of the incoming,  or "incident," light waves are
reflected away by clouds in the atmosphere or light-colored surface
features such as large snow or ice fields. The energy that is absorbed
is converted in part to heat energy that is re-radiated back into the
atmosphere. Heat energy waves are not visible, and are generally in
the infrared (long-wavelength) portion of the spectrum compared to
visible light. Physical laws show that atmospheric constituents—nota-
bly water vapor and carbon dioxide gas—that are transparent to vis-
                                                                     RELATED
                                                                   WARM-UP
                                                                           A, E
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                               MATERIAL
                         "Greenhouse Effect"
                              "Air Pollution"

                          TARGET GRADE
                                    LEVEL
                                  8th - 12th

                               DURATION
                          35 minutes (or two
                            class periods with
                                extensions)

                           VOCABULARY
                                   Baseline
                             Carbon dioxide
                                Convection
                                    Energy
                           Greenhouse effect
                                 Hypothesis
                                  Prediction
                            Scientific method
                                Temperature

                              MATERIALS
                           A clean, dry, wide-
                        mouth glass jar with a
                          tight cap (such as a
                             mayonnaise jar)
                        Thermometer capable
                         of fitting into the jar
                          (meat thermometer
                                works well)
                         Heavy aluminum foil
                         Stop watch (or clock
                         with a second hand)
                            Wooden kitchen
                                   matches
                                Graph paper
                             Colored pencils
Project A.I.R.E.
135
Climate and the Greenhouse Effect

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                   ible light are not transparent to heat waves.  Hence, re-radiated energy in
                   the infrared portion of the spectrum is trapped within the atmosphere, keep-
                   ing the surface temperature warm. This phenomenon is called the "green-
                   house effect" because it is exactly the same principle that heats a green-
                   house (or in a glass jar as in this experiment) where the glass performs the
                   same function as the atmosphere. On the moon, for example, where there
                   is no atmosphere, re-radiated energy is entirely lost to space.  Thus, objects
                   on the surface of the moon would feel hot if they were in direct sunlight
                   while the side turned away from the direct rays of the sun would be as cold
                   as space.  Obviously, the Earth's atmosphere serves a function beyond
                   providing air to breathe:  the atmosphere mediates the extremes of en-
                   ergy received from the sun, and serves as an energy storehouse. (See read-
                   ing materials on "The Greenhouse Effect" and "Air Pollution.")

                   WHAT TO DO
                   Before class begins
                   1«   Make a number of match holders (see illustration) that will keep the
                        burning match away from the thermometer.
                                     When class begins
                                     1«       Students should be challenged throughout
                                     the activity to volunteer predictions of what will hap-
                                     pen in each step of the experiment. Where appropri-
                                     ate, ask them to write down actual numbers that they
                                     expect to see during the experiments.  They should
                                     then be encouraged to suggest reasons why their hy-
                                     potheses were (or were not) substantiated by experi-
                                     ment.  Finally, they should be encouraged to  explain
                                     the real-world implications of the experiments in the
                                     glassjar.

                                     2«       Have the students create a graph with tem-
                                     perature  along the vertical axis (50° to 200°F, in 5° in-
                                     crements) and time along the horizontal axis  (0 min-
                                     utes to 20 minutes).   Tell the students to label each
                                     axis. Have them use a different colored pencil to enter
                                     data for  each version of the experiment so they can
                       compare data.
                   J«  Select a student or group of students to perform the experiment.  Have
                       them wrap one half the jar's circumference with heavy aluminum foil,
                       shiny side out, making sure that the foil extends the entire height of
                       the jar. They can tape it in place if necessary.

                   4«  Have them put the thermometer in thejar so that it can be read through
                       the side of thejar that is not covered with  foil. Leave the lid off for
                       now.
Climate and the Greenhouse Effect
136
Project A.I.R.E.

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5«  Let them measure the air temperature in the room, making sure that
    the thermometer is not in direct sunlight or close to an electric light
    bulb. Have all students read and write down the temperature.

6«  Have the experimenter(s) place the jar in a sunny window, or next to
    the spotlight.  Caution that the thermometer should  be  completely
    shadowed by the aluminum foil (rotate the jar so that the foil faces the
    sun). Have each student write down the temperature.  Have the stu-
    dents predict whether the temperature will be different from the first
    temperature, and by how many degrees, and  make them give a hy-
    pothesis.  If they think that the temperature will go up, ask them to
    explain  the mechanism by which the heat is added to the jar.  (The
    temperatures should not be appreciably different, because you are read-
    ing the  room air temperature both times.)  Ask the students to con-
    sider what temperature is really being measured. (It is really the tem-
    perature of the air within the jar.)
7«  Have the experimenter(s) rotate
    the jar so that sunlight hits the
    clear side of the jar and the ther-
    mometer directly. Ask the stu-
    dents to predict what the tem-
    perature will now do. Get them
    to suggest reasons.   The tem-
    perature  should  be   much
    warmer, because the energy in
    the sunlight is directly warming
    the mercury in the thermometer
    as it converts from visible light
    energy to  invisible heat energy.
    If anyone  guesses the answer,
    challenge them to think of a way
    to test that theory. The next ex-
    periment will test the theory.

8«  Rotate the jar again  so that the
    thermometer is shadowed.
    Start the stopwatch. Call stu-
    dents' attention to how long it
    takes for the temperature to fall
    back to normal room tempera-
    ture. It should fall fairly quickly
    because the increase was due
    only to the sunlight. The  air
    within the jar was not warmed
    much because it is open  to the
    room and  any  heated  air es-
    caped and was replaced by cold
    air through convection.
                                   Outgoing Energy
                                    (infrared heat)
Incoming Energy
 (visible light)
                                   ^Energy Trapped
                                     a Atmosphere
Project A.I.R.E.
 137
Climate and the Greenhouse Effect

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                   9«  Cover the jar with the lid snugly, and repeat steps 6, 7, and 8.  Have
                       the students use a different colored pencil to record the temperature
                       curve on their graph paper.  Ask the students to predict whether the
                       results will be the same, and why or why not. Even with the cover on,
                       the repeat of 6 should not increase the temperature significantly be-
                       cause the sunlight is being reflected away from the jar.  When the
                       sunlight hits the clear part of thejar in the repeat of experiment 7, the
                       temperature will go up just as quickly as before.  However, when you
                       turn thejar  away in the  repeat of 8, the temperature will fall much
                       more slowly because of the greenhouse effect.  Ask why the tempera-
                       ture fell more slowly than before? If heat was stored in thejar, what
                       part of the system was probably the heat "bank"? The gases in the
                       system, including water vapor.

                   1O« Open thejar and drop in a lighted kitchen match attached to the match
                       holder and quickly close the lid again.

                       When the oxygen is gone, the match will die out by itself in about ten
                       seconds. Challenge the students to guess what the burning matches
                                                      are doing in the closed system. The
                                                      fire is combining the oxygen in the
        TAKE NOTE1 Be careful that the flame does not
        touch the thermometer or any plastic or cardboard
        casing around it.
                                   enclosed air with the carbon from
                                   the burning wood to produce car-
                                   bon dioxide. Ask them what in the
                                   real world  might create a similar
    situation in the atmosphere.  Ask them why the match went out even
    though not all of the wooden match stick was  burned up. Set thejar
    aside away from sunlight for a couple of minutes to let the heat cre-
    ated by the fire equilibrate.  The match didn't give off much heat, but
    the temperature will likely go up about 5°F (3°C). Have the students
    read the thermometer (to get a temperature baseline). Repeat steps 7
    and 8, asking the students to again predict what will happen and why.
    This time, emphasize that they should  consider and speculate on
    whether the carbon dioxide in thejar will accelerate or retard the tem-
    perature rise and later fall.  This time, the temperature will warm up
    much more quickly and will  stay warm longer because of the green-
    house effect of the carbon dioxide.

11* Challenge the students to extrapolate the results of the experiments to
    the real world.  The conclusion of these experiments should demon-
    strate that the greenhouse effect is real, that a colorless atmospheric
    gas (carbon dioxide) is a significant contributor to atmospheric warming.

SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
^  Divide the class into three groups and have Group One conduct and
    record the experiments with thejar open to the air; Group Two should
    conduct the experiments with thejar sealed, and Group Three with
    thejar sealed after the matches are burned in it. (Don't forget to pre-
Climate and the Greenhouse Effect          138                             Project A.I.R.E.

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    pare the match holders before class). If results from measurements of
    more than one thermometer are to be compared, be sure to calibrate
    the thermometers with each other first to cancel out analytical errors.

~@i  Divide the class into three groups and have each group conduct the
    identical experiments. Compare their results.  Discuss why the values
    were different? Discuss calibration of the thermometers, "experimen-
    tal errors," and different conditions.

^  Have the students plant a tree.  Explain that they can make a small
    dent in the carbon dioxide surplus  by planting trees.   Have the stu-
    dents contact a local nursery to see if the owners will donate some tree
    seedlings to help combat climate change.

SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
^  For grades 10 through 12, divide the class into two groups. Have one
    group represent the position of the United States and our citizens. The
    other group should represent a poor country that relies upon subsis-
    tence agriculture, fishing, and the sale of its forests for lumber to the
    United States.  The groups should work separately.  Each group should
    make a list of the benefits it (the represented country) would receive if
    global warming was halted. Each group should list the things it can do
    within its own borders to help stop global warming. Each group then
    should list the "costs" it would be required to bear to help stop global
    warming. Have students discuss whether the benefits to both groups
    are the same.   Can both countries contribute equally to slow down or
    stop global warming? Are the costs to  both groups the same?

^  Have students in higher grades research and present oral reports to the
    class to answer the following questions:
       How can greenhouse gases be controlled, and is the greenhouse
       effect reversible?
       If temperatures are warming, what are the consequences to humans
       from melting polar icecaps?
       If the greenhouse effect is raising global temperatures to an appre
       ciable degree, what will happen to the world's food supply in the
       next century?

SUGGESTED READING

Abrams, Isabel. "The Earth in Hot Water." Current Health, 18 (2 May 1992)
    p.11.

Bazzaz, F. A., and E.  D. Fajer.  "Plant Life in a CO2-rich World." Scientific
    American (January 1992) p. 68.

Begley,  Sharon. "Was Andrew a Freak or a Preview of Things to Come."
    Newsweek, 120 (7 September 1992) p. 30.
Project A.I.R.E.                           139             Climate and the Greenhouse Effect

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                    Broecker, Wallace S. "Global Warming on Trial." Natural History (April 1992)
                       p. 6.

                   "Climate: Worldwide Weather Threatens Millions."  USA Today Magazine ,
                       117 (April 1989) p. 1.

                   Fossel, Peter V. "Weather Report (Discussion of Detrimental Effects of Envi-
                       ronmental Pollution)." Country Journal, 15 (October 1988) p. 8.

                   Gay, Kathlyn. Ozone.  New York, NY: Franklin Watts (1989).

                   Gribbin, John R.  The Hole  in the Sky: Man's Threat to the Ozone Layer. New
                       York, NY: Bantam (1988).

                   Morgan, J. "Greenhouse America." Scientific American (January 1989) p. 20.

                   Jones, P. D., and T. M. L. Wigley. "Global Warming Trends." Scientific Ameri-
                       can (August 1990) p. 89.

                   Mackenzie, James J. Breathing Easier: Taking Action on Climate Change, Air
                       Pollution, and Energy Insecurity. World Resources Institute (1989).

                   Matthews, Samuel W., and James A. Sugar. "Under the Sun: Is Our World
                       Warming?" National  Geographic, 178 (October 1990) p. 66.

                   Nardo,  Don. Ozone. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books (1991).

                   Our Endangered Atmosphere: Global Warming and the Ozone Layer. GEM
                       (1987).

                   Passell, Peter. "Warmer Globe, Greener Pastures?" New York Times, 141 (18
                       September 1991) p. D2.

                   Root-Bernstein,  Robert. "Future Imperfect (Incomplete Models of Nature
                       Guarantees All Predictions Are Unreliable)."  Discover, 14 (November
                       1993) p. 42.

                   Silverberg, Robert. "Greenhouse Effect: Apocalypse Now or Chicken Little."
                       Omni, 13 (July 1991)  p. 50.

                   Udall, James R., and Douglas Scott. "Nature Under Glass." Sierra, 74 (July
                       1989) p. 34.

                   White, R. M. "The Great Climate Debate." Scientific American (July 1990) p.
                       36.
Climate and the Greenhouse Effect          140                              Project A.I.R.E.

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SMOG
This activity lets students create artificial "smog" in ajar. Teachers can
use this module as an introduction to a planned visit from an air-qual-
ity scientist, or as the basis for extended discussions on the health prob-
lems associated with smog.  This activity is related to the warm-up
exercises called "Read My Data" and "Seeing the Big Picture." Related
activities include "Lifestyles and the Environment," "Is Your Air Clean?,"
"Deciding To Clean the Air," and "Choosing a Better Future."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Recognize that invisible air pollutants and weather conditions are
    involved in creating smog
^  Understand that not all air pollution is visible
~@i  Appreciate that human activities can cause air pollution

SKILLS
^  Observing
^  Drawing conclusions

GUEST  PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include EPA air quality monitoring specialists,
state or local air quality managers, chemists, laboratory technicians, or
meteorologists.

BACKGROUND
The expression "smog" was first used in "Turn-of-the-Century"  Lon-
don to describe a combiNation of "smoke" and "fog." Smog occurred
when water vapor in the air condensed on small particles of soot in the
air, forming small smog droplets. Thousands of Londoners died of
pneumonia-like diseases due to the poisonous air.  Today, smog is usu-
ally produced photochemically, when chemical  pollutants in the air
(notably nitrous oxide and hydrocarbons from automobile exhausts)
are baked by the sun and react chemically. Ground-level ozone is pro-
duced by a combiNation of pollutants from many sources such as au-
tomobile  exhausts, smokestacks,  and fumes from chemical solvents
like paint thinner or pesticides.  When these smog-forming pollutants
(called "precursors") are released  into the air, they undergo chemical
transformations and produce smog.  Weather conditions, such as the
lack of wind or a "thermal inversion," also cause smog to be trapped
over a particular area.

Smog causes health problems such as difficulty in breathing, asthma,
reduced resistance to  lung infections, colds, and eye irritation.  The
                                                                        RELATED
                                                                     WARM-UPS
                                                                               B, C
                                 REFER TO
                                 READING
                               MATERIALS
                                    "Smog"
                               "Air Pollution"
                                    "Ozone"
                         "Automobiles and Air
                                   Pollution"

                          TARGET GRADE
                                    LEVEL
                                    3rd - 5th

                                DURATION
                                 20 minutes

                            VOCABULARY
                               Hydrocarbons
                                      Ozone
                               Photochemical
                                   Precursor
                                      Smog
                            Thermal inversion

                               MATERIALS
                             Clean, dry, wide-
                         mouth glass jar (such
                          as a mayonnaise jar)
                          Heavy aluminum foil
                        Two or three ice cubes
                                       Ruler
                                    Scissors
                         Stop watch or watch
                          with a second hand
                                    Matches
Project A.I.R.E.
141
Smog

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                   ozone in smog also can damage plants and trees, and the haze reduces visibil-
                   ity. This is particularly noticeable from mountains and other beautiful vistas
                   such as National Parks.

                   Severe smog and ground-level ozone problems exist in many major cities,
                   including much of California from  San  Francisco to San Diego, the mid-
                   Atlantic seaboard from Washington, DC to southern Maine, and over major
                   cities of the Midwest. (See reading materials on "Smog," "Air Pollution,"
                   "Ozone," and "Automobiles and Air Pollution.")

                   WHAT TO DO
                   1«   Explain that the class will perform  an experiment in which they will
                        create  artificial "smog" in ajar.  Make sure that students understand
                        that thejar is only a model, and models by nature are limited. For
                        example, the purpose of this  model is to  illustrate the appearance
                        and behavior of smog, not the composition or effects. It is impor-
                        tant to understand that smog is notjust a "smoky fog," but a spe-
                        cific phenomenon.

                   2«   Select students to perform the experiment. Have them cut a strip of
                        paper about 6 inches by 2 inches. Fold the strip in half and twist it into
                        a rope.

                   J«   Have them make a snug lid for thejar out of a piece of aluminum foil.
                        Shape a small depression in the foil lid  to keep the ice cubes from
                        sliding off.  Carefully remove the foil and set it aside.

                   4«   Have the students put some water in thejar and swish it around to wet
                        all the inside of thejar. Pour out the extra water.
         TAKE NOTE1 Be careful to supervise students using
         matches. DO NOT let anyone breathe the "smog"
         produced in the experiment, and when the experiment
         is completed, be sure to release the "smog" outside.
                                           5«Have them  light the
                                           paper "rope" with  a
                                           match and drop it and
                                           the match into  the damp
                                           jar.  Put the foil lid  back
                                           on the jar and seal  it
                                           tightly. Put ice cubes on
                                           the lid to make it cold.
    (The ice cubes will make the water vapor in thejar condense.)  You
    must do this step very quickly, perhaps with some assistance.

6«  Ask students to describe what they see in thejar.  How is this like real
    smog? What conditions in thejar produced "smog"? (Moisture plus
    soot particles from the burning matches plus carbon dioxide  and other
    solvent vapors.)

7«  Ask the students if they have ever seen smog (not fog). Have they ever
    breathed air outside that smelled funny?
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SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
~@i  Have students put a glass thermometer (not plastic) into thejar before
    they do the experiment.  Have them record the temperature before
    proceeding to step 4.  Have them record the temperature during step
    5.  Ask them to describe what the temperature did and why. Let them
    try it again without adding water.

SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
^  For grades 7-12, assign students to small groups to answer the follow-
    ing questions  and report back to class in two weeks.  One group will
    consider the physical and chemical sciences and the other group will
    consider the health and ecological sciences. Each group should con-
    sider referring to several sources of information to answer the ques-
    tions. Students could possibly interview the weather reporter or me-
    teorologist at  the local television or radio station or  airport, or inter-
    viewing a health scientist from the city or county health department or
    air quality agency.

    (a) What conditions are necessary to produce smog in the air? Under
    what circumstances will these con-
    ditions  exist in the city?  How of-
    ten are they likely? Can they be
    predicted in advance?

    (b) What are the health effects of
    smog on  people?  On plants and
    trees?  Why doesn't everyone in
    the city get sick or have similar
    symptoms from smog?  What
    types of people are most sensitive
    to smog?

SUGGESTED READING
Bailey, Donna. What Can We Do About
    Noise  and Fumes.  New York:
    Franklin Watts (1991).

Baines, John. Exploring: Humans and the
    Environment.  Austin,  TX: Steck-
    Vaughn Company (1993).

Easterbrook, Gregg. "Winning the War
    on Smog." Newsweek,  122 (23
    August 1993) p. 29.

Krupnick, Alan J., and Paul R. Portney.
    "Controlling Urban Air Pollution:
    A  Benefit-Cost Assessment." Sci-
    ence, 252 (26 April 1991) p. 522.
Project A.I.R.E.
143
Smog

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                    Pasternak, Judy. "Long-Term Lung Damage Linked to Air Pollution; Respi-
                        ratory Deterioration Is Found in Areas Where Air Is Dirtiest." Los Angeles
                        Times, (29 March 1991) p. A1.

                   —.  "Smog Blamed for  Increase in Asthma Cases." Los Angeles Times  (2
                        December 1991) p. A1.

                   Penny, Malcolm. Our World: Pollution and Conservation. Englewood Cliffs,
                        NJ: Silver Burdette Press (1988).

                   Rock, Maxine. The Automobile and the Environment. New York: Chelsea House
                        Publishers (1992).

                   Scott, Geoff. "Two Faces of Ozone." Current Health, 19 (2 September 1992)
                        p. 24.

                   "Study Finds Source of Canyon Haze." National Parks, 63 (July 1989) p. 10.

                   Wald, Matthew L. "Northeast  Moving Toward Auto-Emission Goals." New
                        York Times, 142 (25 March 1993) p. A12.
Smog                                  144                               Project A.I.R.E.

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 DECIDING  TO CLEAN  THE
 AIR
This activity lets students practice making choices and experience the
sometimes difficult process of making decisions related to air pollu-
tion. It is related to the warm-ups called "The Big Picture," and "Mak-
ing Decisions." Related activities include "Lifestyles and the  Envi-
ronment," "How Green Are We?," "Designing a Clean-Air Environ-
ment," "Choosing a Better  Future," and  "Writing Environmental
Laws."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Understand the impact of choices on the nature and quality of life
^  Understand the process for making decisions
^  Recognize that different people have different perspectives on the
    same air pollution issue

SKILLS
    Researching
    Comparing ideas
    Considering alternatives
    Making and justifying decisions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include EPA environmental protection, risk
assessment, or enforcement specialists, environmental scientists, or
lawyers.

BACKGROUND
 Whether we are children or adults, our lives are influenced by a con-
stant series of choices. Some choices we make for ourselves. Some are
made by parents for their children, and many are made by people we
don't even know.  The combinations of all of these choices determine
the quality of each of our lives.  Making these choices is not easy be-
cause sometimes what a person perceives as the right choice for him
or her as an individual may be perceived as  the wrong choice for the
neighborhood, the community, or the Nation. For example, a person
may not want to join a car pool to get to school or work in the morn-
ing because it means  coordinating his or her schedule with someone
else's and, maybe, getting up earlier in the morning to be ready on time.

The combination of choices made by individuals, business and indus-
try owners, and government over the years has had a huge impact on
                                                                    RELATED
                                                                 WARM-UPS
                                                                          C, G
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                             MATERIALS
                        "Automobiles and Air
                                 Pollution"
                         "The Clean Air Act"

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                 6th - 12th

                              DURATION
                         2 class periods (80-
                                90 minutes)

                          VOCABULARY
                              Acetaldehyde
                             Auto emissions
                                  Benzene
                               Carcinogens
                                 Clean fuel
                          Criteria pollutants
                              Formaldehyde
                              Hydrocarbons
                            Nitrogen oxides
                        Non-attainment area
                                    Ozone
                          Particulate matter
                                    Smoke
                                      Soot
                                 Standards

                            WORKSHEETS
                               INCLUDED
                                        1
Project A.I.R.E.
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Deciding to Clean the Air

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                    the quality of the air we breathe and the air pollution problems the world
                    faces today. For example, as a country, we have chosen to pay the higher
                    prices of cars with emission control systems in order to reduce pollution
                    from motor vehicles.

                    Auto exhaust is a major contributor to air pollution. Automobiles emit sev-
                    eral  pollutants that EPA classifies as probable or definite carcinogens, in-
                    cluding benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde,  and particulates (soot or
                    smoke, especially from diesel vehicles).  EPA estimates that toxic emissions
                    from cars,  trucks, and buses  could be responsible for as  many as 1,500
                    cases of cancer each year. (See reading material on "Automobiles and Air
                    Pollution.")

                    In addition, automobile exhaust contains hydrocarbons and nitrogen  ox-
                    ides that react with sunlight to create ozone, the major component of smog.
                    Ozone at ground level is responsible for the choking, coughing,  and sting-
                     ing eyes associated with smog. Ozone also inhibits plant growth and can
                     cause widespread damage to crops and forests.  In typical urban areas, at
                                    least half of the hydrocarbons and  nitrogen oxides come
                                    from motor vehicles.  Nitrogen oxides also are produced
                                    by power  plants, factories, and even lawnmowers.  Hy-
                                    drocarbons are found in many consumer products, includ-
                                    ing paints, hair spray, charcoal starter fluid, solvents, and
                                    plastic "popcorn" or "bubble" packaging. EPA sets national
                                    standards for ozone (one of the six widespread "criteria
                                    pollutants"), and the states must take action  to ensure
                                    that standards are met.  Areas that fail to meet the stan-
                    dards for at least one criteria  air pollutant are called "non-attainment ar-
                    eas." (See reading material on "The Clean Air Act.")

