ynited States                  EPA-600/R-QO-050
            Environmental Protection

            Aaenclr                     June 2000
&EPA     Research and
            Development
            WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS;


            PARTICLE SIZE AND


            CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
            Prepared for
            Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
            Prepared by


            National Risk Management
            Research Laboratory
            Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

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                                               EPA-600/B-00-050
                                               June 2000


Wood Stove Emissions; Particle Size and Chemical Composition

                                  by

                           Robert C. McCrillis
                    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                National Risk Management Research Laboratory
                 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division
                     Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                              Prepared for
                   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                    Office of Research and Development
                         Washington, D.C. 20460

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                            FOREWORD


The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency is charged by Congress with pro-
tecting the Nation's land, air.  and water resources. Under a mandate of national
environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions lead-
ing to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural
systems to support and nurture life.  To meet this mandate, EPA's research
program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental pro-
blems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our eco-
logical resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our  health, and pre-
vent or reduce environmental risks in the future.

The National Risk Management Research Laboratory is the Agency's center for
investigation of technological and management approaches for reducing risks
from threats to human health and the environment.  The focus of the Laboratory's
research program is on methods for the prevention and control oi pollution to air,
land, water,  and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water
systems; remediation of contaminated sites and groundwaterj and prevention and
control of indoor air pollution. The goal of this research effort is to catalyze
development and implementation of innovative, cost-effective environmental
technologies; develop scientific and engineering information needed by EPA to
support regulatory and policy decisions; and provide technical support and infor-
mation transfer to ensure effective implementation of environmental regulations
and strategies.

This publication has been produced as part of the Laboratory's strategic long-
term research plan. It is published and made available by EPA's Office of Re-
search and Development to assist the user community  and to link researchers
with their clients.


                          E. Timothy Oppelt, Director
                          National Risk Management Research Laboratory

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                      NOTICE'

This document has been reviewed in accordance with
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and
approved for publication.  Mention of trade names
or commercial products does not constitute endorse-
ment or recommendation for use.
                       ii

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ABSTRACT
       In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces,
accounted for a significant fraction of national paniculate matter with aerodynamic diameters '
<2.5 urn (PM2 5) and air toxics emissions. Based on very limited wood stove particle size data, it
has been assumed that the paniculate emissions are 100% PM2.5. This report summarizes wood
stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. Tests are being conducted in
a RWC laboratory burning oak cordwood in a test protocol designed to mimic in-home
operation. Since all RWC wood smoke particles <10 jim (PM,0) are thought to be the result of
condensation, their  size distribution and total mass are influenced by collection temperature. In
tests completed to date, no attempt was made to control collection temperature. Thus, these
results probably represent the lower bound. The PM,0 and PM2 s fractions would probably be
higher at typical winter temperatures  The particles collected on the first stage (cutpoint ~ 11.7
Hm) are light gray and appear to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of
the stages are black and appear to be condensed organlcs. Total paniculate emission rates range
from 4 to 61 g/hr; emission factors range from 2.8 to 41 g/kg of dry wood burned.
                                         ill

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
 SECTION

 ABSTRACT
                                                                           ...
                  ...................     ...................................  in

 LISTOFTABLES ............... .                                           :iv
 LISTOFFIGURES

 INTRODUCTION

 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

 RESULTS ......... .
                                                                          2
      Total PM  ............... . ................... . , _                      2
      Particle size  ............ . . ..... . ......... .                             7
      Chemical analyses  ...... , ........... . ...... ... .......                   12

REFERENCES  .......... ...... ....... ... ................................... 20
Appendix A  Detailed Data Summaries  ................................         A-i

Appendix B  Derivation of Method 5G to 5H conversion equation ...... ............  B-i



                              LIST OF TABLES

Table No.                           Title                                 page

  1    Description of stoves included in laboratory testing project .......... ...... ......   I

  1    Summary of total particulate results from each test ... ................. ......     4

  3    Total particulate averages for various bum rates .......... . . ..................   5
                                    Iv

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                                  LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.          Title                                                         page

1      Typical wood stove test setup ,.,.......,,,....	                    3
2      EPA Method 5H PM emission factors and rates for various wood stove technologies ... 6
3      Effect of burnrate on particle size distribution, Pellet Stove (E) in-stack impactor  	8
4      Effect of burnrate on particle size distribution, Catalytic Stove (A) in-stack impactor,
       seasoned wood	,...	      9
5      Effect of burnrate on particle size distribution, Noncatalytic Stove (D) cold start,
       seasoned wood	                    i Q
6      Effect of wood moisture on particle size distribution, Catalytic Stove (A)	11
7      Effect of hot vs cold startup on particle size distribution, Catalytic Stove (A)	13
8      Effect of impaetor location on particle size distribution, Catalytic Stove (A), high
       moisture wood	  	           j/,
9      Effect of impactor location on particle size distribution, Uncontrolled Exempt
       Stove (B)	m	15
10    Effect of impactor location on particle size distribution, Pellet Stove (E)  	,	16
11    Effect of impactor location and wood moisture on particle size distribution,
      Noncatalytic Stove (D)	        17
12    Effect of impactor substrate and precutter on particle size distribution, Noncatalytic
      Stove (D) ,	,	                   18
13    PAHs quantified in impactor composite filter extracts from Tests 2-10 ,,,,	..... 19
14    Target semivolatile organic compound emission factors for various stove technologies
      found  in XAD extracts from Tests 1-13	21
15    Individual aldehyde emission factors for various stove technologies, based on
      Tests 1-13			         22

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 INTRODUCTION
       Residential wood stoves, although regulated under the 1988 New Source Performance
 Standard (NSPS), remain a significant source of fine paniculate matter (PM2 5) and a major
 source of polynuclear organic material (POM).  In 1997, EPA estimated that residential wood
 combustion (RWC), including fireplaces was the largest category of directly emitted PMIO
 emissions excluding open dust sources (e.g., agricultural, roads), and the seventh largest category
 of air toxic emissions1.  Very limited wood stove particle size data have indicated that wood
 stove and fireplace emissions are 100% < 2.5 urn2.  This has led to the assumption that RWC
 accounts for a significant fraction of national PM25 emissions. Because of the uncertainty in
 these data, EPA decided to undertake a sampling project to expand the particle size data base for
 RWC emissions and also look at composition as a function of particle size range. This report
 summarizes ongoing work which is focused on measuring the particle size distribution and
 chemical composition of wood stove emissions. This is a continuing project. Future work will
 focus more on identifying unique chemical tracers for wood smoke which can be used to
 determine the impact residential wood burning has on distant, ambient air PM2 5 samples.

 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

       Five wood stoves were tested; EPA-certified catalytic, noncatalytic, and pellet stoves, a
 prototype noncatalytic stove, and an uncontrolled,, exempt stove. The stoves tested are described
 in Table 1.
Table 1. Description of stoves included in laboratory testing project
Manufacturer
England's Stove
Works
England's Stove
Works
Aladdin Steel
Products
Aladdin Steel
Products
Pyro Industries
Model
Englander 24ACD
Englander 18TR
Quadrafire 3300
QuadrafireSlOO
Whitfieldn-T
Control technology
Catalytic
Uncontrolled exempt
Prototype noncatalytic
with ECW3 gas pilot
Noncatalytic
Pellet
Stove code
A
B
C
D
E
 1 ECW = Enhanced Combustion Wood Stove

       The four stick-burning wood stoves were fired with locally grown split oak cordwood.
For Tests 1-10,16,17, and 20, the wood moisture averaged 28% dry basis. For Tests 18,19,
21-23, and 26-30 the wood moisture averaged 14.5% dry basis.  Test 31794 was run hi 1994
using 20.5% moisture oak cordwood. All of the other tests were run during 1998. Pellets from
American Hardwood Pellets, Inc., used for Tests 11-13 and 24-25, averaged 5.6% dry basis. The

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 stick wood stoves were tested over a "homeowner" cycle. For cold-start tests, samplers were
 started when paper was lit in a cold stove. For hot-start tests, samplers were started when the
 main fuel charge was placed on the kindling coals. All tests ended when the fuel was consumed,
 when the weigh scale reading returned to the value displayed just prior to loading fuel at the start
 of the test. Pellet stove tests were all hot starts; samplers were turned on after the bumrate had
 been stabilized and the stove had ran for a set time period.

