MAY  2DDV
A  RENEWABLE   FUEL THAT
REDUCES  AIR   POLLUTION
       WHAT  You  SHOULD  KNOW  ABOUT
                                BlODIESEL   IN
              NEW    ENGLAND
   BACKGROUND

           Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be
           manufactured from vegetable oils (primarily soy beans) or
           recycled oils such as cooking oil. Biodiesel is safe, biodegradable,
   and reduces air pollutants such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide,
   hydrocarbons,  and air toxics.  Ongoing research is exploring whether
   biodiesel increases emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Biodiesel used
   in cars and trucks  must meet the requirements of the American Society
   of Testing and Materials (ASTM) D6751  testing protocol.

   BLENDING  BIODIESEL WITH   REGULAR
   DIESEL
   Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel- known as B20-can
   be used in unmodified  diesel engines or stationary boilers. Biodiesel can
   be used in its pure form (BIOO), but may require engine modifications to avoid maintenance and
   performance problems. Pure biodiesel can gel in cold weather, which can make BIOO unsuitable
   for use in cold  climates. Because biodiesel is a cleaner fuel, it is  important to change the fuel filter
   a few times during the  initial period of biodiesel use.

   HEALTH AND  ENVIRONMENTAL  EFFECTS
   Biodiesel is a renewable fuel.According to the US Department of Energy, biodiesel production and
   use, in comparison to  petroleum diesel, produces 78% less carbon dioxide emissions.  Although
   carbon dioxide  is released when biodiesel made from soybeans is combusted, the annual production
   of soybean crops helps remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

   B20 reduces emissions of  particulate matter and carbon monoxide  by about 10%, as well as
   lowers emissions of hydrocarbons  (including some toxic air pollutants) by  more than 20%. BIOO
   reduces emissions of particulate matter and carbon monoxide by 47%, while lowering emissions
   of hydrocarbons by 67%.

   A 2002 ERA analysis suggested vehicles using biodiesel may emit slightly more NOx-about 2% for
   B20 and  10% for BIOO - than regular diesel. Subsequent studies have yielded mixed results,with
   some showing small increases and others showing small decreases. ERA plans further investigation
   to  fully assess this issue, including  the emissions impact of using biodiesel in vehicles equipped
   with PM traps and NOx aftertreatment technologies that are  designed to  meet strict emissions
   standards.

   ESTIMATED COST  OF BIODIESEL  BLENDS
   While costs vary by location, a B20 blend generally costs about 200 per gallon more than regular
   diesel fuel, and  BIOO generally costs about $1 more  per gallon. Biodiesel is  being used in parts of
   every state in New England.

   Tax incentives  may help offset the  cost differential  between biodiesel and  regular diesel. Under
   federal law, there are several tax credits available to biodiesel blenders and producers. For blenders,
   one type of credit amounts to one penny per percentage point of biodiesel made from first-use oils
   (such as soybean oil) and a half-penny per percentage of biodiesel made from other sources (such
                                                                              continued D
EPA 901-F-07-004
                  I printed on 100% recycled paper, with a minimum of 50% post consumer waste, using vegetable based inks
                                       tSlODIE!
                                            Biodiesel is a re-
                                            newable fuel that is
                                            usually  refined from
                                            soybean  oil
                                            Biodiesel can help
                                            reduce many air
                                            pollutants emitted by
                                            diesel engines

                                         Biodiesel produc-
                                            tion and use,  in
                                            comparison to
                                            petroleum diesel,
                                            produces 78% less
                                            carbon dioxide
                                            emissions

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as recycled cooking oil). In other words, an excise tax credit of $1  per gallon is offered to certified biodiesel blenders of refined
BIOO biodiesel. Blenders can pass these cost savings to consumers through competitive pricing practices.

Two tax credits created through the Energy Policy Act of 2005 provide different incentives for using biodiesel: the Alternative Fuel
Refueling Infrastructure Tax Credit (AFRITC) and the Small Agri-Biodiesel ProducerTax Credit (SABPTC). The AFRITC program
offers a credit for up to 30% of the installation cost for fueling stations that offer a range of alternative fuels, including biodiesel
blended to B20 or higher. The SABPTC program gives a 100-per-gallon credit, up to 15 milion gallons, to producers of agri-biodiesel
whose production capacity is less than 60 million gallons.