                    Many of the smog clean-up requirements involve motor vehicles (cars, trucks,
                    buses) because virtually everyone is exposed to their emissions. Also, as the
                    pollution gets worse,  pollution controls are required for smaller sources.
                    Strategies that may be required by law to reduce and control these toxic
                    emissions include state permitting programs, changes in the composition
                    of gasoline, use of alternative fuels (such as natural gas and electricity), and
                    use restrictions imposed by  individual communities.

                    Many new and  innovative  approaches are being taken by local govern-
                    ments across the country to reduce air pollution in non-attainment areas.
                    Some of these options include:
                         Banning charcoal barbecues and wood burning in stoves or fire places
                         when pollution levels are high
                         Developing  high-occupancy vehicle  (HOV)  programs for local high-
                         ways to encourage car  pooling
                         Restricting traffic  in specific areas of the city
                    •    Providing incentives for citizens to use public transportation systems
                         Expanding public transportation systems using clean-fueled vehicles,
Deciding to Clean the Air
146
Project A.I.R.E.

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     such as municipal buses that use compressed natural gas (CNG) or
     electric trolley buses
 •    Eliminating payments by employers that reduce parking costs of em-
     ployees who do not car pool
 •    Requiring employers to contribute to employee mass transit costs
     Assessing "smog fees" on cars in proportion to the number of miles
     driven and vehicle emissions produced
     Requiring more stringent vapor recovery at gas stations
 •    Requiring large companies to purchase fleet cars that run on clean fuel
     Buying and scrapping older cars

 WHAT TO DO
 Class #1
 1«   Explain that the class is going to act out a situation that illustrates the
     difficult process of making clean air choices. For the exercise, students
     are to  assume that there has been a proposal brought before the city
     (town) council to close the downtown commercial district to automo-
     bile traffic because of the pollution level and traffic congestion. Under
     the proposal, only fire and police emergency and public transit (buses)
     vehicles would be allowed on downtown streets between the hours of
     8:00 am and  6:00 pm.

 2«   Divide the class into 8 teams.  Explain that each team will represent
     one of the "players" in this drama: three city (town) council members,
     two citizens,  two downtown business owners, and one impartial ex-
     pert that has been paid to evaluate the impacts  of the proposal and
     report to the council (you may choose to be more specific about the
     roles to approximate the makeup of your community). Assign a role to
     each team and explain that each team will have to choose (not now)
     one team member to be the actor when the drama is played out at
     next week's class (give a specific date but allow  a few days to prepare).

 J«   Explain that in order to act out the role they have been assigned, each
     team will have to define the characteristics and views of that person.
     Does the character live in the city (town) or out in the suburbs (in a
     rural area)? What does the person do for a living and where does he or
     she work? How does the person get to and  from  work? Does the
     person have a family? Where does the person shop? The last page of
     this activity is a sample "Character Attribute" worksheet that each team
     can fill out to help define its role.

 4«   Explain that once each team has defined its character, the team should
     define the character's concerns related to the proposal.  Stress that this
     should go beyond deciding whether the character would  be "for" or
     "against" the proposal and should include defining why this particular
     character might feel one way or the other.  Encourage students to talk
     to their parents, local city (town) council members, and business own-
     ers to help develop these perspectives.
Project A.I.R.E.                           147                      Deciding to Clean the Air

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                   5«  Explain that for the role-play activity, the actor from each team will
                       have to describe the team's character and  make a statement about
                       that person's views on the proposal as if the character were addressing
                       the council members during a meeting.  (Remind the council mem-
                       bers that they have a broader responsibility to the community and
                       should be prepared, if necessary, to make a choice between their own
                       individual views and what's best for the community as a whole.)

                   6«  Give students the remainder of the class to work together and assign
                       them to continue work outside of class in  order to be prepared for the
                       role-play activity.

                   Class #2
                   1«  Arrange desks or a table at the front of the room with chairs to accom-
                       modate the three city (town) council members.  Place a lectern, desk,
                       or small table somewhere else in the room from  which the  expert,
                       citizens, and business owners will make their statements.

                   2«  Instruct the actor from each team to describe  the team's character
                       (based on the worksheet completed by the team).  Have the expert
                       deliver his or her impartial report to the  council members and audi-
                       ence at the council meeting.  Have the citizens  and business  owners
                       state their views on the proposal. Have each council member  make a
                       similar statement.
                            TAKE NOTE1 In the event that all teams take the same
                            position on the proposal, be prepared to offer an opposing
                            argument yourself, so that both sides of the issue will be
                            heard by the class.
                   J«  Ask the council members to vote. Examine the results.  How did each
                       member vote? How did they decide what to vote? Discuss the results
                       and the choices involved with the class.

                   SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
                   ^  Have students bring in examples throughout the year, from the news-
                       paper or local television news, of real air pollution-related decisions
                       made by your local government or major local businesses.  Set aside
                       time periodically to discuss the choices involved in these decisions and
                       their impact on the quality of life.

                   SUGGESTED READING
                   Asay, Gregory. "Acting Locally (Students and College Administration Work
                       Together on Environmental Programs)." Environmental Action Maga-
                       zine, 24 (December 1993) p. 21.
Deciding to Clean the Air                 148                              Project A.I.R.E.

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Becklake, John. Thinking for the Future: Pollution. New York: Gloucester Press
     (1990).

Environmental Crisis—Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press
     (1991).

Krupnick,  Alan J., and Paul R. Portney. "Controlling Urban Air Pollution: A
     Benefit-Cost Assessment." Science, 252 (26 April 1991) p. 522.

Leinwand, Gerald. The Environment: American  Issues.  New York: Facts on
     File (1990).

Watson, Bates, and Kennedy. Air Pollution, the Automobile, and Public Health.
     National Academy Press (1988).

Willis, Terri, and Wallace B. Black. Cars: An Environmental Challenge. Children's
     Press (1992).

WorldWatch Paper 98: Alternatives to the Automobile. Washington,  DC:
     WorldWatch (1990).
Project A.I.R.E.                             149                      Deciding to Clean the Air

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              DECIDING TO CLEAN THE AIR
                         CHARACTER ATTRIBUTES
Name:
Family Members (include ages of children, if any):
Occupation (include type of business, if any):
Where Do You Live (in the city, suburbs, rural area)? _

Where Do You Work (in the city, suburbs, rural area)?

How Do You Get To And From Work? 	

How Long Does Your Commute Take?	

Where Do You Do The Shopping? 	
Are There Other Occasions You Need To Be Downtown During The Restricted Hours?
What Do You Like About The Proposal?
What Don't You Like About The Proposal?
Are You For Or Against The Proposal?  How Strongly Do You Feel About It?
Are There Any Modifications To The Proposal You Want to Suggest to the Council?,
Deciding to Clean the Air                150                           Project A.I.R.E.

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CHOOSING  A  BETTER

FUTURE

This activity is designed to illustrate how students' choices today can
impact future air quality.  It lets them trace how the choices of earlier
generations have increased air pollution over the last 40 years.  It is
related to the "Making Decisions" warm-up.  Related activities include
"Lifestyles and the Environment" and "Deciding To Clean the Air."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Appreciate the differences between lifestyles today and 40 years
    ago
~@i  Realize that the lifestyle choices made by previous generations have
    impacted the  current air quality and air pollution problems
^  Understand the increase  in demand for selected manufactured
    goods, automobiles, and energy sources over the last 40 years and
    its impact on air pollution
^  Determine practical and useful alternatives for reducing negative
    impacts
^  Understand the cumulative nature of pollution problems

SKILLS
^  Researching
^  Comparing ideas and situations
^  Considering alternatives
~@i  Making decisions
^  Making oral presentations

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest presenters could include conservationists, economists, environmental
scientists, or EPA environmental  protection specialists.

BACKGROUND
Air pollution levels have grown over the years because our demand for
manufactured goods, automobiles, and energy, among other things,
has grown. Overall, demand for goods and  services continues to in-
crease. Air pollution is an important concern because it causes sickness
and damage to property and the environment. In order to ensure that
we have the resources needed  to sustain life into the future, measures
need to be taken now to cure  some of the problems we created over
time.  This will involve sorting out conflicts  and making choices be-
tween the things we need and the things we want.  (See reading ma-
terials  on "Air Pollution," "Health Effects," and "Indoor Air Quality.")
                                                                     RELATED
                                                                  WARM-UPS
                                                                             G
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                             MATERIALS
                             "Air Pollution"
                            "Health Effects"
                         "Indoor Air Quality"

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                 7th-12th

                              DURATION
                       2 class periods (80-90
                        minutes), plus library
                        research outside class

                          VOCABULARY
                                  Demand
                                   Energy
                        Manufactured goods
                                Natural gas

                             MATERIALS
                                     Chalk
                                Chalkboard
Project A.I.R.E.
757
Choosing a Better Future

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                    WHAT TO DO
                    Class #1
                    1«  Start by asking students what they think life was like when their par-
                        ents were children. What were their houses like? How many cars did
                        they have?  What was the traffic like? Do you think they worried about
                        air pollution? Why (or why not)? What about your life is different than
                        your parents'?  What made things change?  How did the choices your
                        parents made influence how you live today?  Explain briefly that our
                        lives are influenced  by  a constant series of choices—some made by
                        each of us as individuals, some made by our parents, and many made
                        by people we don't even know. The combinations of all of these choices
                        determine the quality of each of our lives.

                    2«  The combination of choices  made by individual citizens, business and
                        industry owners, and government over the years has had a sizeable
                        impact on the quality of the  air we breathe and the air pollution prob-
                        lems the world faces today. Ask the class to name a few of these choices.

                    J«  Explain that the class is going to look more closely at how things have
                        changed since their  parents  were children, the air pollution problems
                        that are the result of those  changes, and  what options we have  for
                        fixing those problems so the environment is healthy for future genera-
                        tions.

                    4«  Divide the class into five teams.  Assign each team a topic: refrigera-
                        tors, computers, automobiles, electricity, natural gas.

                    5«  Assign the  teams to do research
                        in their topic area to answer four
                        questions: (1) How  has the  need
                        and demand for it changed in the
                        last 40 years? (2) How was the de-
                        mand met? (3)  What, if any, im-
                        pact has that had on the environ-
                        ment, on the level of air pollution
                        in particular, in the community
                        (the nation) (the world)? (4) What
                        alternatives are available  for reduc-
                        ing the impact  (or reversing the
                        effect)?

                    6«  Allow teams to organize them-
                        selves and  distribute the work.
                        Suggest that each team  appoint a
                        representative who will be respon-
                        sible for making a short (5-minute)
                        presentation during another class
                        (give specific date but allow  several days preparation time) to summa-
                        rize the team's research findings.  Encourage the teams to interview
Choosing a Better Future
152
Project A.I.R.E.

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    their parents (and, possibly, grandparents), local government officials,
    and business owners in addition to doing research in the library.

7«  Give students the remainder of the class to work together and assign
    them to continue work outside of class in order to be prepared for the
    second class.

Class #2
1«  Have each team representative present the research findings from his
    or her team.  Following each, open discussion to the class and allow
    students to suggest and discuss environmental (air  pollution) impacts
    and options for improving the situation that may not have been men-
    tioned in the presentation.

2«  After all  presentations have been made and discussed, have students
    make a list of the most useful and practical measures for reducing air
    pollution (at home, at school, in the community, in the nation, in the
    world).  Record these on the chalkboard.  Ask how  students think the
    community will be different when their children are in school?  Have
    students discuss which of these measures they will take at home and at
    school. Also discuss which measures students could help get started in
    the community (in the Nation) (in the world). Explore how they would
    accomplish that.

SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
^  Have students track, using the newspaper or television news, real air
    pollution-related decisions made by government and industry. Set aside
    time periodically to discuss these actions and their potential impact on
    improving the environment in the future.

SUGGESTED READING
Becklake, John. Thinking for the Future: Pollution. New York: Gloucester Press
     (1990).

Miller, Willard E. Environmental Hazards: Air Pollution, A Reference Handbook.
     Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio (1989).

Rock, Maxine. The Automobile and the Environment. New York: Chelsea House
     Publishers (1992).

Santrey, Laurence. Conservation and Pollution. Troll Associates (1985).
 Project A.I.R.E.                            153                      Choosing a Better Future

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Choosing a Better Future                      154                                   Project A.I.R.E.

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                       w


 THE  BUSINESS  OF  CLEAN

 AIR

 This activity uses a structured discussion with the class to help educa-
 tors introduce the concept that air pollution control is caused by a
 combiNation of market incentives and government regulation. While
 nobody "likes" air pollution, or causes it intentionally, there are tradeoffs
 associated with pollution control. Businesses are motivated by profit,
 and will change their way of doing business if they can see a demon-
 strated benefit. This activity is related to the warm-up called  "Mak-
 ing Decisions."  Related  activities  include "The Greenhouse  Effect,"
 "Climate and the Greenhouse Effect," and "The Cost of Polluting."

 CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
 ~^t  Realize that businesses exist to make profits for their owners
 ~$i  Recognize that governments make rules for individuals and busi-
     nesses in order to establish minimum standards to protect soci-
     ety (human health and well being, ecology)
 ^  Understand that businesses change as a result of market forces
     and  regulations
 %$  Appreciate that pursuing environmental concerns and realizing a
     profit can be competing objectives for a business
 ^  Realize that pursuing environmental concerns and realizing a profit
     can be complementary objectives for a business

 SKILLS
 ^  Observing
 ~^t  Collecting data
 ~$i  Computing

 GUEST PRESENTERS
 Guest presenters  for this activity could include air quality engineers,
 business administrators, economists, industrial engineers, lawyers, or
 mechanical engineers.

 BACKGROUND
 Air pollution in this country is largely a result of business decisions, set
 in motion many years ago, that emphasize profit without balancing
 environmental  concerns.  In the 1960s, the federal government be-
 gan to regulate pollution. The Clean Air Act was one of the first laws
 intended to govern the release of certain pollutants into the atmo-
 sphere. In recent years, many businesses have embraced the "green"
 approach to marketing, recognizing the image value of environmen-
                                 RELATED
                                WARM-UP
                                         G
                                 REFER TO
                                 READING
                              MATERIALS
                            "The Greenhouse
                                     Effect"
                               "Air Pollution"

                          TARGET GRADE
                                    LEVEL
                                  8th - 12th

                               DURATION
                        1 or 2 45-minute class
                        periods, depending on
                                the depth of
                                  discussions

                            VOCABULARY
                                Amortization
                                Capital costs
                               Kilowatt-hour
                                    Lumens
                               Market forces
                                  Mitigation
                                   Pollution
                          Power consumption
                                      Profit
                                 Regulations

                              MATERIALS
                                      Chalk
                                 Chalkboard

                             WORKSHEETS
                                INCLUDED
                                          1
Project A.I.R.E.
155
The Business of Clean Air

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             \
tal consciousness. However, the primary motivation for business is to make
a profit.

Pollution control and environmental improvement is big business. An esti-
mated $115 billion  is spent annually on environmental protection.  The
federal government will spend $1.9 billion during the six-year period 1994-
2000 to implement its Climate Change Action Plan.  This plan, which is ex-
                    pected to save the government $2.7 billion during
                    that same period, is designed to slow the greenhouse
         .           effect,  reduce air emissions, and stimulate the
       /           economy.

                    EPA and other organizations have instituted volun-
                    tary compliance programs using the "penny-saved,
                    penny-earned"  principles of business to encourage
                    wholesale  improvements in energy efficiency and
                    waste minimization.  Such initiatives as the "Green
                    Lights" program, which encourages businesses to cut
                    back on electric lighting, are estimated to have a po-
                    tential National savings of $16 billion  in electricity
    i               bills and reduce carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and
    A               nitrogen oxides (the principle ingredients of air pol-
                    lution and smog) by 12 percent, thereby slowing the
                    greenhouse effect. What's  in it for business?  The
                    obvious answer is  significantly reduced costs of op-
                    eration, providing  capital for newjobs and increased
                    productivity.  In addition, in return for signing an
agreement with EPA to  upgrade its lighting, a business will receive techni-
cal advice, free publicity, and possible financial support.  EPA's newer "En-
ergy Star" program  is a sequel, encouraging  business to improve energy
efficiency throughout the building—beyond just installing energy-saving
light bulbs. (See the reading materials called "The  Greenhouse Effect" and
"Air Pollution.")

WHAT TO DO
    Tell the class to consider all the reasons why air pollution exists, why it
    isn't cleaned up, and what the possible roles of government, the pub-
    lic, and  businesses are as forces in the  issue.  Write the responses on
    the chalkboard. Suggest that someone volunteer a couple of indus-
    tries that might be associated with air pollution.  (Common examples
    might be electric power generation, pulp and paper manufacturing,
    or oil refining.  Less common, but also good, examples are surface
    mining  (dust), steel manufacturing (coke/coal burning), agriculture
    (dust and chemical aerosols), or airlines (fuel vapors and  exhaust).

2.  As one example of how businesses can  contribute to reducing air pol-
    lution, tell the class about EPA's voluntary "Green Lights" program.
    This program encourages businesses to conserve electricity by identi-
    fying and implementing lighting upgrades in their buildings wherever
The Business of Clean Air
                   156
Project A.I.R.E.

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     it is "profitable" within five years.  "Profitable" means, in this case, that
     the savings are greater than about six percent per year.  In return for
     their participation in the program, EPA helps businesses obtain the most
     current information about energy-efficient lighting  technologies, as-
     sists them in deciding which technologies are best for them, and pro-
     vides guidance on how to finance the upgrades.

 J«   Explain that, for  the purpose of this activity, students are to pretend
     that the school building is a commercial business building. Have them
     identify any "costs" to the "business" involved in conserving electricity
     that might offset any savings realized.  For example, shutting down
     the school totally, while a popular suggestion that would certainly save
     electricity, would prevent the school from conducting its business. Ask
     the class to identify the beneficiaries of this "profit." Ask them to iden-
     tify the secondary effects if such a practice were  really implemented
     widely in their community (less generation costs, fewer brownouts,
     less pollution, less fuel  used to produce electricity, etc.)

     Energy efficiency is based on  "getting something for nothing." For
     electric lighting,  we want to  obtain the same level of light (usually
     measured in lumens) for less consumption of power (usually measured
     in watts).  The student worksheet  called "Light
     Conversion" is formatted for conversion of incan-
     descent lights to compact fluorescents,  but  the
     same principle applies  for replacing  older, low-ef-
     ficiency fluorescents with high-efficiency fluores-
     cent lighting. The same principle applies in turn-
     ing off electrical devices when they are not in use,
     such as computers, televisions,  air  conditioners,
     and motors.

 4«  Hand  out the worksheet.  Divide the class into
     workable groups to identify all the  electric lights
     in the school. The groups should look at common
     rooms such as the auditorium, gym, and cafeteria
     as well as the classrooms. The teacher may wish to
     assign certain rooms or locations to different
     groups to check at a time when rooms are  not
     occupied by students.  Students should not over-
     look spotlights or floodlights. Have the class com-
     pile a list of electricity reductions that could  be
     accommodated within the school.  For each re-
     duction,  have them identify what  the potential
     savings could be, or at least how they could mea-
     sure the savings.  Get them to talk about the need
     to invest  money  up-front (for example, replacing
     incandescent lamps with fluorescent ones) in or-
     der to realize a long-term payback.
Project A.I.R.E.
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The Business of Clean Air

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                    5«   It obviously costs money to buy more energy-efficient equipment, even
                         lightbulbs.  In order to determine the true savings of such devices,
                         have the class calculate a "payback" period for some devices.  For ex-
                         ample, a 60-watt bulb costs 89C and will last for 1,000 hours. A 13-
                         watt compact replacement tube costs $6, but will  last 10,000 hours.
                         What is the savings, and  what is the payback period? Explain to the
                         class about two types of costs: capital costs and operating costs. Capital
                         Costs are costs involved in  purchasing or building something that is
                         necessary to have. For example, a business's capital costs include the
                         purchase prices of the furniture and equipment needed to provide the
                         services or produce the goods it sells.  Capital costs are usually divided
                         by the expected life-span of the equipment to get an annualized cost.
                         Operating Costs are the day-to-day costs involved in providing the ser-
                         vices or producing the goods. For example, the total cost of transpor-
                         tation  includes buying a car and then keeping it running. The capital
                         (one-time) cost might be $15,000.  If the car is expected to last 5
                         years, the annualized capital cost would be $3,000. Operating (recur-
                         ring) costs include gasoline, oil, tires,  insurance, normal repairs, and
                         anything else needed  to keep it running.
                    6«  Have the class calculate the payback period of investing in high-effi-
                         ciency light bulbs to replace existing bulbs throughout the school.

                         Purchasing one high-efficiency tube requires a capital investment of
                         $16, but lasts as long as 10 of the 89C bulbs.

                         To obtain 1,000 hours of light from the incandescent bulb, it costs:
                         60 watts x 1000 hours H- 1000 = 60 kilowatt-hours x S.SC/kWh =
                         $5.10 (operating cost) + $0.89 (capital cost) = $5.99
                         To obtain 10,000 hours from the high-efficiency bulb, it costs:
                         13 watts x 10,000 hours H- 1000 = 130 kilowatt-hours x 8.5C/kWh =
                         $11.05 (operating cost) + $16.00 (capital cost) = $27.05
                         Put another way, it will have cost us about $60 to obtain the same
                         lighting from 60-watt incandescent bulbs as we could get for about
                         $27 from one compact fluorescent tube.

                         For example, the chart below shows the costs for each type of bulb
                         measured against hours of use. While the compact fluorescent costs
                         more to start, its lower operating costs allow the incandescent bulb to
                         catch up and become more expensive after about 3,100 hours of use.
                         This "payback" graph shows how long it will take to amortize the higher
The Business of Clean Air                   158                               Project A.I.R.E.

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     capital cost of the fluorescent. If we use about 250 hours per month,
     our payback time will be about 12.4 months or just over one year.

 7«  Compile the "Green Lights" suggestions and audit results and forward
     them to the Principal and the School Board with an explaNation  of
     how and why they were developed.

 SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
 ^  Organize the class into several groups. Each will role-play a particular
     segment of business or industry. The groups could include:  the local
     electric power utility, the local car dealer, a major local industry (let's
     say an airplane manufacturer or shipbuilder), and the local downtown
     business council. Tell them that their community is in danger of violat-
     ing the federal and state air pollution standards for hazardous air pol-
     lutants. No one knows where the pollutants are actually coming from,
     but it is known that they exist in the aircraft/shipbuilding industry and
     as a by-product of automobile and truck emissions.

     Have each  group write down a  list of actions that should be taken by
     each of the groups and the reasons why. Instruct them to focus on the
     actions that their own group should take first, then the others. The
     groups should work independently, and should  not exchange views
     until the end. Caution the groups that they should anticipate the ac-
     tions that they think the other groups will expect them to take and be
     prepared to explain (defend) their choices. This activity could take
     portions of several days, or be done as homework over a weekend.
Project A.I.R.E.                           159                      The Business of Clean Air

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                        When the groups are ready, have them present to the class their "ac-
                        tion plans" to solve the problem.  Write down the key actions for each
                        group on the chalkboard. Have the class compare and discuss them.

                    ~@i  Have students find a large business in your community that  has an
                        energy-conservation program in  place like "Green Lights." Select  a
                        team of students to contact the company and ask them for data and
                        computations on the savings they are realizing. Ask how the company
                        is investing the savings realized from lower electricity bills.  Have the
                        students report back to class and discuss the information obtained.

                    ^  Does your local utility ever have a "brownout?" A "brownout" is when
                        the power company reduces the line voltage from the normal  110 to
                        90 or even 80 volts.  Most household equipment will work at the lower
                        voltage. Have students contact the local power company and ask why
                        and when the power company uses "brownouts?" Does this save watt-
                        age? How much?

                    ^  Have selected students contact a lighting supplier or lighting contrac-
                        tor (look in the Yellow Pages) and ask them for pricing data and speci-
                        fications for "T-8 Lamp-ballast upgrades" for the standard 40-watt fluo-
                        rescent tube  systems in your school. Based upon the number of fix-
                        tures and the number of lamps, have the students calculate the annual
                        savings in operating costs and the payback period for the conversion,
                        taking into account the initial capital investment for the new lighting.

                    SUGGESTED READING
                    Bhargava, Sunita Wadekar. "Growing Clean Air Down on the Algae  Farm."
                        Business Week, (24 February 1992) p. 72.

