Buy-Recycled  Series
                           VEHICULAR  PRODUCTS

   If you're a fleet manager, buying
   recycled products can take you
   a long way down the road
toward protecting the environment
and saving resources. Cost-effec-
tive, reliable, and high-quality recy-
cled-content vehicular products,
      such as re-refined oil,
      retread tires, recycled
      engine coolants, and rebuilt
      vehicular parts are being
      used with success by many
      government agencies
                              To make it easier to buy
                              recycled, the U.S.
                              Environmental Protection
                              Agency (EPA) updates the
  Buying recycled products...    Comprehensive
  ...conserves natural resources
  ...saves energy
  ...reduces solid waste
  ...reduces air and water pollutants
  ...reduces greenhouse gases
  ...creates new jobs
 Solid Waste and Emergency
 Response (5305W)
 Washington, DC 20460
 May 2004
      Procurement Guidelines
      (CPG) every 2 years.
      Through the CPG, EPA des-
      ignates items that must
      contain recycled materials
      when purchased with
      appropriated federal funds
      by federal, state, and local
      agencies, or by government
      contractors. Several vehicu-
lar products are among these items.
EPAs research shows that the
items designated in the CPG are of
high quality, widely available, and
cost-competitive with virgin prod-
ucts. EPA also issues nonregulatory
companion guidance—the
Recovered Materials Advisory
Notice (RMAN)—that recommends
levels of recycled content for these

Why Buy Recycled?
Recycling is more than just drop-
ping off your cans, bottles, and
newspapers at the curb or at a local
collection facility. Diverting recy-
clables from the waste stream is
only the first of three steps in the
recycling process. The second step
occurs when companies use these
recyclables to manufacture new
products. The third step comes
when you purchase products made
from recovered materials. That's
how we close the loop.

Buying recycled products results in
many environmental benefits. It
supports local recycling programs
by creating markets for the collect-
ed materials that are processed and
used to  manufacture new products.
This creates jobs and helps
strengthen the economy; conserves
natural resources; saves energy; and
reduces solid waste, air and water
pollutants, and greenhouse gases
that contribute to global warming.

What  is  CPG?
      The Resource Conservation and Recovery
      Act requires procuring agencies to buy
      recycled-content products designated by
EPA in the CPG. Issued in May 1995, the first
CPG designated 19 new products (including
engine coolants) and incorporated five previous-
ly designated items (including re-refined lubri-
cating oils and retread tires) in eight product
categories. The first CPG update (CPG II) was
published in November 1997. A second CPG
update (CPG III) was published in January 2000.
Neither of these updates designated any new
vehicular products. The third CPG update (CPG
IV), published in April 2004, designated seven
new products, including rebuilt vehicular parts.

Procuring agencies include all federal agencies,
and any state or local government agencies or
government contractors that use appropriated
federal funds to purchase the designated items.
If your agency spends more than $10,000 per
year on a product designated in the CPG, you
are required to purchase it with the highest
recycled-content level practicable. The CPG
also applies to lease contracts covering desig-
nated items. Executive Order 13101 and the
Federal Acquisition Regulation also call for an
increase in the federal government's use of
recycled-content and environmentally prefer-
able products.

Once any new items are designated in a pub-
lished CPG update, an agency has 1 year to
develop an affirmative procurement program
(or revise an existing one) to include these new
items. By May 1, 1996, agencies were required
to develop affirmative procurement programs
to incorporate buy-recycled requirements for
re-refined lubricating oils, retread tires, and
engine coolants. Agencies must also revise
their affirmative procurement programs to
include the new items designated under CPG
IV by April 30, 2005. This effort might involve
reviewing specifications for those items and
eliminating provisions that pose barriers to
procuring them with recycled content (such as
aesthetic requirements unrelated to product

The CPG acknowledges that specific circum-
stances might arise that preclude the purchase
of products made with recovered materials.
Your agency may purchase designated items
that do not contain recovered materials if it
determines that: 1) the price of a given desig-
nated item made with recovered materials is
unreasonably high, 2) there is inadequate com-
petition (not enough sources of supply), 3)
unusual and unreasonable delays would result
from obtaining the item, or 4) the recycled-
content item does not meet the agency's rea-
sonable performance specifications.

