The Presidential
Green Chemistry Challenge
Awards Program
Summary of 2006 Award
Entries and Recipients

United States                 Office of Pollution         EPA 744-R-06-003
Environmental Protection        Prevention and           June 2006
Agency                     Toxics (7406M)           www.epa.gov/greenchemistry
      Recycled/Recyclable—Printed with Vegetable Oil Based Inks on 100% Postconsumer, Process Chlorine Free Recycled Paper



Introduction .................................................. 1

Awards. [[[ 3

    Academic Award	3

    Small Business Award	4

    Greener Synthetic Pathways Award. ............................... 5

    Greener Reaction Conditions Award	6

    Designing Greener Chemicals Award .............................. 7

Entries From Academia	9

Entries From Small Businesses. ................................... 19

Entries From Industry and Government ............................ 33


   The Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards Program is a competitive incentive
to create environmentally preferable chemicals and chemical processes. Each year the United
States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) celebrates innovative, award-winning
technologies developed by high-quality nominees. The year 2006 marks the eleventh year of
the program.
   The national policy established by the  1990 Pollution Prevention Act is aimed at reduc-
ing pollution at its source whenever feasible. By applying scientific solutions to real-world
environmental problems, the Green Chemistry Challenge has significantly reduced the haz-
ards associated with designing, manufacturing, and using chemicals.
   Through a voluntary U.S. EPA Design for the Environment partnership with the chem-
ical  industry  and professional scientific community, this annual award program seeks to
discover, highlight, and honor green chemistry.
   An independent panel of technical experts convened by the American Chemical Society
judged the entries for the 2006 awards. The judges used criteria that included health and
environmental benefits, scientific  innovation, and industrial applicability. Five of the more
than 90  entries were  nationally recognized on June  26, 2006, at an awards ceremony in
Washington, D.C. This compilation summarizes the entries submitted for the 2006 awards.
These technologies are meant to succeed in the marketplace as well: each illustrates the tech-
nical feasibility, marketability, and profitability of green chemistry.
   For further information  about the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge  and  U.S.
EPA's Green Chemistry Program,  go to www.epa.gov/greenchemistry.
Note: The summaries provided in ibis documeni were obtained from the entries received for the 2006 Presidential Green
Chemistry Challenge Award.s. U.S. EPA edited, the descriptions for space, stylistic consistency, and clarity, but they were
not written or officially endorsed by the Agency. The summaries are intended only to highlight a fraction of the informa-
tion contained in the nominated projects. These summaries were not used in the judging process; judging was conducted
on all information contained, in the entries received. Claims made in these summaries have not been verified, bv U.S. EPA.



Biobased Propylene  Glycol and Monomers from Natural
   Innovation and Benefits
   Waste glycerin from biodiesel fuel production could flood the current market for glyc-
   erin and negatively impact the economic viability of biodiesel. However, if a high-value
   use existed for the glycerin byproduct, production costs would be lower and biodiesel
   could compete as a viable alternative fuel. Professor Suppes found such a use for waste
   glycerin by developing an inexpensive method to convert glycerin into propylcnc gly-
   col, which can replace ethylene glycol in automotive antifreeze.
   Glycerin is a coproduct of biodiesel production. The U.S. biodiesel industry is expected
to introduce one billion pounds of additional glycerin into a market that is currently only
600  million pounds. The economics  of biodiesel depend strongly  on  using  its  glycerin
coproduct. A high-value use for glycerin could  reduce the cost of biodiesel by  as much as
40$ per gallon. There is simply not enough demand for glycerin, however, to make use of all
the waste glycerin expected.
   One solution is to convert the glycerin to propylene glycol. Approximately 2.4 billion
pounds of propylene glycol are currently made each year, almost exclusively from petroleum-
based propylene oxide.  Propylene  glycol is  a less toxic  alternative to ethylene glycol in
antifreeze, but is currently more expensive and, as a  result, has a very small market share.
Professor Suppes has developed a catalytic process that efficiently converts crude glycerin to
propylene glycol.
   Professor Suppes's system couples a new copper-chromite catalyst with a reactive distilla-
tion. This  system has a number of advantages over previous systems that perform  this
conversion. The new catalyst system uses a lower temperature and lower pressure than do pre-
vious systems  (220 °C versus 260 °C  and <10 bar versus >150 bar), converts glycerin to
propylene glycol more  efficiently,  and produces less byproduct than do similar catalysts.
Propylene glycol made from glycerin by Professor Suppes's method is also significantly cheap-
er than propylene glycol made from petroleum.
   Another solution is to convert glycerin to acetol (i.e., l-hydroxy-2-propanone or hydroxy-
acetone), a well-known intermediate and monomer used to make polyols. When made from
petroleum, acetol costs approximately $5 per pound,  prohibiting its wide use. Professor
Suppes's technology can be used to make acetol from glycerin at a cost of approximately
50<£ per pound, opening up even more potential applications and markets for products made
from glycerin.
   Professor Suppes initiated this project in June 2003. The first commercial facility, with a
capacity of 50  million pounds per year, is under construction and is expected to be  in oper-
ation by October 2006.
Professor         L
University of


and NuPro
Technologies,  Inc.
Environmentally Safe Solvents and Reclamation  in the
Flexographic Printing Industry
                                  Innovation and Benefits
                                  Flexographic printing is used in a wide array of printing, but uses millions of gallons of
                                  solvent, Arkon and NuPro developed a safer chemical processing system that eliminates
                                  hazardous solvents,  reduces explosion potential and emissions, and increases worker
                                  safety in the flexographic printing industry.
                                   Flexographic printing is used on everything from food wrappers to secondary containers
                               such as cereal boxes to shipping cartons. The photopolymerizable material on a flexographic
                               printing plate cross-links when exposed to light and captures an image. After exposure, flex-
                               ographic printing plates are immersed in a solvent to remove the unpolymerized material.
                               The developing, or washout, solvent is typically a mixture of chloro-, saturated cyclic, or
                               acyclic hydrocarbons. Xylene is the most common solvent. Most traditional washout solvents
                               are hazardous  air pollutants (HAPs) subject to stringent reporting requirements; they also
                               raise worker safety issues and create problems with recycling and disposal.  North America
                               alone uses 2 million gallons of washout solvents each year with a market value of $20 mil-
                               lion. Many small printing plants use these solvents.
                                   Together, Arkon Consultants and NuPro Technologies have developed a safer chemical
                               processing system, including washout solvents and reclamation/recycling machinery for the
                               flexographic printing industry. NuPro/Arkon have developed several new classes of washout
                               solvents with methyl esters, terpene derivatives, and highly substituted cyclic hydrocarbons.
                               The advantages include higher flash points and lower toxicity, which reduce explosion poten-
                               tial, worker exposure, and regulatory reporting. The methyl esters and terpene derivatives are
                               biodegradable and can be manufactured from renewable sources. All of their solvents are
                               designed to be recycled in their Cold Reclaim System™. In contrast to traditional vacuum
                               distillation,  this combination of filtration  and  centrifugation lowers exposures, decreases
                               maintenance, and reduces waste. The waste is a solid, nonhazardous polymeric material.
                                   In the U.S. market, NuPro/Arkon are currently selling washout solvents that are terpene
                               ether-  and  ester-based or made with low-hazard cyclics. They are marketing their methyl
                               ester-based solvent in China and Japan. Their first filtration-based Cold Recovery System™
                               is currently in use in Menesha, WI and  is being marketed to larger U.S. users. Their cen-
                               trifugation  reclamation system for smaller users is in the final stages of development.
                                   Use of these solvents and systems benefits  both human health and the environment by
                               lowering exposure to hazardous materials, reducing explosion potential, reducing emissions,
                               and, in the case of the terpene and methyl ester based solvents, utilizing renewable resources.
                               These  solvents and the reclamation equipment represent major innovations in the safety of
                               handling, exposure,  and recovery. The  reduced  explosion potential, reduced emissions,
                               decreased worker exposure, and reduced  transport and maintenance costs translate into
                               decreased cost and improved safety in all aspects of flexographic printing  processes.

Novel Green Synthesis for ft-Amino Acids Produces the
Active Ingredient in Januvia.'™
   Innovation and Benefits
   Merck discovered a highly innovative and efficient catalytic synthesis  tor sitagliptin,
   which is  the active ingredient in the company's new treatment tor type 2 diabetes,
   Januvia™. This revolutionary synthesis creates 220 pounds less waste tor each pound
   of sitagliptin manufactured and increases the overall yield by nearly 50 percent. Over
   the lifetime of Januvia™, Merck expects to eliminate the formation of at least 330 mil-
   lion pounds of waste, including nearly 110 million pounds of aqueous waste.
   Januvia™ is a new treatment for type 2 diabetes; Merck filed for regulatory approval in
December 2005- Sitagliptin, a chiral p-amino acid derivative, is the active ingredient in
Januvia™. Merck used a first-generation synthesis of sitagliptin to prepare over 200 pounds
for clinical trials. With modifications, this synthesis could have been a viable manufacturing
process, but it required eight steps including a number of aqueous work-ups. It also required
several high-molecular-weight reagents that were not incorporated into the final molecule
and, therefore, ended up as wraste.
   While developing a highly efficient second-generation synthesis for sitagliptin, Merck
researchers discovered a completely unprecedented transformation: the asymmetric catalytic
hydrogenation  of unprotected enamines.  In  collaboration with Solvias,  a company with
expertise in this area, Merck scientists discovered that hydrogenation of unprotected enam-
ines  using rhodium salts of a ferrocenyl-based ligand  as the catalyst gives P-amino  acid
derivatives of high optical purity and yield. This new method provides a general synthesis of
P-amino acids,  a class of molecules well known for  interesting biological properties. Merck
scientists and engineers applied this new method in a completely novel way, using it in the
final synthetic step to maximize the yield in terms of the valuable chiral catalyst. The dehy-
dro precursor to sitagliptin used in the asymmetric hydrogenation is prepared in an essentially
one-pot procedure.  Following the hydrogenation, Merck recovers and recycles over 95  per-
cent of the valuable rhodium. The reactive amino group  of sitagliptin is only revealed in the
final step; as a result, there is no need for protecting groups. The new synthesis has only three
steps and increases the overall yield by nearly 50 percent.
   This strategy is broadly applicable to other pharmaceutical syntheses; Merck has used it
to make several exploratory drug candidates. Implementing the new route on a manufactur-
ing scale has reduced the amount of waste by over 80 percent and completely eliminated
aqueous waste streams. This second-generation synthesis will create 220 pounds less waste for
each pound  of sitagliptin manufactured. Over the  lifetime of the drug, Merck expects to
eliminate the formation of 330 million pounds or more of waste, including nearly  110  mil-
lion pounds of aqueous wraste. Because Merck's newr synthesis has reduced the amount of raw
materials, processing time, energy, and waste, it is a more cost-effective option than  the first-
generation synthesis. The technology discovered, developed, and implemented by Merck for
the manufacture of Januvia™ is  an  excellent example of scientific innovation  resulting in
benefits to the environment.
& Co., Inc.