       Total paniculate matter (PM) and particle size samples were collected in a dilution tunnel
 using room air as the diluent, as shown in Figure 1. PM samples were collected following EPA
 Method 5G with the addition of an XAD-2 absorbent trap after the unheated filters to collect
 samples for semivolatile analysis. Particle size samples were collected with an Andersen Mark
 HI 8-stage impactor with backup filter. The sampler was operated at 23-25 Lpm, depending on
 the actual stack velocity; nozzle size was selected to give isokinetic conditions. For half the
 tests, the sampler was located outside the dilution tunnel with the nozzle inserted through the
 tunnel wall and facing into the air stream. The remaining 50% of the tests were run with the
 sampler located inside the dilution tunnel, aligned with the centerline using a straight nozzle. In
 this case, the impactor's temperature was allowed to match that of the dilution tunnel gas. Prior
 to a test, impactor substrates were desiccated, weighed, and loaded into the clean sampler body.
 At ihe conclusion of a test, the entire impactor was placed in the desiccator for 24 hours before
 disassembling it to recover the substrates. The recovered substrates were placed back in the
 desiccator and allowed to reach constant weight before final weighing. Substrates for Test 22
 were clean, polished stainless steel; fiberglass substrates were used for all other tests. For Test
 23 the Andersen sampler was fitted with a 10 um precutter. The Andersen sampler was not
 operated during the PM blank run reported previously3.
RESULTS

Total PM -
       A total of 29 tests were run: 11 on the certified catalytic Englander 24ACD, 3 on the
uncontrolled, exempt Englander 18TR, 3 on the prototype noncatalytic Quadrafire 3300 with the
Enhanced Combustion gas pilot4'5, 7 on the certified noncatalytic Quadrafire 3100, and 5 on the
certified pellet Whitfield H-T. Results for Tests 14 and 15 are not reported; they were
abbreviated tests to investigate the operation of a Cyclade nested cyclone train instead of an
impactor for collecting particle size samples. PM results are summarized in Tables 2 and 3 and
shown graphically in Figure 2.

       Certified catalytic stoveiA produced a high emission factor burning high moisture wood
at a high bumrate, a moderate emission factor burning this wood at a low burnrate, and a low
emission factor burning well seasoned wood at high and low bumrates. These results agree with
the general  wisdom that catalytic stoves perform best at lower burnrates, and that wood should be
well seasoned for best emissions performance.
                                           2

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                             Roof
                                              To atmosphere
Dampers --""^l
<








44 m











Wood
Sfl,

Weigh
state*
ve
H


*x /
(







A




1
Cooled air inte
(see note)
T 	 DiluHon
(room)
air


.^
^








me
CO
CO.
o















>
>

^











/
^
*
/

-"




1









x

/


^**-

^










Impactor
/ probe
Method
/^ 5G probe


Damper
'
^toVr
jBaor
      Note: Cooled dilution air not used for reported tests.
Figure 1. Typical wood stove test setup.

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Table 2. Summary of total particulate results from each test

Method 56
Emission
rate
e/hr

34.2
41.3
5.0
22.2
20.7
14.0
14.0
4,9
6,4
5.8
2.8
21.3
16.6
20.1
10.8
10.9
1.1
55.9
36.5
36.2
38.4
34.1
11.5
42.8
3.1
2,7
12.8
7.6
1.7
Emission
factor
e/ke

17.8
19.2
4.0
9.5
6.8
10.3
4.8
3.5
4.9
2.2
2,1
5.0
3.9
5.7
2.2
7.9
0.9
37.3
3ZT
21.1
29.3
20.0
2.8
27.3
3.6
3.2
8.1
4.5
2.2
Method 5H*
Emission
rate
e/hr
Emission
factor
_s/ke
Burn
rate
kg/hr
lest
No.
Andersen
location
Wood
moisture
%
dry basis

39.6
47.0
7.0
26.8
25.2
17.7
17.7
6.8
8.7
8.0
4.1
25.7
20,5
24.4
13.9
14.1
1,8
61,4
41.8
41.5
43.8
39.3
14.8
48.3
4.5
4.0
16.3
10.2
2,6
20,6
21.8
5.5
11.5
8.2
13.0
6.1
4.9
6.6
3.0
3,1
6.0
4.8
6.9
2.8
10.2
1.5
41.0
26.0
24.2
33.4
23.1
3.6
30.8
53
4.7
10.3
6.0
3.4
1.92
2.15
1.26
2,33
3.05
1.36
2.92
1.38
1.31
2.64
1.33
4.29
4.27
3.56
4.97
1,37
1.18
1.50
1,61
1.71
1.31
1.70
4.15
1.57
0.86
0.86
L58
1.69
0.78
1
2
3
4
16
I/
18
19
20
29
30
5
6
28
7
8
3179
4
9
10
2i
22
23
26
27
11
12
13
24
25
external
external
external
external
not used
in-stack
not used
in-stack
in-staek
in-slack
in-staek
external
external
in-stack
external
external
not used
external
external
in-staek
in-staek
in-stack
in-stack
in-stack
external
external
external
in-staek
in-staek
28
28
28
28
28
28
13.5
12.6
28
17.2
14.4
28
28
18.7
28
28
20.5
28
28
13.6
14.1
13
14.9
12,7
5.1
5.1
5.1
6.3
6.3
Comment

cold start
cold start
cold start
cold start
cold start
cold start
cold start
cold start
hot start
cold start
cold start
cold start
cold start
cold start
ECW pilot off,
cold start
ECW pilot off,
cold start
ECW pilot on,
cold start
cold start
cold start
cold start
Stainless steel
substrates, cold
start
10pm
precutter, cold
start
cold start
cold start
hot start
hot start
hot start
hot start
hot start
StOV
code

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
B
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
E
E
E
E
E
14 1 he equation Method 5H = i ,632(5G)li -M was used to convert Method 5G results to equivalent Method 5H values (see
Appendix B for derivation).
s ECW = Enhanced Combustion Wood stove.

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Table 3- Total particulate averages for various bum rates

Particulate emissions
Method 5G
Emission
rate
g/nr
23.
6.
19,
10.8
10.9
1.
11.5
40.2
10.2
2.5
29.6
9.5
6.4
9.9
4.7
19.0
20.1
11.5
46.2
37.9
Emission
factor
g/kg
10.C
5.0
4.8
2.2
7.9
0.9
2,8
26.1
6.3
3.0
13.3
7.1
4.9
3.5
3.5
4.4
5.7
2.8
30.0
24.4
Method 5Ha
Emission
rate
g/hr
27.^
8.9
23.i
13.9
14.1
1.8
14.J
45.6
13.2
3.7
34.7
12.3
8.7
12.8
6.5
23,1
24.4
14.8
51.6
43.2
Emission
factor
g*g
11.!
6.
S.<
2.
10.2
1.5
3.6
29.6
8.2
4.4
15.5
9.3
6.6
4.5
4.9
5A
6.9
3.6
33.5
27.9
Burn
rate
kg/hr
2.5
1.33
4.0*
4.97
1.37
1.18
4.15
1.57
1.63
0.83
2.36
1.31
1.3
2.78
1.34
4.28
3.55
4.15
1.55
1.57
Stove
Catalytic
Catalytic
Uncontrolled exempt
Noncatalytic ECWb
NoncatalyticECW
Noneatalytic ECW
Noneatalytic
Noneatalytic
Pellet
Pellet
Catalytic
Catalytic
Catalytic
Catalytic
Catalytic
Jncontrolled exempt
Uncontrolled exempt
^oncatalytie
Noneatalytic
Noneatalytic
Comment
High BRb ave.
Low BR ave.
Average
High BR ave.
Low BR ave.
Gas pilot on ave.
3igh BR ave.
Med, BR ave.
High BR ave.
Low BR ave.
High BR, high
moisture ave.
-ow BR, high
moisture, cold
start ave.
U3w BR, high
moisture, hot start
ave.
High BR, low
moisture ave.
^ow BR, low
moisture ave.
ligh moisture ave.
Low moisture ave.
High BR, low
moisture ave.
Medium BR, high
moisture ave.
Medium BR, low
noisture average
The equation Method 5H = 1,632(5G)09M was used to convert Method 5G results to equivalent Method 5H values
(see Appendix B for derivation).
BR = bumrate; ECW = Enhanced Combustion Wood stove.