                    Brooks, Philip L., Laura J. Davidson, and Jodi H. Palamides. "Environmental
                        Compliance:  You Better Know Your ABCs." Occupational Hazards, 55
                        (February 1993) p. 41.

                    Business and the Environment: Toward Common Ground. Washington, DC:
                        Conservation Foundation (1984).

                    Frosch, Robert A.,  and Nicholas E. Gallopoulos. "Strategies for Manufactur-
                        ing." Scientific American (September 1989) p.  144.

                    Griffin, Rodman D. "Barriers Remain (Alternative Energy)." CQResearcher,  2
                        (10 July 1992) p. 588.

                    "How Green Is My Company." The Economist, 314 (10 March 1990) p. 88.

                    Kleiner, Art. "What Does It Mean To Be Green?" Harvard Business Review, 69
                        (July 1991) p. 38.
The Business of Clean Air                   160                              Project A.I.R.E.

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 Knickerbocker, Brad. "Cleaner Environment vs. Economic Growth." Chris-
     tian Science Monitor, 84 (9 April 1992) p. 11.

 Lambert, Wade. "Businesses Must Wean Workers from Their Cars." Wall
     Street Journal (4 November 1993) p. B1.

 Menagh, Melanie. "The Business of Going Green." Omni, 13 (June 1991)
     p. 42.

 Nelson-Horchler, Joani. "Greening or Greenwashing? Industry Efforts Get
     Praise and Punches." Industry Week, 239 (16 April 1990) p. 77.

 O'Hara, Gregory P. "Compliance  Audit Can Keep Firm Out of a Tangled
     Web of Regulations." Business Journal, 9 (17 February 1992) p. S18.

 "Pollution for Sale." U.S.  News and World Report, 111  (29 July 1991) p. 9.

 Ruckelshaus, William D. "Towards  a Sustainable World." Scientific American
     (September 1989) p. 166.

 Sheridan, John H. "Pollution Prevention Picks Up Steam." Industry Week,
     241 (17 February 1992) p.  36.

 U.S. EPA. Green Lights: An Enlightened Approach to Energy Efficiency and Pol-
     lution Prevention. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air and Radia-
     tion EPA/430/K-93/001 (July  1993).

 Weinstock, Matthew P.  "Environmental Auditing: A  Measure of Safety."
     Occupational Hazards,  55 (May 1993) p. 73.
Project A.I.R.E.                            767                      The Business of Clean Air

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                                        ti
           THE BUSINESS OF CLEAN AIR
                    LIGHT CONVERSION
The Business of Clean Air            162                   Project A.I.R.E.

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AIR  POLLUTION
ALLOWANCE  TRADING
This exercise introduces students to pollution abatement measures
based on free market trading of pollution allowances. The class is
broken up into six groups, each representing an industry subject to a
fictitious Air Pollution Allowance Trading System. They are given a set
of facts and conditions and will be required to make a series of deci-
sions in order to comply with environmental regulations, as well as
determine the price of a pollution allowance, and whether to imple-
ment pollution control measures. This activity is related to the "Mak-
ing Decisions" warm-up and the "Cost of Polluting" activity.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
^  Recognize the costs of pollution abatement
^  Recognize how costs are allocated and can be shared
~@i  Decide how to allocate scarce resources
^  Recognize the benefits of the free market in pollution abatement
    (rewarding good behavior)
^  Learn to analyze environmental issues

SKILLS
    Computing
    Analyzing data
    Drawing conclusions
    Explaining results

BACKGROUND
There are several different  types of pollution control  measures that
the government imposes on polluters to achieve compliance with
environmental regulations.  "Point source" controls impose standards
on the emissions coming out of a facility (such as a factory) without
regard to the cost of achieving the standard or the mixture of that
discharge with other point source discharges in the local environment.
Another method concentrates on the level of pollution in the local
area (such as a river segment or air within a city's boundaries), requir-
ing some sort of pollution reduction measures when the area is out of
compliance. This latter method  is used under the Clean Air Act, but
has been difficult to enforce given the large number of individual air
pollution sources that exist (for example, automobiles).

Under an allowance trading system, large stationary sources of air
pollution, such as power plants, receive a certain number of "pollu-
tion allowances" for a specified period of time, based on local clean
                                                                    RELATED
                                                                   WARM-UP
                                                                            G
                                REFER TO
                                READING
                             MATERIALS
                              "Air Pollution
                         Allowance Trading"

                         TARGET GRADE
                                   LEVEL
                                 7th - 12th

                              DURATION
                                45 minutes

                          VOCABULARY
                                 Allowance
                                     Bank
                                Compliance
                                 Discharge
                               Point source

                             MATERIALS
                              Scratch paper
                       Calculators (optional)

                            WORKSHEETS
                               INCLUDED
                                        6
Project A.I.R.E.
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Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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                    air standards and allocated to the sources according to their historic fuel
                    consumption and a specified emissions rate for the source. Allowances are
                    in units of pollutant emitted, so a polluter will use up its allowances as it
                    pollutes.  The key to the system is that these allowances may be traded
                    between sources, or may  be "banked."  At the end of the period, each
                    source must have enough  allowances to balance its emissions for that pe-
                    riod, otherwise a penalty on each excess unit of  pollution is imposed. The
                    goal of this system is to use market incentives of rewards and penalties to
                    reduce pollution, allowing  polluters to make their own decisions as to how
                    to expend their allocation of pollution allowances.
                                                EXAMPLE
                          An electric utility, Metropolis Power and Light (MP&L) wants
                          to install a certain pollution reduction technology at one of
                          its electricity generation plants that will cost $100,000. With-
                          out an allowance system, MP&L may not be rewarded for
                          doing the right thing, and has no other incentive to do so.
                          However, under an allowance trading system, MP&L would
                          save four allowances if it installs the clean air equipment and
                          reduces its emissions of pollution. MP&L can sell the allow-
                          ances in the pollution allowance market and recover part or
                          all of the money it spent on the equipment, or even receive
                          compensation above the amount spent.

                          Another utility, Commonwealth Gas and Electric (CG&E) does
                          not implement any pollution reduction measures.  During
                          the year, CG&E has used up all of its allowances and is going
                          to pay $250,000 in fines for pollution in excess of its allow-
                          ances.  CG&E estimates that it is 4 allowances short for the
                          period and is willing to pay MP&L up to $250,000  for four
                          allowances.  Hence, MP&L, by implementing pollution re-
                          duction measures at a cost of $100,00, is rewarded the dif-
                          ference between that cost and the market value of the allow-
                          ances it  saves (in this example, $250,000 - $100,000 =
                          $150,000 to MP&L).
                    WHAT TO  DO
                    1«   Discuss the material presented in the above background section. Dis-
                        cuss the different ways that air  pollution laws are enforced, and the
                        different methods that may be used to reduce pollution.  Explain how
                        the pollution allowance system  can reduce pollution by using incen-
                        tives and  market forces to encourage pollution reduction.  Present the
                        above example on the blackboard.

                    2«  Break the class up into six groups and distribute facts and conditions.
                        Each group receives the one page sheet entitled "Pollution Allowance
                        Trading Game." Each individual group also receives the appropriate "scor-
Air Pollution Allowance Trading
164
Project A.I.R.E.

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    ing" sheet, labeled "Group 1," "Group 2," and so on.  Briefly explain the
    concepts and rules of the game, reading the fact sheets along with the
    students. The goal of the game is to make the most money through
    the trading and saving of  pollution allowances.  Have  students read
    the fact sheets and answer any questions.  Tell them that the game will
    be played for five rounds. A round represents one year.  Each year they
    will receive a number of allowances that may increase or decrease, but
    they do not know what those changes will be.

    Have the groups complete questions 1 through 3 on each worksheet.
    After completing questions 1 through 3, each group will have to make
    three decisions: whether to sell or buy allowances; whether to  pay for
    pollution abatement technology; and whether to bank allowances or
    pay fines. Remind the groups that pollution abatement technology is
    permanent, and will carry over year to year.  Tally the number of allow-
    ances that are available from all groups.  Have any groups complete
    question 4, and re-tally the number of extra allowances available. Then
    commence the trading of allowances through the auctioning of allow-
    ances (the teacher or a student  may act as auction-
    eer).  Have groups answer remaining questions.  If
    allowances are bought and sold, how much does an
    allowance cost?  Why?
4«  For the second round, each group will again receive
    ten allowances.  Repeat the steps from the previous
    round, making sure that they carry over any banked
    allowances and taking into account units of technol-
    ogy purchased.   Has the price  of an allowance
    changed? Why?

5«  For the third round, each group receives only 8 al-
    lowances. Do not let students know that this change
    is coming.  Repeat steps on worksheets.  Record
    changes in allowance prices, technology purchasing
    patterns, fines paid out, and allowance banking.

6«  For the fourth round (Year 4) distribute 11 allowances
    per group. Record changes as above.

7«  Year 5 is back to 10 allowances per group.  Record
    changes and determine the winner based on the value
    of the allowances in hand minus any fines paid. Have
    students discuss the results. Who did the best? Why?
    At the beginning of the game,  Group 5 was in the
    best position.  Did they maintain their lead? How did
    Group 4 fare? Why? Compare Groups 1 and 2, who
    began on even footing. Did one do better than the
    other?  Why?
Project A.I.R.E.
165
Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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                   8«   Have students discuss the usefulness of an allowance trading system,
                        in particular the incentive to reduce emissions through the use of pol-
                        lution reduction technology. Note that the number of allowances dis-
                        tributed for the first round was less than the total amount of emis-
                        sions?  Ask students how and why they think fines would be built into
                        the game from the outset.

                   SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
                   ^   Teachers should feel free to alter the facts.  For example, the price of
                        pollution abatement technology may change  from year to  year,  or
                        fines may change. The results need only reflect the current conditions
                        and prices, and some results may be "unreasonable."

                   SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
                   ^   For higher grades, have students consider alternatives to this system
                        and consider the choices they would face and make if they were the
                        regulator. Focus a class discussion on the topic or have students pre-
                        pare and deliver oral presentations about their ideas.

                   SUGGESTED READING
                   Kohn, Robert E. "Exposure Trading: An Approach to More Efficient Air Pol-
                        lution Control." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management,
                        21 (July 1991) p. 82.

                   Mann, Eric. "Trading  Delusions." Environmental Action Magazine, 25 (De-
                        cember 1994) p. 22.

                   Miller, William H. "Free Market Comes to Environmentalism." Industry Week,
                        242 (19 April  1993)  p. 59.

                   "Pollution for Sale." U.S.  News and World Report, 111 (29 July 1991) p. 9.

                   "Pollution Swap May Halve Utility Emissions."  National Geographic, 184
                        (December 1993) p. 142.

                   Sheridan, John H.  "Pollution Prevention Picks Up Steam." Industry Week,
                        241  (17 February 1992) p. 36.
Air Pollution Allowance Trading            166                              Project A.I.R.E.

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                      STUDENT HANDOUT 1
      /a\ 11ID)  '~^ "~" " "
              AIR POLLUTION ALLOWANCE TRADING GAME
For this exercise, each group has been given a role and an individual set of facts outlining the rules
and circumstances going into the pollution allowance trading game.  Each group represents a
public utility that emits air pollution, however, the amount each can emit is limited by the govern-
ment. A group will be penalized for exceeding air pollution limits. For each round of the game,
each group will receive a certain number of air pollution allowances that represent a portion of the
amount of pollution they are allowed to emit. If a group does not use up all of its allowances, it
can trade or bank remaining allowances. For example, if a group receives 5 allowances, and each
allowance permits 1,000 tons of pollution, then the group's factory can emit 5,000 tons of pollu-
tion. Any excess would be subject to a fine. If the group emits 3,000 tons, then it will only use up
3 of  its allowances, and may then sell or bank the other 2.  If the group emits 7,000 tons of
pollution, it will be penalized unless it purchases extra allowances or has banked allowances.

There will be five rounds of trading.  Each round  represents one year.  At the beginning of each
round, each group will receive an allocation of allowances.  For each round, the number of allow-
ances received will be the same for each group, however, the number of allowances may increase
or decrease from round to round.  Extra allowances banked during one round may be used during
subsequent rounds.

In addition to deciding whether to buy,  sell,  or  bank  allowances, a group may also decide to
purchase pollution reduction technology.  Technology units cost $2,000. Each unit provides 500
tons of annual pollution reduction. Technology units reduce pollution beginning in the year they
are purchased and will continue to  provide pollution reduction in subsequent rounds.  In no event
can a group emit less than 5,000 tons per year.

An allowance permits the emission of 1,000 tons  of air pollution. The penalty for exceeding the
allowance limit is $1  per ton  per year.

TO RECAP:
5 rounds of trading.
Allowances are distributed at the beginning of each round.
An allowance permits 1,000 tons of pollution.
Extra allowances may be bought and sold, or banked (saved for use in future rounds).
Penalties = $1  per ton in excess of allowances.
Pollution reduction technology costs $2,000 per unit.
Technology reduces pollution by 500 tons per round.
Technology is permanent.
A group can not emit less than 5,000 tons per round
Project A.I.R.E.                           167                Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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                    STUDENT  WORKSHEET 1
                      ™©K]  zm©w^M(S[§ W
              AIR POLLUTION ALLOWANCE TRADING GAME


                                   GROUP 1

You are a coal-burning electric power utility with a single power plant. You have received 10
pollution allowances for the first year. The number of allowances you will receive in future rounds
is unknown. Based on your current projections, you will emit 10,000 tons of pollution annually in
the coming 5 years.

1.  Calculate your pollution emission allowance for the year.
   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	
2.  Do you have any extra allowances for the year (is your annual pollution emission less than
   your total allowances in hand)?
   a) NO, skip to question 3
   b) YES, how many (you can skip question 3)?
   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

3.  Did you  exceed your allowances (is your annual pollution emission greater than your total
   allowances in hand)?
   a) YES, how many extra allowances do you need?
   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

   b) Calculate any penalties you will pay if you are not able to purchase extra allowances.
   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

   c) How much would you be willing to pay for an allowance? Divide the penalty amount by
   the number of allowances you need.
   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

The auctioneer (your teacher) will now tally the number of allowances available.
4.  Before trading begins, would you like to purchase pollution reduction technology? If yes, how
   many units?
   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

   Recalculate your annual pollution emissions.
   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	
The auctioneer will now re-tally the number of allowances available. Now begin trading. Some
groups have extra allowances that they may wish to sell, while others will be paying fines if they
do not acquire extra allowances.  Note that groups with extra allowances do not have to sell them
if the selling price is not high enough. They can bank them for use or sale in later rounds.
Air Pollution Allowance Trading             168                             Project A.I.R.E.

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5.   How did your group end up at the end of the year (+/-)?  (include money received for extra
    allowances sold, money paid  in penalties or for extra allowances needed, money paid for
    pollution reduction technology, and the number of allowances banked)

YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:         Year 4:          Year 5:
6.     What is the current price of an allowance?
Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	  Year 4:	 Year 5:
Now go on to the next round. Your teacher will tell you the number of allowances each group
will receive. Remember that this number may go up or down. For each round, fill in the above
work sheet, recording the results of each round of trading. Be sure to keep track of your current
account:  the amount (+ or -) that your group has had earned or spent.
Project A.I.R.E.                           169                Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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                    STUDENT  WORKSHEET 2
                    iL™(2)K] /m©W^M(S[§  ff
              AIR POLLUTION ALLOWANCE TRADING GAME
                                    GROUP 2
You are a coal-burning electric power utility with a single power plant. You have received 10
pollution allowances for the first year.  The number of allowances you will receive in future rounds
is unknown. Based on your current projections, you will emit 10,000 tons of pollution annually in
the coming 5 years.

1. Calculate your pollution emission allowance for the year.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	   Year 3:	  Year 4:	 Year 5:	
2. Do you have any extra allowances for the year (is your annual pollution emission less than your
  total allowances in hand)?
 a) NO, skip to question 3
 b) YES, how many (you can skip question 3)?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	 Year 3:	  Year 4:	  Year 5:	

3. Did you exceed your allowances (is your annual pollution emission greater than your total
  allowances in hand)?
 a) YES, how many extra allowances do you need?
  YeaM:	Year 2:	 Year 3:	  Year 4:	  Year 5:	

 b) Calculate any penalties you will pay if you are not able to purchase extra allowances.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	 Year 3:	  Year 4:	  Year 5:	
  c) How much would you be willing to pay for an allowance?  Divide the penalty amount by the
  number of allowances you need.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	 Year 3:	 Year 4:	  Year 5:	

The auctioneer (your teacher) will now tally the number of allowances available.

4. Before trading begins, would you like to purchase pollution reduction technology?
  If yes,  how many units?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	 Year 3:	 Year 4:	  Year 5:	
  Recalculate your annual pollution emissions.
  YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:         Year 4:          Year 5:
The auctioneer will now re-tally the number of allowances available. Now begin trading. Some
groups have extra allowances that they may wish to sell, while others will be paying fines if they do
not acquire extra allowances. Note that groups with extra allowances do not have to sell them if
the selling price is not high enough. They can bank them for use or sale in later rounds.
Air Pollution Allowance Trading             170                              Project A.I.R.E.

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5. How did your group end up at the end of the year (+/-)? (include money received for extra
  allowances sold, money paid in penalties or for extra allowances needed, money paid for pollu-
  tion reduction technology, and the number of allowances banked)
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	  Year 4:	 Year 5:	

6. What  is the current price of an allowance?
  YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
Now go on to the next round. Your teacher will tell you the number of allowances each group will
receive. Remember that this number may go up or down. For each round, fill in the above work
sheet, recording the results of each round of trading.   Be sure to keep track of your current
account: the amount (+ or -) that your group has had earned or spent.
Project A.I.R.E.                           171                Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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                    STUDENT WORKSHEET
                      [M©M /m©w^Mcsg
             AIR POLLUTION ALLOWANCE TRADING GAME


                                    GROUP J

You are a coal-burning electric power utility with a single power plant. You have received 10
pollution allowances for the first year. The number of allowances you will receive in future rounds
is unknown. Based on your current projections, you will emit 9,000 tons of pollution annually in
the coming 5 years.

1.  Calculate your pollution emission allowance for the year.
   YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
2. Do you have any extra allowances for the year (is your annual pollution emission less than your
  total allowances in hand)?
  a) NO, skip to question 3
  b) YES, how many (you can skip question 3)?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

3. Did you exceed your allowances (is your annual pollution emission greater than your total
  allowances in hand)?
  a) YES, how many extra allowances do you need?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

  b) Calculate any penalties you will  pay if you are not able to purchase extra allowances.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

  c) How much would you be willing to pay for an allowance? Divide the penalty amount by the
  number of allowances you need.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

The auctioneer (your teacher) will now tally the number of allowances available.

4. Before trading begins, would you like to purchase pollution reduction technology?
  If yes, how many units?
  YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
  Recalculate your annual pollution emissions.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:
The auctioneer will now re-tally the number of allowances available. Now begin trading. Some
groups have extra allowances that they may wish to sell, while others will be paying fines if they do
not acquire extra allowances.  Note that groups with extra allowances do not have to sell them if
the selling price is not high enough. They can bank them for use or sale in later rounds.
Air Pollution Allowance Trading            172                             Project A.I.R.E.

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   How did your group end up at the end of the year (+/-)?  (include money received for extra
   allowances sold, money paid in penalties or for extra allowances needed, money paid for pollu-
   tion reduction technology, and the number of allowances banked)

   YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
6. What is the current price of an allowance?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	  Year 5:
Now go on to the next round. Your teacher will tell you the number of allowances each group will
receive. Remember that this number may go up or down.  For each round, fill in the above work
sheet, recording the results of each round of trading. Be sure to keep track of your current ac-
count:  the amount (+ or -) that your group has had earned or spent.
Project A.I.R.E.                           173                Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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                    STUDENT  WORKSHEET 4
                    DMTIMN] /m©W^M(?g  ff
              AIR POLLUTION ALLOWANCE TRADING GAME


                                    GROUP 4

You are a coal-burning electric power utility with a single power plant.  You have received 10
pollution allowances for the first year. The number of allowances you will receive in future rounds
is unknown. Based on your current projections, you will emit 16,000 tons of pollution annually in
the coming 5 years.

1.  Calculate your pollution emission allowance for the year.
   Year 1:	Year 2:	 Year 3:	  Year 4:	 Year 5:	
2. Do you have any extra allowances for the year (is your annual pollution emission less than your
  total allowances in hand)?
  a) NO, skip to question 3
  b) YES, how many (you can skip question 3)?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

3. Did you exceed your allowances (is your annual  pollution emission greater than your total
  allowances in hand)?
a) YES, how many extra allowances do you need?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

b) Calculate any penalties you will pay if you are not able to purchase extra allowances.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	
c) How much would you be willing to pay for an allowance? Divide the penalty amount by the
  number of allowances you need.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

The auctioneer (your teacher) will now tally the number of allowances available.
4. Before trading begins, would you like to purchase pollution reduction technology?
  If yes, how many units?
  YeaM:         Year 2:           Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
  Recalculate your annual pollution emissions.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:
The auctioneer will now re-tally the number of allowances available.  Now begin trading. Some
groups have extra allowances that they may wish to sell, while others will be paying fines if they do
not acquire extra allowances. Note that groups with extra allowances do not have to sell them if
the selling  price is not high enough. They can bank them for use or sale in later rounds.
Air Pollution Allowance Trading             174                              Project A.I.R.E.

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5.  How did your group end up at the end of the year (+/-)? (include money received for extra
  allowances sold, money paid in penalties or for extra allowances needed, money paid for pollu-
  tion reduction technology,  and the number of allowances banked)

   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	
6. What is the current price of an allowance?
  YeaM:         Year 2:           Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
Now go on to the next round. Your teacher will tell you the number of allowances each group
will receive. Remember that this number may go up or down. For each round, fill in the above
work sheet, recording the results of each round of trading. Be sure to keep track of your current
account:  the amount (+ or -) that your group has had earned or spent.
Project A.I.R.E.                           175                 Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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                    STUDENT WORKSHEET 5
                      [M©M /m©w^Mcsg ff
             AIR POLLUTION ALLOWANCE TRADING GAME
                                   GROUP 5

You are a coal-burning electric power utility with a single power plant.  You have received 10
pollution allowances for the first year. The number of allowances you will receive in future rounds
is unknown. Based on your current projections, you will emit 7,000 tons of pollution annually in
the coming 5 years.

1.  Calculate your pollution emission allowance for the year.
   YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
2. Do you have any extra allowances for the year (is your annual pollution emission less than your
  total allowances in hand)?
  a) NO, skip to question 3
   b) YES, how many (you can skip question 3)?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

3. Did you exceed your allowances (is your annual pollution emission greater than your total
  allowances in hand)?
  a) YES, how many extra allowances do you need?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

  b) Calculate any penalties you will  pay if you are not able to purchase extra allowances.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

  c) How much would you be willing to pay for an allowance? Divide the penalty amount by the
  number of allowances you need.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

The auctioneer (your teacher) will now tally the number of allowances available.

4. Before trading begins, would you like to purchase pollution reduction technology?
  If yes, how many units?
  YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:          Year 4:         Year 5:
  Recalculate your annual pollution emissions.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:
The auctioneer will now re-tally the number of allowances available. Now begin trading.  Some
groups have extra allowances that they may wish to sell, while others will be paying fines if they do
not acquire extra allowances. Note that groups with extra allowances do not have to sell them if
the selling price is not high enough. They can bank them for use or sale in later rounds.
Air Pollution Allowance Trading            176                             Project A.I.R.E.