                                  VEHICULAR PRODUCTS
                                         PAGE  2

How  Do  I  Purchase Recycled-
Content Vehicular Products?
      EPA issues purchasing guidance in
      RMANs, which are designed to make it
      as easy as possible to buy the designated
items. The RMANs recommend recycled-con-
tent levels to look for when purchasing vehic-
ular products, as shown in the table below.
Following the RMANs' recommended levels
will help ensure your affirmative procurement
program and standards meet the buy-recycled
requirements. The RMANs also provide other
purchasing guidance. Please refer to
 for more
information on individual products.
                   Rather than specifying just one level of recy-
                   cled content, the RMANs recommend ranges
                   that reflect actual market conditions. The rec-
                   ommendations are based on market research
                   identifying recycled-content products that are
                   commercially available, are competitively
                   priced, and meet buyers' quality standards.

                   Access EPA's online recycled-content products
                   database by going to  and
                   selecting  "Supplier Database." See the last
                   section of this fact sheet for other helpful
      EPA's Recommendations for Purchasing Vehicular Products
  Re-Refined Oil

  Retread Tires
  Engine Coolants
  Rebuilt Vehicular Parts
Use 25% or more re-refined oil base stock for engine lubricating oils, hydraulic
fluids, and gear oils.

Procurement of tire retreading services for the agencies' used tire casings:
EPA recommends that procuring agencies specify that tire repair and retread
services must conform to Federal Specification ZZ-T-441H (or current version).

Procurement of tires through competition between vendors of new tires and
vendors of retread tires:
EPA recommends that procuring agencies specify that retread tires must meet
the requirements of Federal Specification ZZ-T-381, "Tires, Pneumatic,
Vehicular (Highway) (New and Retreaded)."

Reclaim engine coolants on site or contract for offsite reclamation services.
Also request reclaimed engine coolant when having vehicles serviced at com-
mercial service centers and buy it when making direct purchases.

EPA recommends that procuring agencies whose vehicles (passenger vehicles as
well as medium- and heavy-duty equipment, including trucks, cranes, off-road
vehicles, and military vehicles) are serviced by a motor pool or vehicle mainte-
nance facility establish a service contract to require the use of rebuilt vehicular
parts in the agencies' vehicles or establish a program for vehicular parts rebuild-
ing and reuse consisting of either recovering a used vehicular part and rebuild-
ing it, replacing it with a rebuilt part, or contracting to have the part replaced
with a rebuilt part. This designation applies to vehicles served by  both on-site
and commercial facilities.
                                   VEHICULAR PRODUCTS
                                          PAGE 3

Myths  and Facts About Recycled-
Content Vehicular Products
      People are often reluctant to try new tech-
      nologies. Recycled-content products are
      no exception. Out-of-date and incorrect
information about the uses and benefits of
recycled-content products lead people to
believe that they do not work as well  as virgin
products. Several agencies using recovered-
content products, however, have proven that
these products work well and that they are
cost-effective. Some of the common myths
about recycled-content vehicular products are
dispelled below. At the end of this fact sheet,
you can find an extensive list of additional
resources for more information.
•  Re-Refined Oil

M.YTH: Re-refined lubricating oil is inferior to new
    lubricating oil.

FACT: Re-refined oil is subject to the same stringent
    refining, compounding, and performance standards
    as virgin oil. Extensive laboratory testing and field
    studies conducted by the National Institute of
    Standards and Technology, the U.S. Army, the U.S.
    Department of Energy, the U.S. Postal Service
    (USPS), and EPA concluded re-refined oil is equiva-
    lent to virgin oil, passes all prescribed tests, and can
    even outperform virgin oil. The American
    Petroleum Institute (API)  has licensed qualified re-
    refined oil products, which display the API starburst
    and/or donut symbol.

                    • ••
M.YTH: Using re-refined oil voids manufacturers'

FACT: All three major U.S. automobile manufacturers
    (i.e., Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler) now
    recognize that re-refined oil meets the performance
    criteria specified in their warranties. Each has issued
    a written statement explaining that the use of
    re-refined oil will not  void warranties. Warranty
    requirements are based on performance criteria and
    not on the origin of the base oil. As long as the
    purchased oil meets the warranty requirements,
    the warranty must be  honored.
•  Retread Tires

M.YTH: Retreads are less safe than new tires.
FACT: Statistics compiled by the U.S. Department of
    Transportation show that nearly all tires involved
    in any tire-related accidents were underinflated or
    bald. Properly maintained tires, both new and
    retreaded, do not cause accidents. Retread tires have
    been safely used on school buses, trucks, cars, fire
    engines, and other emergency vehicles for years.
MYTH: Retreads have a higher failure rate than new tires.