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o\
I


o
"3!
to

1
o>


CL
                &

             3  "3)
                     30
                     25   -
                     20
15   -
                     10
                                                                                                  50
                                                                                              -   40
                                                                                                 30
                                                                                                  20
                                                                                             -I   10
 5


 o

"35
 en

1
 
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        Exempt uncontrolled stove B produced a low to medium emission factor on wet and well
 seasoned fuel, although the emission rates (g/hr) were high because of the high burnrate. This
 stove has no burnrate control, other than the fuel load.

        Prototype noncatalvtic ECW stove C. with the gas pilot off, produced a low emission
 factor burning high moisture wood at a high burnrate and a moderate emission factor burning the
 same wood at a low burnrate. With the ECW gas pilot on, it produced a very low emission factor
 burning seasoned foel at a low burnrate.

        Certified noncatalvtic stove D gave a low emission factor burning well seasoned wood at
 a high burnrate. Burning at a medium bumrate produced very high emission factors on high
 moisture and well seasoned wood loads. The results for stoves B, C, and D point out the potential
 difficulty in obtaining low emissions at lower bumrates in noncatalvtic stoves. In other tests
 reported elsewhere5, Stove D was capable of routinely achieving emission factors in the 2-4 g/kg
 range burning seasoned oak if operated in a carefully scripted procedure.

        Certified pellet stove E achieved a medium emission factor at a high burnrate and a low
 emission factor at a low burnrate. As noted later, emissions exhibited a markedly different
 character at the low bumrate compared to the high bumrate condition.

 Particle size -

       The following discussion looks first at possible effects of pource variables and then at
 sampling variables. Source variables investigated were stove technology, burnrate, wood
 moisture, and cold versus hot starts.

       Stove technology and bumrate appeared to have little effect with the notable exception of
 pellet technology, shown in Figure 3.  At a low burnrate, the pellet stove PM2 5 fraction was only
 40%, compared to >90% at a high burnrate and >85% for nearly all the stick stove tests. For
 example, see Figure 4. At a high burnrate, the pellet stove size distribution was similar to the
 stick stove results.  It is hypothesized that this is a result of a much higher combustion efficiency
 for the pellet stove at low bumrates. As will be discussed later, the low bumrate test also showed
 a marked difference in the chemical composition of the emissions, further evidence of a higher
 combustion efficiency at the lower bumrate.  The efficiency hypothesis may also explain the less
 dramatic but significant drop in the PM25 fraction on the 3100 (>90% at a low bumrate dropping
 to -70% at a high burnrate) as shown in Figure 5. On the 3100, the bumrate-efficiency trend is
 reversed as evidenced by the PM results in Figure 2.

       Wood moisture seemed to have some effect on particle size distribution. A direct
 comparison, possible only on Stove A, is shown in Figure 6, where it can be seen that drier wood
produced about the same PMZ 5 fraction but a larger PM,  fraction.  Direct comparisons on the
other stoves are not possible because the impactor was located outside the stack for all the higher
wood moisture tests and inside for all lower wood moisture tests.

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              100
oo
         DJ
         "3>

         O
         3

         o
                                           1                        10
                                 Equivalent aerodynamic diameter, ^ m
100
       Figure 3. Effect of burnrate on particle size distribution, Pellet Stove (E) in-stack impactor.

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        100
   O)

   *
-------
        100
   O)
   CD
   3



   o
         10
                                                                   rid 27 (low burnrite)
                                                                                             100
                             Equivalent aerodynamic diameter,  jj,m
Figure 5. Effect of bumrate on particle size distribution, Noncatalytie Stove (D) cold start, seasoned wood.

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       100
   V
   4=
   O3


   1
  o
                                    1                       10

                       Equivalent aerodynamic diameter, ^ m
100
Figure 6. Effect of wood moisture on particle size distribution, Catalytic Stove (A).

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        Cold vs hot start was tested only on the catalytic stove (Stove A), where it seemed to
 make some difference in particle size distribution as shown in Figure 7. The PM2 s fraction was
 about 10% lower for the hot start test, whereas the PM, 0 fraction was higher.  Total PM was
 lower for the hot start test, indicating that (1) emissions during cold startup are high and/or (2)
 cold startup emissions are relatively higher in the < PM2J but > PM, 0 size fractions. Another
 factor is that during cold startup, the catalyst is inactive. For the hot start test, the catalyst bypass
 was closed immediately after loading the main fuel charge.

        Sampling variables investigated were in stack vs external location of the impactor train,
 fiberglass vs smooth, stainless steel impactor substrates, and 10 um preeutter on the impactor vs
 no preeutter.

        In stack vs external impactor location, with the possible exception of stove D, the external
 impactor location always measured a smaller weight percent of the particles in the small sizes.
 For example, Figure 8, stove A, the in-stack impactor collected -90% in the <2.5  um fraction
 compared to the out-of-stack impactor's measurement of 78%. Similar differences can be seen
 for stoves B and E, Figures 9 and 10, respectively. Figure 11, stove D, shows a very slight
 reverse trend; however, this interpretation is confounded by the variation in wood moisture.
 Overall, these data provide strong support for the use of straight nozzles with impactors; a curved
 nozzle can act as a sizing step, biasing the final result,

       Fiberglass vs smooth substrates and precutters was investigated on stove D, as shown in
 Figure 12. It is obvious that the 10 urn precutter did not collect any mass, since its impactor size
 distribution curve coincides with the one for no precutter test. The smooth substrate data indicate
 a significant effect, with the smooth substrate showing nearly 100% < 2.5 um, compared to the
 fiberglass substrate data at 90%. Given the sticky nature of wood smoke, and the absence of any
 large particles (as evidenced by the precutter null catch), it can be safely assumed that these data
 are not the result of particle bounce.  The reason that fiberglass shows a lower percent of fine
 particles can be explained by considering the path the gases and particles take through a typical
 impactor stage.  They enter from the stage above via axial jets. The gases and particles too small
 to be collected on that stage must then turn 90 and travel across the face of the substrate to reach
 the next set of axial jets. Due to the roughness of the fiberglass, some of the particles are
 collected by filtration during this passage and are countered with the particles collected by
 impaction. This provides strong justification for using smooth substrates for all future testing.

 Chemical analyses -

 Chemical analyses were run on extracts of the impactor fiberglass filters, the XAD extracts, and
 the DNPH tubes. The impactor filters from Tests 2-10 were aggregated by stage and extracted
 (i.e., all stage Is were extracted together) using methylene chloride.  The extracts were then
 analyzed for a set of target PAH compounds. The results, presented in Figure 13, show that none
 of the PAHs appeared until stage 6, which has a outpoint of 1 um. By far me largest quantity
was collected on the backup filter which contains particles < 0.415 um aerodynamic equivalent
 diameter. BaP was found on stage 7 and backup filters.  The two major compounds on the
                                          12

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         100
    O)
   "55
    3


   O
         10
                                         1                         10

                             Equivalent aerodynamic diameter, p, m
100
Figure 7. Effect of hot vs cold startup on particle size distribution, Catalytic Stove (A).

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         100
    V
   1
   O
                                       1                         10
                          Equivalent aerodynamic diameter,
100
Figure 8. Effect of impactor location on particle size distribution, Catalytic Stove (A), high moisture wood.

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        100
   V
   O)
   1
   s
   ys
   (8
   3
   3
   O
         10
                                        1                         10                        100
                            Equivalent aerodynamic diameters  ^m
I
Figure 9. Effect of impactor location on particle size distribution, Uncontrolled Exempt Stove (B).

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      100
  O)

 1
  0)
 o
                                     1                         10


                         Equivalent aerodynamic diameter,
100
Figure 10. Effect of impactor location on particle size distribution, Pellet Stove (E).

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        100
   V
    O)
   "5


    0

   +3
   J5
    3

    E
    3
   O
         10
                                        1                        10

                            Equivalent aerodynamic diameter,  urn
100
Figure 11. Effect of impaetor location and wood moisture on particle size distribution, Noncatalytic Stove (D).

-------
   CO
   1
   .1
   '
   JO
   3
   O
        100
         10
                                        1                        10
                             Equivalent aerodynamic diameter,  p, m
100
Figure 12. Effect of impactor substrate and precutter on particle size distribution, Noneatalytic Stove (D).

-------
            700
    Q.

