WasteWise Communities is a campaign in support of local governments to
reduce residential municipal solid waste and its impact on climate change.
Residential waste reduction, an important part of the WasteWise program, is
crucial to combating the impacts of materials use on climate change. In 2007,
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that approximately 60
percent of the 251 million tons of trash generated in the United States came
from residences.

Waste prevention and recycling reduce demand for new products and
conserve valuable natural resources, including:

•  LAND, by diverting waste from landfills and reducing the need for mining
  and logging;
•  WATER, by minimizing water-intensive production processes; and reducing
  water quality impacts of materials extractions; and
•  MATERIALS, by reducing demand for virgin resources used to make
  new products.

Waste reduction also helps to mitigate global climate change. Every stage of a
product's life cycle—extraction, manufacturing, distribution, use, and disposal—
consumes energy and releases greenhouse gases that contribute to climate
change. WasteWise works with municipalities to decrease greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions by providing tools and  resources that help communities seeking
economically viable solutions that reduce waste and help fight climate change.

Through WasteWise, communities can go green by conserving resources and
reducing GHG emissions while saving money at the same time.
                  www. ep a. go v/was tewis e
       (800) EPA WISE (372-9473) • wastewise@icfi.com

Municipalities across the country are successfully connecting residential solid
waste reduction and climate change mitigation. Below are some proven successes
of various programs implemented by WasteWise partners around the country.
Austin,TX — Achieving Zero Waste
and Carbon Neutrality

The city of Austin has set a goal for all city operations
to be carbon neutral by 2020. Solid waste management
presents Austin with both a challenge and  an opportunity
to achieve this goal. The city began a SMART Pay-As-You-
Throw(PAYT) program in 1992, under which residents
pay for trash collection based on how much they throw
away. The program has been a huge success; more
than 71  percent of residents participate voluntarily, and
between 2005 and 2006, the city's annual  disposal
rates dropped by 120  pounds per person. In 1999,
Austin passed an ordinance mandating commercial and
multifamily recycling.  The ordinance required businesses
with 100 employees on site and multifamily properties
with 100 units or more to establish recycling programs.
To date, affected properties have recycled over 400,000
tons of material.

Not one to rest on its  laurels, the city recently piloted a
single stream recycling program. The program is more
convenient for residents, resulting in increased diversion
rates using fewer city recycling trucks in less time and
lowering the GHG emissions from fuel consumption.
The city is also developing a plan for zero waste by
2040, following the target of the United Nations  Urban
Environmental Accord. To encourage innovation, the city
launched the Zero Waste Challenge in 2008. Individuals,
businesses, and organizations can join and track their
waste reduction efforts online. Judges rate entries based
on creativity and ingenuity, as well as on the impact of
the  changes on waste output.1
Breathe in the Fresh AIRE of
Arlington County, VA

The Arlington Initiative to Reduce Emissions (AIRE)
plans to reduce the Arlington County Government's
GHG emissions by 10 percent  between 2000 and 2012.
AIRE is a partnership between businesses, residents,
and government to  reduce emissions in various ways,
including through waste reduction.

Methane produced from solid waste disposal in Arlington
County accounts for 3 percent of its GHG emissions (i.e.,
the 3 percent accounts for the disposal stage only, and
does not include emissions from product manufacturing
or use). To reduce this number,  the county reaches out
to its residents and businesses, encouraging the 4Rs:
reduce, reuse, recycle, and rebuy Residents take the
"Green Living Challenge"2 and  use cloth grocery bags
and reusable mugs.  They leave  grass clippings on their
lawns to decompose (a  practice known as grasscycling) or
compost in their backyards. Businesses also participate,
meeting a requirement to recycle at least the top two
materials they generate.