FACT: Rubber on the road comes from both new tires
    and retread tires, primarily from truck tires that are
    overloaded, underinflated, or otherwise abused. New
    or retread tire failures can be greatly reduced by
    following all the rules of good maintenance, includ-
    ing proper mating with regard to diameter and tread
    depth and design, and maintaining proper air

•  Recycled  Engine Coolants

MYTH: Recycled engine coolant is inferior to new
    engine coolant.

FACT: Testing shows recycled coolant meets national-
    ly recognized performance specifications for new
    coolant, such as those established by ASTM and the
    Society of Automotive Engineers. The recycling
    process reduces the chlorides that come from hard
                                     VEHICULAR PRODUCTS
                                            PAGE 4

   water so that recycled antifreeze might actually
   be purer than virgin coolant.
M.YTH: Recycled coolant costs more than new

FACT: Recycled coolant might cost less than new
    coolant if you select the right recycling process for
    your shop. You must consider the cost of new
    coolant and your current disposal costs and compare
    these to the cost of onsite or offsite recycling.
M.YTH: Spent coolants are hazardous waste and those
    handling them must follow hazardous waste regula-

FACT: Spent coolants are not listed by EPA as a haz-
    ardous waste. Some older test data indicated used
    coolant sometimes had levels of lead requiring it to
    be managed as a hazardous waste. Most new vehicle
    radiators are made with aluminum cores and plastic
    tanks, so there is less opportunity for lead contami-
    nation of coolant today than in the past. Still, some
    states consider coolant to be hazardous. Contact
    your state environmental agency for further infor-
M.YTH: Recycled coolant will void manufacturers'

FACT: Coolant recyclers have worked with automo-
   tive and truck engine original equipment manufac-
   turers (OEMs) to get their approval on coolant
   recycling processes. Check with your recycler for a
   list of OEM approvals.
       Coolant Recycling Processes

      The RMAN recommends that procuring
      agencies establish a program for engine
      coolant reclamation and reuse either on
site or through a service contract. There are
three general types of coolant recycling pro-
cesses: filtration, distillation, and ion
exchange. Since variations exist among the
various processes, check with the system man-
ufacturer for specifics regarding coolant pro-
duced by the system.

Filtration is the most common type of coolant
recycling process. It  has the lowest initial
investment but has high operating costs.
Coolants often contain  dissolved solids and fil-
tration systems often require pre- and post-fil-
ter treatment as well.

Distillation evaporates and recondenses the
coolant.  This is a slow process with a high ini-
tial investment, but it requires less operator
time and lower operating costs. Solids and
other chemicals are left behind as a residue
that must be managed according to applicable

Ion exchange removes solids and other chemi-
cals from the coolant as it passes through a
resin bed. Periodically, this bed must be regen-
erated to remove the buildup. Equipment costs
are higher than most other systems. Operating
costs are comparable to filtration systems.
                                     VEHICULAR  PRODUCTS
                                            PAGE 5

How  Can I  Get  More  Information?
           Information Available
           From EPA
his fact sheet and the following publications on
buying recycled-content products can be accessed
on the Internet.
    EPA Expands Comprehensive Procurement
    Guideline (CPG). This fact sheet provides general
    information about the CPG and the development of
    affirmative procurement programs. See

    Federal Register (FR) notices promulgating CPG I (60
    FR 21370/EPA530-Z-95-006) and RMAN I (60 FR
    21386/EPA530-Z-95-007), May 1, 1995. FR notices
    promulgating CPG II (62 FR 60961/EPA530-Z-97-009)
    and RMAN II (62 FR 60975/EPA530-Z-97-010),
    November 13, 1997. FR notices promulgating CPG
    III (65 FR 3070) and RMAN III (65 FR 3082), January
    19, 2000. FR notices promulgating CPG IV (69 FR
    24028), and RMAN IV (69 FR 24039), April 30, 2004.
    See .
        Other Sources of
Buy Recycled Business Alliance. The Alliance
includes over 3,200 companies and organizations
committed to increasing their use of recycled-con-
tent products and materials in their day-to-day oper-
ations. The Alliance offers educational materials, a
quarterly newsletter, and product-specific guides.
Public purchasing entities can join free of charge.
For more information, contact the National
Recycling Coalition, 1325 G Street NW Suite 1025,
Washington, DC 20005-31 °4- Phone: 202 347-0450.
Fax: 202 347-0449. Web site: .