    CO
    CD
    Q.
    CC

   O
fluoranthene
anthracene
phenanthrene
fluorene
                                               acetophenone
                                              2-methyl phenol
                                             D phenol
            200
            100
                   1 (10,8)
   2(6.75)     3(4.6)      4(3.2)      5(2.0)      6(1.0)     7(0.61i)

           Impactor stage number, (outpoint, jam)
                                                                                        S (0.415)
Figure 13, PAHs quantified in impactor composite filter extracts from Tests 2-10.

-------
 backup filter were pyrene and fluoranthene. These data clearly show that the hazardous organic
 compounds are associated with the submicron particles.

    The XAD cartridges from Tests 1-13 have been extracted and analyzed to date. The target
 nonvolatile compounds are listed in Figure 14, with the analytical results. Phenol was found in
 significant quantities in the emissions from the stick burning stoves; very little was found in the
 pellet stove emissions and then only at the high burnrate. There was a large difference in the
 sum of the target compounds between the low and Mgh burns on the pellet stove. In quantity, the
 high burn pellet stove emission was similar to the higher emission stick burning stove results,'
 although the mix of compounds was shifted to higher molecular weight.

    The DNPH cartridges were extracted and analyzed for aldehydes. The results (Figure 15)
 show that the dominant compound was formaldehyde,  followed by acetaldehyde. Even at fairly
 low PM emission conditions, such as stove A at a low burnrate, aldehyde emissions are still Mgh.
 Stove C at a Mgh burnrate produced one-third the aldehydes as it did at a low burnrate.
 Especially at a low burnrate, the pellet stove aldehyde emission factor was relatively low.

 REFERENCES

 I.     Nizieh, S. V., T. Pierce, A. Pope, P. Carlson, and B. Barnard, National Air Pollutant
       Emission Trends. 1900-1996. EPA-454/R-97-011 (NTISPB98-153158). U.S.
       Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
       Research Triangle Park, NC, December 1997.

 2.     Rau, J. A., and J. J. Huntzicker, "Size Distribution and Chemical Composition of
       Residential Wood Smoke," in Proceedings: 78th Annual Meeting of the AWMA, Detroit
       MI, June 1985, Paper No. 85-43.3.

 3.     McCrillis, R.C., and P.Kariher, "Fireplace Emissions Update - New Particle Size Data,"
       in Proceedings: Emissions Inventory: Planning for the Future. Research Triangle Park,'   '
       NC, October 28-30,1997.

4.     U.S. Patent No. 5,179,933, "Single Chamber Wood Stove Including Gaseous
       Hydrocarbon Supply," Inventors: R.C. McCrillis, N.L. Butts, W.H. Ponder, and J.H.
       Abbott, issued January 19,1993.

5.     McCrillis, R.C., J.H. Abbott, W.H. Ponder, N.L. Butts, and D.S. Henry, "Enhanced
       Combustion Woodstove (ECW) Technology," in Proceedings: Conference on
       Environmental Commerce. CONEC'93. Chattanooga, TN, October 17-20,1993.
                                         20

-------
                      U pyrone          m fluorene      a 2-methylnaphthalene H acotophenono
                      g3 fluoranthene      B dibenzofuran  B naphthalene      @ 2-methyl phenol
                        dl-n*utyl phthalate @ acenaphthene  B 2,4-dImethyl phenol Q benzyl alchohol
                      0 anthracene       S acenaphthyleno i3 4-methyI phenol    | phenol
                        phenanthrone
                                ./       .X
                                                        Stove code (burnrate)
Figure 14. Target semivolatile organic compound emission factors for various stove technologies found in XAD extracts fiom Tests 1-13

-------
to
        V)
        CD
                  1.5   -
            T3
          
        
        CO   ^

       m  "O
CD
3
            s
                 0.5
                   o  u
                                                                               Hexanal
                                                                               Pentanal
                                                                             S Benzaldehyde
                                                                               Propanal
                                                                               Acetaldehyde
                                                                               Formaldehyde
                                              Stove code (burnrate)
     Figure 15. Individual aldehyde emission factors for various stove technologies, based on Tests 1-13.

-------
                                     APPENDIX A

                                Detailed Data Summaries
Table Number
              Description
Table A-1
Table A-2a
Table A-2b
Table A-2e
Table A-2d
Table A-3
Table A-4
Table A-5a
Table A-5b
Table A-6a
Table A-6b
Summary of semivolatile organic data for all stoves	  A-l
Detailed results for Stove A, Tests 1 and 2	  A-2
Detailed results for Stove A, Tests 3 and 4	  A-3
Detailed results forStove A, Tests 16-19	'..'.'.'.  A-4
Detailed results for Stove A, Tests 20,29, and 30,	  A-5
Detailed results for Stove B, Tests 5,6, and 28		  A-6
Detailed results for Stove C, Tests 7,8, and 31794 ,	  A-7
Detailed results for Stove D, Tests 9,10, and 21	  A-8
Detailed results for Stove D, Tests 22,23,26, and 27	  A-9
Detailed results for Stove E, Tests 11 - 13	 A-10
Detailed results for Stove E, Tests 24 and 25	 A-l 1
                                         A-i

-------
Table A-1 . Su mmary of semlvalaKIe organic data for all sloves
Slow code Stove A Stove A S'.oveB Stove C
high bum low bum Man tan
METHOD 5H PARTICU1AT6S
XAO SEMIVOIATILE ORQANICS
phenol
tJinzjl alchohoi
2-methyI phenol
aceiophsnone
4-methyl phenol
2.4-dimethy! phenol
niphlhalene
2-rnethyInaphltafaie
aoenaphthytena
acenaphlhene
dibenzoftuan
fluotene
phentnthrene
anthracene
dta-bufyl phlhabte
fluoranthene
pyrene
Total
Other campo t/nds
2'neihyMuran
2-furamwthanol
3-8iyl-furan
2-furanmelhanoI
1-(acely!(Ky}-2-pfopanone
1 .S-Efun&lhylbeflzene
1 ,2-dTmethvlbenzene
cycJopent-2-en-1,4-dione
phenytethyne
slyrene
2-nwthyt"2"cyelc>penlen-1-0ne
unkftydro
unk hydro
2,5-hexsnedione
unK hydro
2-melhv!-3-pefllanone
1 *{ac@toxy}-2-&ul5nofi e
S"fnelhy!-2-fufaficdftQxaldehyde
benzzidfthyde
unk hydra
1-lhyl-4-fiie&hyl-&enzefiB
bsnzoiuran
3-melhyl-1,2-cydopH!lanedlne
2-hydroisy-3-2-cyclopenl6n-1-one
3-hydroxy-benzaWehyde
Mans
4~mMhy!b&&zald]!yde
2-inathoxy-phenol
utik hydro
unk hydra
2-ethyl-phBiol
unk hydro
unk hydro
uRk hydro
meftyMndene
dimelhyl-pheflol
2-msthoxy-4"me!hy!^)hefiol
unkhydnj
2,e-dimeBra)iy-phenol
mefhyt-flaphlhalene
btphenyl
unk hydra
MmMhoxybenzene
1.2,3-WmeUH>jiy-5-nielhy)-b6nzeie
2-^aph!halenecaffeaxatdeTiyd&
unk hydro
unk hydra'ptilfalalc
ink hydrn/ph'.hatale
unk hydro^^ialsle
unk hydro/phthstste
unk hydro/phtfalale
unk hydto/pblhalaie
unkhydmfphlhalale
unknyoWphthatate
unkhydrorphhalate
unkhydro/phlhalate
unk hydrtt/phthalaEe
Grand total
Seteded POMs torn "1 B" Bsled ir
t*RK Jlelr-dS 441rA^ICt
' t
15.00
0.1741
0.0493
0.0099
0.0930
0.0263
O.OTOS
0,0142
0.0151
0.0072
0.0034
0.0062



0.4692
0,114
0,006
0.012

0.010
0.038
0.012
0.026


0.036
0.009
0.023

0.137
0.008

0.015
0.032
0.006
0.010

0,019

0.010

0.026

0.013
0.025
0.013
0.010





6.018

0.036






0.009
0.011
0.008
0.025
0.014
0.031
0.005
0.049
0.052
0.031
0.023
0.007
2.398
0.095
!fl E
7.68
0.1327
0.0294
0.0048
0.0643
0.01 5S
0.0445
0.0087
0.0095
0.0040
0.0024
0.0048