Directed Evolution of Three Eiocatalysts to Produce the
Key Chiral Building Block for Atorvastatin, the Active
Ingredient in Lipitor®
                      Innovation and Benefits
                      Using cutting-edge genetic methods, Codexis has developed an enzyme-based prc
                      that greatly improved the manufacture of the key building block for Lipitor*
                                                                           one o
                      the world's best-selling drugs that lowers cholesterol by blocking its synthesis in the
                      liver. The new enzymatic process is dramatically faster and more efficient  than the
                      processes that have been in use. The  result is increased yield and improved worker safe-
                      ty. At the same time, the new process has reduced waste, the use of solvents, and the
                      need for purification equipment.
                       Atorvastatin calcium is the active ingredient of Lipitor®, a drug that lowers cholesterol
                    by blocking its synthesis in the liver. Lipitor® is the first drug in the world with annual sales
                    exceeding $10 billion. The key chiral building block in the synthesis of atorvastatin is ethyl
                    (7?)-4-cyano-3-hydroxybutyrate, known as hydroxynitrile (HN). Annual demand for HN is
                    estimated to be about 200 metric tons. Traditional commercial processes for HN require a
                    resolution step with 50 percent maximum yield or syntheses from chiral pool precursors;
                    they also require hydrogen  bromide to generate a bromohydrin for cyanation. All previous
                    commercial HN processes ultimately substitute cyanide for halide under heated alkaline
                    conditions, forming extensive byproducts. They require a difficult high-vacuum fractional
                    distillation to purify the final product, which decreases the yield even further.
                       Codexis designed  a green  HN process around  the exquisite selectivity  of enzymes  and
                    their ability to catalyze reactions under mild, neutral conditions to yield high-quality prod-
                    ucts. Codexis developed each of three enzymes using state-of-the-art, recombination-based,
                    directed evolution technologies to provide the activity, selectivity, and stability required for a
                    practical and  economic process. The evolved enzymes  are so active and stable that Codexis
                    can recover high-quality product by extracting the reaction mixture.  In the first step,  two
                    evolved enzymes catalyze the enantioselective reduction of a prochiral chloroketone (ethyl 4-
                    chloroacetoacetate) by glucose to form an enantiopure chlorohydrin.  In the second step, a
                    third evolved enzyme catalyzes the  novel biocatalytic cyanation  of the chlorohydrin to the
                    cyanohydrin under neutral conditions (aqueous, pH ~7, 25—40 °C, atmospheric pressure).
                    On a biocatalyst basis, the evolved enzymes have improved the volumetric productivity of the
                    reduction reaction by approximately 100-fold and that of the cyanation reaction by approx-
                    imately 4,000-fold.
                       The process involves fewer unit operations than earlier processes, most notably obviating
                    the fractional distillation of the  product. The process provides environmental and  human
                    health benefits by increasing yield, reducing the formation of byproducts, reducing the gen-
                    eration of waste, avoiding hydrogen gas, reducing the need for solvents, reducing the use of
                    purification equipment, and increasing worker safety. The Codexis process is operated by
                    Lonza to manufacture HN for Pflzer's production of atorvastatin calcium.

Greenlist™ Process to Reformulate Consumer Products
  Innovation and Benefits
  SC Johnson developed Greenlist™, a system that rates the environmental and health
  effects of the ingredients in its products. SC Johnson is now using Greenlist™ to refor-
  mulate many  of its products.  For example, "Greenlisting" Saran Wrap®  resulted  in
  converting it to low-density polyethylene, eliminating the use of nearly 4 million pounds
  of polyvinylidcnc chloride (PVDC) annually.
   SC Johnson  (SCJ)  formulates and manufactures consumer products including a wide
variety of products for home cleaning, air care, personal care, insect control, and home stor-
age. For more than a century, SCJ has been guided by the belief that, because it is a family
business, it must consider the next generation when it makes current product decisions, not
merely the next fiscal quarter. The most recent initiative in SCJ's long history of commitment
to environmentally preferable products is its Greenlist™ process, a system that rates the envi-
ronmental footprint of the ingredients in its products. Through Greenlist™, SCJ chemists
and product formulators around  the globe have instant access to  environmental ratings of
potential product ingredients.
   Starting in 2001, SCJ developed GreenlistIM according to the  rigorous standards of sci-
entific best practices. Greenlist™ uses four to seven specific criteria to rate ingredients within
17 functional categories. SCJ enlisted the help of suppliers, university scientists, government
agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to ensure that the rating criteria were
meaningful, objective, and valid. These criteria include vapor pressure, octanol/water coeffi-
cient, biodegradability, aquatic toxicity, human toxicity,  European Union  Classification,
source/supply, and others, as appropriate. The Greenlist™ process assigns an environmental
classification (EC) score to each ingredient by averaging its scores for the criteria in its cate-
gory. EC scores range from Best (3) to Restricted Use Material (0). SCJ lowers the EC score
for chemicals with other significant concerns including PBT (persistence, bioaccumulation,
and  toxicity), endocrine disruption, carcinogenicity,  and  reproductive  toxicity. Today,
Greenlist™ provides ratings for more than 90 percent of the raw materials SCJ uses, includ-
ing solvents, surfactants, inorganic acids and  bases, chelants, propellants, preservatives,
insecticides, fragrances, waxes, resins, nonwoven fabrics, and packaging.  Company scientists
have also developed criteria for dyes, colorants, and thickeners and are working on addition-
al categories as well.
   During fiscal  2000-2001, the baseline year, SCJ's  EC average was  1.12. Their goal was to
reach an average EC of 1.40 during fiscal 2007-2008. Yet, the company reached this goal
three years early, with an average EC of 1.41 covering almost 1.4 billion pounds of raw mate-
   In recent years, SCJ has used Greenlist™ to reformulate multiple products to make them
safer and more environmentally responsible. In one example, SCJ used Greenlist™ to replace
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)  with polyethylene in Saran Wrap*. In another example,
SCJ  used Greenlist™ to remove a particular volatile  organic  compound (VOC)  from
Windex®. They developed a novel new formula containing amphoteric  and anionic surfac-
tants, a solvent system with fewer than 4  percent VOCs, and a polymer for superior wetting.
Their formula cleans 30 percent better and eliminates over  1.8 million pounds of VOCs per
S.C. Johnson  &
Son, Inc.



 Bioinspired Photopolymers: A Green  Chemistry Platform
for Innovation, Research, Education, and Outreach
   Thymine-based photopolymers mimic the UV-light-induced formation and splitting of
 dinners in DNA. Vinylbenzyl thymine (VBT), a styrene derivative, offers unique polyfunc-
 tionality  for polymerization,  derivatization,  hydrogen  bonding,  n-stacking,  and
 photocrosslinking. The applications of thymine-based photopolymers are benign, atom-eco-
 nomical, energy-efficient, water-soluble, and processable under ambient conditions. VBT
 prototypes combine these features, demonstrating  the technical feasibility of commercial
 applications of benign, prepolymerized photoresists:  as a nontoxic, reversible hair fixative; for
 ambient, aqueous lithography of recyclable printed  wiring boards; and for light-modulated
 pharmaceutical formulations. These highlight safety at the point of use with light as a reagent,
 avoiding the danger of  reactive monomers  and emissions  of volatile organic  solvents.
 Antimicrobial surfaces made with VBT copolymers can be substituted for chlorinated disin-
 fectants,  reduce  the overuse and release of antibiotics, and  preclude bacterial resistance.
 Success with VBT for surface-patterning conjugatcd-polymcr nanocompositcs and the facil-
 ity of VBT for specific host-guest chemistry to embed analytes in sensor coatings offer links
 to the emerging fields of plastic electronics, functional inks, and smart textiles. VBT proto-
 types have driven 14 collaborations and 36 student projects; they have served approximately
 27 courses and 70 outreach events. This technology has been awarded four patents; three
 more patents are pending.

 Bromine-Free, TEMPO-Based Catalyst System for the
 Oxidation of Alcohols
   The selective oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding carbonyls is one of the more
 important transformations in synthetic organic chemistry. A large number of oxidants have
 been reported in the literature, but most of them are based on transition  metal oxides such
 as those of chromium and manganese. Because most of these oxidants and their reduced
 compounds are toxic, their use creates serious problems in handling and disposal, especially
 in large-scale, commercial applications. A common alternative is the Anelli process, which
 replaces the metal oxides with NaOCl and TEMPO. The Anelli reaction is carried out in a
 two-phase (CH;>Cl;>-HiO) system using TEMPO as a catalyst and NaOCl as the oxidant. A
 co-catalyst, KBr, increases the reaction rate. Dr. Augustine's oxidation procedure is an exten-
 sion of the Anelli process that does not require any organic solvents and  replaces KBr with
 the more benign Na2B,)O7 (borax). In the absence of organic solvents, the reactant alcohol
 comprises about 38 percent of the total reaction volume compared with only about 2.5 per-
 cent in the classic reaction using dichloromethane. This has positive cost, environmental, and
 process safety implications. A further advantage to the solvent-free reaction is the isolation of
 the product aldehyde by phase separation from the aqueous solution; this saves even more
 energy because there is no solvent to remove.
   Dr. Augustine's process can oxidize a number  of primary alcohols, producing the corre-
 sponding  aldehydes in very good to excellent yields. His process also oxidizes secondary
 alcohols to ketones in very good to excellent yields.
   The Center for  Applied  Catalysis  has been collaborating with the  NutraSweet
 Corporation to scale up this reaction. NutraSweet is currently using Dr. Augustine's process
 to manufacture an aldehyde, 3,3-dimethylbutanal, on a commercial scale.
            John C.
Warner,          of
         and the
University of
Dr.          L.
Hall  University

Li,                 of

Department of
Chemistry, Carnegie
Development, Characterization,  and Commercial
Applications of Environmentally Friendly Adhesivesfor
Making Wood Composites
   The wood composites industry is one of the biggest manufacturing sectors in the United
States. Together, the United States and Canada consumed 7.4 billion pounds of wood adhe-
sives in 2000. At present, the predominant  adhesives used to make wood composites are
phenol-formaldehyde,  urea-formaldehyde,  and   other  formaldehyde-based  resins.
Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen. It is released to the air during both production
and use of wood composites made with formaldehyde-based resins.
   Professor Li, inspired by the superior properties of the adhesive proteins secreted by mus-
sels, has  developed  several  environmentally  friendly adhesives  that  can  replace
formaldehyde-based adhesives in wood composites.  Professor Li developed his adhesives
using renewable materials such as soybean flour, lignin, condensed tannins, and brown-rot-
fungus-degraded wood to mimic the mussel adhesive proteins. Professor Li first converted soy
protein to a strong, water-resistant wood adhesive by modifying it with the key functional
groups found in mussel adhesive protein, including the catechol, amino, and mercapto (-SH)
groups. He then developed new adhesives that contain one polymer with catechol moieties
and another polymer with abundant amino groups. He also developed unique curing agents
for soy flour and lignin. One of Professor Li's soy-based adhesives has been in commercial
production since April 2005  to replace urea-formaldehyde resins in wood composites for
interior use.  Professor Li is  working with  Hercules Incorporated and Columbia Forest
Products to commercialize other soy-based adhesives, including some to make wood  com-
posites for exterior use.