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5.  How did your group end up at the end of the year (+/-)? (include money received for extra
   allowances sold, money paid in penalties or for extra allowances needed, money paid for pol-
   lution reduction technology, and the number of allowances banked)

   YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
6. What is the current price of an allowance?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	 Year 3:	 Year 4:	  Year 5:
Now go on to the next round. Your teacher will tell you the number of allowances each group will
receive. Remember that this number may go up or down. For each round, fill in the above work
sheet, recording the results of each round of trading.  Be sure to keep track of your current
account:  the amount (+ or -) that your group has had earned or spent.
Project A.I.R.E.                           177                 Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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                     STUDENT WORKSHEET 6
       M 11 ID) '"" ^ "

              AIR POLLUTION ALLOWANCE TRADING GAME



                                    GROUP 6

You are a coal-burning electric power utility with a single power plant.  You have received 10
pollution allowances for the first year. The number of allowances you will receive in future rounds
is unknown. Based on your current projections, you will emit 12,000 tons of pollution annually in
the coming 5 years.

1.  Calculate your pollution emission allowance for the year.
   Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	
2. Do you have any extra allowances for the year (is your annual pollution emission less than your
  total allowances in hand)?
  a) NO, skip to question 3
  b) YES, how many (you can skip question 3)?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

3. Did you exceed your allowances (is your annual pollution emission greater than your total
  allowances in hand)?
  a) YES, how many extra allowances do you need?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

  b) Calculate any penalties you will  pay if you are not able to purchase extra allowances.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

  c) How much would you be willing to pay for an allowance? Divide the penalty amount by the
  number of allowances you need.
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

The auctioneer (your teacher) will now tally the number of allowances available.

4. Before trading begins, would you like to purchase pollution reduction technology? If yes, how
  many units?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	  Year 3:	 Year 4:	 Year 5:	

  Recalculate your annual pollution emissions.
  YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:         Year 4:         Year 5:
The auctioneer will now re-tally the number of allowances available. Now begin trading. Some
groups have extra allowances that they may wish to sell, while others will be paying fines if they do
not acquire extra allowances. Note that groups with extra allowances do not have to sell them if
the selling price is not high enough. They can bank them for use or sale in later rounds.
Air Pollution Allowance Trading            178                              Project A.I.R.E.

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   How did your group end up at the end of the year (+/-)? (include money received for extra
   allowances sold, money paid in penalties or for extra allowances needed, money paid for pol-
   lution reduction technology, and the number of allowances banked)

   YeaM:         Year 2:          Year 3:          Year 4:          Year 5:
6. What is the current price of an allowance?
  Year 1:	Year 2:	 Year 3:	 Year 4:	  Year 5:
Now go on to the next round. Your teacher will tell you the number of allowances each group
will receive. Remember that this number may go up or down.  For each round, fill in the above
work sheet, recording the results of each round of trading. Be sure to keep track of your current
account:  the amount (+ or -) that your group has had earned or spent.
Project A.I.R.E.                           179                Air Pollution Allowance Trading

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Air Pollution Allowance Trading               180                                  Project A.I.R.E.

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 THE  COST  OF  POLLUTING
 Though there are laws restricting almost every type of pollution, there
 are still polluters. This activity sheds light on why this occurs, focusing
 on the decisions that lawmakers and regulators have to make on the
 severity of penalties for violation of environmental laws.  It outlines
 the considerations leading up to the imposition of a non-compliance
 penalty that will help students understand how the government de-
 termines the severity of those penalties. This activity is related to the
 "Making Decisions" warm-up and the "Air Pollution Allowance Trad-
 ing" and "Writing Environmental Laws" activities.

 CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
 ^ Recognize the costs of pollution abatement
 ^ Recognize why pollution is regulated
 ~@i Understand decision-making for penalizing violations

 SKILLS
    Computing
    Defining issues
    Interpreting data
    Making decisions

 GUEST PRESENTERS
 Guest presenters for this activity could include environmental regu-
 lators,  economists, or lawyers.

 BACKGROUND
 There are several different types of pollution control measures that the
 government imposes on polluters to achieve compliance with envi-
 ronmental regulations.  "Point source" controls impose standards on
 the discharge coming out of any facility (such as a factory), typically
 through the issuance of a permit and a compliance monitoring sys-
 tem. Other types of pollution control measures may focus on overall
 environmental quality or other measures, but the one thing all pollu-
 tion control methods share are penalties imposed on violators of envi-
 ronmental laws and regulations.

 Although most of the regulated community complies or intends to
 comply with environmental laws and regulations, each year there are
 cases where regulated entities violate regulations and risk being caught
 and penalized, or fail to make themselves aware of the laws and regula-
 tions and are penalized.  Penalties usually serve three functions: restitu-
 tion, retribution,  and deterrence.   Restitution, usually through
                                                                      RELATED
                                                                    WARM-UP
                                                                              G
                                 REFER TO
                                 READING
                               MATERIALS
                                "Air Pollution
                           Allowance Trading"

                           TARGET GRADE
                                    LEVEL
                                    7th-8th

                                DURATION
                               30-40 minutes

                            VOCABULARY
                                 Compliance
                        Compliance monitoring
                                  Deterrence
                                      Permit
                                 Point source
                                  Restitution
                                  Retribution

                             WORKSHEETS
                                INCLUDED
                                          1
Project A.I.R.E.
181
The Cost of Polluting

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                   compensation, serves to cover any damage caused by the violation.  Retri-
                   bution is the penalty imposed for the violation itself, while deterrence is
                   meant to prevent future violations.  In environmental regulatory practice,
                   restitution can be difficult or impossible to quantify, since damage to the
                   environment is not easily reduced to dollars.  Most penalties for environ-
                   mental law violations are meant to punish bad behavior and serve to deter
                   others from the same behavior.

                   Monetary fines are the most common type of penalty for violating environ-
                   mental regulations, though jail terms for more egregious violations (willful
                   circumvention, outright fraud) serve as an important deterrent.  Specific
                   penalties are not written into the law, but are set by government officials
                   that weigh a variety  of factors in determining a penalty.  To serve  as an
                   important deterrence signal to the regulated community, a  penalty should
                   reflect the  degree of harm  or potential harm to the  environment. At a
                   minimum, monetary  penalties should  recover any economic benefit  a vio-
                   lator may have gained by ignoring the law. This type of penalty ensures
                   that facilities are not  economically disadvantaged for complying with the
                   law. Other factors that may affect the amount of a penalty include the
                   ability to pay, degree of cooperation with regulating agencies, whether
                   the violation was self-reported,  and the strength of the case if litigation
                   is likely.

                   WHAT TO DO
                   Before class begins
                   1«  Write the following "Problem Statement" on the chalk board:

                        It has been discovered  that  Anytown  Light and Power Company has
                        been releasing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from its smokestack in concen-
                       trations of 75 parts per million (ppm) for the last 15 days.  The company's
                        permit allows the release of NO2 in concentrations not to exceed 60
                        ppm.

                   When class begins
                   1«   Explain how environmental  regulations are enforced like other laws,
                       through the imposition  of penalties, including fines and  imprisonment.

                   2«  Call students attention to the "Problem Statement,"  containing the
                        basic facts and circumstances surrounding  a fictitious  violation  of an
                       environmental regulation. Explain that the students will serve as gov-
                       ernment regulators and use this class period to determine a  penalty to
                        be imposed.

                   J«   Inform students  that they will be limited to imposition of monetary
                       fines. Ask the class to identify any other information that they would
                        like to have about the situation before making this decision. List these
                       on the chalkboard.  If necessary, prompt students by suggesting they
                        might want to know something about the seriousness of the violation.
                        For example, did the violation cause  potential or actual harm? The
The Cost of Polluting                      182                               Project A.I.R.E.

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     completed list could include any or all of the following considerations
     (which are actually weighed in determining penalties):

              Factor 1: Seriousness of the violation
                     - extent of deviation from requirements
                     - potential or actual harm
              Factor 2: Economic benefit for non-compliance
                     - costs avoided
                     - costs postponed
              Factor 3: Duration of the violation
              Factor 4: Degree of cooperation with regulators
              Factor 5: History of compliance
              Factor 6: Ability to pay

 4«  After the students have completed their list, compare it with the fac-
     tors actually used  by government regulators. (Use the list above, but
     the presenter should feel free to supplement it based on his/her own
     experience.) Discuss how the lists differ  (if they do) and why.  Then
     come to a consensus on the factors to be used in this class to deter-
     mine the penalty for the problem violation.

 5«  Hand out the worksheet. Divide the class into small groups if you wish.
     Explain that students should use the worksheet to compute the fine (or
     range of fines) to be imposed. In order to do that, however, discuss
     how to quantify or attach a value to each factor. For each step in this
     process, ask students to suggest appropriate values, discuss the pros
     and cons of suggestions, and come to a consensus on the amount to
     be used. (If the class is working in small groups, each group should
     come to its own consensus.) The presenter's role should be to facilitate
     the discussion. The presenter also may add facts and circumstances to
     the case study, if required, to introduce more real-world issues into the
     decision-making experience.

 6«  In facilitating the discussions, the presenter should introduce the fol-
     lowing ideas if they do not surface on their own.

    •  In determining the seriousness of the violation, the class should con-
       sider what  indicators or evidence it
       would use to determine potential harm.
       (More than any other element, this may
       be a judgement call since environmen-
       tal  damage is not  easily quantified.)
       Students should recognize that serious-
       ness is a function of personal judgement
       based on the two elements listed un-
       der Factor 1 above. On the chalkboard,
       you may  want to draw the following     _
       payment  calculation  matrix  bringing  ®*
Project A.I.R.E.
183
The Cost of Polluting

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                             the two elements together. Have students decide the penalty amount
                             to enter in each box.
Potential  or
Actual Harm
                                  Extent of Deviation from Requirements

High
Medium
Low
High



Medium



Low



                           • In determining any economic benefits that may have accrued for
                             non-compliance, the class should recognize the difference between
                             avoided costs (for example, the cost of required pollution reduction
                             equipment), and postponed costs.  Students also may want to con-
                             sider other recoverable costs: costs the government has incurred in
                             enforcing the law or the value of other advantages the violator may
                             have held over competitors that complied with regulations.  All eco-
                             nomic benefits are simply added together.

                          •  To help students in determining the relevance of the duration of the
                             violation, explain that some environmental laws apply "seriousness"
                             penalties for each day of non-compliance. In some cases, the total
                             penalty attributed to the seriousness of the violation may be dis-
                             counted for the number of days of non-compliance. For this activ-
                             ity, students should assume that 10 percent of the penalty  accrues
                             for each day of non-compliance.  This means that 30 days  of non-
                             compliance would triple the penalty assessed for the seriousness of
                             the violation.

                          •  The other factors listed in step #3 above are less important than the
                             first three. The students should use them to fine-tune the penalty to
                             reward good behavior or further punish bad behavior.

                          •  It is important to understand that ability to pay is a baseline ele-
                             ment.  That is, it presumes that the violator has the ability to pay.

                           When students have completed the worksheet, ask students if their
                           decision might have changed for a case in which a business was un-
                           aware of the regulations and the risks of failing to act. Explain why, in
                           reality, "ignorance of the law" is not a valid excuse. (If an EPA employee is
                           a guest presenter, he or she may wish to cite examples of actual penalties
                           assessed and discuss the factors EPA considered in setting the penal-
                           ties, especially if factors, other than those cited in this activity, were
                           considered.)
   The Cost of Polluting
184
Project A.I.R.E.

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 SUGGESTED EXTENSION (OPTIONAL)
 ~@i  Have students discuss the following two questions, in addition to com-
     pleting the activity above.

     •If no penalties could be imposed, why would a business comply with
     regulations?

     •Are there other "penalties" that may be associated with violating en-
     vironmental regulations, such as damage to reputations, that serve as
     incentives for compliance?

     Discuss the implications of their answers in the broad context of "be-
     ing a good citizen."

 SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
 ^  For grades 10 through 12, ask students to consider and suggest alter-
     natives to the current penalty system. For instance, why wouldn't all
     violators be automatically shut down? Why are environmental dam-
     ages difficult to quantify?

 SUGGESTED READING
 The Oil Game (Apple II computer program). AV System (1988).

 Sheridan, John H. "Pollution Prevention  Picks  Up Steam." Industry Week,
     241 (17  February 1992) p. 36.

 U.S. EPA. Principles of Environmental Enforcement. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA,
     Office of Enforcement (February 1992).
Project A.I.R.E.                          185                         The Cost of Polluting

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                                                         n
                  THE COST  OF POLLUTING
                  CALCULATE A MONETARY PENALTY
Facility Name:  Anytown Light and Power Company	

Money the Facility Saved by Not Complying with Regulations

      Costs avoided
      Costs postponed
      Total                                                  (a)

Seriousness of the Violation

      Penalty required based on potential for harm and extent of de-
      viation from requirement                                 (b)

Adjustment for the Duration of the Violation

      Number of days of non-compliance                         (c)
      Total = [(b)x(10%)]x(c)                                 (d)
      SUBTOTAL
            Subtotal = (a) + (d)                                (e)

Penalty Adjustment Factors

      1.  Degree of cooperation (+/-)                             (0
      2.  History of compliance (+/-)                             (g)
      3.  Supplemental environmental projects (+/-)                 (h)
      4.  Ability to pay (-)                                      (0
      Total = [(f) + (g) + (h) + (i)] x (e)                            0)
      TOTAL PENALTY
            Total Penalty = (e) + (j)
 The Cost of Polluting                    186                           Project A.I.R.E.

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WRITING

ENVIRONMENTAL

LAWS

This activity walks students through the steps and decisions that are
made when drafting an environmental statute. It examines the inter-
play of opinions, values, beliefs, and science in the development of
law. It is related to the "Scales, Rules, Standards, Policy, and Science"
warm-up. Related activities include "Deciding To Clean the Air," "Air
Pollution Allowance Trading," and "The Cost of Polluting."

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
    Recognize why governments need laws and regulations
    Identify methods to obtain information for developing laws
    Recognize conflicts that may exist between what is wanted and
    what is achievable
    Translate objective and subjective data into laws

SKILLS
    Comparing ideas
    Considering alternatives
    Writing  reports
    Making decisions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest  presenters could include air quality engineers, environmental
scientists, lawyers, or politicians.

BACKGROUND
There  are many approaches to managing environmental problems.
Some approaches are voluntary and set goals, but do not require com-
pliance. Other approaches are regulatory and impose requirements
for compliance. Wholly regulatory approaches that both set goals
and impose  requirements are often called "command and control"
regulations.  An enforcement mechanism is needed to ensure compli-
ance with requirements.  Voluntary and other approaches,  on the
other hand,  may use economic incentives to induce behavior or im-
pose pollution control  technologies on pollution sources.

The enforceability of requirements impacts the cost and effectiveness
of enforcement and the ultimate degree of compliance. Requirements
must be clear and practical,  so that both  the regulated community
                                                                    RELATED
                                                                  WARM-UP
                                                                            H
                                                                   REFER TO
                                                                   READING
                                                                  MATERIAL
                                                             "The Clean Air Act"

                                                             TARGET GRADE
                                                                      LEVEL
                                                                      7th-12th

                                                                  DURATION
                                                           Two class periods (80-
                                                                   90 minutes)

                                                              VOCABULARY
                                                                   Compliance
                                                                   Regulations
                                                                        Smog

                                                                 MATERIALS
                                                                        Chalk
                                                                   Chalkboard

                                                               WORKSHEETS
                                                                  INCLUDED
                                                                            1
Project A.I.R.E.
                                    187
Writing Environmental Laws

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                   and the enforcement authority understand "the rules of the game."  They
                   must be backed up by adequate enforcement authority in order to be effec-
                   tive.  They also should rely on inexpensive, reliable, or available technology
                   so that unreasonable or impossible burdens will not be placed on the regu-
                   lated community. Requirements that are unclear, imprecise,  ambiguous,
                   inconsistent, or contradictory will be difficult or impossible to enforce. (See
                   reading material on "The Clean Air Act.")

                   WHAT TO DO
                   Before class #1 begins
                   1«  Write the following Problem Statement on the chalkboard:
                       PROBLEM:  Traffic congestion and smog levels in the downtown
                       area of our community have increased substantially in recent years.
                       Traffic is so bad most times during the day that local buses cannot
                       keep their schedules. Emergency vehicles cannot get through the
                       congestion either. There have been several incidents in which heart
                       attack victims have died, and a delay in the arrival  of the ambu-
                       lance or fire department has been blamed. In addition, local health
                       authorities have reported an increase in cases of asthma and upper
                       respiratory problems among people who live or work in the down-
                       town area.
                   Class #1
                   1«  Explain that the class is going to write legislation to deal with the prob-
                       lem described on the chalkboard.

                   2«  Divide the class into 5 teams. Assign one of the teams to serve as the
                       city (town) council. Explain that each of the other teams will write and
                       present a proposal to the council. The council then will vote and choose
                       one of the proposals.

                   J«  Hand out the student worksheet to all but the city (town) council team.
                       Explain that  the teams should use this checklist in drafting their pro-
                       posals. Allow teams the maximum flexibility in preparing their propos-
                       als, but no team should be allowed to propose maintaining the status
                       quo.  All proposals should include any needed enforcement mecha-
                       nisms—for example, methods to be used to enforce the law (such as
                       citations for violations), authorization for a specific party or group (such
                       as local police) to carry out enforcement, penalties for violations, and
                       so on. Encourage students to talk to their parents, local city (town)
                       council members, and business owners to help develop their propos-
                       als.

                   4«  Instruct each team to choose one team member to be the spokesper-
                       son and present the team's proposal at the next class (give a specific
                       date but allow a few days to prepare)
Writing Environmental Laws                188                              Project A.I.R.E.

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5«  Instruct the city (town) council team that they will be responsible for
    choosing a proposal to enact into law following the proposals. Indicate
    that they should be prepared to justify their choice and remind them
    that they have a broader responsibility to the community and should
    be prepared, if necessary, to make a choice between their own indi-
    vidual views and what's best for the community as a whole.

6«  Give students the remainder of the class  to work together and assign
    them to continue work outside of class in order to be prepared for the
    next class.

Class #2
1«  Arrange desks or a table at the front of the room with chairs to accom-
    modate the city (town) council team members.  Place a lectern, desk,
    or small table somewhere else in the room from which the spokesper-
    sons for the other team can present their proposals.

2«  Have the spokespersons make their presentations.  (You may want to
    suggest that one of the council team members write the salient points
    from each presentation on  the chalkboard to help in comparing the
    proposals.)  Allow the council team to question spokespersons as nec-
    essary to be sure they understand
    the proposals.

J«  When  presentations have been
    completed, give the council team
    a copy of the  student worksheet.
    Have team members deliberate on
    the sufficiency of the proposal, us-
    ing the worksheet.

4«  Ask the council members to vote.
    Examine the results. Have the
    council team  explain why they
    made the choice they did. Let stu-
    dents discuss the results and the
    process involved in  writing laws.
    Ask students whether any of the proposals would be applicable in your
    community and how they would proceed to  bring their ideas to the
    attention of local legislators.

SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS
~@i  For higher grades, have students research actual  local laws related to
    smog prevention or other air pollution issues. Have them make short
    presentations of their findings.

SUGGESTED READING
Bryner, Gary C. Blue Skies, Green  Politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990. Washing-
    ton, DC: CQ Press (1992).
Project A.I.R.E.
189
Writing Environmental Laws

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                    Cushman, John H., Jr.  "Clinton to Order Effort To Make Pollution Fairer."
                        New York Times, 143 (10 February 1994) p. A1.

                    Hogan, Barbara. "M2/P2...A Better Pollution Control Approach." Conserva-
                        tionist, 48  (September 1993) p. 46.

                    Liroff, Richard A. Reforming Air Pollution Regulations:  The Toil and Trouble of
                        EPA's Bubble. Washington, DC: Conservation Foundation (1986).

                    Stevens, Leonard A. How a Law Is Made: The Story of a Bill Against Air Pollu-
                        tion. New  York, NY: Crowell (1970).

                    Willis, Terri, and Wallace B. Black. Cars: An Environmental Challenge. Children's
                        Press (1992).
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                                                          ti

          WRITING  ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS
                    PROPOSED LEGISLATION CHECKLIST



[  ]  Does the proposal describe requirements clearly?

[  ]  Is the regulated community adequately described?

[  ]  Are the actions required or prohibited stated clearly?

[  ]  Are requirements practical?

[  ]  Can requirements be met by the regulated community?

[  ]  Have exceptions or exemptions been included for extraordinary circumstances or contingencies?
    (In this example, groups may wish to allow ambulances and firetrucks to travel downtown as
    needed.)

[  ]  Does the proposal include sufficient enforcement provisions?

[  ]  Are any necessary enforcement bodies sufficiently authorized?

[  ]  Have other enforcement mechanisms been described adequately?

[  ]  Are penalties for violations included?

[  ]  If so, are they stated clearly?

[  ]  Has  an appeal process been included?
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 TRANSLATING  SCIENCE
 INTO PUBLIC  POLICY
In this activity, the students will role-play participants at a panel on
climate change and  will represent either scientists or policymakers.
"Scientists" will use the information  they've learned in other classes
and assignments to present information to "policymakers," who will
weigh that information, develop their own opinions, and decide what—
if anything—should be done about climate change. This activity is re-
lated to the "Scales,  Rules, Standards, Policy, and Science" warm-up
and the "Writing Environmental Laws" activity.

CRITICAL OBJECTIVES
    Research, organize, and present information from the perspective
    of a scientist or policymaker
    Make informed decisions backed by evidence
    Describe the process and complexity of making policy decisions

SKILLS
^  Researching
    Comparing ideas
    Considering alternatives
    Making decisions

GUEST PRESENTERS
Guest Presenters for this activity  could include EPA Environmental
protection specialists, lawyers, research scientists, conservationists,
orjournalists.

BACKGROUND
Air quality laws and regulations attempt to govern behavior in order to
improve the quality of life for people and protect nature. When people
"know" that air pollution causes harm, or when regulations stipulate
precise quantities of allowed or illegal pollutants, we take for granted
that the numbers are based upon scientific research, and are not just
made up.  Thus, scientific  research plays a major role in supporting
laws and  policies governing environmental pollution and natural re-
source management. Scientific research is often categorized into "ba-
sic" or "applied" science.  Basic, or "pure" research usually refers to
fundamental principles that do not have a specific result or application
in mind, and is conducted mainly for the sake of improving knowl-
edge. On the other hand, applied  research is designed to solve a par-
ticular societal or commercial problem or collect information in order
                                                                   RELATED
                                                                 WARM-UP
                                                                           H
                               REFER TO
                               READING
                            MATERIALS
                          "The Greenhouse
                                   Effect"
                            "Air Pollution"

                        TARGET GRADE
                                  LEVEL
                                 8th-11th

                             DURATION
                        3 class periods (120
                             minutes), plus
                            library research
                              outside class
                          VOCABULARY
                            Applied science
                                    Policy
                              Pure science
                               Regulations

                            MATERIALS
                                Flip  charts
                            Blank overhead
                            transparencies
                             Marking pens
                                 Projector
                              2-3 sheets of
                            butcher paper
                             Note pads for
                           studentjournals

                           WORKSHEETS
                              INCLUDED
                                       6
Project A.I.R.E.
193
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                    to enforce specific laws. Sometimes, research is hard to categorize this way,
                    because the results can be both useful to the science in general as well as
                    specifically destined to resolve some commercial or policy-related goal. In
                    general, though, most applied research  is based upon sound  principles
                    learned from "basic" research. While "policy" usually means government
                    decisions or regulations, it can also include business or personal decisions.
                    Scientists and policymakers each  have critical roles to play in  translating
                    applied research results into sound government policies and actions.  Sci-
                    entists are trained in recognizing and describing the nature of the physical,
                    chemical, and biological world, and in  being able to predict natural behav-
                    ior from certain facts or data.  Scientists are also responsible for communi-
                    cating their  research to non-scientists. They must assist policymakers and
                    others in understanding the relevance of the research,  and to recognize the
                    limitations of the conclusions. Scientists do not necessarily tell  us what to
                    do.  Their role is to tell us what would  happen if we did this or that.
                    Policymakers, on the other hand, do more thanjust listen to scientists. They
                    have to understand the  conclusions that  the scientists have reached, and
                    they have to understand the  limitations of the data.  However, they must
                    balance the  scientific facts, principles,  and uncertainties against social val-
                    ues and economic issues as well.  They then have to make often-difficult or
                    controversial public policy decisions. (See  reading materials on "The Green-
                    house Effect" and "Air Pollution.")