0.3209
0.083
0.018
0.016

0.018
0.016
0,022


0.023
0.111
O.020

0.012
0.011

0.010
0,026



0.017



o.oi a

0.013
0.017









0.021






0,013
O.OfZ










0.819
0.061
TO V
5.91
0.2404
0.0370
0.0103
0.0756
0.0119
0.1780
0.0261
0.0457
0.0036
0.0190
0.0104
0.0286
0.0051



0.6918
0.039
0.014


0.014
0.025
0.020
0.014
0.019
0.058

0.012




0.003
0.006
0.053
0.012
0.007
0.034


0"14
0.345
0.007

0.005
0.004
0.007



0.008




0.021
0.004



0.008












1.143
O.271
*a
2.81
0.038i
0.0038
0,0111
0,0209
0.0022
0.0036
0.0024
0.003i



0.0863
0.026


0.012








0.012














0.015














^

fl.013











0,164
0.028
Stove C
8*9
10.2?
0.21 04
0.0706
0.0095
0.1296
0.0386
0.0451
0.0102
o.oosa
0.0080
0.0051



0.5328
0.141
0.082

0.069

0.029




0.025
0.036
0.048
0.025

0.023
0.036
0.025
0.039


0.025





0.138







0.033
0.039
0.117


0.058

0.034













1.656
0.056
Stove C
low bum
8*3
1.51
0.0355
0.0002
0.0021
0.0081
0.0010
O.0317
0.0027
0.0050
0.0096
0.0056
0.0008
o 0010

0.0015
O.OBOB
0.0990
























































0.041
Stove D Stove E Stove E
medium bum hfgft bum low bum
9*S
29.17
Q2772
0.005T
0.1528
0.0156
0.2168
0.1013
0.0585
0.0188
0,0083
0.0072
0.0038
0.0543



0.9Z03
0.074
0 119
0.027
0.093
O.093
o.ios
0.114

0 046



0.053
0.047
0.052
0.062

oms
COST
0.063





0034







0 116
0.091
0044

0.046
0.116

0.211



0.083














2.723
0.125
fl*9 8*9
0.0203 0,0047
0.3846 0.0385
0.0127
0.2031 0.0105
0.0114
0.0413 0.0041



0.6734 0.0578
























0.050































0.812 0.058
0.640 0.053

-------
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-------
 Table A-2q Detailed results for Stove A, Tests 16-19
 Test #16   Slow bum, no particle sizing, cold slart.
 Englander 24ACD catalytic
 Oak cordwood. Moisture = 28%

 no size data
wet wood w
bum time =
M5G part =
M5G part =
M5H part. =
M5H part. =
bumrate =
Oil. tun. T =
bumrate =
% moisture
11,8 kg
3.02 hr
20.7 grtir
6.8 gfcg
25.2 g/hr
8.2 g/kg
3.05 kg/hrdiy
96.1 degF
8.60 ib/hrwel
28.0 %
                                                Test #17   Slow bum, in-stack Andersen, coM slart.
                                                Englander 24ACD catalytic
                                                  Stage     Catch    % of total   Cum.%<   Outpoint
                                                              mg         %         %         pm
                                                Oak cordwood, Moisture = 28%     Y         X
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Backup
Tola!
wet wood w
bum time =
M5G part. =
M5Gpart =
MSHpart.=
M5H part. =
bumrate =
Oil. tun. T =
bumrate =
% moisture
2.7 . 2.29
1.4 1.18
0.8 0.68
0.7 0.59
2.8 2.37
34.9 29,58
40.9 34.68
21.3 18.05
12.6 10.Si
118 100.00
12.3 kg
7.0B hr
14.0 g/hr
10.3 gfltg
17.7 g/hr
13.0 g/kg
1,36 kg/hrdry
88.9 degF
3.82 Ib/hrwet
28.0 %
97.71
96.53
35.85
5.25
92.88
63.31
28.64
10.59
0.00











10.8
8.7
4.6
3.2
2.0
1.0
0.61
0.41
0











 Test#18   Fast bum, no particle sizing. coM start.
 Englander 24ACD catalytic


 Oak confwood, Moisture = 13.5%

 no size data.
wet wood w
bum time =
M5G part. =
M5G part =
M5H part. =
M5H part =
bumrate =
Dil.tun.T =
bumrata =
% moisture
11.7 kg
3.53 hr
14.0 g/hr
 4.8' a/kg
17.7 g/hr
 6.1 g/kg
2.92 kg/hrdry
68.5 degF
7.29 Ib/hrwet
13.5 %
                                               Test It 19   Slow bum, in-stack Andersen, cold start.
                                               Englander 24ACD catalytic
                                                 Stage     Catch     % of total   Cum. %<   Cuipoint
                                                             >"i         %         %        jim
                                               Oak cordwood. Moisture = 12.6%   Y          X
         1
         2
         3
         4
         5
         6
         7
         8
Backup
Total

wet wood w
bum time =
M5G part =
M5Q part =
M5H part. =
M5H part. =
bumrate =
Dit. tun. T =
bumrate =
% moisture
                                                                3.6
                                                                1.1
                                                                0.9
                                                                0.7
                                                                0.7
                                                                3.2
                                                               11.2
                                                               17.7
                                                                9.1
                                                               48.2
           7.47
           2.28
           1.87
           1.45
           1.45
           6.64
          23.24
          36.72
          18.88
         100.00
92.53
S0.2S
88.38
86.93
85.48
78.84
55.60
18.88
 0.00
11.0
 6.8
 4.6
 3.2
 2.0
 1.0
0.62
0.42
  12 kg
7.75 hr
 4.9 g/hr
 3.5 g/kg
 6.8 g/hr
 4.i g/kg
 1.4 kg/hrdry
81.9 degF
 3.4 Ib/hrwet
12.6 %
                                                       A-4

-------
Table A-2d Detailed results for Stove A, Tests 20,29, and 30
 Test #20   Slow bum, in-slack Andersen, hot start.
 Englander 24ACD catalytic
   Stage     Catch     % of total  Cum. %<   Cufpoint
               mg         %
 Oak cordwood, Moisture = 28%    Y
                              H m
         1
         2
         3
         4
         5
         6
         7
         8
 Backup
 Tola!

 wet wood vu
 burn time 
 M5G part. =
 M5G part, =
 M5Hpart.=
 M5H part. =
 burnrafe =
 Oil. tun. T =
 bumrate =
 % moisture
  3.4
   1
  0.5
   1
  0.6
  2.7
13.6
15.9
  7.5
46.2
  7.36
  2.16
  1.08
  2.16
  1.30
  5.84
 29.44
 34.42
 16.23
100.00
92,64
90.48
89.39
87.23
85.93
80.09
50.65
16.23
 0.00
10,8
 6.7
 4,6
 3.1
 2.0
 1.0
0.61
0.41
10.1 k
6.03 hr
 6.4 g/hr
 4.9 8/kg
 8.7 g/hr
 6.6 g/kg
 1.3 kg/hrdry
84.6 degF
 3.7 Ib/hrwet
28.0 %
                                       Test 829   Fast bum, in-stack Andersen, cold start.
                                       Englander 24ACD catalytic
                                         Stage      Catch    % of total  Cum.%<  Cutpoint
                                                     mg         %        %        (im
                                       Oak cordwood, Moisture = 17.2%  Y         X
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
e
Backup
Total
wet wood w
bum ttme =
M5G part. =
M5G part. =
M5H part =
M5H part =
bumrate =
Oil. tun. T =
bumrate -
% moisture
3.7 10.22
0.1 0.28
0.2 0.55
0 0.00
1 2.76
0.6 1.66
3,7 10.22
10.4 28.73
16.5 45.58
36.2 100.00
12.6 kg
5.6 hr
5.8 g/hr
2.2 g/kg
8.0 g/hr
3.0 g/kg
2.6 kg/hrdry
83.8 dag F
5,0 Ib/nrwet
17.2 %
89.78
89.50
88.95
88.95
86.19
84,53
74,31
45.58
0.00