Dramatic Reduction  of Copper Catalyst Content in
Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization
   Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) is a controlled, transition-metal-mediated
process to polymerize appropriate monomers by radical mechanisms; it was discovered in
Professor Matyjaszewski's laboratories in  1995. Many industrial research programs are active-
ly using this process to prepare polymers for a broad spectrum of applications. Commercial
products including coatings,  caulks, and adhesives have been using this  technology  since
2002; these first products of the ATRP technology are being followed to  the marketplace by
dispcrsants, elastomers, polymer additives, lubricants,  cosmetics, and many others. The esti-
mated  market for  well-defined functional polymers that could  be made by the ATRP
technology exceeds $20 billion per year.
   Since 1995, Professor Matyjaszewski's group  has led efforts to develop more active cata-
lyst systems targeted at reducing the levels of metals in ATRP systems. His group has also led
the development of environmentally benign procedures  for preparing many functional and
''green" materials using ATRP  Previously, the most active  catalysts could not be used in many
systems, however, because the activity of the catalyst had to be balanced with the number of
moles of initiator required to prepare low-molecular-weight functional  oligomers of  com-
mercial importance. Professor Matyjaszewski's  group has overcome this limitation  with
hybrid catalysts and two recent improvements:  Activators Generated by Electron Transfer
(AGET) and Activators ReGenerated by Electron Transfer (ARGET). In ARGET, the  most
recent  discovery, environmentally  friendly  reducing agents  such as FDA-approved tin
octanoate, sugars, or ascorbic  acid reactivate  the copper  catalyst continuously, reducing the
amount of catalyst  by 1,000-fold. ARGET can  be conducted in benign solvents  including

water, carbon dioxide, ionic liquids, and biphasic solvents, in addition to bulk polymeriza-
tion. The new processes will eliminate all hazardous substances from the products made by
ATRP and from the waste streams of industrial production.

Employing Low-Cost,  Benign Antioxidant and Metal
Cbelator Additives in  Totally Organic Wood Preservative
   Lumber tor U.S. residential  applications is treated with copper-rich preservatives. Starting
in 2010, however, minor use restrictions will be placed on copper-treated lumber sold in the
United States. Further restrictions will  undoubtedly occur, and future disposal of metal-treat-
ed lumber will become more difficult and expensive.  A need exists for lumber treated with
organic preservatives, but at this time no organic-treated lumber is available for residential
exterior applications. Several problems exist with the  development of totally organic wood
preservatives, including (1) the newer organic biocides are expensive relative to metallic bio-
cides; and (2) unlike metallic biocides, organic biocides can biodegrade by various biotic and
abiotic pathways.
   Fungi use metal-mediated reactions to form the free radicals that degrade wood. Using
this basic knowledge, Professors Schultz  and  Nicholas combined numerous commercial
organic biocides with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), an economical, benign, commercial
antioxidant, and found syncrgism in short-term laboratory tests. (BHT is a food preservative,
among other uses.) Their results  from long-term outdoor tests were quite promising.
Recently, they confirmed their  earlier hypothesis that BHT helps protect a commercial bio-
cide against microbial degradation. Because BHT is synergistic when combined with organic
biocides and reduces biodegradation of the biocide, less of the relatively expensive organic
biocide is  necessary to protect wood. In  their most recent work, Professors  Schultz and
Nicholas have shown that the metal chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also
has synergistic activity with organic biocides.
   Wood treated with an organic biocide/nonbiocide mixture will be safer, have less envi-
ronmental impact,  and  be easier to dispose of than  metal-treated lumber. A preliminary
economic analysis suggests that the savings from the reduced use of biocide are greater than
the cost of the BHT. This technology can be employed with any organic biocide and, thus,
is universal.

Ethylene in  Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis: A General
Route for 2-Arylpropionic Acids including (S)-Ibuprofen
from Styrene Derivatives  and a Practical Solution  to  the
Exocyclic Stereochemistry Problem
   One of the major challenges facing organic synthesis  is the selective  incorporation of
abundantly available carbon, hydrogen,  oxygen, and nitrogen moieties into other common
substrates. Professor RajanBabu and his group have discovered  new, highly catalytic (sub-
strate:catalyst ratios up to 1450:1) protocols for nearly quantitative (isolated yields up to
99 percent or more) and highly selective (100 percent regioselectivity, up to 96:4 enan-
tiomeric  ratio)   co-dimerization  of ethylene and  various  functionali/ed  vinylarenes
(hydrovinylation). These reactions proceed under exceedingly mild conditions  (-52 °C,
1 atmosphere of ethylene) and produce highly valuable 3-arylbutenes. They consume both
starting materials and leave no side products:  ideal criteria for an  environmentally friendly
Professors Tor P.

            T. V.
Department of
Chemistry, The

                                process. A prototypical example of this hydrovinylation chemistry is the enantioselective syn-
                                thesis of the widely used anti-inflammatory agent,  ibuprofen, from  4-isobutylstyrene and
                                cthylcnc. Several other profcn drugs (e.g., naproxcn, ketoprofen, flurbiprofcn) could, in prin-
                                ciple, be synthesized by this route.
                                   During these investigations, Professor RajanBabu prepared several new ligands. He also
                                discovered new control elements that may have broader applications in the discovery of other
                                highly selective catalytic processes. Examples include: (1) the effects of electronic and steric
                                tuning of ligands; and (2) the  role of hemilabile ligands and highly dissociated counterions
                                in enhancing selectivity.  Since the publication of Professor RajanBabu's original results, oth-
                                ers have shown that the hydrovinylation reaction can  be run in  environmentally friendly
                                supercritical  CO;;.
                                   Cyclic and acyclic 1,3-dienes also undergo efficient heterodimerization with ethylene, giv-
                                ing  1,2-addition products.  Professor RajanBabu has realized yields  up to 99 percent for
                                several  1-vinylcycloalkenes  and  l-substituted-l,3-butadienes. Phospholanes with suitably
                                placed hemilabile ligating groups and phosphoramidites derived from binaphthol are excel-
                                lent ligands for an asymmetric variation of this reaction; the latter gives 99 percent yields and
                                >95 percent  enantiomeric excesses for selected substrates. These discoveries open the door to
                                expeditious syntheses of several biologically relevant classes of compounds, including many
                                steroid  derivatives.
             Anil N.
Cornell University
Green Composites: Environment-Friendly and Fully
   Fiber-reinforced composites have many applications due to their favorable mechanical
properties.  Most composites  on the market today,  however, use nondegradable polymeric
resins and fibers derived from petroleum. Professor Netravali uses plant-based, yearly renew-
able feedstocks to fabricate fully sustainable and environmentally friendly green composites.
His chemically modified soy proteins have  mechanical and thermal properties  that make
them suitable for use as resins. He reinforces these resins with plant-based fibers, yarns, or
fabrics to make fully sustainable, environment-friendly, green composites. After use, his green
resins and composites biodegrade fully during composting.
   Soy protein is commercially available as isolate (SPI), concentrate (SPC), and  flour (SF);
it contains 18 amino acid residues, many of which have reactive amine, hydroxyl, or carboxyl
groups. Soy protein can be processed into a lightly cross-linked resin, mainly through its cys-
tine residues. Dehydroalanine residues formed from alanine can react with lysine and cystine
to form additional cross-links. The resulting resin is too weak and brittle, however, for use in
   Professor Netravali has chemically modified SPC and SPI with Phytagel®, a linear D-glu-
cose/D-glucuronic acid/L-rhamnose (2:1:1)  tetrasaccharide,  to  form complex,  inter-
penetrating  network-like  (IPN-likc) structures  that  arc also strongly hydrogen-bonded.
Phytagel® forms a strong cross-linked gel with soy protein by ionic and hydrogen bonding in
the presence of the mono- or divalent ions (ash and mineral) present naturally in soy protein.
The resulting structure has excellent mechanical properties. Professor Netravali has obtained
even better mechanical and thermal properties by dispersing exfoliated nanoclay particles in
the IPN-like resin to form nanocomposite resins whose properties are  better  than those of
common epoxy resins. He has used his modified soy  resins with plant-based  fibers such as
flax and ramie to  form green composites with excellent mechanical properties.  Currently,
Professor Netravali is working with Nissan, USA to mass manufacture green composite pan-
els for automobile  interiors.

Green Materials from  Biomass
   Professor Wool is  developing new, improved,  green materials from biomass that  are
optionally recyclable and biodegradable, thereby enhancing global sustainability. He and his
group have synthesized a wide range of high-performance, low-cost materials using plant oils,
natural fibers, lignin, chicken feathers, nanoclays, and carbon nanotubcs. By selecting  the
fatty acid distribution  of plant  oils (triglycerides) and their molecular connectivity, he con-
trols chemical functional groups and molecular architecture to produce linear, branched, or
cross-linked polymers. He uses new rigidity percolation processes to describe the resulting
thermal and mechanical properties.  His green materials include pressure-sensitive adhesives,
foams, coatings,  elastomers,  rubbers, composite resins, carbon nanotubes dispersants, and
nanoclay exfoliants. His work describes the chemical pathways used to modify plant oils and
allow them to react optimally with each other and with various other monomers to form new
materials with useful properties. Professor Wool combines  his biobased resins with natural
fibers (plant and poultry), glass  fibers, carbon nanotubes, nanoclays, and solubilized lignin to
produce new  low-cost composites that are economical in many high-volume applications.
His high-performance  composites are used in hurricane-resistant housing, agricultural equip-
ment,  automotive  sheet  molding  compounds,  civil and  rail  infrastructures,  marine
applications, electronic materials, and sports equipment. He has also  derived pressure-sensi-
tive adhesives (PSA), foams,  coatings, and  elastomers from genetically engineered oils.  He
found that these  materials are both biodegradable and biocompatible  with human tissue.
   Professor Wool is  president of Cara Plastics,  Inc., which is producing  his patented
biobased  resins  for this  100-billion-pound  market through its  manufacturing partner,
DynaChem, in Illinois. Mass production will begin in 2006. His inventions are attracting
considerable attention from many other industrial  partners as well. Overall, his new high-
performance materials  will provide significant energy savings (approximately 100 trillion Btu
by 2020), CO;; reductions (approximately one million metric tons of carbon equivalents per
year), and  NOx reductions.