                    In our system of government, laws, regulations, and policies are generally
                    determined  by elected or appointed officials charged with balancing com-
                    peting interests to the benefit of society or a constituency.  In the environ-
                    mental arena, policymakers usually rely upon recognized scientific or engi-
                    neering experts to sift through the complex scientific data and (often) com-
                    peting theories. In the  activity below, the students  will take the part of
                    policymakers and technical experts in role-playing the type of hearings of-
                    ten held prior to policy decisions.

                    WHAT TO DO
                    First class
                    1«  Divide the class into two groups.  About eight of the students in the
                        first group should be the "policymakers"—Members of Congress and
                        their staff, and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency
                        and her staff—and the remainder of  the class will be members of the
                        expert scientific panel.  Just as many different areas of scientific  exper-
                        tise are represented in the climate change research community, the
                        "scientist" students should represent different scientific disciplines.
                        Divide the scientists into six or more teams, each representing a differ-
                        ent discipline.  Student worksheets are provided for the policymaker
                        group and five possible scientist groups, but the students should be
                        encouraged to  identify and define additional interest groups (such as
                        citizen groups, lobbies, or additional scientific communities).  Team
                        members should be encouraged to research their team's positions at
                        the libraries or by discussions with real  experts from government or
Translating Science into Public Policy         194                                Project A.I.R.E.

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     the community.  You also may want to provide appropriate groups
     with copies of some of the reading materials included in this package.

J«   Discuss with the class the description of each group, what information
     each group will need, the goals of the panel, and how the panel will be
     conducted. Stress that the presentations, questions and answers, and
     discussions are for the purpose of giving policymakers the best avail-
     able scientific information to help them make decisions. The personal
     feelings of the scientists should not be allowed to affect the way the
     scientists present data; however, the conclusions the  scientists  reach
     based on those objective data may enter into the discussions.

4«  Stress that groups should develop their own conclusions based on the
     data at their disposal.  They may decide,  for example, that there is
     insufficient scientific  evidence to be concerned with climate change,
     or they may decide that the evidence for climate change is very strong
     and convincing and that severe problems will result. In either case, the
     scientist groups should be prepared to present their evidence and re-
     spond to challenges  or questions from the policymakers who may be
     unconvinced.

5.   Policymakers may ask for the scientists'  "best professional  opinion."
     The policymakers have to listen carefully to the information, making
     notes as they proceed, and consider their options. They have a par-
     ticularly tough job because they have to consider not only the scien-
     tific evidence but also the effects their  decisions will have on the eco-
     nomic and social welfare of the Nation.

6«  Assign each of the scientist teams to prepare a 5-minute summary of
     the most important issues they want the policymakers  to know about.
     (The presentations are to be made in a follow-up class.)  Give them 15-
     20 minutes to begin  deciding what they want to say and what  visual
     aids they will need to support their positions and to select a spokesper-
     son.

7.   Have the policy group also select a chairperson, and study and discuss
     among themselves the list of possible policy options they may wish to
     consider.  They must also consider the nature of the information they
     need from the scientists, and may wish  to formulate questions for each
     scientist group.  Some of the possible policy options include:

      •  Business as usual.  Insufficient evidence that a  problem exists at all.
      •  All-out control strategies. Stringent CO2 controls, accelerated refor-
        estation,  careful monitoring
        of planetary health, inter-
        National cooperation de-
        manded.
        Small concern. Some energy
        efficiency improvements,
TAKE NOTE
Spend some time helping students consider the
economic and social implications of some of these
choices.
Project A.I.R.E.                            195             Translating Science into Public Policy

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                            but wait for more evidence before instituting controls that affect
                            lifestyles.

                    Class #2
                    1«   Arrange the room so the policymakers are sitting at desks or tables
                        facing the class. Set one desk facing the head table, near the center.
                        This will be the "witness table" for the scientists to present their expert
                        testimonies. Arrange the overhead projector, flip charts, or other vi-
                        sual aids nearby, so that everyone can see them. You may add to the
                        official atmosphere by making a poster or banner with "U.S. Panel on
                        Climate Change" printed on it, and  by preparing place cards and name
                        tags for each participant.

                    2«  You, the teacher, or the guest presenter could serve as moderator and
                        give opening remarks and  introduce the scientist teams  and
                        policymakers.

                    J«   Call on each teams' spokesperson to present their 5-minute summaries
                        of the team's research to the policymakers.  The teams should  be en-
                        couraged to keep their presentations within the time limit, and to be
                        very clear and  direct in their summary remarks.  In presenting their
                        remarks, spokespersons should begin by stating the policy they rec-
                        ommend, and  then present the scientific evidence for their position.
                        For example, the Atmospheric Science team might decide to begin by
                        urging  immediate,  drastic efforts to curb CO2 emissions.  They  may
                        cite the steady, measurable rise in CO2 across the world and the known
                        physical ability of CO2 to absorb heat as their primary reasons to  sup-
                        port the control policy. The policymakers should ask questions during
                        and after the presentations, but the total time for each team should
                        not exceed 8-10 minutes.  If the policy group needs more information,
                        they can request that the scientists provide it the following day.  All the
                        teams should be able to complete their presentations during this class
                        period.

                    4«  All students should take notes on the presentations in their journals.

                    Class #3
                    1.   Arrange the room as for Class #2

                    2«  Allow  about 20 minutes of the class period for the policymakers to
                        confer and make their decisions. During this time, the scientist groups
                        should  quietly  discuss what might  happen  if their recommendations
                        were not accepted  by the policymakers, and what kind of additional
                        evidence  might be important to fill in gaps from their  presentations
                        the day before.

                    J«   Have the policy chairperson announce their decisions and their rea-
                        sons, paying particular attention to  missing or weak evidence that they
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     did not hear from the scientists.  One of the policy group should write the decisions and
     reasons on a flip chart or butcher paper.

4«  For the rest of the period,  let the class as a whole explore the implications of the decisions,
     paying attention to the most convincing evidence the policymakers heard.  Equal attention
     should be paid to reasons the policymakers did not accept certain scientific arguments, and
     whether additional data or evidence that was not heard might have changed the outcome.
     This consideration, in reality, would be a good reason for additional applied research.

5.   Provide a wrap-up during the last five minutes, stressing the difficulties of the decision-mak-
     ing process and explaining that the 3-hour exercise would have taken many months in real
     life.  (You also may choose to have the guest presenter provide the wrap-up.)

SUGGESTED EXTENSIONS (OPTIONAL)
^  Have students select aspects of the  policy decisions and  write a short essay to support or
     refute the  decisions based upon the evidence presented,  or upon the need for additional
     evidence (research).

SUGGESTED READING
Barke, Richard.  Science, Technology, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: CQ
     Press (1986).

Bryner, Gary C.  Blue Skies, Green Politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990. Washing-
     ton, DC: CQ Press (1992).

Cushman,  John  H., Jr. "Clinton to Order Effort To Make Pollution Fairer."
     New York Times, 143 (10 February 1994) p. A1.

Hiskes, Anne L, and Richard P.  Hiskes. Science, Technology, and Policy Deci-
     sions. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (1986).

Hogan, Barbara. "M2/P2...A Better Pollution Control Approach." Conserva-
     tionist, 48 (September 1993) p. 46.

Liroff,  Richard A. Reforming Air Pollution Regulations: The  Toil and Trouble of
     EPA's Bubble. Washington, DC: Conservation Foundation (1986).

Pringle, Laurence P. Lives at Stake: The Science and Politics of Environmental
     Health. New York,  NY: Macmillan Publishers (1980).

Silverberg, Robert.  "Greenhouse Effect: Apocalypse Now or Chicken Little."
     Omni, 13 (July 1991) p. 50.
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                                                           TI
  TRANSLATING SCIENCE INTO PUBLIC POLICY
   MEMBERS OF CONGRESS AND EPA $ ADMINISTRATOR AND STAFF
As policymakers and lawmakers, you are responsible for assuring that all interests are fairly repre-
sented and that no segment or sector of the population is unduly burdened by your decisions.
There are, however, many influences on your decisions, and there are many checks and balances
to protect the public from abuses of power or authority.  Members of Congress, who are elected
to represent the majority interests of a part of a single district within a state, may have different
priorities and perspectives than the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
who is responsible to the President for carrying out laws and setting policies Nationwide.  Your
role here is to determine the forces influencing your decision-making. These forces are outside of
the testimony presented by the scientific panels.  You should begin with a brief discussion sum-
marizing the different motivations of the members of the group.  You may decide to all be Mem-
bers of Congress, or some of you may also represent the EPA Administrator as her senior policy
staff.

You need not find the answers to your questions during the first session.  Conduct your own
research. Ask the guest presenter (if one was invited), or you may also  contact the local office of
your own Congressional Representative.

You will need to ask the scientific panelists questions to do your research. Use your questions to
get to the root of the problem, and maintain  a list of possible solutions as the testimony proceeds.
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  TRANSLATING SCIENCE INTO PUBLIC POLICY
                       ATMOSPHERIC SCIENTIST}
Your expertise is primarily in the composition and nature of the atmosphere (chemistry and phys-
ics—what's in the air and what the ingredients do), and the influence of the atmosphere on
climate.

Clues for research: Atmospheric scientists could be expected to provide expert testimony on the
greenhouse effect, what greenhouse gases are, how they are changing the atmosphere, and how
that might affect climate over the short- and long term.
Project A.I.R.E.                       199          Translating Science into Public Policy

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  TRANSLATING SCIENCE  INTO PUBLIC POLICY
                               ECOLOGIfTi
Your expertise is in the structure and function of the Earth's living things; how plants and animals
are distributed across the landscape, how they interact with each other and with the Earth's envi-
ronment, and how plants and animals "make their livings."

Clues for research: Ecologists may provide expert opinions on the way climate influences impor-
tant ecosystems, how changes in habitat may affect plants and animals, and how and why future
climate changes might affect ecosystems.
Translating Science into Public Policy       200                           Project A.I.R.E.

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  TRANSLATING  SCIENCE INTO  PUBLIC  POLICY
                       AGRICULTURAL SCIENTIST}
You are primarily interested in crop plants and their production in commercial quantities. You
deal with issues of crop health and stress, soil fertility, water availability, farming practices, pesti-
cides and fertilizers, and with economic issues affecting farms and food production.

Clues for research: Agricultural scientists would be expected to testify about the possible impacts
of climate upon food production and food distribution.
Project A.I.R.E.                        201           Translating Science into Public Policy

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  TRANSLATING SCIENCE INTO PUBLIC POLICY
                           OCEANOGRAPHERf
You specialize in the physical and chemical makeup of the oceans, how they circulate, how they
interact with the atmosphere, how they influence the Earth's climate, and how they store and
exchange energy with the atmosphere.  Oceanographers also are concerned with the biology of
the seas, and with fisheries.

Clues for research:  Oceanographers would be expected to provide information on the interac-
tions of oceans with climate, the possibilities of sea-level rise, and the impacts of changing climate
upon oceanic and coastal life.
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  TRANSLATING SCIENCE  INTO PUBLIC  POLICY
            COMPUTER MODELERS AND MATHEMATICIANS
You are experts in producing complex computer simulations of natural physical and biological
processes, often with hundreds of variables. These simulations can be used to predict the behav-
ior of natural systems (such as climate) that cannot easily be experimented upon directly.

Clues for research: Computer modelers may give expert testimony on the way computer models
are used to help the scientific community make predictions, and to discuss the strengths and
limitations of these models and their data.
Project A.I.R.E.                        203          Translating Science into Public Policy

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                       AIR  POLLUTION
What Is Air Pollution?
The natural composition of air is mostly
nitrogen and oxygen, along with water
droplets, fine particles, and small amounts of
other gases, such as carbon dioxide, nitrous
oxide, methane, ammonia, and argon.  These
gases can be either free in  the air or associ-
ated with water vapor.

Air pollution is any visible or invisible particle
or gas found in the air that is not part of the
normal composition of air.  Natural air pollu-
tion has been around  for millions of years,
but during the last century, pollution created
by humans started to  become a  major con-
cern. We are most familiar with  visible air
pollution like smog; however, many other air
pollutants, including some of the most
dangerous, are totally invisible.

Where Does Air Pollution Come From?
Natural air pollutants have always been a part
of the earth's history.  Particulate matter and
a variety of different gases  from volcanoes,
forest fires, and decaying organic materials in
oceans and swamps enter the atmosphere at
irregular intervals, sometimes in  amounts that
have dramatic effects. Naturally produced
"greenhouse" gases, such as methane from
plant decay, may have contributed signifi-
cantly to periods  of global  warming in the
past. Carbon dioxide and  water vapor react
to form carbonic  acid, which makes rain
slightly acidic even without pollution from
other sources.

Naturally produced pollutants are present in
greater amounts than those of human origin.
However, they do not present as serious a
problem as man-made pollutants because
they are not concentrated  over large cities
and many are less harmful  than man-made
pollutants.
Air pollution from man-made sources is the
result of our increasing use of large quantities
of fuel and high levels of industrial activity.
Not only are some of these pollutants very
harmful, but also tend to be concentrated in
urban areas where many people live and
work. Many of these air pollutants come
from burning the coal, oil, wood, and other
fuels we use to run factories, cars, and power
plants that generate heat and light for our
homes.

Once pollutants are added to the air, they
can chemically react to form more dangerous
pollutants. The interaction of nitrogen oxides
and other components near ground level in
the presence of sunlight forms another
atmospheric gas—ozone.  Ozone has two
very  important but different effects. The
layer of ozone found in the upper atmo-
sphere (stratosphere) provides a major pro-
tective barrier against  harmful radiation from
the sun. However, ozone near the Earth's
surface can become a  serious health problem
when the ozone concentration becomes too
high, usually on long,  sunny, summer days.

Pollutants of any sort can ride the air currents
for long distances.  It has become very clear
that the air around us  and the pollutants it
carries are neverjust a local concern but
transcend regional, national, and hemispheric
boundaries.

What Are the Effects of Air Pollution on
Plants,  Animals, and Humans?
Plant and animal life has adapted to most
natural pollutants except for the rare cata-
strophic occurrences that create worldwide
climate changes. The most serious air quality
concerns are the additional, often harmful,
pollutants that humans add to the air.
                                        205

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Most of the water droplets carried by air
eventually fall to earth as precipitation. Many
of the small particles and chemicals are
washed from the atmosphere when precipita-
tion falls. Air pollution then becomes land
and water pollution, which can influence the
structure and function of ecosystems, includ-
ing their ability for self-regulation. Numerous
small lakes in the eastern United States are
devoid of fish because of the effects of "acid
rain."

The impact of air pollution on man is broad,
causing symptoms ranging from itchy eyes to
cancer. The absorption of inhaled chemicals
can have direct consequences for health.
However, public health also can be indirectly
affected by the deposition of air pollutants on
plants, animals, and water.  These chemicals,
by entering the food chain or being present
in drinking water,  constitute additional
sources of human exposure.

How Do We Detect Air Pollution?
Every year millions of tons of man-made
chemicals are released into the atmosphere,
mostly by industrialized countries. However,
the toxic effects of these chemicals often  are
not recognized or understood until the
chemicals have been widely used for consid-
erable periods  of time. A  chemical com-
pound that initially appears to have little  or
no effect on plants and animals may eventu-
ally produce extremely harmful results, often
hidden for many years.

DDT and related chemicals are a classic case
of such a situation. DDT is a very effective
insecticide that showed great promise for
fighting harmful insects all over the world.  It
wasn't until after many years of widespread
use that DDT was discovered to have devas-
tating toxic effects. The high DDT levels  in
bald eagles caused them to produce eggs so
thin-shelled they were crushed during incu-
bation.  This caused a reduction in the popu-
lation, putting  bald eagles on the endan-
gered species list.  Similar disastrous repercus-
sions can and are being repeated with other
toxic chemicals in other food chains.
Governments around the world have estab-
lished programs to measure and monitor
levels of airborne pollution.  For many years,
cities in the United States developed and
used their own indices for reporting air
pollution levels to the public.  These indi-
vidual indices have now been  replaced by the
Pollution Standards Index (PSI) or the Air
Quality Index (AQI), both recognized as
standardized measures that allow comparison
from city to city.

How Do We Reduce  Air Pollution?
Since little can be done by humans about
natural pollution, our main concern has to be
with the additional pollutants  from human
activity. Because of the increasing concern
over toxic chemicals in the air we breathe,
many laws have been passed to control
emission sources.

Certain air pollutants are so pervasive that
they show up wherever air quality is poor.
Six have been designated "criteria pollut-
ants:"  particulate matter, sulfur dioxide,
nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone,
and lead.  The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency has set national ambient air quality
standards to protect health and welfare in
connection with these pollutants.  Where
these standards are exceeded, the EPA takes
steps to control pollutant emissions.

Identification and control of other hazardous
air pollutants are critical steps  to controlling
air quality. Seven hazardous materials (ar-
senic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury,
vinyl chloride, and radionuclides) already
have U.S. standards. However, this start
represents only a very small portion of the
whole hazardous waste problem. An ex-
panded list of 189 hazardous chemicals has
been identified for regulation.  They are listed
in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
Some states, even some cities, have been
particularly aggressive in battling pollution of
various sorts. New legislation is constantly
being discussed.  Alternative energy sources
and alternative strategies, such as mass transit
and energy conservation, are all  part of the
                                         206

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solution.  Gradually, the international scope is
being recognized and international agree-
ments are being developed to try to deal
with air quality problems on a global scale.

References and Suggested Reading
Adler, Jonathan H. "Little Green Lies: The
    Environmental Miseducation of
    America's Children." Policy Review,
    (Summer 1992) p. 18.

Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association (1991).

Bierma, Thomas J.,  and Mark S. Walbert.
    "Pollution Control Strategy Game:  Costs
    of Control Policies." Journal of Environ-
    mental Education, 18 (Summer 1987) p.
    19.

Climate Change Action Plan. Washington, DC:
    Office of the President of the United
    States (1993).

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution. Ameri-
    can Lung Association (1989).

Hornaday, Ann. "Air Pollution (Good House-
    keeping Green Watch)." Good House-
    keeping, 212 (April 1991) p. 80.

"How Good Is the Air Americans Breathe (Air
    Pollution Data)." Washington Post (Wash-
    ington Health), 116(13 July 1993) p.
    WHS.

McKee. Tropospheric Ozone: Human Health
    and Agricultural Impacts. Lewis Publishing
    (1994).

Ojala, Carl F., and Eric J. Ojala. "Airborne
    Particles." Science Teacher, 54 (Septem-
    ber 1987) p. 40.

O'Neill, Catherine.  "Cleaner Air! Cough!
    Wheeze! Gasp!" Washington Post (Wash-
    ington Health), 115(6 October 1992) p.
    WH18.
 Paden, Mary E. "Global Interview: Trends in
    Environment and Development." Clear-
    ing, (January 1991) p. 7.

Stipp, David. "Bad Things Come In Small
    Particles." Wall Street Journal, (24 April
    1991) p. B1.
 U.S. EPA. National Air Quality and Emissions
    Trends Report, 1992. Research Triangle
    Park, NC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality
    Planning and  Standards EPA/454/R-93/
    031 (1993).

—. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air: Program
    Description. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA,
    Office of Air and Radiation EPA/402/K-
    93/002 (June  1993).
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               INDOOR  AIR QUALITY
How Serious Is Indoor Air Pollution?
Most people are aware that outdoor air
pollution can damage their health but may
not know that indoor air pollution also can
have significant harmful effects.  The U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
studies of human exposure to air pollutants
indicate that indoor levels of many pollutants
may be 2-5 times, and occasionally more
than 100 times,  higher than outdoor levels.
Also, people spend more  than 90 percent of
their time indoors. Tightly sealed buildings
are an additional concern for the health of
those who live and work in them. The
Journal of the American Medical Association
in 1988 reported that a population  living in
energy-efficient  buildings contracted upper
respiratory diseases at rates 46 to 50 percent
higher than a comparable group living in
older, more ventilated housing.  The EPA and
its Science Advisory Board rank indoor air
pollution among the top  five environmental
risks to public health.

Where Does It Come From?
There are many  potential sources of air
pollution in houses and other buildings.
Cases like carbon monoxide, ozone, sulphur
dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and particu-
late matter (less than 10 microns in size) flow
into buildings from the surrounding automo-
tive and industrial culture.  Radon gas seeps
indoors from the soil and rock around the
foundation, and hundreds of other chemicals,
dust, fibers, molds, bacteria, and metals are
released into the indoor air primarily from
carpeting, wood products made with syn-
thetics, and combustion sources. Some
examples include formaldehyde, xylene, vinyl
chloride, ethylbenzene, trichloroethylene,
methacrylic acid, asbestos, textile dust, and
tobacco smoke. Old synthetic carpeting,
which becomes brittle with age, gives off
synthetic house dust.  Unhealthy in itself,
dust is even more dangerous when burned
by the furnace or kitchen stove because it
may produce gases such as hydrogen cyanide
and forgene.  Common sources of indoor
pollutants include household cleaners, tex-
tiles, automotive supplies, furnaces, gas
cooking appliances, pesticides, and paint.

What Are The Effects of These
Pollutants?
Some common indoor air pollutants are
known to cause cancer and are relatively well
characterized. Examples are tobacco smoke,
benzene, vinyl chloride,  trichloroethylene,
and asbestos.  Benzene is in fossil fuel and is
used as a solvent in the manufacturing of
paints, plastics, and pesticides. Vinyl chloride
is used in plumbing and in manufacturing
plastics. Trichloroethylene is used in dry
cleaning and in the manufacturing of pesti-
cides, paints, waxes, and paint strippers.
Many indoor air pollutants cause non-cancer
health effects  (such as neurologic, reproduc-
tive/developmental, pulmonary, immune
system) and generally are not understood as
well as the cancer-causing ones.  For ex-
ample, the xylenes used as a paint and ink
solvent and in some detergents are associ-
ated with liver, kidney, and nervous system
disorders.  Plasticizers may cause chromo-
some damage. Dust mites and mold may
cause allergic reactions.  Further research on
indoor air quality is needed to identify and
characterize the health risks associated with
exposures to indoor air pollutants, individu-
ally and in  combination.  Not all potential
indoor air pollutants have been identified.

How Do We Detect Indoor Air
Pollution?
With special equipment, a technician can test
for airborne particulates, specific organic
                                         209

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and inorganic gases, vapors, and dust in
indoor air. Detecting radon gas is easy and
relatively inexpensive.  (See the reading
material on "Radon.")  Testing for carbon
dioxide provides an index of the amount of
outside air pollutants coming into a building.

How Do We Reduce the Hazards?
Several strategies may be used to improve
indoor air quality.  A combustion furnace, if
located indoors, should be efficient and
atmospherically separated from the rest of
the house. Solar heating and electric space
heaters and kitchen ranges are better alterna-
tives to kerosene and gas versions.  Insulation
of living spaces and metal conduits are
recommended. Household cleaners, paints,
and other products in the house should be
sealed and stored properly to avoid leaking
into the living area of the house. A ventila-
tion controlled system can provide fresh air
every day.

References and Suggested Reading
Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association (1991).

Becker, Brenda L "Is Your Home Hazardous
    to Your Health." Woman's Day, 56 (21
    September 1993) p. 36.

Delaney, Lisa. 'The Air Doctors' Report: How
    to Protect Yourself from Dangers Blow-
    ing Through Your House." Prevention, 43
    (August 1991) p. 44.

"Government on the Bandwagon (Address-
    ing the Issue of Indoor Air Quality)."
    Occupational Hazards, 54 (August 1992)
    p. 35.

Gutfeld, Greg, Linda Rao, and Maureen
    Sangiorgio. "Pollution-Fighting Plants."
    Prevention, 44 (September 1992) p. 10.

"Hidden Life of Spider Plants." University of
    California, Berkeley Wellness Letter, 10
    (February 1994) p. 1.
"How to Improve Indoor Air." University of
    California, Berkeley Wellness Letter, 8
    (February 1992) p. 6.

Jackson, Tom. "Prescription for Indoor Air
    Quality." Better Homes and Gardens, 68
    (October 1990) p. 152.