10.8
6.7
4.6
3.1
2
1
0.6
0.41












                                Test #30   Slow burn, in-stack Andersen, cold start.
                                Englander 24ACD catalytic
                                  Stage     Catch    % of total  Cum. %<   Cutpoint
                                             rnp         tf>         %        ii m
                                Oak cordwood, Moisture -14.^1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Backup
Total
wet wood w
burn time =
M5G part. =
M5G part =
M5H part =
M5H part. =
bumrate =
DR. tun. T =
bumrate -
% moisture
0,8 2.45
0.4 1.09
0 0.00
0.2 0.54
0 0.00
1,7 4.63
5.8 15.80
9.5 25.89
18.2 4i.59
36.7 100.00
12.4 kg
10.65 hr
2.8 g/hr
2.1 a/kg
4.1 g/hr
3-1 g/kg
1.3 kg/hrdry
78.6 degF
2.6 Ib/hrwet
14.4 %
97.55
96.46
96.46
85.91
95.91
91,28
75.48
49.59
0.00











10.9
6.8
4.6
3.2
2
1
0.62
0.42












                                                       A-5

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&*P*J
|k 91

11


)
2

O

rM* V*

BSC9
ssai
9*W

MflJ

IIBO
aao


CJWrt
X
It I


_.
2.*

CSS
}

Fnirjj
aastf.-**
M,WXg* Stg,
O^CERfiKB

MEJ

MKJ
t/J
HM
T
)J33
OB^Bwie
TctH
llllllH1 K.T.
ptKanAiEteaM
Crfr-i
4 IfasS.-, - 
U


j
*

as
M

   4UfcH


f       8s*

  eaai      oc-
lEtiart-        M  *(,
*"-ra*         %i  i^nray
O 1^ t
******         HCMwf
ViBOsC-jn -       IS* *.
 QW      OS!

-------
Table A-56 Detailed results for Stove D, Tests 22,23,26, ana 27
Test mz   Stow bum, in-sta<* Andersen, sfaintess steel substrates
Quadrafira 3100 certified model
  Stage      Cat*    % of tola!  Cum.%<   Cutpoin!

Oak cordwood. Moisture = 14.1%    Y         y **
         1
         2
         3
         4
         5
         6
         7
         8
Backup
Total

wet wood w
burn time =
MSGpart. =
M5GparL =
M5Hpart =
MSHpan =
bumrate =
Oil. tun. T =
bumrate=
% moisture
  0.6
  0.4
  0.1
 -0.1
  0.3
  5.7
 47.1
 50.2
 32.4
136.7
  0.44

  0.07
  -0.07
  022
  4.17
 34.46
 35.72
 23.70
100.00
99.56
9S.27
99.20
99.27
S9.05
S4.88
60.42
23.70
 0.00
11.1
 6.9
 4.7
 3.2
   2
   1
0.62
0.42
   0
   7kg
4.68 hr
38.4 gfhr
29.3 g/kg
44.0 g/hr
33.6 g/kg
1.31 kg/hrdry
82.8 degF
3.29 IWhrwe!
14.1 %
                                                                Test *23   Medium bum, tn-siaek Andereen with 1 0 pjn precuer
                                                                Quadrafire 3100 certified model
                                                                  Stage     Catch    % of total  Cum. %<  Outpoint
                                                                              "B        %         %       urn
                                                                Oak cortfwood. Moisture = 13%     Y         X
         1
         2
         3
         4
         5
         6
         7
         8
Backup
Total

wet wood w
burn lime =
M5G part. =
M5GparL =
M5Hpart.=
M5Hpart.=
                                                               Da. tun. T =
                                                               bumrate-
                                                               % moisture
   t2
  1.4
  1.7
  0.7
  3.7
 39.4
 57.2
 27,5
  20
163.6
                                                                          7,33
                                                                          0.88
                                                                          1.04
                                                                          0.43
                                                                          2.26
                                                                        24.08
                                                                        34.96
                                                                        16.81
                                                                        12.22
                                                                       100.00
                                                                                                   92.6?
                                                                                                   91.81
                                                                                                   90.7T
                                                                                                   90.34
                                                                                                   88.08
                                                                                                   64.00
                                                                                                   29.03
                                                                                                   12.22
                                                                                                    0,00
                                                                                                               10.S
                                                                                                                6.8
                                                                                                                4.6
                                                                                                                31
                                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                               0.61
                                                                                                               0.41
                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                6.8 kg
                                                                               3.63 hr
                                                                               34.1 g/hr
                                                                               20.0 9*g
                                                                               39.5 g/hr
                                                                               23.2 g/kg
                                                                               1    kgflvrdry
                                                                               89.1 degF
                                                                               4.24 Ibflirwet
                                                                               13.0 %
Test 026 Fast burn, in-stack Andersen
Ouadrafira 3100 cert/tied model
Stage Cat* % of total Cum. %< Ctrtpotnl
Q "* % u m
Oak cordwood,
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Backup
Total
wstwcodw
bum lime =
M5Gpart =
M5G part. =
M5Hpart =
M5Hpart.=
bumrate =
tffl.tun.T =
bumrate =
% moislure
Moisture = 14.9% Y X
3.1 13.90 86.10
1.3 6.83 8057
1-3 5.83 74.44
0.3 1.35 7a09
0.6 2.69 70.40
1.6 7.17 63.23
2.7 12.11 51.12
i 22.42 28.70
6-4 28.70
22.3 100.00
7.3 kg
1.53 hr
115 g/hf
2.8 gftg
14.8 g/hr
3.S gftg
4.15 kg/hrdiy
88.8 degF
10.50 Ib/hrwet
14.S %

10.5
6.5
4.4
3
1.9
0.8
0.59
0.4












                                                               Test S27   Medium burn, in-stack Andereen
                                                               Quadrate 3100 certified mode!
                                                                 Stage     Cat*     % of Wat   Cum.%<   Outpoint
Oak cordwood, Moisture = 12.7%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Backup
Total

wet wood w-
bumlima =
MSGpart =
M5G part. =
MSHpart. 
M5Hpart.=
bumrate =
Oil. tun. T =
bumrate =
% moisture
7.8 3.74
1.2 0.59
1.3 0.64
2.5 123
7.3 3.59
65.6 32.25
67 32.94
34 16.72
16.9 B.31
203.4 100.00

6.9 kg
3.9 hr
42.8 g/hr
27.3 g/kg
48.5 g/hr
30.9 g/kfl
1.57 kg/hrdry
94.8 degF
3.89 ib/hrwei
12.7 %
Y X
86.26
95.67
95.03
93.81
9052
57.96
25.02
8.31
0

q & ao ave.
7.05
3.8
3fl.5
24.2
45.1
27.6
1.64
91.1
4.09
13.2

10.7
6.6
4.5
3.1
2
0.9
0.6
0.4













                                                            A-9

-------
rVE,tmOf f 1 -13
                               1321
                               HT-SS
                               BOO
                               3*2*
                     SIM
                     B3S
                                                        TOM

                                                        WtlHBCdBtK


                                                        US6d
   it     a

   Ml*
    2M
   3ETt*f
   3>lc
    Dlft!
   *!*,
  OM.^,^
  ZltefF
  1JN 6.%r
-------
Table A-6b Detailed results for Stove E, Tests 24 and 25
Test #24     Fast bum, internal Andersen
WhttfleM II-T Pallet Stove
                                                                    Test #25      Slow bum, internal Andersen
Stage

Pellets, moisture
1
2
3
4
5
B
7
S
Backup
Total
wet wood wf, =
bum time =
M5G part. =
M5G pat. =
M5Hpart.=
M5Hpart =
bumrate =
Oil. tun. T=
bumrate =
% moisture =
Catch % of total Cum. %< Cutpobit
mg %
= 6.3% Y
0.20 1.05
0.00 0,00
0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00
0,00 0.00
1.30 6.81
2.20 11.52
3.10 16.23
12.30 64.40
19.10
4.5 kg
2.S hr
7.6 glht
4.5 g/kg
10.2 gftr
6.0 gfltg
1,69 ks/rtrdry
88.7 deg F
3.96 IMirwei
8.3 %
% ji m
X
98.95
98.95
98.95
B8.95
98.9S
92.15
80.63
64.40
0.00












10.9
S.8
4.6
3.1
2
1
0.61
0.41












                                                                    WhftfMd II-T Pellet Stove
                                                                       Stage      Catch
                                                                                    mg
                                                                    Pellets, moisture = 6.3%
                                                                                            % of total   Cum. % <   Outpoint
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Backup
Total
wet wood wt. =
bum time =
M56 part. =
M5S part. =
M5Hpart =
M5Hpart.=
bumrate -
Oil. tun. T =
bumrate =
% moisiuriB =
0.7 6.38
0.6 5.45
0.8 7.27
0 0.00
1.3 1182
0.5 4.55
1.7 15.45
2.1 19.09
3.3 30.00
11
2.7 kg
3.25 hr
1.7 g/hr
2.2 g/kg
Z6 g/hr
3.4 glkg
0.78 kg/fir dry
85.8 degF
1.83 Ib/hrwet
6.3 %
93.64
88.18
80.91
80.91
69.09
64.SS
49.0i
30.00
0.00