Greener Approaches to Functionalized Nanoparticle
Synthesis and Nanoscale Patterning
   Nanoscience and nanotechnology promise to revolutionize many areas of science and
technology. Concerns have arisen, however, about the biological and environmental impacts
of the materials and processes used to manufacture nanoparticles. Professor Hutchison's goals
are the rational design  of safe, high-performance, nanoscale materials, the efficient, inexpen-
sive manufacture of these materials, and their incorporation into products and devices that
offer environmental benefits.  He chose three initial  targets for his research:  (1)  finding alter-
natives to  the hazardous reagents and solvents frequently  used to produce nanomaterials;
(2) developing efficient nanomaterial syntheses that increase yields and reduce complicated
purifications; and (3) discovering bottom-up manufacturing approaches to  nanodevices that
eliminate the waste inherent in  traditional top-down approaches.
   During the last eight years, Professor Hutchison and his group have used this approach as
a powerful driver for innovation in nanoscience. The examples in his nomination  (synthesis,
functionalization, and purification of nanoparticles;  biomolecular nanolithography) illustrate
the efficacy of this strategy as well as its health, environmental, and economic benefits. One
of his syntheses,  for example  (1) eliminates the toxic substances diborane and benzene;
(2) eliminates a processing step; (3) can be carried  out in air without elaborate equipment;
(4) produces over ten-fold more material; (5) scales up easily; and (6) reduces the cost from
Professor Richard
University of
Center for
Professor         E.
Department of
University of

Professor Urmila
Bio, Chemical,
University of
Illinois at
Dr.         L.
University of

J. Krische,
University of
at Austin
approximately $300,000 per gram to $500 per gram. Professor Hutchison's work in this area
has two patents; a number of other patent applications are pending.

Greener by Design: An Efficient, Multiobjective
Framework under Uncertainty
   Professor Diwekar and her group have developed an efficient, integrated framework for
computer-aided green process design that combines chemical synthesis with process synthe-
sis, design, and  operation. Even  in the presence of multiple, conflicting objectives,  her
framework uses new, efficient, optimization algorithms to  provide cost-effective, environ-
ment-friendly designs that also explicitly identify trade-offs. The framework quantifies and
characterizes uncertainties inherent in  group  contribution methods for chemical synthesis
and in environmental impact assessments and includes them in the design process.
   Because the property data needed to assess environmental impacts are not available for
many molecules, scientists have turned to computational chemistry and molecular simula-
tions to predict these properties. Previous simulations have, however, been computationally
intensive and  have produced large errors in predicted properties. Professor Diwekar's new
framework reduces computational intensity and predictive errors for environmental proper-
ty prediction  by an  order of magnitude compared to  other  molecular simulations. Her
framework has wide applicability ranging from molecular simulations to designing profitable
greener chemicals, chemical processes,  environmental control technologies, and energy sys-
tems. It can also be used for effective environmental management and operations including
nuclear waste disposal and renewable energy systems.
   In the last five years, Professor Diwekar's work has resulted in 25 research papers in peer-
reviewed journals  (including five invited papers),  three  invited  chapters  (one in The
Encyclopedia  of Chemical Technology), two American Institute of Chemical Engineers
(AIChE)  graduate research  awards (a 2001 Separations  Division  Award and  a 2002
Environmental Division Award), a patent application, industrial implementation, and sever-
al conference and invited presentations. Results of Dr. Diwekar's work are currently being
used in both continuous and batch chemical production and in energy systems. This is the
first framework that considers chemical synthesis, process synthesis, and design under uncer-
tainty together when  confronted with multiple and conflicting objectives encountered in the
selection of environment-friendly chemicals and technology designs for large-scale systems.

High-Performance Macromolecular Antioxidants for
Materials: A Green Chemistry Approach
   NOTE: This project is the result of a partnership between Polnox Corporation and Dr.
Ashok L. Cholli of the University of Massachusetts. This project was judged in both the small
business and academic categories.  The abstract appears in the small business section on
page 25.

Hydrogen-Mediated Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation
   Elemental  hydrogen  is the cleanest and most  cost-effective  reductant available  to
humankind; industry uses it on an enormous scale. The vast socioeconomic impact of cat-
alytic  hydrogenation portends an equally  powerful approach to reductive  C—C bond
formation  mediated by hydrogen. The field of hydrogen-mediated C—C bond formation had
lain fallow, however,  since the discovery of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction and alkene hydro-
formylation, which are restricted to the insertion of carbon monoxide.

   In an exciting and groundbreaking advance, Professor Krische's research team has discov-
ered that  the organometallic intermediates arising transiently in  the  course of catalytic
hydrogenation may be intercepted by a variety of reacting partners. This finding led them to
develop a broad new family of hydrogenations that form C—C bonds, adding a new dimen-
sion  to  one of chemistry's oldest  and  most  widely used reactions.  The  diverse
hydrogen-mediated C—C bond formations developed in Professor Krische's laboratory pro-
ceed with complete atom economy; several of these transformations are cnantiosclcctivc.
Moreover, the enormous infrastructure already  in place for industrial-scale hydrogenation
should expedite implementation of this emergent technology.

Novel,  One-Step,  Cbromate-Free  Coatings Containing
Anticorrosion Pigments to Replace Cbromate
Pretreatment and Pigments
    Corrosion protection by paints and organic coatings is a common practice. Each year, the
paint industry uses approximately 600,000 metric tons  of chromates for chromatc conver-
sion coatings and as  pigments. The U.S. EPA, however, has  identified chromates in  the
hexavalent state of oxidation  as both toxic and carcinogenic. Chromate exposures cause a
gamut of health problems, including ulcers, irritation of the nasal mucosa, holes in the nasal
septum, skin ulcers, allergic reactions, and nasal and lung cancer. The self-healing property
of chromate in  coatings makes it difficult  to replace, however. In  addition to chromates,
paints are formulated with high-molecular-weight polymers for good anticorrosion proper-
ties. These polymers require solvents that are volatile  organic compounds (VOCs). During
curing and drying of the paint, these VOCs evaporate, posing an occupational safety hazard
and contributing to smog formation.
   Professor van Ooij's invention is a one-step, vcry-low-VOC, anticorrosion primer system
that totally eliminates chromates, yet performs as well as  chromate-containing paints. He has
successfully demonstrated that mixtures of organofunctional silanes and waterborne  resins
can be applied directly to metals as self-priming coatings. His primer mimics the self-healing
property of the chromates by including commercial pigments such as zinc phosphate into the
structure of the primer;  these pigments leach out only on demand.
   Professor van Ooij is currently commercializing this technology  through a small compa-
ny that he founded, ECOSIL Technologies, LLC.  He has provided samples under secrecy
agreements to several companies including DuPont, PPG,  Sherwin Williams, Hentzen
Paints, and BASF. ECOSIL submitted a nomination in the small business category; see page
28 for that abstract.

Practical Asymmetric Catalytic Hydrogenation
   Over 50  percent of the worlds pharmaceuticals are single enantiomers; sales of chiral
drugs were $159 billion in 2002. A growing challenge is to develop cost-effective,  green
chemical catalytic processes to make chiral molecules. Asymmetric chemocatalysis is one of
the most competitive replacements for classic chiral resolutions, which generally require large
volumes of solvents, chiral resolving agents, and even waste treatment of unwanted enan-
tiomers. The cleanest and most cost-effective reductant available is hydrogen. Asymmetric
hydrogenation accounts for over 70 percent of the current methods for commercial asym-
metric chemocatalysis. Fundamental, innovative chemical methods are needed to develop
these green chemical processes. Breakthroughs  in this area will have  broad applicability in
            Wim J.
Department of
University of
Professor Xymy
of Chemistry, The

Professor Jefferson
W.         Chemical
A. Garcia-Garibay,
University of
California,  Los
   Professor Zhang and his group have developed novel transition-metal-reduction catalysts
for the practical synthesis of chiral alcohols, amines, acids, amino alcohols, diols, and a- and
(3-amino acids. They have also investigated the fundamental factors controlling enantioselec-
tivity. They have invented a  toolbox  of  practical  chiral  ligands for the  asymmetric
hydrogcnation of kctoncs, alkcncs,  imines, and aromatic compounds. They have observed
high activity (up to 50,000 turnovers) and enantioselectivity (up to 99 percent enantiomer-
ic excess) for the hydrogenation of some substrates. They have demonstrated the synthetic
utility of asymmetric hydrogenation in the green chemical processes with challenging asym-
metric transformations for important  biologically active compounds  such as  Lipitor®,
Cymbalta®, and carbopenem.
   Professor Zhang's technology has numerous patents. He is commercializing it through
Chiral Quest,  Inc., which  is providing his  chiral  technology to  pharmaceutical and fine
chemical companies including Phoenix, Pfizer, Merck, and Eli Lilly. Phoenix Chemicals Ltd.
is currently manufacturing the Lipitor® sidechain using Chiral Quest's technology.

Replacing  Organic Solvents and Homogeneous  Catalysts
with Water and Carbon Dioxide
   Professor Tester and the Supercritical Fluids Research Group at MIT have advanced the
use of near- and supercritical carbon dioxide  and water as benign alternatives to toxic
organic solvents. Their technologies limit the use of auxiliary chemicals to carbon dioxide
and water, eliminating additional surfactants, catalysts, and co-solvents. Their goal is the
improved understanding of chemical reactions under extreme conditions in an effort to
identify industrially relevant processes that are both economically attractive and environ-
mentally benign. They have focused on two areas: (1) the clean and energy-efficient
production of specialty chemicals in supercritical carbon dioxide; and (2)  the use of water
near its critical point to remediate chemical wastes and generate renewable energy. Their
major contributions are novel experimental designs  and protocols, precise and accurate
measurements of phase behavior and reaction rate constants, and advanced theoretical
models and engineering analysis of chemical  kinetics. Their recent successes include the use
of carbon dioxide as both solvent and reactant for the formation of important, nitrogen-
bearing, heterocyclic compounds and the adaptation of power ultrasound technology to
improve the selectivity and yield of a model Diels-Alder reaction in emulsions of carbon
dioxide and water. The group's efforts have been documented in over 120 publications.
Laboratories in the United States and in other countries now use many of the methods first
introduced by the MIT Supercritical Fluids Research Group. Their detailed analyses enable
generalization of their results from the laboratory bench to industrial processes.