U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). GSA
publishes various supply catalogs, guides, and sched-
ules for recycled-content products available through
the Federal Supply Service. For copies of the follow-
ing documents and other information, contact GSA,
Centralized Mailing List Service (7CAFL), 4900
Hemphill Street, P.O. Box 6477, Fort Worth,  TX
76115-9939. Phone: 817 334-5215. Fax: 817 334-
5527. You can also access GSA Advantage!, GSA's
Internet-based online ordering system, to order any
GSA product at .
                                      VEHICULAR PRODUCTS
                                              PAGE 6

    Environmental Products Guide. This guide is
    designed to help procurement officials identify
    environmentally preferable products and services.
    It contains nearly 3,000 items, including many
    recycled-content products. An electronic version
    can be viewed at .
    Tires, Pneumatic for Passenger, Light Truck,
    Medium Truck/Bus, and Retread Services,
    Federal Supply Schedule, Group 26,  Part 1. Lists
    a variety of retread tires available for purchase.

Official Recycled Products Guide. This document  is
a comprehensive directory of recycled-content prod-
ucts and contains more than 5,000 listings of manu-
facturers  and distributors, including those of
re-refined oil, retread tires, and engine coolants.
Contact: Recycling Data Management Corporation,
P.O. Box 577, Ogdensburg, NY 13669. Phone: 800
267-0707. Fax: 877 471-3258.

Office of the Federal Environmental Executive
(OFEE). OFEE offers a number of resources,  listed
below, to help government agencies learn about
CPG-designated products. Contact: Phone: 202 564-
1297. Fax: 202 564-1393. Web site: .

    Closing the Circle News. This newsletter
    reports on the government's progress toward an
    environmentally conscious and friendly
    approach to recycling, acquisitions,  and procure-

    Greening the Government: A Guide to
    Implementing Executive Order 13101. This
    guide provides detailed information on the
    requirements of Executive Order 13101, and the
    benefits to those achieving compliance.  Updated
    in February 2001, it is available from OFEE. Phone:
    202 564-1297. Fax: 202 564-1393. Web site:
    . Email: An
    electronic version of the document can be viewed
    in PDF format at .

•   Tire Industry  Association. This international associ-
    ation, formed  by the merger of the International Tire
    and Rubber Association (ITRA) and the Tire
    Association of North America (TANA), represents
    all aspects of the tire industry. For more informa-
    tion, contact Marvin Bozarth, Senior Technical
    Consultant, P.O. Box 37203, Louisville, KY 40233-
    7203. Phone: 502 968-8900. Toll Free: 800 426-8835.
    Fax: 502 964-7859.
    Email: mbozarth@tire
    Web site: .
                                     VEHICULAR PRODUCTS
                                             PAGE  7

Other Sources—Recovered Engine
•   The Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) paper
    number 921634, An Evaluation of Engine Coolant
    Recycling Technologies, offers information about
    recovered engine coolants. The paper is available for
    $10 by calling SAE's toll free number in the United
    States and Canada at 877 606-7323. Web site:

Other Sources—Rebuilt Vehicular Parts
•   The Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association
    (APRA) includes more than 1,800 member compa-
    nies that rebuild automotive related parts such as
    starters, alternators, clutches, transmissions, brakes,
    drive shafts, and other parts for passenger cars,
    trucks, off-road, equipment, and industrial uses. For
    more information, visit , call 703
    968-2878, or Email
       Internet Sites—Product
     _ Information
       •   Recycling Data Network Information
Services: .
This commercial Web site provides access, on a sub-
scription basis, to a recycled-content products
database of over 4,500 listings in 700 product classi-
fications. It also provides a reference library and a
newsletter. Managed by the publisher of the Official
Recycled Products Guide, the product database is
considered to be the largest of its kind.
                                       VEHICULAR  PRODUCTS
                                               PAGE 8