Mansdorf, Jack. "Indoor Air Quality: A Mod-
    ern Day Dilemma." Occupational Haz-
    ards, 55 (March 1993) p. 11.

Nero, Anthony V., Jr. "Controlling Indoor Air
    Pollution." Scientific American, 258 (May
    1988) p. 42.

Rifkin, Janey M. "When Breathing is Hazard-
    ous to Your Health." Let's Live,  59 (Au-
    gust 1991) p. 62.

Samet, and Spengler. Indoor Air Pollution: A
    Health Perspective. Johns Hopkins Univer-
    sity Press (1991).

Scott, Geoff. "Your Environment and  Your
    Health." Current Health, 18 (2 April
    1992) p. 7.

Skolnick, Andrew. "Even Air in the Home Is
    Not Entirely  Free of Potential Pollutants."
    Journal of the American Medical  Associa-
    tion, 262 (December 8, 1989) p. 3102.

U.S. Congress. Researching Health Risks.
    Washington, DC: U.S. Congress Office of
    Technology Assessment OTA-BBS-571
    (1993).

U.S. EPA. National Air Quality and Emissions
    Trends Report, 1992. Research Triangle
    Park, NC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality
    Planning and Standards EPA/454/R-93/
    031 (1993).

—. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air: Program
    Description. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA,
    Office of Air  and Radiation  EPA/402/K-
    93/002 (June 1993).
                                         210

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                       HEALTH  EFFECTS
Ambient Air Quality and Human Health
Ambient air quality, especially in highly
industrialized and urbanized areas, is a grow-
ing concern to the health of the nation. The
magnitude and variety of these pollutants
across the country depends mainly on the
number and types of air emission sources and
meteorological conditions. To protect public
health and welfare, the EPA has set national
standards for six ambient pollutants that tend
to reach unsafe levels. They are carbon
monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, tropo-
spheric ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate
matter. However, there are other pollutants
of concern, some of which occasionally reach
dangerous levels under certain conditions or
in accidental releases. The EPA is evaluating
these pollutants and may require emission
reductions for some of them. The EPA also is
implementing programs to reduce emissions
of chlorofluorocarbons and other pollutants
that are depleting stratospheric ozone.

Indoor Air Quality and Human Health
EPA studies of human exposure to indoor air
pollutants indicate that pollution levels may
be 2-5 times, and occasionally more than 100
times, higher than outdoor levels.  Because
most people spend at least 90 percent of
their time indoors, indoor air quality is a
growing concern. Virtually all ambient air
pollutants can be found in indoor air, but
some also are generated indoors. For ex-
ample, carbon monoxide may be produced
from tobacco smoking and faulty heating
appliances, lead from old paint, and nitrogen
and sulfur dioxides from coal-burning stoves.
The major sources of indoor air pollution are
carpeting, wood products made with syn-
thetic glues, combustion appliances, and
tobacco products.
Determining Risk Associated with Air
Pollution
To determine the risks to human health
posed by air pollutants, the U.S. Environmen-
tal Protection Agency (EPA) obtains the best
available toxicological data from animal stud-
ies and human studies. Risks associated with
exposure to carcinogens (chemicals with can-
cer causing potential) are analyzed separately
from those associated with exposure to non-
carcinogenic chemicals (with the potential for
causing pulmonary, liver, and kidney dam-
age, nervous system changes, birth defects,
immune system dysfunction, and other ef-
fects).

Even though some chemicals have the poten-
tial for generating both carcinogenic and
non-carcinogenic effects, the means by which
they produce them in the body is thought to
be substantially different for most chemicals.
In calculating the likelihood that someone
will develop cancer, risk assessors assume
there is some chance a person will get cancer
even from extremely low exposures to a
cancer causing substance.  For a pollutant
that causes non-carcinogenic health prob-
lems, risk assessors assume that there is a
level of exposure  below which people are not
likely to experience adverse health effects
over a time period, usually a lifetime. These
assumptions are based on considerable
evidence  of adverse health effects in animal
and human studies, such as occupational
exposures.

Although air pollutants can enter the body by
several routes, the primary route is through
the lungs, which have a total surface area
about 25 times greater than that of the
body's skin surface.  In the lungs, air pollut-
ants may damage directly the lung tissue
causing several types of diseases, including
                                        211

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cancer.  In addition, most air pollutants are
absorbed into the blood and transported to
sensitive organs throughout the body.

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution
The pollutants for which EPA has set National
Ambient Air Quality Standards produce a
wide variety of health effects. Ambient
carbon monoxide, which comes primarily
from motor vehicles, enters the blood from
the lungs and permanently binds to hemo-
globin, preventing it from carrying oxygen
needed to sustain life.  Lead, from multiple
sources including leaded gasoline, accumu-
lates in the body and may cause neurological
impairments such as mental retardation and
behavioral disorders, especially in the very
young.  Even at low doses, lead is associated
with  changes in fundamental enzymatic and
energy transfer mechanisms in the body.
Nitrogen dioxide, mainly from coal burning
power plants and motor vehicles, can irritate
the lungs and lower resistance to respiratory
infections.  It also is  a precursor to acid
deposition and ozone.   Ozone, formed
mainly at ground level from other air pollut-
ants in the presence of sunlight, damages
lung  tissue, reduces lung function,  and
sensitizes the lungs to  other irritants. De-
creased lung function can be accompanied
by chest pain, coughing, and nausea.  Ozone
also causes agricultural crop loss. Sulfur
dioxide, mainly from coal-burning power and
industrial plants,  is associated with decreased
lung  function, respiratory diseases, and
lowered resistance to lung problems.  It also
damages plant life.  Particulate matter (less
than 10 microns in size) comes from a num-
ber of different sources such as diesel en-
gines, burning wood, and windblown dust.
It can aggravate lung and cardiovascular
diseases, alter the body's defense systems,
and cause cancer.

Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution
Indoor air pollutants may cause a wide variety
of adverse health effects ranging from rashes
and eye irritation to cancer, breathing diffi-
culties, kidney failure, liver damage, and birth
defects. The degree of toxicity depends on
the physical/chemical characteristics of the air
pollutant; the magnitude, frequency, and
duration of exposure; and the overall health
of those exposed. Some populations, such as
children and the elderly, often are more
susceptible to the adverse health effects of
pollution.  Tobacco smoke, benzene, vinyl
chloride, trichloroethylene, and asbestos are
common indoor pollutants with the potential
for causing cancer.  Some pesticides used or
accidentally leaked  indoors can cause cancer
and a number of non-cancer effects including
lung, kidney, liver, and nervous system
dysfunction. Radon gas causes lung cancer.
Formaldehyde, from the outgassing of par-
ticle board and similar products, not only
irritates eyes, lungs, and skin, but also is a
potential carcinogen. Even though the list of
potentially dangerous indoor air pollutants
seems endless, not  all of the pollutants—for
example, those produced during combustion
or released during the outgassing of synthetic
carpet—have been  identified. Furthermore,
the combined effects of air pollutants on
human health are largely unknown.

References and Suggested Reading
Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association (1991).

"Air Pollution and Children." Healthline, 10
    (January 1991) p. 13.

"Air Pollution and Respiratory Infections."
    Pediatrics for Parents, (September 1991)
    p.1.

Air Pollution and Your Health (pamphlet).
    American Lung Association (April 1988).

"Battling Indoor Air Pollution." USA Today
    Magazine, 120 (October 1991) p. 14.

Cotton, Paul. ""Best Data Yet Say Air Pollu-
    tion Kills Below Levels Currently Consid-
    ered Safe." Journal of the American
                                        212

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    Medical Association, 269 (23 June 1993)
    p. 3087.

Godlee, Fiona. "Health Implications of Cli-
    matic Change." British Medical Journal,
    303 (16 November 1991) p. 1254.

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution. Ameri-
    can Lung Association (1989).

Hoppin, Jane. Risk Assessment in the Federal
    Government: Questions and Answers.
    Boston, MA: Harvard School of Public
    Health, Center for Risk Analysis (1993).

Jackson, Tom. "Prescription for Indoor Air
    Quality." Better Homes and Gardens, 68
    (October 1990) p. 152.

LaGanga, Maria L. "Particles—Tiny Killer in
    the Air." Los Angeles Times, 112 (7 De-
    cember 1992) p. A1.

McKee. Tropospheric Ozone: Human Health
    and Agricultural Impacts. Lewis Publishing
    (1994).

Pasternak, Judy. "Long-Term Lung Damage
    Linked to Air Pollution; Respiratory
    Deterioration Is Found in Areas Where
    Air Is Dirtiest." Los Angeles Times, (29
    March 1991) p. A1.

—. "Smog Blamed for Increase in Asthma
    Cases." Los Angeles Times, (2 December
    1991) p. A1.

"Populations at Risk from Air Pollution."
    Journal of the American Medical Associa-
    tion, 269 (19 May 1993) p. 2493.

Roach, Mary, John Hastings, and Steven
    Finch. "Sun Struck: Here's the  Hole Story
    about the Ozone and Your Chances of
    Getting Skin Cancer." Health, 6 (May
    1992) p. 40.
Scott, Geoff. "Your Environment and Your
    Health." Current Health, 18 (2 April
    1992) p. 7.

Skolnick, Andrew.  "Even Air in the Home Is
    Not Entirely Free of Potential Pollutants."
    Journal of the American Medical Associa-
    tion, 262 (December 8, 1989) p. 3102.

Sombke, Laurence. "Is Your House...Healthy?
    Sick? Toxic?"  Family Circle, 105 (2 June
    1992) p. 72.

U.S. Congress.  Researching Health Risks.
    Washington, DC: U.S. Congress Office of
    Technology Assessment OTA-BBS-571
    (1993).

Ziem, Grace E.,  and Linda L. Davidoff. "Illness
    from Chemical 'Odors': Is the Health
    Significance Understood." Archives of
    Environmental Health, 47 (January 1992)
    p. 88.
                                         213

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214

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                                  RADON
What Is Radon?
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive
isotope. Radon is colorless and odorless
regardless of concentration and is the only
member of a chain of decaying isotopes that
is a gas. Radon is produced from radioactive
disintegration reactions that begin with
uranium-238, which is widely distributed
throughout the Earth's crust. With a half-life
of 3.8 days, radon has time to escape from
soil and enter buildings before decaying into
polonium-218, a radioactive particle (solid).

Where Does It Come From?
The majority of radon that enters a building
comes in through cracks in the foundation
and basement floor,  crawl spaces, floor
drains, joints between walls and basement
floor, water pipes, and electrical conduits.
Other sources of indoor radon include water
(primarily well water) and building materials
made of rock, such as brick and concrete.
Radon levels may vary a lot from one building
to the next in.a neighborhood.  Radon levels
are higher in the basement and lower floors,
which are closer to the source, than the
upper floors.  They also tend to be higher in
cold weather when doors  and windows are
closed.

What Are Its Effects?
It is polonium-218, with a half-life of three
minutes, and some of its solid decay products
(such as lead-214, bismuth-214, and polo-
nium-214)  that present the greatest risk to
human'health.  Alpha particle emissions from
the radioactive disintegrations of these radon
decay products are sufficiently powerful  to
penetrate lung tissue and  damage the sensi-
tive basal epithelial cells, which leads to  lung
cancer.  Disintegration of the decay  products
outside the lungs is of little concern  because
alpha emissions are easily  stopped by a
couple of centimeters of air, and they are
unable to penetrate the skin.
Although the number of deaths due to radon
is disputable, the Centers for Disease Control,
the American Lung Association, and other
major health authorities agree that radon
causes thousands of preventable lung cancer
deaths each year.  Radon is certainly a danger
to uranium miners and others exposed to
high doses.  In the United States, estimates of
the number of deaths from lung cancer
caused by radon range between 7,000 and
30,000 per year, which is about 10 percent of
the lung cancer deaths attributed to smok-
ing.  Evidence suggests that radon and
cigarette smoking may act synergistically,
increasing the cancer risk more than simply
adding the risks of radon and smoking.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) urges home owners to reduce their
radon exposure if levels average greater than
4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). The curie (Ci) is
the basic unit of measurement most com-
monly used in the United  States for radioac-
tivity. One curie is equal to 37 billion radio-
active disintegrations per second, which  is a
lot of radioactivity.  The radioactivity released
by radon and its decay products is usually
measured  in picocuries (pCi), or trillionths of
a curie.

How Do We Detect It?
Measuring radon levels in houses is easy  and
relatively inexpensive. There are several
methods, but the three most common
detection units are charcoal canisters, alpha
track monitors, and electret ion chambers.
The charcoal canister has a radon absorption
device and can measure radon levels in 2-7
days. Usually, the canister is mailed to the
manufacturer for analysis. Alpha track moni-
tors require 3-12 months to measure radon
                                          215

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by recording the tracks of alpha particles
emitted when the radon decays. The electret
ion chamber, which is designed for short- or
long-term testing, contains a specially
charged device that, when exposed to the
air, reacts to the radioactive decay of radon.
The recommended procedure is to begin
with a short-term test, and if the results show
high radon levels, add further tests.

How Do We Reduce Its Effects?
If the radon detection tests indicate that
radon levels are too high, one or more
mitigation strategies may be implemented to
decrease radon concentrations indoors. The
best choice of a strategy depends on how
much radon was detected, the design and air
flow patterns in the house, cost consider-
ations, and appearance.  All strategies involve
keeping radon from seeping into the house,
and removing radon once it enters the house.
Specific strategies may include:

• Sealing cracks and openings, including
  water and sewer lines and electrical con-
  duits, in and around the foundation and
  concrete slab under the house;
• Increasing natural ventilation by opening
  windows to facilitate the flow of outside air
  into the house, especially to the basement
  and lower floors;
• Forced ventilation (fans) with or without
  heat recovery into (never out of) the house
  on the lower levels;
• Soil ventilation to draw soil gas away from
  the foundation of the house.

Air flows in the direction of least resistance.
Consequently, if fans are used to ventilate the
house, it is important to blow the air into,
never out of, the house because radon is
pulled into the house with the creation of a
slight vacuum in the lower areas of the
house.

References and Suggested Reading
Barnes-Svarney, Patricia. "Righting the Risk of
     Radon: This Invisible and Odorless
     Pollutant Can Be Hazardous to Your
    Health, But It's Easy To Find Out If You're
    at Risk." Earth Science, 42 (Fall 1989) p.
    17.

Downey, Daniel M., and Glenn Simonulas.
    "Measurement of Radon in Indoor Air."
    Journal of Chemical Education, 65 (De-
    cember 1988) p. 1042.

Godwin, Phillip, Kristin Willenbrink, and
    Bertha Kainen. "Radon Update." Chang-
    ing Times, 42 (February 1988) p. 22.

"Radon: Risk or Rubbish?" Medical Update, 14
    (March 1991) p. 2.

Samet, and Spengler. Indoor Air Pollution: A
    Health Perspective. Johns Hopkins Univer-
    sity Press (1991).

U.S. EPA. A Citizen's Cuide to Radon. Washing-
    ton, DC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air and
    Radiation EPA/402/K-92/001  (1992).

—.  Office of Radiation and Indoor Air: Program
    Description. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA,
    Office of Air and Radiation  EPA/402/K-
    93/002 Gune 1993).
                                         216

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       WEATHER  AND  AIR QUALITY
What Is Weather?
Webster's Ninth Collegiate Dictionary defines
weather as the "state of the atmosphere with
respect to heat or cold, wetness or dryness,
calm or storm, clearness or cloudiness." The
term "weather" encompasses many factors,
including temperature and precipitation
conditions and air mass movements.
Weather involves the daily variations of these
factors.  Knowledge about the basic elements
of daily weather helps to explain how
weather affects air quality.

The movement of huge air masses across the
continent has the broadest impact on daily
weather. In North America, these air masses,
commonly termed weather systems, usually
flow from west to east. The exact path of
weather systems is determined by several
factors, including the prevailing direction of
"jet streams" and topographic features. The
jet streams are enormous upper air currents
of air that move across the continent at great
speeds.  The trends  of weather systems
depend upon whether the jet streams dip
south or stay north. Topographic features,
such as a mountain  range, can alter the
direction of air masses. The collision of
different air masses also may affect the path
of each air mass.

Weather systems typically are defined as
being either a high- or low-pressure system.
High-pressure systems are air masses with
unique properties, such as warm or cool, or
moist or dry. The winds of a high-pressure
system rotate in a clockwise direction.  Con-
sequently,  as a high-pressure system rotates,
it will draw colder, northern air southward
and warmer, southern air northward.

Low-pressure systems are pockets of air masses
located between high-pressure systems. These
systems flow in a counter-clockwise direction
between two clockwise-rotating high-pres-
sure systems. Since several weather systems
(high- and low-pressures systems) occur at
the same time over the North America, air
masses are constantly colliding.  When this
occurs, weather fronts form, which often
leads to some form of precipitation.

During the cooler seasons of the year, pre-
cipitation may encompass areas that are
hundreds of miles across. Cold weather
precipitation often falls as snow, sleet, or
freezing rain.  In the hotter seasons, precipita-
tion often is limited to smaller areas.  This
precipitation ranges from rain showers to
thunderstorms, and occasionally, hail.

Weather patterns also are affected by the sun
and the position of the sun throughout the
year. The amount of daylight and the angle
of sunlight reaching the earth affects the
temperature and the types of precipitation.
During the winter, because the sun is situated
in the southern sky, resulting in less daylight,
temperatures are colder. As daylight slowly
increases, as the sun shifts to the north, the
temperature also slowly increases.  The sun
reaches its apex in the summer, resulting in
the hottest temperatures, and starts to shift
to the south again.

How Does Weather Affect Air Quality?
Daily weather conditions directly affect the
quality of the air. Shifting air masses and
wind can move air pollutants from one
location to another. Conversely, stagnant air
can result in increased concentrations of
harmful pollutants. All forms of precipitation
wash pollutants from the air and onto the
ground. Although this cleanses the air, it
may create land and surface water pollution.
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What Is the Air Quality Index and How
Does It Work?
The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized
index to classify and measure air pollution
and is used to report air pollution levels to
the public. The reason the public needs to
be informed about air pollution levels is to
warn people who may be susceptible to air
pollution. These people may need to modify
their behavior and take precautionary mea-
sures to protect themselves when air pollu-
tion is severe.

Once air monitoring data is collected, the
AQI is used to convert the data to a scale that
ranges from a 0 to 100 and over. The scale
intervals  indicate the potential health effects
of measured daily levels of major air pollut-
ants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen
dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter,
and ozone. The AQI is based on the ambient
air quality standards established by  the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.  The AQI
not only provides information about the
health effects of air pollution, but also in-
cludes information about the effects of air
pollution on property, vegetation, and aes-
thetic values.

References and Suggested Reading
Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association (1991).

Cole, Henry S. "Air Pollution and Weather:
    Activities and Demonstrations for Sci-
    ence Classes." Science Teacher,  40 (De-
    cember 1973) p. 38.

Kohler, Fred. Classroom Exercises Concerning
     the  Effect of Weather Conditions on Air
     Quality in Illinois. Pittsburgh, PA: National
    Council for Geographic Education (29
    October 1981).

U.S. EPA. National Air Quality and Emissions
     Trends Report, 1992. Research Triangle
     Park, NC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality
    Planning and Standards EPA/454/R-93/
    031 (1993).
Yudkin, Marcia. 'The Forecast for Tomorrow
    is Headaches. Are You One of the Mil-
    lions of Sensitive People Whose Weil-
    Being May Be Upset by the Weather?"
    Natural Health, 23 Qanuary 1993) p. 40.
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                     ACID DEPOSITION
What Is Acid Deposition?
Acid deposition includes acid rain, snow, fog,
humidity, and dust with an acidity level lower
than pH 5.6.  Normal rain, which has a pH of
about 5.6, is about 25 times more acidic than
"pure," neutral water. The acidity results
from the conversion of atmospheric carbon
dioxide in water vapor to carbonic acid, a
weak acid.  Most acid precipitation has a pH
between 4.6 and 5.6, but scientists occasion-
ally have measured pH values in acid rain in
the eastern United States as low as 2.1 and
3.0, which is about 10,000 to 80,000 times
more acidic than pure water.

Where  Does It Come From?
Nearly 95 percent of the acidity below pH 5.6
comes from atmospheric sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen oxides, which are products of fossil
fuel combustion. Acidified rainwater contains
combinations of sulfuric and nitric acids that
form when water vapor and sulfur dioxide
and nitrogen oxides react. Most of the acid
deposition in the eastern  United States is
attributed to the release of large amounts of
sulfur dioxide and to a lesser extent nitrogen
oxides from big midwestern power plants
that burn coal. Paper and wood pulp pro-
cessing plants also contribute to sulfur diox-
ide pollution. In the United States and
Canada, sulfur dioxide contributes much
more to acid deposition than nitrogen ox-
ides, which come mainly  from automotive
emissions,  but over the next few decades
nitrogen oxides may catch up.  Sulfur and
nitrogen oxides may be transported by the
wind in the atmosphere for many miles,
crossing regional and international bound-
aries, before falling to Earth.

What Are Its Effects?
The effects of acid rain may not be immedi-
ately apparent.  For example, at a glance, a
lake might look clear and beautiful, but a
closer look may reveal few living organisms.
Some species of fish cannot reproduce in
water with a pH of less than 5. Clams, snails,
crayfish, and other crustaceans, brook trout,
walleyed pike, and bullfrogs are especially
sensitive to acidification.  However, the
detrimental impact of acidification to animal
life is not necessarily caused directly by the
acidity. Trace metals such as aluminum,
mercury, manganese, and cadmium, which
are leached from sediment and rocks by the
increased acidity, are toxic to life.  Thus, the
pH does not have to decrease very much
before fish kills can occur.  Because many
insects cannot survive in strongly acidic
streams and  lakes,  birds and mammals that
depend on insects for food may suffer abnor-
mally high mortality.  Acidification also inter-
rupts normal decomposition of dead plant
and animal material in lakes and streams
because many of the bacteria that assist in
decomposition perish.  Without the usual
decomposition processes, dead material
settles to the bottom, making the water look
crystal clear.

The damaging effects of acid deposition on
forests and other terrestrial systems are less
well understood than on aquatic systems.
Acid deposition can alter soil chemistry,
nutrient availability, and plant growth.  In
their weakened condition, trees and shrubs
become vulnerable to insects, diseases, and
fungus infestations.

Although the Norwegians were the first to
bring  acid rain to the world's attention in the
1940s, one of the most severely impacted
areas of the world is the industrialized Ruhr
Valley in West Germany. There, white fir trees
became  defoliated and died in the early
1970s. Diseases in spruce and other sensitive
                                         219

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conifers soon followed, and by 1985, the
number of German trees visibly affected by
acid deposition had risen to 52 percent.
Forests in other parts of the world also display
acid deposition damage. For example, the
dominant tree in Vermont's Green Moun-
tains, the red spruce, is suffering severe
mortality and parts of the mountain range
have become denuded. Sugar maples all
over the northeastern United States and
Canada are declining.  In the Shenandoah
and Great Smokey Mountains of the south-
eastern United States, spruce and fir are
failing to reproduce and are dying.  Pine also
are impacted.

How Do We Recognize  It?
Paniculate matter containing atmospheric
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide account for
over 50 percent of the visibility problems in
the eastern United States. In the West, these
particles have been blamed for reducing
visibility in the Grand Canyon of the Colo-
rado River and other areas. Acid deposition
contributes to the corrosion of metals and
the deterioration and soiling of the stone and
paint on buildings, statues, and other struc-
tures of cultural significance.

How Do We Reduce Its  Effects?
The federal government has undertaken a
wide range of research programs, many
through the National Acid Precipitation
Assessment Program, to study the complex
processes associated with acid rain.  To
measure acid deposition quantity and chem-
istry, scientists collect rainfall samples at
monitoring stations throughout the United
States.  Monitoring dry deposition such as
acid dust is difficult and, consequently, has not
been as extensive as that for wet deposition.