Solvent-Free,  Crystal-to-Crystal Photochemical
Reactions:  The Synthesis of Adjacent Stereogenic
Quaternary Centers
   Chemical structures with adjacent Stereogenic quaternary carbon  centers are common in
biologically active  substances, including natural products, pharmaceuticals,  and specialty
chemicals. Despite recent advances in preparative chemistry, there have been no satisfactory
procedures for preparing these structures, much less so for preparing them using environ-
mentally benign processes. At present, most structures are obtained in low yields by circuitous
routes with waste-generating purification steps. The technical challenge stems from the lim-
itations that arise when six groups must converge with precise stereochemistry on adjacent

   Professor Garcia-Garibay's method consists of exposing a finely powdered crystalline
ketone with appropriate substitution at the a-carbons to a light source. Within hours, the
ketone transforms into the desired product with no need for purification. Notably, one can
use conventional methods to  add six groups at the ketone a-carbons (approximately 2.56 A
apart) easily and with excellent steric control. These substituents weaken the ketone a-bonds
to extrude a CO molecule when a photon is absorbed. A short-lived biradical intermediate
retains the stereochemistry of the ketone  and makes the desired bond with stereoselectivity
and stereospecificity that rival enzymatic processes. As an emergent technology, the photode-
carboxylation of crystalline ketones is one of the most general and promising methods for
synthesizing structures with adjacent stereogenic quaternary centers.


Acetylene: A Viable Fuel Alternative for the Internal
 Combustion Engine
   Go-Tec has developed an environmentally clean dual- and multi-fuel composition for use
 in internal combustion engines. It contains acetylene as the primary fuel, along with a sec-
 ondary, combustible fuel to prevent early ignition and knock. The secondary fuel is  often
 ethanol or methanol,  but  may include other alcohols, ethers,  esters, diesel (to fuel diesel
 engines), or another suitable fluid, such as mineral spirits. Go-Tec has used its acetylene-based
 fuels successfully in a number of prototype vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines.
   Engines using Go-Tec's acetylene-based fuel produce little or no carbon monoxide (CO),
 oxides of nitrogen (NOx), oxides of sulfur (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), or
 hydrocarbon  (HC) emissions; they do not require catalytic converters. In  addition, this fuel
 offers no buildup of residues in the engine, no particulate emissions, longer engine life, and
 greater fuel efficiency. With the low emissions realized in preliminary tests,  Go-Tec's fuel may
 be suitable for  use indoors, opening up many  other applications. Go-Tec is proceeding
 toward commercialization of this technology.

Alternative  to Methyl  Bromide to Overcome Nematode
 Damage to  Crops: Stoller Root Feed'™
   Worldwide, nematode damage costs food producers as much as $1.75 billion each year.
 Currently, producers control nematodes by fumigating with methyl bromide, a highly toxic
 gas. Stoller has developed products to replace methyl bromide for nematode control.
   Stoller products are a combination of some or all of three types of materials that occur
 naturally in plants: minerals, plant hormones, and small molecules. They are applied exoge-
 nously, preferably in water-efficient, drip irrigation systems. Stoller scrcndipitously discovered
 that their products not only enhanced crop yield and quality (their original objective), but
 also strongly suppressed nematodes, resulting in much larger and more nutritious crops. An
 entomologist at Texas A&M University observed that Stoller products suppressed insects in
 a tomato field. Following this observation, Stoller  used university studies to examine whether
 their products enhanced tolerance to insects and diseases. A study done by a graduate student
 in Peru showed that Stoller products suppressed the root-knot nematode: treated plots had
 healthy white roots and untreated plots had brown roots. Subsequent studies were done at
 the University  of California Davis with  grapes, broccoli, and  sugar  beets,  at Auburn
 University with cucumbers and peppers, at the University of Florida with tomatoes. In all
 cases, crop canopy increased, root mass increased, and nematodes were reduced to varying
 degrees, but  always with very  desirable yields and crop quality. Additional studies are in
   The entomologist also suggested that if Stoller Root Feed™  could overcome nematodes,
 it should also overcome Phylloxera, the pest that devastated European grapes. An initial study
 in California in 2005 showed very good recovery from Phylloxera damage to grapes. Stoller
 is currently studying physiology and gene regulation to determine the mechanism of action
 by which Root Fecd'1M overcomes nematode damage to crops. Stoller  is currently selling its
 products in over 40 countries for use on over 70 different crops under numerous climate con-
Go-Tec,  Inc.

iSoy Technologies
Biocatalytic Production ofBiobased Personal Care
   Heightened awareness of the skin-damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by the
public has lead to robust growth in the market tor sun and skin care personal products. The
market  for active ingredients  in  these  products is $100 million in  the United States.
Approximately 90 percent of the  sunscreens in the U.S. market rely on synthetic organic
chemicals as their active ingredients. The most common active ingredients tend to bioaccu-
mulate  and persist. They also show estrogenic activity in mice  and  may be endocrine
disrupters in humans.
    SoyScreen™  is a highly innovative product that meets all the criteria for a green chemi-
cal  and a green production process. It  is made by biocatalysis of renewable feedstocks:
ethanol, ferulic acid, and  soybean  oil. Ferulic acid is 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, a
phenolic compound widely distributed in plants. The biocatalyst is immobilized Candida
antarctica lipase B in a solvent-free, packed-bed reactor. This enzyme efficiently transesteri-
fies the ethyl ester of ferulic acid onto the glycerol backbone of vegetable oil. The result is a
mixture of feruloylatcd monoacyl- and diacylglycerols. The biocatalyst retains good activity
for months under continuous operation. The desired feruloylated acylglycerols are separated
from unreacted ethyl ferulate and ferulic acid by molecular distillation or liquid carbon diox-
ide extraction. Recovered  ethyl ferulate and ferulic acid are returned to the process, resulting
in very high atom efficiency. The manufacturing process does not use any organic solvents.
   The resulting  nontoxic, biodegradable product has excellent properties as a UV-A and
UV-B absorber, free-radical trap, and antioxidant, making it a superior substitute tor con-
ventional  petroleum-based sunscreen active  agents  and skin care  ingredients. Human
sensitivity skin testing of SoyScreen™ has confirmed its safety and lack of allergic response.
In November 2005, iSoy Technologies constructed a pilot plant for  commercial synthesis. It
plans to introduce SoyScrcen™ into the market in a variety of skincare products in 2006.

CleanGredients™ Information Technology for Green
   CleanGredients™ is an online database of environmental fate and toxicology data and
other  Information on cleaning product ingredients.  CleanGredients™ uses a peer-reviewed
framework to  evaluate and compare chemicals within functional classes. It enables develop-
ers and manufacturers to showcase ingredients with lower inherent environmental or human
health hazards. It also enables formulators to identify ingredients for environmentally prefer-
able cleaning products easily.
   CleanGredients™ facilitates the ongoing development and implementation of green
chemistry in the cleaning  products industry. It has the potential to expand into other indus-
try sectors.  CleanGredients™ grew out of recommendations of the  Unified Green Cleaning
Alliance  and  a  partnership between GreenBlue  and the  U.S.  EPA's  Design for the
Environment  (DfE) Program. The steering  and technical advisory  committees for the
Alliance drew  members from leading organizations  in industry, government, and the non-
profit sector.  The committees established the overall format and identified the specific
attributes used in the CleanGredients™ database. Interested participants, now numbering
around 300, serve as peer reviewers.
   Formulators can search the database by general ingredient information and physical prop-
erties  to identify  suitable candidate ingredients for particular  applications. The database
displays candidate ingredients along with key environmental information, allowing formula-

tors to consider environmental factors easily when they select ingredients. For surfactants, the
database  displays company  and product name,  as well as  acute  aquatic  toxicity and
biodegradability.  For each candidate ingredient, the  database contains manufacturer infor-
mation, material safety datasheets (MSDSs), and technical datasheets, as well as information
on other human and environmental fate and toxicity attributes including mammalian toxic-
ity, level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), irritancy, sensitization, degradation products
of concern, and others, A revised beta version of CleanGredients™ has been available for
public review as of January 2006 at www.cleangredients.org.

Commercialization and Broadening of Market for an
Environmentally Friendly Cleaner and Degreaser
   IPAX has  improved its formula for Green Unikleen, an environmentally safe degreaser,
and brought its technology into new markets, making its product more available to both con-
sumers and commercial/industrial users. The product has been used for 10 years in the auto
industry to replace hazardous solvents in parts cleaning operations and has eliminated liter-
ally thousands of tons of hazardous waste. During the past  three years,  IPAX has serviced
parts washers at the DaimlerChrysler  Detroit Axle Plant, saving DaimlerChrysler approxi-
mately 63,750 gallons of hazardous waste.
   Green  Unikleen  is  a biodegradable,  nontoxic,  noncaustic,  concentrated cleaner and
degreaser that can be used with any manual or mechanical cleaning equipment. Its formula
includes sodium  silicate, Biosoft S-100,  Neodolc 23-5  (Shell Oil; includes a mixture of
Ci2-u alcohol ethoxylates), a tetrasodium salt, and Surco SXS (40-42 percent sodium xylene
sulfonate and up to 2 percent sodium sulfate in water).
   IPAX's activities are  now focused on broadening the reach of their technology to permit
access to their product in other markets, including the consumer market. To this end, IPAX
has: (1) secured every key certification available to the company and its products; (2) secured
an endorsement by a well-known medical authority; (3) enlisted distributors with expertise
in reaching new markets; and (4) applied  for  a patent on the new formula. Green Unikleen
is the only product in the world to have received Green Seal GS-34 (degreasing) certification.
Since November 2005, IPAX has been exporting components of its formula to China, where
they are incorporated into consumer and commercial/industrial products. In addition, IPAX
has  introduced this highly versatile product as an environmentally preferable hand cleaner for
those with multiple chemical sensitivities. All of  these activities are designed to facilitate
bringing IPAX's green cleaning technology to more markets.

Development of High Performance,  Environmentally
Benign Hard Disk Drive Polishing Fluids and
Corrosion Inhibitors
   Magnetic  hard drives are an  essential  component of computer hardware and handheld
consumer electronic devices today. At the heart of these drives lies a giant magnetorestrictive
(GMR) read/write head situated closely above a rapidly rotating magnetic hard disk. The
GMR head surfaces must be highly polished to ensure their reliable operation within hard
drives. Conventional lapping fluids used to polish these heads are composed of fine diamond
abrasive powder dispersed within toxic nonaqueous solvents such as ethylene glycol. These
solvent-based lapping fluids pose significant handling  and disposal concerns for hard disk
manufacturers. Each year, commercial polishing operations produce over  100,000 gallons of
ethylene glycol polishing waste, which is not recyclable. Aqueous polishing fluids are critical
to the industry but water can corrode the sensitive electronic circuitry.