The county collects materials through residential curbside
recycling, including  paper, cardboard, yard  waste,
bottles, and cans, and works with drop-off centers to
handle other residential waste, such as electronics and
clothing.  Arlington processes residential yard waste into
mulch, which is distributed back to residents. The county
saves an average of $17 per ton from curbside recycling
compared with trash disposal.  In 2006, Arlington's
curbside  recycling diverted 9,380 tons of material from
the waste stream. This  initiative reduced GHG emissions
by nearly 45,000 metric tons of carbon, equivalent to the
annual emissions of 9,500 cars.3
' www.epa.gov/epawaste/partnerships/wastewise/events/agenda07.htm,
2 www.arlingtonenvironment.org/pledge
3 www.arlingtonva.us/portals/topics/Climate.aspx, www.mwcog.org/
                                   www. ep a. go v/was tewis e
                 (800)  EPA WISE (372-9473)  • wastewise@icfi.com

Recycling in Washtenaw County, Ml

Washtenaw County involves businesses and
organizations in its community-wide efforts to recycle
through its voluntary Waste Knot Program. Waste Knot
provides education, organization-specific technical
assistance, and community-wide recognition to more
than 200 partner organizations that are taking extra
steps toward excellence in waste reduction. Partners
receive free support such as waste audits and consulting
services and free  print media and radio advertising.
They are also eligible for environmental excellence
awards. Washtenaw lists partner businesses in an online
directory organized by sector and location, so customers
can choose to support sustainable businesses. Best of
all, being a Waste Knot Partner makes good business
sense. Partners have saved up to $120,000 per year
through their individual waste reduction programs.4

Washtenaw County also offers a Web site with the latest
information on waste disposal, such as how to dispose of
medications, electronics, and mercury-containing compact
fluorescent light bulbs. The county holds cleanup days
for residents to recycle materials such as furniture and
appliances, which  are not typically collected curbside.
Residential Recycling in Fayetteville, AR

Fayetteville has collected residential trash under a SMART
Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) program since 2003, charging
residents based on the amount of trash that they throw
away. This incentive has contributed to Fayetteville's
residential recycling rate of 51  percent.5 Residential
curbside recycling includes mixed paper, newspaper,
paperboard and cardboard, #1  and #2 plastics, aluminum,
steel, and glass, and uses recycling bins made of 50
percent post-consumer recycled plastic. Residents bag
yard waste, which the city collects for mulch and compost,
and sells back to the community. Residents can drop
off household hazardous waste for free, and electronics
waste for a small fee. The city  also provides recycling
services to commercial entities.
WasteWise Partner Genzyme
Corporation Works with City
of Cambridge, MA, to Reduce
GHG Emissions
Genzyme Corporation, a WasteWise partner since 2001,
recently made impressive strides in waste reduction
through its partnership with the city of Cambridge.
Genzyme's Cambridge Campus recycles 32 percent of its
waste, including paper, cardboard, plastic, metal, glass,
toner cartridges, batteries, lamps, computer monitors,
and refrigerators. Genzyme participates in Cambridge's
business composting program, which provides
collection of organic waste, and diverted 4,500 pounds
of food waste in less than six months. Genzyme has
mentored other companies and helped them replicate its
program. In 2007, Genzyme's Cambridge Campus won
a Cambridge  GoGreen Business award for its innovative
waste reduction program.6

Under the Cambridge Recycling Ordinance, businesses
must develop and implement a recycling plan. Currently,
Cambridge recycles about 33 percent of its solid
waste. The city participates in the 40 percent Recycling
Challenge through which institutions and businesses
work to raise their recycling rates to 40 percent.
Genzyme has been a strong participant in this business-
community partnership.
4 www.ewashtenaw.org/government/departments/planning_
5 www.accessfayetteville.org/govemment/solicLwaste/index.cfm,
3 www.epa.gov/epawaste/partnerships/wastewise/events/agenda07.htm,
                                    www. ep a. go v/was tewis e
                 (800) EPA WISE (372-9473)  • wastewise@icfi.com

  EPA has developed calculators, targeted programs,  technical guidance, and other
  resources to assist municipalities seeking to reduce their waste stream and mitigate
  their climate impacts. To learn more about resources available to WasteWise members,
  visit the Benefits page  on the WasteWise Web site.
    The WasteWise Web Site offers publications
    and information resources to assist you in the
    design, implementation, and tracking of your waste
    reduction efforts, www.epa.gov/wastewise