10.6
6.6
4.i
3.1
2
0.6
0.4













                                                          A-11

-------
                                APPENDIX B

                  Derivation of Method 5G to SH conversion equation

Table No.               Description

B-l         Method 5G to 5H correlation data - ALL DATA 	B-l




Figure No.               Description

B-l         EPAMethods5G-5Hcomparison(SG = Q-                      ....
B-2         EPA Methods 5G-5H comparison (5G = 0-20 g/hr)	,...,.....E-5
B-3         EPAMethods5G - 5H comparison (5G = 0 - lOOgte)	..B-6
                                   B-i

-------
Table fi-f.  Method 5G to 5H correlation data - ALL DATA
Measured Measured
Prefix Run No. Test bumrate 5G 5H
cods Dale kg/hr g/hr g/hr
EPA/ACUR 42904/29/1993 0.85 016 022
EPA/ACUR 42804/26/1993 0.8? 023 041
EPA/ACUR 726 07/26/19i3 0.86 0,44 QJ3
SCA E4
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
SCA B1
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
OWN W1
OMN S1
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ACUR
SCA B2
EPA/ACUR
SCA B3
OMN R2
EPA/ACUR
SCA E1
SCO 13
OMN P3
EPA/ACUR
OMN W2
SCA B4
OMN Y4
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ES 1B
OMN T1
OMN R4
EPA/ACUR
OMN X4
SCO IS
EPA/ACUR
EPA/ES 38
EPA/ACUR
OMN Y1
EPA/ACUR
OMN W3
OMN S2
EPA/ES 2T
EPA/ACUR
511 05/11/1Si3
504 05/04/1993
623 09/23/1993
624 06/24/193
510 05/10/1893
615 06/15/1i93
526 05/26/1993
817 08/17/1993
811 08/11/19i3
818 08/16/1993
512 05/12/1993


525 05/25/1993
506 05/06/1393
818 08/18/1993
602 06/02/1993
422 04/22/1993
601 06/01/1993
415 04/15/1993
806 OB/06/1993
812 08/12/1993

414 04/14/1993


609 06/09/1993



524 05/24/1993



421 04/21/1993



914 09/14/1983


901 09/01/1893

824 08/24/1993

419 04/19/1993



520 05/20/1993
1.36
1.00
1.04
0.80
0.88
O.S7
0.85
0.76
0.87
0.83
2.34


0.85
0.92
0.9
2.75
1.12
0.83
1.21
0.95
0.85

0.96


O.i2







0.81
1.09


0.75


0.77
0.34
0.78

1.17


1.22
3.26
0,45
0.46
0.46
0.5
0.50
0.53
0.58
0.66
0.73
0.75
0.86
0.87
0.97
0.98
1.05
1.16
1,17
1.2
1.22
1.25
1.25
1.34
1.51
1.64
1.65
1.71
1.81
1.82
1.83
1.89
2.00
2.02
2.02
2.02
2.06
2.16
2.30
2.32
2.58
2.6
2.7
2.74
2.8
2.9
2.91
3.02
3,16
3.21
3.22
3.30
3.37
3.39
1.20
0.97
1.01
0.81
0.83
1.12
0.94
1,29
1.21
1.35
1.27
1,65
1.79
1.95
1.28
2.08
1.79
2.04
2.24
2.09
2.11
2.39
1.7
3.17
3.72
3.05
3.93
2.23
2.90
2.5
3.20
2.10
2.74
3.12
3.75
2.26
4.20
4.38
3.44
3.05
4.66
2.24
4.8
3.44
2.50
4.74
3.70
4.37
3.63
3.53
7.55
4.19
In 53
-1.8326
-14697
-0.8210
-0.7985
-0.7765
-0.7765
-0.6931
-0.6931
-0.6349
-0.5447
-0.4155
-0.3147
-0.2877
-0.1508
-0.1393
-0.0305
-0.0202
0.0488
0.1484
0.1570
0.1823
0.1989
0.2231
0.2231
0.2827
0.4121
0.4947
0.5008
0.5365
0.5933
0.5988
0.6043
0.6366
0.6931
0.7031
0.7031
0.7031
0.7227
0.7701
0.8329
0.8424
0.9478
0.9555
0.9933
1.0080
1.0296
1.0647
1.0682
1.1053
1.1506
1.1663
1.1694
1.1939
1.2140
1.2208
5H predicted 5H predicted by
hi 5H All data Federal Register
S/hr g/hr
-1.5141 0.31 0.40
-0.8916 0.43 0.54
-0.3147 0.78 0 a?
0.1823
-0.0305
0.0100
-0,2107
-0.1863
0.1133
-0.061 i
0.2546
0.1906
0.3001
0.2390
0.5008
0.5822
0.6678
0.2469
0.7324
0.5822
0.7129
0.8065
0.7372
0.7467
0.8713
0.5306
1.1537
1.3137
1.1151
1,3686
0.8020
1.0647
0.9163
1.1632
0,7418
1.0080
1.1378
1.3218
0.8154
1.4351
1.4761
1.2355
1.1151
1.5390
0.8065
1.5686
1.2355
0.9147
1.5560
1.3083
1.4748
1.2892
1,2613
2.0218
1,4327
0.79
0.81
0.81
0.87
0.87
0,92
1.00
1.12
1.23
1.28
1.42
1.44
1.59
1,60
1.71
1.87
1.S8
1.92
1.95
2,00
2.00
2.12
2.37
2.55
2.56
2.65
2.79
2.80
2.82
2JO
3.05
3.08
3,08
3.08
3.13
3.27
3.46
3,49
3.84
3,87
4.00
4.05
4.13
4.27
4.28
4.42
4.61
4.68
4.69
4.79
4.88
4.91
0.94
0.96
0.96
1.02
1,02
1,0?
1 ifi
1. ID
1 9Q
I i,y
1.40
1.43
1.61
1.62
1.77
1.79
1.90
2.06
207
fm,*\JI
2,12
2.15
2.19
? 1Q
. IJJ
2.32
2.56
2.74
2.76
2,84
2.98
2,99
3.01
3,09
3.24
3.26
3.26
3.26
3.32
3.45
3.63
3.66
4.00
4.02
4.15
4.20
49ft
**.O
4.40
4.42
4.55
4.73
4.79
4.80
4.90
4.99
5.01
                      B-1
                                                (continued)

-------
         Table B-1.  Method 5G to 5H correlation data - ALL DATA
   Prefix
   code
 OMN
 OMN
 SCO
 EPA/ACUR
 SCA    E3
 EPA/ES  SF
 OMN
 EPA/ES
 OMN
 OMN
 EPA/ES
 EPA/ES
 OMN
 OMN
 OMN
 OMN
 OMN
 OMN
 EPA/ES
 OMN
 OMN
 OMN
 OMN
 EPA/ES
 OMN
 OMN
 SCO
 EPA/ES
 OMN
 SCO
 EPA/ES
 OMN
 OMN
 EPA/ES
 SCO
 OMN
 OMN
 SCO
 SCO
 EPA/ES
 SCO
 EPA/ES
 OMN
 SCO
 OMN
 SCO
 OMN
 SCO
SCA
SCO
SCO
SCO
SCO
OMN
EPA/ES
  Run No.
 Q1
 Y2
 12
 U3
 IT
 R1
 P6
 4B
 SB
 N4
 O1
 R3
 P2
 Y3
 P4
 4F
 O2
 P5
 X3
 XI
 1H
 X2
 P1
 J3
 2B
 M1
 (4
 4H
 N2
 V2
 1H
 J2
 N3
 N1
 11
 J7
 2H
 J5
 3F
 U1
 J4
 L1
 J6
 U2
 J1
 E2
 K1
 K3
 J8
 K2
 L2
3H
     607
Measured Measured
Test bumrate 5G 5H
Date kg/hr