   Ventana Research has developed a new class of benign synthetic copolymers whose aque-
ous solutions have high corrosion inhibition properties  and are highly effective at lapping
GMR read/write heads. These copolymers have an aspartate—aspartamide backbone and pen-
dant combs containing a phenolic oligomer phytochemical functionality (i.e., gallate esters).
Besides being nontoxic and environmentally friendly, these copolymers arc capable of pol-
ishing GMR read/write heads more rapidly and efficiently with less waste than conventional
lapping fluids. This affords manufacturers considerable savings by increasing production rates
and reducing waste disposal costs.
   Since 2004, Pace Technologies, a major worldwide distributor of polishing consumables,
has been distributing Ventana's lapping fluid  to manufacturers of hard drives as well as man-
ufacturers of other products that require precision polishing such  as optical lenses and
flat-panel displays. In 2005, Ventana received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research
(SBIR) grant from the National  Science Foundation to continue developing its polishing
fluid. Ventana has also developed  a series of new corrosion inhibitors and paint primers from
its phytochemical precursors and  spun them off as a separate technology.

Ecological Paint Antimicrobial  Clear Coat
   Ecological Paint Antimicrobial Clear Coat is  a self-curing water-based paint formulated
to address public health concerns linked to the transference of bacteria and mold on public
and private surfaces that people are likely to touch. Innovative Formulation has developed an
antimicrobial, mold and  bacteria retardant paint that is totally nontoxic and contains  no
volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Their Clear  Coat is the  first nontoxic antimicrobial
paint product; other advertised non-VOC paints use solvents such as methyl ethyl ketone,
acetone, and other ketones.
   Clear Coat uses a sophisticated silver nanoparticle cage technology For hundreds of years,
silver has been acknowledged as  effective in stopping the  growth and spread of bacteria.
Innovative Formulation has designed a dispersal system that releases silver ions in a uniform,
non-clumping manner, providing comprehensive antimicrobial coverage of all treated sur-
faces. The nano emulsion  polymer carrying system in Clear Coat is a single-component, fully
crosslinkcd acrylatc. Clear Coat uses pharmaceutical-grade pigments.
   Toxic chemicals are a health hazard. The paint produced in the United States during 2001
contained almost  5 million  kilograms of VOCs.  The origin of many respiratory conditions
in the U.S. population is unknown, but it is, in the company's opinion, related to toxic chem-
icals  in the atmosphere. Airborne toxic chemicals may also be related to the  high incidence
of liver and pancreatic cancers in  the United  States.
   Innovative Formulation has  created a completely safe antimicrobial paint that is virtually
free of hazardous  chemicals. No other paint  company in the United States can legitimately
and accurately make such representations. Innovative Formulation has been producing its
Clear Coat since December 2005 at a plant  in Tucson, AZ. A major fast food chain is cur-
rently using Clear Coat and a major hotel chain is testing the product.

Environmentally Benign DeicinglAnti-Icing Agents
   Each year, the U.S. market for deicing/anti-icing (D/A) products consumes over 100 mil-
lion  gallons of liquids and 20 to 25 million tons  of salt. Historically, rock  salt and glycol
solutions have represented the bulk  of D/A chemicals. Over time, however, it has become
apparent that these effective, low-cost, but corrosive chemicals carry a severe cost in damage
to infrastructures, vehicles, and the environment. For example, highway salt has found its way

into both surface water and  underground  aquifers, whereas the high biological oxygen
demand (BOD) of glycols has  had negative effects on marine organisms.
   MLI D/A technologies are  based on an innovative chemical method that prevents pollu-
tion through source reduction. This method uses abundant natural resources, agrochemical
waste streams, and low-value streams such as  carbohydrates derived from corn, glycerin-con-
taining byproducts of biodiesel manufacture, and  biopolymer wastes.  Some of these D/A
agents represent a new class of materials designed as alternatives to traditional salt and glycol-
based fluids. The MLI chemistry has led to development of a wide array of products, many
of which are now in or near commercial use. These products reduce the nation's reliance on
petroleum, assist the commercialization of bio fuels, and reduce impacts on health and  the
environment relative  to traditional  glycol-based fluids. The MLI biomass-based fluids are
infinitely soluble in water, are  nontoxic, and act as corrosion inhibitors for ferrous metals.
During 2005, MLI received a patent for D/A  agents made from byproducts of biodiesel man-
ufacture. Also in 2005, MLI released Caliber® FC-B antifreeze and Caliber® SBA-2 additive
for  chloride D/A products in collaboration with Archer Daniels Midland. Current sales of
MLI D/A agents are 15  million gallons per year. Applications for these products include air-
craft-related uses, airport runways,  roadways,  bridges,  facilities, landscape, and  consumer

ExSact: A  "Green" Gasoline  Technology
   Alkylate is a clean, high-octane blending component of gasoline made primarily by alky-
lating  isobutane  with  butenes.  Alkylate is an  ideal  replacement   for MTBE  (methyl
tertiary-butyl ether) in reformulated  gasoline: it has a low vapor pressure, a high octane value,
and is not water soluble. Most U.S. refineries produce alkylate. The current technology for
alkyation, however, requires either hydrofluoric acid (HF) or concentrated sulfuric acid as the
catalyst. These liquid acid catalysts pose many problems. HF is deadly, causing severe burns
and tissue damage. It also tends to  form stable aerosols, so that an accident could create a
lethal cloud over the point of release. The 50  HF units in the United States threaten as many
as 15-6 million people living nearby.  Sulfuric  acid is somewhat safer, but its use creates a
byproduct mixture of hydrocarbons  and sulfuric acid that must be disposed of or regenerat-
ed.  Sulfuric acid units use considerable amounts  of catalyst, requiring the transport and
storage of large amounts of this acid.
   ExSact solves these problems by replacing  dangerous liquid acids  with a noncorrosive,
environmentally friendly solid  acid.  This breakthrough catalyst is safe enough to be held in
hand and is benign in  the open environment.  Previous solid acid catalysts have not been com-
mercially successful because they tend to deactivate rapidly  by coking during alkylation.
Exelus has engineered every aspect of their new catalyst to reduce coke formation. They have
optimized both the distribution and  strength  of the acid sites. They have chosen a pore struc-
ture that  creates the proper  reaction environment near the  active  sites. Their ExSact
technology represents  the first commercially viable solid acid alkylation process in the world.
A pilot plant has  been  demonstrating the technology since  December 2005, and Exelus
expects the first commercial deployment of its technology in mid-2006.

        Trap Inc.
Cleaning, L.L.C.
GEL-COR™: A New,  Environmentally Compatible
Bullet- Trapping Medium for Small-Arms Firing Ranges
   There are over 10,800 small-arms firing ranges in the United States for sport shooting and
for training military and law-enforcement personnel. These ranges collect over 80,000 tons
of lead every year, often  in soil berms, where  the lead can leach  into the environment.
Containing and recovering lead and other heavy metals from ranges in a safe and environ-
mentally acceptable manner is vital to controlling soil and ground water pollution.
   GEL-COR™  is an engineered ballistic material designed to collect impacting bullets
fired on small-arms training ranges in a safe and environmentally compatible way. It captures
the spent bullets and  contains the heavy metals  that would otherwise escape into  the envi-
ronment.  GEL-COR™  is a mixture  of recycled tire-tread  rubber  chunks,  a  hydrated
superabsorbent polymer gel (a copolymer of acrylamide and potassium acrylate), and three
salt additives. This resilient material stops incoming bullets, captures them intact  with few
exceptions, and  does not make any detectable metal dust. The gel-rubber mixture contains
approximately 40 percent water by mass, which prevents it  from burning if it is exposed to
tracer rounds, pyrotechnics, or other sources of ignition. The salt additives (including tri-
calcium phosphate, aluminum hydroxide, and calcium carbonate) immobilize the lead and
copper in the trapped bullets and keep them from leaching into the environment. The mix-
ture maintains an  alkaline pH, minimizing  the solubility of lead hydroxide in the trap and
stabilizing the gel. Exposed lead surfaces react with the salts to form insoluble lead aluminum
phosphate (plumbogummite), one of the safest and most stable lead compounds. Copper
reacts to form an insoluble copper phosphate. GEL-COR1M is the first resilient medium that
contains no toxic additives and will not burn, even if exposed to a source of ignition. GEL-
COR™  is  an  important step in  ensuring  that  live-fire  ranges are  safer and  more
environmentally compatible.

GreenEarth Cleaning:  Dry Cleaning With Silicone
   Historically,  solvents used for dry cleaning fabrics have been hazardous  to soil, ground-
water, air, and industry employees. GreenEarth Cleaning (GEC) has developed and patented
a process using cyclic  siloxane (decamethylcyclopentasiloxane) that is a  safe and viable alter-
native. Commercial  drycleaners  license  the  use of  this  process  in their independent
   Prior to commercializing this process, GEC conducted beta testing at 27 retail dry clean-
ing sites  in the United States over a 10-month period. During this  period,  two million
pounds of clothing were processed, and independent, certified testing laboratories performed
more than 26,000 test measurements on air and waste streams, proving  the process is safe for
the environment and  employees. Beta-test sites also reduced the volume of their solid waste
by 40—65 percent. The GEC silicone does not influence air quality because it is not volatile.
Tests confirm that it will not impact soil or groundwater, as it degrades to SiO2, CO2, and
H2O within  28  days.
   GEC has licensed  this process at 481  locations in  the United States and  over
500 locations in ten other countries, with growing acceptance based on  its health, safety, and
environmental profile, as well as its operational advantages.

High-Efficiency  Olefin to Polyolefin Process with Toxic
Solvent Elimination
   ZIVATECH has developed novel catalytic processes to dehydrogenate aliphatic (paraffin)
hydrocarbons into oleflns and,  subsequently, to polymerize them into polyolefms. These
processes use catalytic dehydrogenation reactors in conjunction with polymerization reactors
and coordination-type metal catalysts, such as titanium trichloride. This technology replaces
the conventional cracking and refining of paraffins, which require more energy. In develop-
ing these processes, ZIVATECH considered materials and energy conservation coupled with
environmentally benign modifications (e.g., eliminating toxic or hazardous solvents, cata-
lysts, and other media). Process improvements include increased polymer and olefin product
yields, recycling of both reactants and intermediate products within the process, reduction of
toxic solvent generation, reduction of process steps, and reduction of capital and operational
costs (including materials and energy costs). In 2005, this technology received a U.S. patent.
ZIVATECH is currently in the process of licensing and scaling up this technology.