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
established an Acid Rain Program to reduce
emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen
oxides at the lowest cost to society.  To
achieve reductions of 10 million tons of sulfur
dioxide by the year 2010, the Act requires a
two-phase tightening of the restrictions
placed on fossil-fuel-fired power plants.
Phase I begins in 1995 and affects 110 coal
burning electric utilities in 21 midwestern
and eastern states.  Phase II begins in the year
2000 and tightens annual emissions on the
large plants and also sets restrictions on
smaller, cleaner plants burning coal, oil, and
gas.  To achieve reductions of 2 million tons
of nitrogen oxides by the year 2000, the Act
requires coal-fired utilities to install low-
nitrogen-oxide technologies on their burners.

To reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, fossil fuel
burning plants can burn low-sulfur coal,
install flue-gas desulfurization equipment
(scrubbers), and implement clean combus-
tion technologies.  Low-sulfur coal contains
about one percent sulfur by weight and is
found mainly in the western United States.
High-sulfur coal contains sulfur in excess of
three percent and is geographically concen-
trated in the Appalachians where  coal  utiliza-
tion is greatest.  Scrubbers are effective at
reducing air pollution, but the sludge they
produce creates a disposal problem. Also,
they are expensive to build and operate.
Clean combustion technologies involve
mixing fuels with compounds that react with
sulfur and either collect it or convert it to a
marketable product that does not enter the
stack. Many of these innovative technologies
have the added advantage of removing
nitrogen oxides as well. Because emissions
from motor vehicles are a major source of
nitrogen oxides, catalytic converters are used
to reduce nitrogen oxides from automotive
sources.

References and Suggested Reading
Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association  (1991).

Brody, Michael, et al.  "Student Knowledge of
    Scientific and Natural Resource Concepts
    Concerning Acidic Deposition." Journal
    of Environmental Education, 20 (Winter
    1989) p. 32.
                                         220

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 Godfrey, Paul J. "Acid Rain: The Scientific
    Challenge." Science Probe, 1 (July 1991)
    p. 71.

Miller, John A., and Irwin L. Slesnick. "Difficult
    Decisions: Acid Rain."  Science Teacher, 56
    (March 1989) p. 33.
 Schwartz, Stephen E. "Acid Deposition:
    Unraveling a Regional  Phenomenon."
    Science, 243 (10 February 1989) p. 753.

U.S. EPA. National Air Quality and Emissions
    Trends Report, 1992. Research Triangle
    Park, NC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality
    Planning and Standards EPA/454/R-93/
    031 (1993).
                                          221

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222

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            THE  GREENHOUSE EFFECT
What Is the Greenhouse Effect?
The "greenhouse effect" is so called because
it is analogous to the process that keeps the
air inside greenhouses (and parked cars)
warmer than the air outside. The glass in
greenhouse windows is transparent to visible
light radiated from the sun.  This light heats
the surface of materials  inside the green-
house, which emit longer wave-length
infrared radiation.  Infrared radiation cannot
penetrate the glass and is trapped, causing
the inside air to warm up.

Water vapor, clouds, carbon dioxide, and
other gases in our atmosphere act like the
greenhouse glass by preventing some of the
infrared radiation emitted by the earth to
escape into space.  Because the levels of
carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse
gases" in the atmosphere are increasing,
more and more of the heat radiated by the
earth's surface may become trapped in the
atmosphere. This may result in "global
warming," or the gradual warming of the
atmosphere around the world.

Where Do Greenhouse Gases Come
From?
Some greenhouse gases come from natural
sources, such as volcanoes and forest fires.
Because of the ability of these naturally
formed gases to trap heat in the atmosphere,
the Earth's surface is about 53°F (29°C)
warmer than it would be without this trap-
ping. This atmospheric heating makes the
surface of the Earth warm enough for life.

Certain human activities can cause air pollu-
tion that magnifies the greenhouse effect in
the atmosphere. The most important air
pollutants that act as greenhouse gases are
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides,
and chlorofluorocarbons.  Methane is a
product of natural decay from living (or
once-living) things.  Carbon dioxide and
nitrogen oxides generally are a result of man-
made burning, automobiles, and other
internal-combustion engines. Nitrogen
oxides also can enter the atmosphere from
fertilizers spread on fields. Chlorofluorocar-
bons ("CFCs") are a class of chemicals often
used in air conditioners and refrigerators and as
the pressurizing gas in aerosol spray cans.

While all of these pollutants contribute to the
greenhouse effect and other air pollution
problems, such as smog, carbon dioxide is
the most important of the greenhouse gases
because there is more  of it in the atmo-
sphere.  Also, carbon dioxide levels have risen
over 25 percent during the past century.

Another source of carbon dioxide is the
clearing of rain forests  in countries near the
equator. The burning  of tropical trees to
clear land for crops releases carbon dioxide to
the atmosphere.  At the same time, trees that
use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis are
being destroyed.

What Will the Greenhouse Effect Do?
No one can predict for certain the impacts of
the increasing levels of greenhouse gases in
the atmosphere.  Researchers think that the
average temperature of the lower atmo-
sphere will increase by 3°F to 9°F (1.6°C to
5°C) over the next 30 or so years.  This may
not seem like much, but the average world
temperature during the last Ice Age was only
5.4°F (3°C) lower than it is now.

Researchers have attempted  to predict the
effects of increased global temperatures using
sophisticated computer models. Most pre-
dict that warmer temperatures will be greater
in winter than in summer and greater at
                                       223

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higher latitudes than the equator. One thing
seems certain, global warming of a few
degrees Celsius will cause major shifts in
global weather patterns. Tropical storms may
become more severe or hit land in different
places. Areas that now receive plenty of rain
for crops may suffer more droughts. One
area where rainfall is predicted to decrease is
the central United States, which produces
much of our food crops.

Global warming also may cause sea level to
rise. The oceans  are storehouses of heat.  By
storing some of the increased heat, ocean
temperatures will rise, causing them to
expand. In addition, warmer temperatures
may melt the polar ice caps to some degree.
A rise in sea level will flood  low-lying areas
where many people now live, for example
low-lying parts of the state  of Florida, many
major cities around the world, and  the coun-
try of Bangladesh.

The increased temperatures, changes in
weather patterns, and sea level rise will have
disastrous effects on many  natural habitats
and the plants and animals that live in them.

While most scientists believe that the green-
house effect  will gradually warm up the
Earth's climate, some believe that warmer
temperatures will increase cloud cover,
reflecting more sunlight away from the Earth
and eventually lowering the average tem-
perature. This increased reflectivity is called
the Earth's albedo.

How Do We Detect the Greenhouse
Effect?
During this century, the average global
temperature has  increased  1°F (just over
0.5°C).  During the 1980s,  the Earth experi-
enced four of the hottest years ever recorded.

Governments and scientists around the world
have been recording temperatures  and levels
of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for
years. Measurements are taken at the
ground and  aloft by airplanes and balloons.
Remote sensing instruments in satellites also
can be used to provide data on temperatures,
winds, and other atmospheric and oceanic
conditions.

How Do We Reduce Its Effects?
We can reduce the effects of global warming
by reducing or stopping the activities that
cause greenhouse gases to enter the atmo-
sphere. We should do our best to burn less
fossil fuels by switching to alternative, cleaner
sources of energy and ban the use of CFCs
and other chemicals that increase the green-
house effect.  Protecting the world's forests
and planting more trees also will help. A
growing tree can take in more than 20
kilograms  of carbon dioxide a year.

References and Suggested Reading
Abrams, Isabel. "Gauging the Greenhouse
    Effect." Current Health, 17 (2 November
    1990) p. 24.

Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association (1991).

Ballard, M., and M. Pandya. Essential Learn-
    ings in Environmental Education. Troy,
    OH: North American Association for
    Environmental Education (1990).

Climate Change Action Plan. Washington, DC:
    Office of the President of the United
    States (1993).

Fossel, Peter V. "Weather Report (Discussion
    of Detrimental Effects of Environmental
    Pollution)." Country journal, 15 (October
    1988) p. 8.

Godlee, Fiona. "Health Implications of Cli-
    matic Change." British Medical journal,
    303 (16 November 1991) p. 1254.

Hall, Dorothy K. "Global Climate Change."
    Science Teacher, 56 (September 1989) p.
    66.
                                         224

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Henderson, Sandra, Steven R. Holman, and
    Lynn L. Mortensen. Global Climates—
    Past, Present, and Future; Activities for
    Integrated Science Education. Washing-
    ton, DC: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and
    Development EPA/600/R-93/126 Gune
    1993).

Hileman, Bette. "Global Warming." Chemical
    and Engineering News, 67 (13 March
    1989)p, 25.

Leaf, Alexander. "Potential Health Effects of
    Global Climatic and Environmental
    Changes." New England Journal of Medi-
    cine, 231  (7 December 1989) p. 1577.

"Our Changing Atmosphere." Clearing,
    (March 1988) p.  7.

Ramirez, Anthony. "A Warming World: What
    It Will Mean; Rising Global Temperatures
    Could Disrupt Wheat Farmers, Electric
    Utilities, and Military Strategy." Fortune,
    118 (4 July 1988) p. 102.

Schneider, Stephen H. "Greenhouse Effect:
    Science and Policy." Science, 243 (10
    February  1989) p. 771.

Stevens, William K. "Estimates of Warming
    Gain More Precision and Warn of Disas-
    ter; Analysis of Past Climate Bolsters
    Computer Studies." New York Times, 142
    (15 December 1992) p. B5.

—. "U.S. Prepares to Unveil Blueprint for
    Reducing  Heat- Trapping Gases: A Team
    Effort with Industry on Possible Global
    Warming." New York Times, 143 (12
    October 1993) p. C4.
                                         225

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                                   OZONE
What Is Ozone?
Ozone is a colorless gas made up of three
atoms of oxygen (O3).  Most of the oxygen in
the atmosphere, the oxygen that supports life,
is made up of only two atoms of oxygen (O2).

Ozone can be beneficial or harmful depend-
ing on where it is found in the atmosphere.
Ozone in the troposphere, the lower atmo-
sphere that we breathe, is considered a
pollutant and is harmful to human health and
vegetation. Automobiles, power  plants, and
factories send gaseous pollutants  into the
troposphere  that can react in the presence of
strong sunlight to form ozone. Weather
conditions and geography can then cause
buildups in ozone levels that greatly increase
its harmful effects. More information on the
sources and harmful effects of ozone in the
troposphere  can be found in the reading
materials on  "Automobiles and Air Pollution"
and "Smog."

Upper-level ozone is located in the strato-
sphere, a layer of the atmosphere nine to 31
miles above the Earth.  Ozone gas in the
stratosphere  forms an important and very
effective protective barrier against harmful
radiation from the sun by absorbing ultravio-
let radiation.

Where  Does Ozone Come From?
Ozone gas in the stratosphere forms when
oxygen molecules interact with ultraviolet
rays from the sun.  Amounts of ozone in the
stratosphere  are changing all the  time.
Under normal circumstances, ozone is con-
tinuously being destroyed and regenerated
by the sun's  ultraviolet rays. The  seasons of
the year, changing winds, and even sunspots
affect ozone  levels.
What Is the Problem?
In 1985, British scientists discovered a "hole"
about the size of the United States in the
ozone layer over Antarctica. The holes are
not completely devoid of ozone, but the
ozone concentrations in these areas are lower
than under normal conditions, allowing more
ultraviolet radiation to reach the earth's
surface.  The hole over Antarctica has reap-
peared each year during the Antarctic winter
(our summer).

More recently, ozone thinning  has been
found in the stratosphere above the northern
half of the United States. This hole extends
over Canada and up into the Arctic. The hole
was first found only in winter and spring, but
more recently has continued into summer.
Between 1978 and 1991, there was a four to
five percent loss of ozone in the stratosphere
over the United  States.

Ozone holes also have been found over
northern Europe. It has become clear that
the ozone layer is thinning even more quickly
than first feared.

What Causes the Ozone Holes?
Ozone can be converted into the regular,
atmospheric oxygen (O2) by reacting with
chlorine atoms in the stratosphere.  The most
common ozone-destroying pollutants are in  a
class of chemical compounds called chlorof-
luorocarbons (CFCs), which have a  diversity
of uses ranging from air conditioner coolants
to aerosol spray  propellants.  CFCs are very
stable compounds that do not react easily
with other materials.  These properties make
them ideal for many industrial applications.

However, in 1974, scientists discovered that
their stable properties enable CFCs  to survive
in the atmosphere long enough (up to one
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hundred years) to reach the stratosphere
where they can break down and destroy
ozone. Other common industrial chemicals
that destroy ozone include halons, carbon
tetrachloride, and hydro-CFCs (HCFCs).

When CFCs that are released into the tropo-
sphere rise into the stratosphere, ultraviolet
light breaks them down into other chemicals.
Eventually, chlorine is produced. Free chlo-
rine atoms (Cl) are very unstable and will
immediately react with the first ozone (O3)
molecules they find to form atmospheric
oxygen (O2) and  chlorine monoxide (CIO).
Chlorine monoxide also is unstable and will
react with free oxygen atoms to form atmos-
pheric oxygen and another free chlorine
atom.  The reaction is then repeated again
and again.  One chlorine atom has the
potential to destroy 10,000 ozone molecules
before it sinks into the troposphere.

What Are the Effects of Depleted
Ozone?
The ozone layer is an important protective
screen for life on  Earth, filtering out more
than 99 percent of the ultraviolet rays before
they reach the ground.  Some scientist fear
that the increasing ultraviolet radiation will
tremendously, increase such hazards to
human health as skin cancer,  immune defi-
ciencies, and cataracts.  In  1987, the EPA
estimated that with a five percent increase in
CFCs per year, 40 million Americans will get
skin cancer over the next 88 years and of
those, 800,000 will die.  Even  more serious is
the fact that, since 1987, monitoring data
indicate that the rate of ozone depletion for
certain latitudes is now at levels predicted for
the year 2050.

Damage to the ozone layer can reduce crop
yields. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
also will be harmed, and plant life may be
seriously affected to the point of threatening
world food supplies.

How Do We Reduce its Effects?
Scientists have been measuring the ozone
layer since the mid-1970s, when concerns
were first raised about the potentially harmful
effects of CFCs on the ozone layer. The only
practical approach to stopping the destruc-
tion of the ozone layer is reducing human-
created pollutants that contribute to its
depletion. Efforts to protect the ozone layer
now involve many different nations and
industries. An international agreement,
called the Montreal Protocol, was established
in 1987 requiring countries to cut CFC use in
half by 1999. Over 90 countries have now
signed the protocol.  In addition, manufac-
turers of ozone-destroying  chemicals have
made major advances in CFC-alternative
technologies. But even if all CFC use was
halted today, the CFCs already released will
continue to break down in the stratosphere
and destroy ozone for decades.

References and Suggested Reading
Abramson,  Rudy. "Potential New Ozone Hole
    Alarms U.S. Science Team." Los Angeles
     Times,  111  (4 February 1992) p. A1.

Air and Waste Management Association.
     Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
     Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
     ment Association (1991).

Ballard, M., and M. Pandya. Essential Learn-
     ings in Environmental Education. Troy,
     OH: North American Association for
     Environmental Education (1990).

Cowen, Robert C. "Scientists Keep Wary Eye
     on Record Ozone Lows." Christian
     Science Monitor, 85 (27 April 1993) p. 2.

Lacoste, Beatrice. "Saving Our Ozone
     Shield." Our Planet, 4 (1992) p. 4.

McElroy, Michael B., and Ross J. Salawitch.
     "Changing Composition of the Global
     Stratosphere." Science, 243 (10 February
     1989)  p. 763.

Monagle, Katie. "Here Comes the Sun." Scho-
     lastic Update, 124 (17 April 1992) p. 8.
                                         228

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Nash, Nathaniel C. "Unease Grows Under the
    Ozone Hole; In Southern Chile, Sun-
    glasses and Sunblock Are in Style." New
    York Times, 140 (23 July 1991) p. C4.

"Our Changing Atmosphere." Clearing,
    (March 1988) p. 7.
 "Ozone: What Would It Be Like To Live in a
    World Where the Sun Was Dangerous?"
    Clearing, (March 1992) p. 10.

Roach, Mary, John Hastings,  and Steven
    Finch. "Sun Struck: Here's the Hole Story
    about the Ozone and Your Chances of
    Getting  Skin Cancer." Health, 6 (May
    1992) p. 40.

Scott, Geoff. "Two Faces of Ozone."  Current
    Health, 19 (2 September 1992) p. 24.

Svitil, Kathy.  "Holey War (Ozone-Layer Hole
    Could Disrupt Ecosystems)." Discover, 14
    (January 1993) p. 75.

U.S. EPA. National Air Quality and Emissions
    Trends Report, 1992. Research Triangle
    Park, NC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality
    Planning and Standards EPA/454/R-93/
    031 (1993).
                                         229

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                                     SMOG
What Is It?
The term "smog" was first used in London
during the early 1900s to describe the combi-
nation of smoke and fog. What we typically
call "smog" today is a mixture of pollutants but
is primarily made up of ground-level ozone.

Ozone can be beneficial or harmful depend-
ing on its location.  The  ozone located high
above the Earth in the stratosphere protects
human health and the environment, but
ground-level ozone is responsible for the
choking, coughing, and stinging eyes associ-
ated with smog.

Where Does Smog Come From?
Smog usually is produced through a complex
set of photochemical reactions involving
hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the
presence of sunlight that result in the produc-
tion of ozone.  Smog-forming pollutants
come from many sources, such as automobile
exhausts, power plants,  factories, and many
consumer products, including  paints, hair
spray, charcoal starter fluid, solvents, and
even plastic popcorn packaging.  In typical
urban areas, at least half of the smog precur-
sors come from cars, buses, trucks, and  boats.

Major smog occurrences often are linked to
heavy motor vehicle traffic, high tempera-
tures, sunshine, and calm winds.  Weather
and geography affect the location and sever-
ity of smog. Because temperature regulates
the length of time it takes for smog to form,
smog can form faster and be more severe on
a hot and sunny day. When temperature
inversions occur (warm air stays near the
ground  instead of rising) and winds are  calm,
smog may stay trapped  over your city for
days.  As traffic and other sources add more
pollutants to the air, the smog gets worse.
Smog is often more severe away from the
pollution sources because the chemical
reactions that cause smog occur in the
atmosphere while the reacting chemicals are
being moved by the wind.

Severe smog and ground-level ozone prob-
lems exist in many major cities, including
much of California from San Francisco to San
Diego, the mid-Atlantic seaboard from
Washington, DC to southern Maine, and over
major cities of the Midwest.

What Are Its Effects?
Smog is made up of a combination of air
pollutants that can injure health, harm the
environment, and cause property damage.  It
has been estimated that about 90 million
Americans live in areas with ozone levels
above the established standards for health
safety. These individuals can be severely
influenced by pollutants on a daily basis.

Smog causes health problems such as diffi-
culty in  breathing, asthma, reduced resis-
tance to lung infections and colds, and eye
irritation. The ozone in smog also inhibits
plant growth and can cause widespread
damage to crops and forests, and the haze
reduces  visibility. This is particularly notice-
able from mountains and other beautiful
vistas, such as those in National Parks.

How Do We Recognize/Detect It?
Smog is a visible example of air pollution.
You can look at the horizon during the day to
see how much haze there is in the air. In
addition, most cities measure the concentra-
tions of  pollutants in the air and report the
results to the public. Standardized measures
have been established, like the Pollution
Standards Index (PSI) or the Air Quality  Index
(AQI), which allow comparison of pollution
levels from city to city.
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How Do We Reduce Its Effects?
The 1990 Clean Air Act establishes a compre-
hensive approach to reducing the widespread
"criteria" pollutants, which include the
ozone, nitrogen oxides, and particulates in
smog. EPA sets national standards for criteria
pollutants and the states must take action to
ensure the standards are met. Areas that fail
to meet the standards for at least one criteria
air pollutant are called "nonattainment
areas."

Areas of nonattainment for criteria pollutants
have been classified according to the extent
of pollution. The five classes for ozone range
from marginal (relatively easy to clean up
quickly) to extreme (will take a lot of work
and a long time to clean up).  The 1990
Clean Air Act uses these classes to tailor
cleanup requirements to the severity of the
pollution and set realistic deadlines for reach-
ing cleanup goals. Many of the smog clean-
up requirements involve motor vehicles (cars,
trucks, buses). Also, as the pollution gets
worse, pollution controls are required for
smaller sources.

Strategies that may be required by law to
reduce and control air emissions include state
permitting programs, changes in the compo-
sition of gasoline, use of alternative fuels
(such as natural gas and electricity), and use
restrictions  imposed by individual communi-
ties.  Innovative approaches being taken by
local governments across the country to
reduce air pollution in nonattainment areas
include: banning charcoal barbecues and
wood burning in stoves or fire places when
pollution levels are high; developing pro-
grams to encourage car pooling; restricting
traffic in congested areas; expanding or
improving public transportation systems;
requiring employers to contribute  to em-
ployee mass transit costs; assessing "smog
fees" on cars in proportion to the number of
miles driven and vehicle emissions produced;
and even buying and scrapping older, "su-
per-dirty" cars.
References and Suggested Reading
Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association  (1991).

Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution. Ameri-
    can Lung Association (1989).

McKee. Tropospheric Ozone: Human Health
    and Agricultural Impacts. Lewis Publishing
    (1994).

U.S. Congress. Researching Health Risks.
    Washington, DC:  U.S. Congress Office of
    Technology Assessment OTA-BBS-571
    (1993).

U.S. EPA. National Air Quality and Emissions
    Trends Report, 1992. Research Triangle
    Park,  NC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality
    Planning and Standards EPA/454/R-93/
    031 (1993).
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                  AUTOMOBILES  AND
                       AIR  POLLUTION
Each of today's cars produces 60 to 80
percent less pollution than cars in the 1960s.
More people are using mass transit. Per the
Clean Air Act, leaded gasoline will be phased
out completely as of January 1995, resulting
in dramatic declines in air levels of lead, a
very toxic chemical. Despite this progress,
many types of air pollution that arise in part
from mobile sources have not improved
significantly. At present in the United States:
    Motor vehicles are responsible for at
    least half of the smog-forming volatile
    organic carbon (VOC) and nitrogen
    oxide pollutants in the air.
    Nearly  100 cities exceed the EPA Na-
    tional Ambient Air Quality  Standard for
    ozone.
•   Motor vehicles release more than 50
    percent of the hazardous, cancer-causing
    air pollutants in the air.
    Motor vehicles release about 90 percent of
    the carbon monoxide found in urban air.

What Went Wrong?
Although there has been significant progress
since 1970 in  reducing emissions per mile
traveled, the number of cars on the road and
the miles they travel almost doubled in the
same time frame. As lead was being phased
out, gasoline refiners changed gasoline
formulas to make up for octane loss, and the
changes made gasoline more likely to release
smog-forming vapors into the air.

Another reason that pollution levels remain
high is that  emission control systems do not
always perform as designed over the full
useful life of the vehicle. Routine aging and
deterioration, poor state of tune, and emis-
sion control tampering can increase vehicle
emissions.  In  fact,  a major portion of auto-
related hydrocarbons can be attributed to a
relatively small number of "super-dirty" cars
whose emission control systems are not
working properly.
What Are the Most Dangerous Pollut-
ants from Vehicles?
Air toxics are pollutants that cause adverse
health effects. The EPA has focused a large
part of its air toxics efforts to date on carcino-
gens,  compounds that cause cancer. Motor
vehicles emit several pollutants that EPA
classifies as probable or definite carcinogens,
including benzene, formaldehyde, acetalde-
hyde,  1 -3-butadiene, and particulates (soot
and smoke, especially from diesel vehicles).

Ozone is a form of molecular oxygen that
consists of three oxygen atoms linked to-
gether. Ozone in the upper atmosphere (the
"ozone layer") occurs naturally and protects
life on earth by filtering out ultraviolet radia-
tion from the sun.  But ozone at ground level
is the  major component of smog and pre-
sents this country's most intractable urban air
quality problem.

What Are the Effects on Public Health?
Vehicles are such an integral part of our
society that virtually everyone  is exposed to
their emissions. EPA estimates that mobile
source (car, truck, and bus) air toxics may cause
up to  1,500 cases of cancer each year, about
half of the cancers caused by all outdoor
sources of air toxics.