FEDERAL AND  STATE  REQUIREMENTS  AND  BIODIESEL
The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) required federal fleets to acquire a certain percentage (up to 75% by 2005) of alternative
fuel vehicles (AFVs). The updated Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct  2005) broadened the compliance options by allowing fleets to
choose a petroleum reduction path and waive the requirement for acquiring AFVs. To receive a waiver, fleets must prove to the
Department of Energy that they will achieve petroleum  reductions  equivalent to their AFVs running on alternative fuels 100% of
the time. EPAct 2005 also requires federal fleets to use alternative fuels in all dual-fuel vehicles.
 PURCHASING  BIODIESEL
 The infrastructure to bring biodiesel to consumers is emerging at a rapid pace. Currently,
 there are several  suppliers of biodiesel, approximately 35 blenders and distributors of
 biodiesel, and more than 50 biodiesel retail fueling sites in New England. Suppliers work with
 a network of distributors to provide biodiesel to a variety of locations across the country
 and throughout New England. Biodiesel is available for retail sale at a growing number of
 refueling stations in New England.The National Biodiesel Board tracks suppliers, distributors,
 and retail providers of biodiesel. For the most current list visit: www.biodiesel.org

 USING  BIODIESEL  IN  NEW  ENGLAND
 A number of organizations in New England are using biodiesel.While not a comprehensive
 list, the following is a sampling of where biodiesel is being used in the region. All six New
 England states offer retail fueling stations for biodiesel blends.

    CONNECTICUT -The state DOT has been using B20 forfive years.Using biodiesel
    could help generators earn renewable energy credits under the state's requirements
    for green power.

    MAINE - Biodiesel is used in home heating applications, organic and traditional farming
    applications,  and by individual motorists. LL Bean, Maine DOT and Oakhurst Dairy are
    using biodiesel. In addition, the  City of Bangor is using biodiesel in a number of city
    vehicles.

    MASSACHUSETTS - Biodiesel is used in home heating applications and by individual
    motorists throughout the state. Otis Air Force Base, Harvard University, the University
    of Massachusetts at Amherst, NSTAR, the Cities of Medford and Cambridge, and the
    Town of Brookline  are using biodiesel. Harvard uses biodiesel in  all its diesel vechicles.
    Like Connecticut, using biodiesel could help generators earn renewable energy credits
    under the Massachusetts requirements for green power.

    NEW HAMPSHIRE - The Mount Cranmore ski resort, the New Hampshire  DOT,
    Keene State, and  Pease Air Force Base are using B20. Multiple companies have biodiesel
    filling stations throughout the state.

    RHODE ISLAND - Biodiesel has been used in  water taxis, tour boats, and school
    boilers.

    VERMONT - The University ofVermont runs its buses on B20. Biodiesel is used in
    diesel vehicles  as well as in home and institutional heating applications in parts of the
    state.
                                                    For More Information

                                                    US Environmental
                                                    Protection Agency
                                                    New England Office
                                                    www.epa.gov/ne/eco/diesel

                                                    SmartWay Grow and Go
                                                    Program
                                                    http://www.epa.gov/
                                                    s ma rtway/growa n dgo/

                                                    US Department of Energy
                                                    Office of Energy Efficiency
                                                    and Renewable Energy
                                                    (Clean Cities Program)
                                                    www. e e re. e n e rgy.gov/
                                                    cleancities/

                                                    www. e e re. e n e rgy.gov/afd c/
                                                    altfuel/biodiesel.html

                                                    US National Biodesel
                                                    Board
                                                    www.biodiesel.org

                                                    Canadian  Renewable Fuels
                                                    Association
                                                    www.greenfuels.org/
                                                    biodieselsuppliers.html
             United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency New England
1 Congress Street
Suite 1100
Boston, MA 02114-2023
For more information call the EPA Air Quality
Hotline at 1-800-821-1237

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