High-Performance Macromolecular Antioxidants for
Materials: A  Green Chemistry Approach
   Industrial  antioxidants  are an increasingly  important  and  fast-growing market. The
antioxidant market generates annual sales of approximately $2.1 billion,  based mainly on
low-molecular-weight products with limited  thermal stability, relatively low material protec-
tion, and higher material diffusion rates. Polnox Corporation is developing high-performance
macromolecular antioxidants that are synthesized in a one-step process using biocatalysts and
bio mimetic catalysts. These antioxidants have shown superior oxidative resistance (1- to 30-
fold) and higher thermal stability compared to current low-molecular-weight antioxidants.
They demonstrate superior performance in a  wide range of materials and applications includ-
ing, but not limited to, foods, oils and lubricants, fuels, plastics, and packaging. They are
cost-effective, safe to use, and have a superior price-to-performance ratio. An acute oral tox-
icity (LDso)  test  for  these  materials met the requirements  of other FDA-approved
   Dr.  Cholli and his team at the University of Massachusetts Lowell originally discovered
the technology. In January 2004, Dr. Cholli formed Polnox Corporation  to commercialize
his antioxidants. Polnox has scaled up the synthesis of two core antioxidants to the mini-pilot
scale (multikilogram scale).  During 2005,  Polnox initiated validation testing of its core
antioxidants at six Fortune 500 companies. They expect to enter into one or more joint devel-
opment and marketing partnerships in 2006, including production and sales for a number
of industrial markets.

Innovative Process for Treatment of Hog Waste and
Production  of Saleable Products from This  Waste
   Industrial hog production creates a large amount of liquid and solid waste, which is typ-
ically flushed into an open lagoon or sprayed  onto fields, causing a number of environmental
and human health problems. Recovery Systems has developed a process to treat the waste and
recover valuable products from it. A standard 5,000-head farm is  expected to generate about
$170,000 per year in products; there are about 2,000 hog farms in North Carolina alone.
   In the Recovery Systems process, the waste is flushed out of the barn to a surge tank and
pumped to  mix tanks, where lime slurry is added to raise the pH.  At this higher pH, the col-
Polnox Corporation

W.F. Taylor Co., Inc.
loidal bonds of the solids and urea break down to release ammonia. The lime treatment kills
over 99 percent of all pathogens. The slurry is then pumped through an ammonia stripper;
the ammonia-laden air is exhausted through a phosphoric acid  reactor and  the  resulting
ammonium phosphate is pumped to a storage tank. Next, the slurry is pumped to a solids
separation tank, where coagulant and flocculcnt arc added to separate the solids from the liq-
uid. The solids are pumped to a vibrating screen washer, where the  undigested feed  is
separated from the digested fecal solids. The liquid from the solids separation tank is pumped
to a storage tank to be used in the flushing process. The  digested solids are processed in a
methane generator, which also concentrates the nutrients to produce organic fertilizer. Tests
by North Carolina State University show that the undigested feed is suitable as cattle feed and
poultry litter. Well water is used to  dilute the supersaturated salts  in  the flushing liquid.
Recovery Systems will be testing its process on a one-of-a-kind U.S. EPA test hog farm in
Lizzie, NC. In 2005, U.S. EPA issued a contract to Recovery Systems to fund the necessary
construction permit.

Meta-Tec™ Low-VOC,  One-Component, Cross-Linking
Adhesive: Innovative Science-Applied Technology
   Traditional flooring adhesives are one- or  two-part reactive systems  that are urcthanc-,
epoxy-, solvent-, or water-based; they include various industrial solvents  and consume non-
renewable resources. The manufacturing and  application  processes for these adhesives can
also create large amounts of hazardous waste byproducts and emissions. These products are
estimated to release over 23 million pounds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)  to the
environment annually.
    Meta-TecIM technology is a unique class of adhesives  that  are low-VOC, reactive, one-
part, and self-cross-linking. The Meta-Tec™ adhesives consist of a viscous mixture of drying
oils such as soybean oil, linseed oil, and sunflower oil, inorganic fillers, renewable tackifiers
such as rosins, polymers with carboxyl functionalities, metal catalysts, and a nontoxic cross-
linking agent. Although these adhesives have performance characteristics previously exhibited
only by reactive systems such as urethanes and epoxies, they contain very low VOCs and use
more renewable resources. With the high volume of adhesives used throughout the flooring
industry, the ability of Taylor's Meta-Tec™ technology to eliminate the risks associated with
volatile hazardous chemicals by reducing VOCs promises to have a significant positive impact
upon the environment and on human health.
   The use of just one product, Meta-Tec1M 2071  Wood Flooring Adhesive, would poten-
tially prevent over 9 million pounds of solvents from entering the atmosphere. Between 2002
and 2004 (latest available data), this product was used to install over 60 million square feet
of wood flooring products. The company expects this product to capture over 25 percent
(25 million pounds) of the market by the end  of 2005-

Multipurpose Exopolymer  as a Raw Material
    Levan, an unusual polysaccharide, is being developed as a raw  material to replace petro-
chemicals  in many industries. This polymer of fructose has an extremely low  intrinsic
viscosity so that it  requires less energy to handle,  does not swell in water, is heat- and acid-
stable, and causes  no skin or eye irritation, even on prolonged, direct contact.  Levan is a
strong adhesive, forms oxygen-barrier films, can be derivatized to make powerful surfactants,
can be extruded into plastics, and can replace  petrochemicals in certain personal care prod-

   Cost is  a critical factor in determining commercial success  of a raw material. Levan is
made from sucrose, the disaccharide of glucose and fructose, which currently sells for
$0.17 per kilogram. Levan is an exopolymer. Unlike products from corn, soy, and waste bio-
mass that require significant amounts of energy and solvents for separation from cells, levan
is naturally exported from producing cells. Either sugar beets or sugar cane can be the source.
Sugar beets are grown on marginal lands. Processing energy needs are minimal; some beet
sugar processors sell excess electricity to the grid. Sugar cane is  an excellent CC»2 sink. The
byproduct, glucose, is a basic feedstock for numerous chemicals, providing additional rev-
   Levan is a multifunctional, raw material. It meets three standards: (1) Safety: levan is safe
for users and the environment. (2) Sustainability: levan is derived from a renewable resource.
(3) Security: sucrose, the feedstock, comes from sugar beets and sugar cane, both produced
in the United States and in many regions around the world.  Montana Polysaccharides has
been producing levan in 5,000-liter fermenters since 2003.  During 2005, the company ini-
tiated sales  of levan in the adhesive and personal care industries.
Mycopesticides and Mycoattractants
   Entomopathogenic fungi kill insects and use their carcasses as platforms for disseminat-
ing spores. Because  spores  of  certain  entomopathogenic fungi repel termites  and ants,
however, widespread  commercialization by the pesticide industry has been limited.
   Fungi Perfect! has discovered that ants and flies are attracted to entomopathogenic fungi
in their mycelial state, prior to sporulation. The company has received a patent for a tech-
nique to deploy the presporulating mycelium of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium
anisopliae as a natural agent to attract and kill termites and ants. More patents are pending.
Fungi Perfect! has isolated cultures of fungi from naturally infected insects and,  through a
selection process, cultured these  fungi in the laboratory to create strains that delay  spore pro-
duction  for several weeks.  The presporulating  entomopathogenic mycelia emit powerful
attractants, trail-following elicitors,  and feeding stimulants, drawing select pests to a chosen
locus, from which they then spread the infectious fungi throughout the targeted nest and ulti-
mately  to  the  queen. In choice tests,  termites prefer  the presporulating mycelium  of
Metarhizium anisopliae to wood  as food. Research shows that diverse insect species share spe-
cific affinities to these fungi in  their presporulating state. This discovery may well lead  to
novel methods for controlling insect pests worldwide. This mycotechnology is economical, is
scaleable, and uses cell culture methods currently in practice.

New Biomass Catalytic Reforming Process for Solid
Oxide Fuel Cell Power Generation
   ZIVATECH's technology is based on analyzing,  testing, and evaluating a new  reforming
process to convert biomass and other secondary waste streams into a syngas outlet stream rich
in hydrogen gas, which then powers an interconnected solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to gen-
erate power directly.
   These waste sources  are rich in methane and carbon dioxide; the new process  uses  an
effective catalytic reformer to convert them efficiently into a syngas outlet stream. The stream
is used as feed into the anode of an  integrated fuel cell of a solid oxide structure, which con-
verts it  into electric current. Conversion of these waste streams to synthesis gas  for use  in
SOFC-based  electricity  generation  systems is of substantial and increasing importance  to
both commercial and remote residential energy consumers from energetic, economic, and
Fyngi Perfects, LLC

The LATA Groyp,
clean energy points of view. ZIVATECH's SOFC technology saves oil, natural gas, and coal
deposits, while reducing pollution.
   Renewable  waste biogas  resources are increasingly important to  the energy generation
market. ZIVATECH's innovative process to convert carbon dioxide-rich methane gas inside
an in situ reactor using their reaction and catalysis system is under consideration tor current
and future use as an energy source by industry. This will be enhanced by an increased knowl-
edge of processes that convert carbon dioxide mixtures  into other chemicals and  fuels,
eliminating greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants.  Projected energy and capital sav-
ings  from the integrated  new process are in the 30—40 percent range compared to current
combustion technology.

New Green Technology for Eliminating Hydrogen
Sulfide in Aqueous Systems, Especially Petroleum
Industry Systems
   Gco-Microbial Technologies and its subsidiary, the LATA Group, have been pioneers in
biological research and development for nearly 20 years. Their work has resulted in biologi-
cal processes and  products  that destroy and prevent biogenic hydrogen sulfide  (H^S) in
petroleum reservoirs and  water systems inherent in oil and  gas production and other indus-
trial  operations. Their technology is important because deadly H-,)S emissions have caused
innumerable deaths and  injuries, especially in the oil and gas industry. In addition, H;>S is
corrosive; the National Association of Corrosion Engineers  estimates the cost of corrosion at
nearly $300 billion per year worldwide.
   LATAs Bio-Competitive  Exclusion  (BCX) technology is designed  to attack the source of
H?.S: the reduction of soluble sulfate in  the water by indigenous sulfate-reducing bacteria
(SRB). The BCX process is initiated and sustained by patented, environmentally friendly
inorganic nitrate and nitrite formulas (named Max-Well 2000) that target  and directly
manipulate the indigenous microflora of hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs and a wide variety
of surface water systems. Max-Well 2000 formulas at low concentrations act as alternate elec-
tron acceptors  for targeted nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) that  flourish and out-compete
SRB for essential growth nutrients needed to reduce sulfate to sulfide. The nitrite component
reacts chemically with existing H^S to  form soluble, nonhaxardous sulfate; in addition, it is
toxic to SRB. The results  of the growth of beneficial NRB microbial populations are the pro-
duction of  nonhazardous nitrogen gas, the elimination of existing  H^S, and  continuous
blocking of HiS production. The oil and gas industry has responded favorably to the BCX
technology, as  evidenced by a growing commercial business. In 2005, LATA successfully
completed sulfide control field projects for major oil companies, leading to treatment expan-
sions in the United States and Canada.
New One-Step,  Chromate-Free Anticorrosion  Coatings
for Aluminum Alloys and Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel
   Corrosion protection by paints and organic coatings is a common practice. Each year, the
paint  industry uses approximately 600,000 metric tons of chromates tor chromate conver-
sion coatings and as pigments. The  U.S. EPA, however,  has identified chromates in the
hexavalent state of oxidation as both toxic and  carcinogenic. Chromate exposures cause a
gamut of health problems, including ulcers, irritation of the nasal mucosa, holes in the nasal
septum, skin ulcers, allergic  reactions, and nasal  and lung cancer. The self-healing property
of chromate makes it difficult to replace, however. In addition to chromates, paints are for-