Ozone is responsible for the choking,
coughing, and stinging eyes  associated
with smog.  Ozone damages lung tissue,
aggravates respiratory disease, and makes
people more susceptible to respiratory infec-
tions.  Adults with existing diseases and chil-
dren are especially vulnerable to ozone's
harmful effects.  Elevated ozone levels also
inhibit plant growth and can cause widespread
damage to crops and forests.
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How Are Pollutants from Vehicles
Formed?
Some air toxics are components of gasoline,
such as benzene, which is added to gasoline
to increase octane. Cars emit benzene as
unburned  fuel or as fuel vapors that evapo-
rate during refueling. Formaldehyde,  particu-
lates, and  1,3-butadiene are not present in
fuel but are by-products of incomplete
combustion.

Ozone is not in fuels and is not a by-product
of combustion, but is formed in the atmo-
sphere through a complex set of chemical
reactions involving hydrocarbons, oxides of
nitrogen, and sunlight. In typical urban
areas, at least half of those pollutants come
from cars,  buses, trucks, and boats. The rate
at which the reactions proceed is related to
both temperature and intensity of the sunlight.
Because of this, high ozone levels occur most
frequently  on hot summer afternoons.

What Has Been Done To Control Ve-
hicle Emissions?
The Clean Air Act of 1970 gave EPA the
primary responsibility for regulating "mobile
sources," which include cars, trucks, and
buses.  The EPA vehicle emission control
program has achieved considerable success in
reducing both nitrogen oxide and hydrocar-
bon emissions. Cars coming off today's
production lines typically emit 70 percent less
nitrogen oxides and 80 to 90 percent less
hydrocarbons over their lifetimes than their
uncontrolled counterparts of the 1960s.

Pre-1975 vehicles without catalytic convert-
ers, and even pre-1981 vehicles with  simple
catalysts, emit far more pollutants than newer
vehicles. Air toxics from motor vehicles will
decrease during the 1990s as older cars wear
out.  However, without additional control,
and with more cars driving more miles,
overall emissions of air toxics will begin to
increase again by the beginning of the next
century.
What Else Can Be Done?
Control of hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide
emissions is the most promising strategy for
reducing pollution levels in most urban areas.
EPA has established more stringent limits on
gasoline volatility, tightened tailpipe emission
standards, required improvements in inspec-
tion and maintenance programs, and re-
quired long-lasting catalytic converters.

In the most polluted cities, however, these
measures will not be sufficient.   Further
exhaust emission controls for vehicles are
approaching the limit of technology.  The
only way to ensure healthy air is to markedly
reduce our use of cars or to switch to cleaner
fuels.

Some fuels are inherently cleaner than gaso-
line because they emit less nitrogen oxides or
hydrocarbons that are less likely to react in
the atmosphere to form ozone. These fuels
include alcohols, electricity, natural gas, and
liquid petroleum (propane). Changes in the
composition of gasoline itself (such as reduc-
ing fuel volatility or reducing  benzene con-
tent) also can reduce emissions of most air
toxics.

Unless we  dramatically reduce the amount of
pollution vehicles emit in actual use or drasti-
cally cut back on the amount we drive, smog-
free air will continue to elude many cities.

References and Suggested Reading
Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment  Association (1991).

Bright, Michael. Traffic Pollution. New York,
    NY: Gloucester Press (1991).

Chang, Tai Yup, et al. "Relationship of Vehicle
    Emission Standards and Air Quality
    Standards." Journal of the Air Pollution
    Control Association, 25 (July 1975) p.
    734.
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Martinez, J. R. "Auto Emissions, Engine Size,
    and Fuel Economy." Journal of the Air
    Pollution Control Association, 25 (July
    1975) p. 735.

Rauber, Paul. "Key to Gridlock? The Free Ride
    Goes the Way of the Free Lunch." Sierra,
    79 (March 1994) p. 45.

Saunders, Linda. "Uneasy Riders (Cars and
    Pollution)." Health, 22 (February 1990)
    p. 46.

U.S. EPA. Automobiles and Air Toxics (Fact
    Sheet). Washington, DC: U.S. EPA, Office
    of Mobile Sources OMS-2 (1993).

—. Automobiles and Ozone (Fact Sheet).
    Washington, DC: U.S.  EPA, Office of
    Mobile Sources OMS-4 (1993).

—. National Air Quality and Emissions Trends
    Report, 1992. Research Triangle Park,
    NC: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality
    Planning and Standards EPA/454/R-93/
    031 (1993).

Watson, Bates, and Kennedy. Air Pollution, the
    Automobile, and Public Health. National
    Academy Press (1988).

Wilson, Richard. "Air Pollution, the Automo-
    bile, and Public Health." Environment, 31
    (May 1989) p. 25.
                                          235

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                           CLEAN  FUELS
What Are Clean Fuels?
The most familiar transportation fuels in this
country are gasoline and diesel fuel, but
some vehicle fuels, called "clean fuels," create
less pollution than today's conventional
gasolines.  These include alcohols, electricity,
natural gas, and propane. There is still a
degree of scientific uncertainty regarding the
impacts of these "clean fuels," and, hence, a
need to continue research on them.

Why Switch to Clean Fuels?
Cars operating on conventional gasolines
emit a complex mixture of compounds that
are hazardous and toxic and can  lead to the
formation of smog. A lot has been done to
reduce automobile pollution, including
development of innovative emission control
technologies and establishment of inspection
and maintenance programs. These gains
largely are being offset by an increasing
number of cars on the road and people
traveling more miles each year. Thus, the
pollution control measures taken so far have
not been sufficient to solve the smog  prob-
lem in many large cities.

Clean fuels have a number of inherent prop-
erties that  make them cleaner than conven-
tional gasoline. In general, these fuels emit
lesser amounts of hydrocarbons that are less
reactive (slower to form smog)  and less toxic.
Emissions from electrical, natural  gas, or
alcohol-powered vehicles can be  as much as
90 percent lower in toxics and smog-forming
hydrocarbons than emissions from vehicles
fueled with conventional gasoline. In addi-
tion, new gasoline formulations ("reformu-
lated gasoline") may be able to reduce
emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles by
up to 25 percent.

Use of clean fuels also could  help to slow the
atmospheric buildup of carbon dioxide,  a
"greenhouse gas" that contributes to the
potential for global warming. Combustion of
any carbon-based fuel produces carbon
dioxide, but in general, fuels produced from
biomass ( such as crops and trees) and
natural gas result in less carbon dioxide
accumulation than fuels made from petro-
leum or coal.

Clean fuels have benefits that reach beyond
their air quality advantage.   New fuels in
the marketplace give consumers new
choices and could decrease our depen-
dence on imported oil.

Electricity
Battery powered vehicles give off virtually no
pollution and  offer one of the best options for
reducing motor  vehicle emissions in polluted
cities. Power  plants that produce electricity
do pollute,  but these plants are often in rural
areas where the  emissions do not drive
pollution levels above health standards. Also,
efficient emission controls can be installed
and maintained  more easily on individual
power plants than on millions of vehicles.
The driving range of today's electric cars is
limited by the amount of power the battery
can provide.  Current batteries take hours to
recharge and  the cost of electric vehicles is
high.  Recent  developments in electric vehicle
technology show much promise for reducing
these disadvantages.

Ethanol
Ethanol  ("grain alcohol") is the primary
automotive fuel  in Brazil,  and ethanol/
gasoline blends  (known as "gasohol") have
been used in the United States for many
years. Pure ethanol fuel offers excellent
performance plus low hydrocarbon and toxic
emissions.  It can be produced domestically
from corn or other crops, potentially
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minimizing the accumulation of greenhouse
gases. With current technology and price
structures, ethanol is more expensive than
gasoline, but new production technologies
offer the hope of significantly reduced cost.

Methanol
Methanol ("wood alcohol"), like ethanol, is a
high-performance liquid fuel that emits low
levels of toxic and smog-forming com-
pounds. It can be produced from  natural gas
at prices comparable to gasoline, and also
can be produced from coal or wood. All
major auto manufacturers have produced cars
that run  on "M85," a blend of 85 percent
methanol and 15 percent gasoline, and many
auto manufactures have developed  advanced
prototypes that burn pure methanol ("M100").
Methanol has long been the fuel  of  choice for
race cars because of its superior performance
and fire safety characteristics.

Propane
Natural  gas is abundant and widely used for
home heating and industrial processes. It is
easily transported through pipelines and costs
about the same or slightly less than gasoline.
Compressed natural gas (CNG)  vehicles emit
low levels of toxics and smog-forming hydro-
carbons, but CNG fuel must be  stored in
heavy, costly tanks.  There are significant
tradeoffs for CNG vehicles among  emissions,
vehicle power, efficiency,  and range; how-
ever, natural gas already is used  in  some fleet
vehicles  and appears to have a bright future
as a motor vehicle fuel.

Reformulated Gasoline
The petroleum industry is developing gaso-
line formulations that emit less hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, and toxics than today's
fuels. These new gasolines can be introduced
without  major modification to existing
vehicles  or the fuel distribution system. The
Clean Air Act requires some gasoline modifi-
cations to reduce carbon  monoxide emissions
as early  as 1992 and  use of reformulated
gasoline in certain polluted cities beginning
in 1995.
Are Clean Fuels Feasible?
Clean-fueled vehicles have already been built
and widespread use in the near future is
feasible. To enable the transition, technolo-
gies must be refined so vehicles can achieve
optimum emissions performance, consumers
must accept the new vehicles and fuels, and
government and industry must cooperate to
ensure their availability.  It will take a con-
certed effort by all parts of society, but a
switch to clean fuels is the most viable way
for many cities to attain clean and healthy air.

References and Suggested Reading
Abramson, Rudy. "'Superbug' Gobbles Waste
    To Make Cheap, Clean Fuel; Scientist
    Splices Genes To Create Bacterium that
    Converts Most Plant Material into Pollu-
    tion-Free Ethanol."  Los Angeles Times,
    112 (3 January 1993)  p. A1.

Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association (1991).

Amato, Ivan. "New Life  for a National Clean
    Technology Workshop." Science, 260 (25
    June 1992) p. 1889.

Caruana, Claudia. "Fill 'Er Up—With Soy-
    beans; Fuel." Vegetarian Times, (October
    1992) p.  18.

Chiles, James R. "Tomorrow's Energy Today."
    Audubon, 92 (January 1990) p. 58.

"Congress Begins New Push for Use of Etha-
    nol in Clean Fuel Program." Inside EPA,
    14 (13 August 1993) p. 12.

Daschle, Thomas A. "Ethanol  Is a Promising
    Automobile Fuel." Washington Post, 115
    (19 October 1992)  p. A20.

Glanz, James. "Can Fuel Cells Go Where No
    Device Has Gone Before." R & D, 35
    (May 1993) p. 36.
                                        238

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Griffin, Rodman D. "Barriers Remain (Alterna-
    tive Energy)." CQ Researcher, 2 (10 July
    1992) p. 588.

—. "The Issues (Alternative Energy)." CQ
    Researcher, 2 (10 July 1992) p.  575.

Keller, Maryann. "Have You Driven a LEV
    Lately (Low-Emission Vehicle)." World
    Monitor: The Christian Science Monitor
    Monthly, 5 (March 1992) p. 59.

Regan, Mary Beth. "Sun Shines Brighter on
    Alternative Energy: Nonfossil Sources of
    Power Are Back—And Getting More
    Efficient." Business Week, (8 November
    1993) p. 94.

Seinfeld, John H. "Urban Air Pollution: State
    of the Science." Science, 243 (10 Febru-
    ary 1989) p. 745.

Stone, Judith. "Wonderful Life (Alternative
    Fuel Sources)." Discover, 12 (February
    1991) p. 37.

Sudo, Phil. "Liquid Gold (Oil)." Scholastic
    Update, 123 (19 April 1991) p. 2.

Tarshis, Lauren, et al. "Next Generation
    (Alternative Energy Sources)." Scholastic
    Update, 123 (19 April 1991) p. 17.

U.S. EPA.  Clean Fuels: An Overview (Fact
    Sheet). Washington, DC: U.S. EPA, Office
    of Mobile Sources OMS-6 (1993).
                                          239

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240

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                       AIR POLLUTION
              ALLOWANCE  TRADING
There are several different types of pollution
control measures that the government
imposes on polluters to assure compliance
with environmental regulations or otherwise
achieve pollution reduction goals. This fact
sheet briefly discusses the principal types of
control measures, then presents an incentive-
based pollution control system that allows
the accumulation and trading of pollution
allowances.

Traditional Approaches
Most Federal pollution control programs take
one of two general approaches to reduce
pollution emissions:  command and control
of the source of pollution or standards for the
local environment. "Point source" controls
impose standards on the discharge coming
out of a facility (such as a factory), usually
through a permitting system. One source
control method imposes standards and
allows the permittee to select the method to
be employed to achieve the standards. Other
"technology-based" controls use standards
related to the performance  standards of a
certain technology, and "force" the technol-
ogy on polluters.  Either of these "end-of-the-
pipe" programs may be imposed without
regard to the cost of achieving the standard or
taking into account the effects of other pollu-
tion discharges on the local environment.

The "local environment"  method concen-
trates on the level of pollution in a desig-
nated area  (such as a river segment or air
within a city's boundaries),  requiring some
degree of pollution reduction when the
designated area is out of compliance.  This
latter method may be used  under the Clean
Air Act, which  requires States to prepare State
Implementation Plans (SIPs) that detail how
the State plans to enforce  air standards.
However, the method has been difficult to
enforce given the large number of small
individual air pollution sources that exist
(such as automobiles).

Pollution Allowance Trading System
Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of
1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) established the Acid-rain Abate-
ment Program that authorized the creation of
a sulfur dioxide (SO2) allowance trading
system. An air pollution allowance trading
program introduces market forces into
pollution control, harnessing the incentives of
the free market to reduce pollution.

The pollution allowance trading system
program builds off both  of the traditional
approaches. The total amount of pollution to
be allowed from certain similar sources (such
as electric generation and other large
"smokestack" plants) within the designated
area for a specified period (typically one year)
is determined based on local clean air stan-
dards and the goals of the emission reduction
program. The total is then divided into
allowance units, which are auctioned off to
the sources. "Allowances" are in units of
pollutant emitted, such that a polluter will
use up its allowances as it pollutes.

The key to the system is that these allow-
ances may be traded between sources, or
may be banked. At the end of the period,
each source must have enough allowances to
balance its emissions for that period, other-
wise a penalty on each excess unit of pollu-
tion is imposed. The program further penal-
izes a non-complying source by reducing its
allocation for the next period  by the number
of excess units,  which are removed from the
program. Note that the system imposes
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ceilings on the total emission from any one
source, regardless of the number of allow-
ances held.

The allowance trading system contains an
inherent incentive for utilities to conserve
energy, since for each unit of pollutant that a
source avoids emitting, one fewer allowance
must be retired. Energy-efficient sources  may
then sell their surplus allowances at a profit.
As an additional incentive, the government
may set aside a reserve of allowances to
stimulate efficiency.  Extra allowances from
the reserve may be available to sources that
curtail emissions or invest in non-polluting
technologies.

The following is a simple example of how the
system operates. Utility X can implement a
certain pollution control measure for
$100,000. Without an allowance system, this
cost would be passed on to consumers or
paid for by shareholders, and may not be
implemented since pollution  reduction
benefits are difficult to quantify.  However,
under an allowance trading system, this
measure also will save 4 allowances. Utility Y
(in the same region) does not implement
reduction measures, and is going to pay
$250,000 in fines after using  up its allow-
ances. Utility Y estimates that it is 4 allow-
ances short for the period, and is then theo-
retically willing to  pay up to $250,000 for 4
allowances.  Hence, Utility X is rewarded
when it implements pollution control mea-
sures and sells surplus allowances, in this
example to the tune of up to $150,000 (the
$250,000 fine Utility Y is facing minus the
$100,000 invested in pollution reduction
equipment).

The goal  of this system is to utilize market
incentives to reduce pollution by allowing
polluters to select their own compliance
strategy.  An effective allowance trading
system should have enough decision options
open to sources to allow innovation and
reduction. For example, under a program
designed to reduce sulfur  dioxide (SO2)
emissions from electric power plants that use
fossil fuels, a participating source may choose
to repower its units, switch to cleaner burn-
ing fuel (such as low sulfur coal), or shift
some of its production from dirtier units to
clean ones. The source also may choose to
install pollution reduction technology or
reduce output either through conservation of
capacity or through increased efficiency. In
any event, the program allows the participat-
ing source to combine options in any way
they see fit to tailor their compliance plan to
their present capabilities.

References and Suggested Reading
Cotter, Wes.  "Utilities, Industrial Firms Ponder
    Role in Pollution-Credits Market." Pitts-
    burgh Business Times, 11(12 August
    1991) p. 5.

"EPA Issues Rule on Emission Trading."
    Nation's Health, 22 (February 1992) p. 3.

Freeman, A. M., R. H. Haverman, and A. V.
    Kneese.  Economics of Environmental
    Policy. New York, NY: John Wiley and
    Sons (1973).

Miller, William H. "Free Market Comes to
    Environmentalism."  Industry Week, 242
    (19 April 1993) p. 59.

"Pollution  Swap May Halve Utility Emissions."
    National Geographic, 184 (December
    1993) p. 142.

Rico, Renee.  Unites States'Experience in
    Designing and Implementing an Emission
     Trading System for Sulphur Dioxide.
    Washington, DC: U.S. EPA, Office of
    Atmospheric Programs, Acid Rain Divi-
    sion (1993).
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                  THE  CLEAN  AIR  ACT
What Is the Clean Air Act?
The original Clean Air Act was passed in
1963, but our national air pollution control
program is actually based on the 1970
version of the law. The 1990 Clean Air Act
Amendments revised the 1970 law.

The overall goal of the 1990 Amendments is
to reduce pollutants in our air by 56 billion
pounds a year—224 pounds for every person
in the country—by the time the law is fully
implemented in 2005.  The new law builds
on the strengths of the Clean Air Act of 1970
and the  environmental lessons learned  over
the past 20 years.  As the goals of the law are
met, we will  be breathing cleaner air every
year.

What Does the Clean Air Act Cover?
Two  kinds of pollutants are  regulated under
the Clean Air Act.  There are only six in the
first group, which are called "criteria" pollut-
ants. These pollutants—carbon monoxide,
nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide,  ozone,
lead, and particulate matter— are discharged
in relatively large quantities by a variety of
sources, and  they threaten human health and
welfare across broad regions of the country.
EPA sets national standards  for each of the
criteria pollutants, and the states must take
action to ensure the standards are  met.
Failure to meet the standards is called "non-
attainment." Many urban areas are classified
as "non-attainment areas" for at least one
criteria air pollutant.

The other kind of pollutants—and there are
hundreds in this group—are the ones that are
immediately  hazardous to human health and
are associated with specific  sources.  Some of
these air toxics are cancer-causing; some
produce other health and environmental
problems.  The threat is highest for people
living near large industrial facilities or in
heavily polluted urban corridors.
The list of toxics emitted into the air is a long
one, and it includes some familiar names.
Benzene, for example, is a potent cancer-
causing substance.  Gasoline sold in the
United States is, on average, 1.6 percent
benzene. Eighty-five percent of human
exposure to benzene comes from gasoline.

A second example is mercury. Mercury is a
metal found  in trace amounts in coal and is
released to the air when the coal  is burned.
Mercury also is released by incinerators
burning garbage.  It is used in latex paints to
prevent mildew, and as the paint weathers,
substantial amounts of mercury may be
released into the air.

Another aspect of air-toxics regulation fo-
cuses on the sudden and potentially cata-
strophic chemical accident. For the period
1982 to 1986, accidental releases of toxic
chemicals in  the United States caused 309
deaths, 11,341 injuries, and the evacuation  of
464,677 people from homes and jobs.  The
most publicized accidental release of danger-
ous chemicals occurred at Bhopal, India, in
1984, when 3,000 were killed and over
200,000 injured.

What Are the Requirements of the
Clean Air Act?
Areas of non-attainment for criteria pollutants
have been classified according to the extent
of pollution.  The five classes range from
marginal (relatively easy to clean  up quickly)
to extreme (will take a lot of work and a long
time to clean up). The 1990 Clean Air Act
uses these classes to tailor cleanup require-
ments to the severity of the pollution and set
realistic deadlines for reaching cleanup  goals.
If deadlines are missed, the law allows more
time to clean up, but usually a non-attain-
ment area that has missed a cleanup deadline
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must meet the stricter requirements set for
more polluted areas.

States do most of the planning for cleaning
up criteria air pollutants using a system of
permits to make sure power plants, factories,
and other pollution sources meet their
cleanup goals. A variety of cleanup methods
are required in non-attainment areas,  many
of which involve motor vehicles. Cleaner
fuels, cleaner new vehicles, better mainte-
nance programs for vehicles on the road, and
mass transportation may be required.  Also,
as the pollution gets worse, pollution controls
will be required for smaller sources of  pollu-
tion.

The regulatory program for air toxics in the
1990 amendments reflects an entirely new
approach. The new law names 189 toxic air
pollutants. Typically,  they are carcinogens,
mutagens (substances that can cause gene
mutations), or reproductive toxins, and their
sources usually are specific industries.  EPA
must identify categories of the major sources
of these chemicals and then develop "maxi-
mum achievable control technology"  (MACT)
standards  for each category over the next 10
years.  These standards are to be based on
the best control technologies that have been
demonstrated in these industrial categories.
State and  local air pollution agencies will
have primary responsibility to make sure
industrial plants meet the standards.

In setting the MACT standards, EPA will look
only at pollution control equipment and
pollution prevention methods, such as substi-
tuting nontoxic chemicals for the toxic ones
currently in use. The new law favors setting
standards  that industry must achieve,  rather
than dictating equipment that industry must
install.  This flexibility will allow industry to
develop its own cost-effective means of
reducing air toxics emissions and still meet
the goals of the act.

The law includes unique  incentives for indus-
tries to reduce their emissions early, rather
than waiting for federal standards. Sources
that reduce emissions by 90 percent or more
before the MACT standards go into effect will
have six additional years to comply with
them. This "early reduction program" should
lead to significant reductions in air toxics
both immediately and into the future.

Other parts of the Clean Air Act establish a
program for the prevention of accidental
releases of air toxics from industrial plants
and create a Chemical Safety Board to inves-
tigate accidental releases of air toxics from
industrial plants.

What Happens If You Don't Comply?
The Clean Air Act establishes  "enforcement"
methods that can be used to make polluters
obey the laws and regulations. Enforcement
methods include citations (like traffic tickets)
for violators of the law, fines,  and even jail
terms. The knowing violation of almost every
requirement is now a felony offense.  EPA and
state and local governments are responsible
for enforcement of the Clean Air Act, but if
they do not enforce the law, members of the
public can sue EPA or the states to  get action.
Citizens also can sue violators apart from any
action taken by EPA or state or local govern-
ments.

Before the 1990 Clean Air Act, all enforce-
ment  actions had to be handled through the
courts.  Now, in some cases, EPA has  the
authority to fine violators without going to
court  first.  The purpose of this new authority
is to speed up compliance with the law and
reduce court time and cost.

References and Suggested Reading
Air and Waste Management Association.
    Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality.
    Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Manage-
    ment Association  (1991).

Bryner, Gary C. Blue Skies, Green Politics: The
    Clean Air Act of 1990. Washington, DC:
    CQ Press (1992).

Klaber, K. A., K. N. Weiss, and J. W. Gallagher.
    "Charting a Course through the  Clean
                                         244

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    Air Act Amendments." National Environ-
    mental Journal, (November 1993)

Scott, Geoff. "Cleaning Up Our (Air) Act
    (Clean Air Act of 1990)." Current Health,
    18(2 April 1992) p. 22.

U.S. EPA. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air:
    Program Description. Washington, DC:
    U.S. EPA, Office of Air and Radiation EPA/
    402/K-93/002  (June 1993).

—. Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act.
    Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental
    Protection Agency EPA/400/K-92/002
    (1993).
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