06/07/1993 0.99

0.55




0.6
1.64






OJ5




1.46



2.77


1.08


1.46





0.54

1.58












0.6
9/hr
3.39
3.41
3.60
3.81
3.93
4.17
4.20
4.257
4.31
4.44
4.50
4.97
5.02
5.51
5.53
5.73
5.75
5.81
6.24
6,32
6.57
7.06
7.09
7.1
7.71
7J5
8.2
8.56
8.86
8.80
9.10
9.48
9.73
9.85
9.9
9.94
10.13
11.3
12.10
12.15
12.30
13.35
14.14
14.2
14.67
15.00
15.22
15.40
16.00
16.40
16.40
16.90
17.50
17,92
1,68
g/hr
4.63
4.55
6.30
6.02
7.10
4.63
4.85
8.01
6.99
6.45
7.98
3.00
6.57
8.82
12.02
7,27
8.7
4.70
20.33
9.10
8.87
9.97
8.83
8.76
7.58
7.B6
11.9
10.51
10.45
22.20
8.49
11.52
12.06
9.39
19.5
13.65
9.48
17.6
2i.40
21.22
18.00
15.96
21.35
17.8
13.93
15.90
20.89
18.00
23.50
19.30
20,60
22.00
23.30
22.16
6,ii
InSG

1.2208
1.2267
1.2809
1.3376
1.3686
1.4277
1.4351
1.4486
1.4609
1.4907
1.5041
1.6032
1.6134
1.7066
1.7102
1,7457
1.7492
1.7596
1.8311
1.8437
1.8825
1.9544
1.9587
1.8601
2.0425
2.0732
2.1041
2.1470
2.1815
2.1861
2.2087
2.2492
2,2752
2.2875
2.2925
2.2966
2.3155
2.4248
2.4932
2.4973
2.5096
2.5916
2.6490
2.6532
2.6858
2.7081
2.7226
2.7344
2.7726
2.7973
2.7973
2.8273
2.8622
2.8859
2.9798
5H predicted 5H predicted by
In 5H AH data Federal Reoisier

1.5326
1.5151
1.8405
1.7951
1.9601
i.5317
15790
2.0807
1.8445
1.8641
2.0769
1.0989
1.8825
2.1770
2.486S
1.9838
2.1633
1.5476
3.0121
2,2083
2.1827
2.2996
2.1782
2.1702
2.0268
2.0360
2.4765
2.3525
2.3468
3.1001
2.1388
2,4441
2.4899
2.2396
2.9704
2,6137
2.2471
2.8679
3.3810
3.0550
2.8304
2.7700
3.0611
2.8792
2.6340
2.76S3
3.0393
2.8904
3.1570
2.9601
3.0253
3.0910
3.1485
3,0983
1.9402
g/hr
4.91
4.94
5.18
5.46
5.61
5.92
5.96
6.03
6.10
6,27
6.34
6.84
7.00
7.61
7.64
7.89
7.91
7.99
8.52
8.62
8,92
9.52
9.56
9.57
10.31
10.80
10.0
11.33
11.89
11.74
11.98
12.43
12.72
12.86
12,92
12.97
13.19
14.56
15.49
15.54
15.72
16.92
17.83
17.89
18.43
18,80
19.05
19.25
19.93
20.38
20.38
20.94
21.61
22.08
24.02
g/hr
5,01
5.04
5.27
5.52
5.67
5.85
5.99
6,06
6.12
6.27
6.34
6.89
6.94
7.50
7.53
7.75
7.77
7.84
8.32
8.41
8.68
9,22
9.25
9.26
9.92
10.17
10.44
10.81
11.13
11.17
11.38
11.77
12.03
12.15
12.20
12.24
12.44
13.62
14.41
14.46
14.61
15.64
16.40
16.46
16.91
17.23
17.44
17.81
18.18
18.55
18.55
19.02
19.58
19.97
21 .38
                                      B-2
                                                                       (continued)

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          Table B-1.  Method 5G to 5H correlation data - ALL DATA.
  Preflx
  code
EPA/ES
EPA/ES
OWN
EPA/ES
SCA
SCA
EPA/ES
EPA/ES
SCA
SCA
SCA
SCA
SCO
SCA
EPA/ES
SCA
Measured Measured
Test bumrate 56 SH
Date kg/hr gflir g/hr
3.1
1,51

0.89


2.02
1.17






17.17

20.43
22.05
23.88
27.27
28.1
29.1
30.30
33.70
34.10
38.30
42.90
53.6
69.10
83.80
96.80
125.70
25.95
26.88
39.31
28.19
30.2
41
29.09
33.64
43.90
50.10
66.90
69
73.80
103.70
61.30
196.00
inSG
3.0170
3.0931
3.1730
3.3058
3.3358
3.3707
3.4111
3.5174
3.5293
3.6454
3.7589
3.9815
4.2356
4.4284
4.572S
4.8339
5H predicted 5H predicted by
In 5H AM data Federal Register
g/hr g/hr
3.2561
3.2913
3.6715
3.3739
3.4078
3.7136
3.3703
3.5157
3.7818
3.9140
4.2032
4.2341
4.3014
4.6415
4.1158
5.2781
24.85
26.62
28.61
32.25
33.13
34.19
35.47
39.03
39.46
43,82
48.54
59.35
74.64
88.84
101.18
128.09
22.26
23.72
25.34
28.29
29.01
29.86
30.88
33.73
34.06
37.51
41.21
49,58
61.21
71.84
80.97
100.58
  Run No.

 5H
 2G
 V1
 16
 F1
 F2
 1F
 3G
 61
 G3
 G2
 F3
 J9
 F4
 46
 G4

 Footnotes for table (relate to Run number):
 EPA/ES = data from: Cottone, L.E. and E, Messer, Test Method Evaluations and Emissions Testing for Ralina
 Woodstoves." EPA-600/2-8S-100 (NTIS PB87-119897), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Eneroy
 Engineering Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC, October 1986.

 SCA	prefix = data from Shelton California project

 SCO	prefix = data from Shelton Colorado project.

 SCA and SCO data contained in memo from P.R. Westlin to J. Kowalczyk, My 31,1986.

OWN _ prefix = data submitted by OMNI Environmental Services. Inc. to the Reg-Neg Committee.

EPA/ACUR 3-digil run number = data taken on Quadraflre 3101M prototype noncat stove during development of
gas-enhanced secondary combustion (GEW) technology.
                                              B-3

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Figure B-1. EPA Methods 5G - SH Comparison
                     Ail data.
      Ail data regression: 5H = 1i632(5G)A0.903
x
LO
      2.5  -
2  -i=
CL
UJ
       1
      0.5
        0
      EPA/Acurex
      Shelton
    A OMNI
    A EPA/ES
      All data regression
      FR regression
          0     0.5     1     1.5     2
                       EPA Method 5G
                            g/hr
                                  2.5
                        B-4

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Figure B-2.  EPA Methods 5G - 5H Comparison
                      All data.
         AH data regression: 5H = 1.632(5G)A0.903
      20
T3
o
CL
li!
      15  -
      10
       0
  EPA/Acurex
  Shelton
A OMNI
A EfWES
  AIL data regression
    regression
         0
        5        10        15
            EPA Method 5G
                 g/hr
20
                         B-5

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Figure B-3. EPA Methods 5G - 5H Comparison
                    AH data.
      Air data regression: 5H = 1.632(5G)A0.903
      100
10
   O)
Q_
HI
       80
       60
       40
       20
        0
  EPA/Acurex
  Shelton
A OMNI
  EPA/ES
  All data regression
   regression
          0
     20     40     60
          EPA Method 5G
               g/hr
80
100
                        B-6

-------
 1, REPORT NO
   EPA-600/R-00-050
                                 TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                           (Please read Insirucliom on the reverse before c
                                                         PB20QO-105890
I. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
 Wood Stove Emissions:  Particle Size and Chemical
 Composition
                                                       S. REPORT DATE
                                                        June 2000
                                                       6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
                                                                             190
  Robert C.  McCrillis
                                                       8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO
                       AME AND ADDRESS
                                                       10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
  See Block 12
                                                      1t7 CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
                                                       NA (Inhouse)
             kGtNCY NAME AND ADDRESS
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  Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division
  Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                                                      13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
                                                      Final; 1/94 - 12/98
                                                      14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
                                                       EPA/600/13
               NOTE
                    Aufchor McCriUis js no longer wifch thg ^gency, For details,  C
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