    EPA has developed several Climate Change and Waste
    Calculators, which are available online. EPA'sWAste Reduction
    Model (WARM) translates waste reduction data into GHG
    emissions reductions. EPA designed WARM to compare
    baseline waste management practices to alternative waste
    management practices (waste management practices include
    source reduction, recycling, composting, landfilling, and
    combusting) in order to capture waste reduction's impact on
    GHG emissions.The Durable Goods Calculator calculates
    GHG and energy savings from more effective management
    of appliances in the waste stream.The Recycled Content
    (ReCon)Tool examines the GHG and energy implications of
    purchasing products with higher levels of recycled content.

    Local Government Tool Kit and Calculator
    In an effort  to help local governments analyze their current
    recycling program costs and test the effect of changing some
    aspects of the program on the overall program bottom line,
    EPA developed the Residential Recycling Program Calculator.

    WasteWise creates personalized Climate Profiles
    for partners who submit their WasteWise annual  reports.
    The Climate Profiles use data from WARM (see above) to
    provide user-friendly information on how partners' waste
    reduction programs translate into GHG emissions reductions.

    Annual WasteWise & National Partnership for
    Environmental Priorities (NPEP) Conference recognizes
    partners' achievements in municipal solid waste reduction,
    recycling, priority chemical reductions and creates an
    opportunity for networking, information sharing, and
    celebrating  successes. Visit its Web site to find more
    information on the upcoming conference, or view past
    WasteWise presentations by innovative community
    leaders, www.epa.gov/wastewise/conf.htm

    The WasteWise Helpline provides partners  and
    endorsers with free technical assistance to help design,
    implement, report, and evaluate cost-effective waste
    reduction programs. You may contact the WasteWise
    Helpline. (800) EPA-WISE, wastewise@icfi.com
             Pay-As-You-Throw (PAYT) programs help Save Money and
             ReduceTrash (SMART) by charging residents for the collection
             of municipal solid waste—ordinary household trash—only for
             the amount they throw away. PAYT (also known as variable
             rate pricing or unit-based pricing) differs from traditional
             waste collection by treating trash services just like electricity,
             gas, and other utilities. Households pay a variable rate,
             which creates a direct economic incentive to recycle more
             and to generate less waste. EPA's PAYT program tools
             and resources are available online, www.epa.gov/payt

             Full Cost Accounting (FCA) is a systematic approach for
             identifying, summing, and reporting the actual costs of solid
             waste management. FCA takes into account past and future
             spending, overhead costs and operating costs.  FCA focuses
             on the monetary cost of resources used or committed to
             municipal solid waste programs. The focus on assets includes
             social and environmental costs typically excluded or "hidden"
             from accounting, www.epa.gov/fullcost

             Resource Management (RM) compensates waste
             contractors based on organization's performance in  achieving
             waste reduction goals, as opposed to traditional solid waste
             contracts, which compensate based on the volume of waste
             disposed. As a result, RM aligns waste contractor incentives
             with individual goals fostering innovative approaches for
             cost-effective resource efficiency through waste prevention,
             recycling, and materials recovery. RM is widely applicable
             in business, institutional, and municipal settings. More
             information, including a sample RM contract, can be found at
             the WasteWise Resource Management page, www.epa.

             The GreenScapes Program provides cost-effective
             and environmentally friendly solutions for landscaping
             that preserve natural resources and prevent waste and
             pollution. GreenScapes provides support to companies,
             government agencies, and nonprofits adopting
             GreenScapes activities into their landscaping practices.
             Web page to learn more about best practices and to use
             the GreenScapes calculators, www.epa.gov/greenscapes
       To learn how to join WasteWise, please visit the Web site at www.epa.gov/wastewise.
         You may also contact the WasteWise Helpline at (800) EPA WISE (372'9473)
                                      or email wastewise@icfi.com
Recycled/Recyclable—Printed with vegetable oil based inks
on paper that contains at least 50% post consumer fiber.
WasteWise (5306P)  EPA530-D-08-004  www.epa.gov/wastewise   October 2008