mulated with high-molecular-weight polymers for good anticorrosion properties. These poly-
mers require solvents that are volatile organic compounds (VOCs). During curing and drying
of the paint, these VOCs evaporate, posing an occupational safety hazard.
   ECOSIL's invention is a one-step, low-VOC primer system for use on aluminum alloys
and hot-dip galvanized steel. The new primer eliminates  chromates totally, yet performs
equally well. Its major components are water-dispersed resins, an  organofunctional silane,
and selected pigments. With the addition of a suitable corrosion  inhibitor, the primer with-
out topcoat attains a B-117 resistance of over 2,000 hours on  both substrates. The resin
component is an epoxy-based bisphenol-A or epoxy-novolac  resin with small  amounts of
polyurethanes or acrylates.
   ECOSIL is currently commercializing this technology.  The advantages of their primer
over other technologies that replace chromates, plus the huge chromate market for pretreat-
ments and pigments, have attracted the attention of many companies including DuPont,
PPG, Sherwin Williams, Hentzen Paints, and BASF. ECOSIL is collaborating with two large
paint companies on its primer system. Professor Wim van Ooij, the founder of ECOSIL, also
submitted a nomination in the academic category; see page 15 tor that abstract.

A New Polymer Coating for Increasing the Efficiency of
Phosphorous Use and Reducing Its Environmental
   Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth, it can be toxic to humans
and the environment. Some sources of phosphorus fertilizer contain high levels of cadmium,
which can accumulate in crops and have long-term toxicity to man. Phosphorus fertilizers are
inefficient: crops typically take up no more than 20—25 percent  of the applied  phosphorus
during the first year of application, due to fixation of the phosphorus by antagonistic cations
in the soil. As a result, phosphorus accumulates in the soil, runs off into waterways, and caus-
es toxic algae blooms that deplete oxygen for aquatic life.
   Specialty has developed and patented a family of water-soluble, nontoxic, biodegradable
copolymers made from itaconic acid  (a monomer derived from renewable resources)  and
maleic acid. These copolymers are applied directly to granular phosphorus fertilizers as a coat-
ing or mixed into liquid fertilizers. Used along with phosphorus fertilizers, these dicarboxylic
anionic copolymers lessen or eliminate the fixation of phosphorus, increasing the availability
of phosphorus to crops. The high cation-exchange capacity of these polymers interferes with
the normal phosphorus fixation reactions in soil. As a result, more of the applied phospho-
rus accumulates in crop  biomass, crop yields increase, farm profits improve, less cadmium
accumulates in crops, and adverse environmental effects are lessened.

New Water-Based Organic Corrosion Inhibitor
   In 2004, the anticorrosive pigments market for North America  totaled approximately
33 million pounds and had a value of approximately $55 million. Strontium chromate,  bar-
ium  phosphosilicate,  barium  borosilicates,  modified phosphates,  and  zinc  phosphate
accounted for the majority of anticorrosive pigments. These and  other traditional corrosion
inhibitors include known carcinogens, flammable oils and solvents,  hazardous air pollutants,
marine pollutants, and chemicals  that cause eutrophication  of ecosystems.
   HALOX®  510 is the trade name  for  1,3-propanediamine, /V,/V-dimethyl-, monoben-
zoate, a water-based organic corrosion  inhibitor for direct-to-metal coating applications. It
replaces corrosion inhibitors formulated with heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium,

MIOX Corporation
cadmium, lead, strontium, barium, and mercury. It contains no nitrites or other toxic chem-
icals, no eutrophication chemicals such as phosphates, and no marine pollutants such as zinc
oxide and zinc phosphate. Its applications include direct-to-metal finishes (e.g., railcar coat-
ings), automotive finishes, light industrial primers for metals, weld seam flash rust protection,
temporary corrosion protection, general maintenance coatings (e.g., hand rails, metal deck-
ing),  and synthetic and semisynthetic metalworking fluids. HALOX® 510 imparts both
anti-flash rust and  long-term  corrosion properties  to waterborne coatings for steel,  alu-
minum, galvanized steel,  cast iron, and zinc alloys. HALOX® 510 interacts strongly with a
corroding metal at the active anodic sites, forming a thin coating over the metal and restrict-
ing the access of other corrosive ions to the metal. Its alkaline pH also reduces the corrosion
rate of the underlying metal. It is added to paint during manufacture or prior to applying the
paint. It prevents ferrous  substrates from flash rusting caused by the presence of water and
oxygen as the paint dries. In addition, it does not adversely affect paint gloss.
    HALOX® 510  has been in commerce since 2003- In November 2004, The Sherwin-
Williams Company approved HALOX® 510 for its automotive products division.

On-Site  Generation of Mixed Oxidants Using Sodium
Chloride Brine as a Safe Alternative for Chlorine  Gas
   Water disinfection using chlorine gas has saved countless lives in the United States and the
world over the past  100 years. Chlorine gas is a hazardous material that is pervasive in U.S.
communities and around the world. MI OX has demonstrated  that on-site generation of
chlorine-based mixed oxidants  from low-cost sodium chloride brine is superior to chlorine
gas for disinfection, even inactivating waterborne pathogens immune to chlorine gas disin-
fection. The MIOX process eliminates all of the hazards associated with using chlorine gas
for disinfection.
   The technology is scalable from individual use to large municipalities. It offers significant
chemistry benefits:  a microflocculating effect that improves water clarification  processes,
reduction in byproducts of chlorine disinfection, elimination of taste and odor, maintenance
of required  residual chlorine  in water distribution  systems,  and elimination  of biofilms.
MIOX now has over 1,000 large installations across the United States and in 20 foreign coun-
tries, replacing over 20 tons of chlorine gas per day, with a capacity to treat over 1 billion
gallons of water per day and serve 6 million people. Since 2003, MIOX has teamed with
Cascade Design, Inc./Mountain Safety Research to offer a miniature version of its purifier to
the U.S. military, the camping and recreation markets, foreign travelers, disaster relief work-
ers, and others. Thousands of these devices are currently deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan.

   PostSaver® is a patented invention that can substantially reduce the leaching of toxic wood
preservatives from  treated wood commodities in ground contact.  A PostSaver®  wrap will
extend the useful service life of treated wood commodities using only a fraction of the preser-
vative typically required  for ground contact.  PostSaver* wrap is a  thick, UV-stabilized
polyethylene film that has an internal bitumen coating. The bitumen  inner layer  protects
wood in contact with this tar-like substance; the outer polyethylene film layer hinders decay
and insect attack further  and prevents water absorption. PostSaver® wrap adheres to wood
commodities such as posts, lumber, and poles under slight pressure and heat from a mechan-
ical applicator.

   PostSaver® wrap is unlike typical wood preservative groundline-remedial treatment wraps;
it does not contain additional toxic preservatives to supplement the wood preservatives that
have already leached from wood in service. In contrast, PostSaver® wrap is applied to new
wood prior to its being put into service. PostSaver® wrap can reduce the leaching of any wood
preservatives in a treated commodity, can reduce the actual loading of. toxic, wood-preserva-
tive chemicals needed to protect wood in ground contact, and can help extend the service life
of durable heartwood species, PostSaver®  may also expand  the use of more leachable, less
toxic wood preservatives such as borates.
   PostSaver® wrap currently has worldwide sales in over six  countries. During 2005,
PostSaver USA had manufacturing and implementation sites located in Coos Bay, OR and
Mechanic Falls, ME.

Practical Asymmetric Catalytic Hydrogenation
   NOTE:  This project is the result of a partnership between Chiral Quest, Inc. and its
founder, Professor Xumu  Zhang  of The  Pennsylvania State University. This project was
judged in both the academic and small business categories. The abstract appears in the acad-
emic section on page 1 5.

A Preproduction System for Re-Refining Used Oil  Using
Closed-Loop,  Patented, Atomization Technology
   Only 14 percent of the approximately 2.4 billion gallons of lubricating oil used per year
in the United States is recycled to  reusable lubricating oil. Many companies that recycle oil
use a simple thermal cracking operation that yields a highly unstable, low-grade fuel oil with
low consumer acceptability.
   FluidPhase is building a prcproduction unit based on atomization in supercritical fluids
to recycle lubricating oil into a highly stable, purified base lubricating oil in a cost-effective
and environmentally friendly manner. Their new, innovative technology is  a  continuous
process that mixes waste fluid with a supercritical fluid. The process exploits the difference in
the solubility of the desired and the undesired components in the supercritical fluid. During
the process, jet spray micro-orifices atomize waste  oil into a supercritical fluid. The atomiza-
tion process dissolves the reusable  elements of the oil, leaving behind Impurities and waste
particles. Thus, polychlorinatcd biphenyls (PCBs) arc removed early in the process, along
with metals, sludge, and water. Undissolved components are separated by gravity, and the dis-
solved fluid is separated from the supercritical fluid. The system uses supercritical propane or
another environmentally friendly solvent that is contained and recycled online. The byprod-
ucts from the extraction are used as binder material for asphalt, eliminating their disposal in
   This preproduction system for re-refining used oil reached the pilot plant stage  during
2005. The pilot plant has the capacity to process 30 liters per hour of used oil in a continu-
ous process; it  has all  the components of a  larger commercial  system.  Members  of the
National Oil Recyclers Association have expressed  interest in this technology.
Chiral          Inc.
Technologies Inc.

Stalosan F Microbial and Environmental Control for
Use in Housing of All Animals
   Stalosan F is an all-natural product that improves hygiene and environmental conditions
for livestock when applied to damp surfaces. It has lower toxicity and provides greater safety
than existing alternatives.  Stalosan F is a pink powder that acts as a drying agent. It is com-
posed of human-grade, high-quality minerals including three forms of very pure phosphate,
a structural clay material,  a combination of iron and copper salts, and an  essential oil. This
formulation makes  it safer  than many sulfate-based  alternatives.  Its low pH  inhibits
pathogens. Stalosan  F addresses the problem of odor abatement and ammonia in external
environmental bacteria, viruses, fungi, and fly larvae, all of which interfere with livestock pro-
duction and pose potential harm to humans. Stalosan F also controls moisture at variable
levels, where increased water pressure leads to increased water binding capacity. It can bind
up to four times its own weight of water. It can be applied by hand  or with a power blower.
   Stalosan F is suitable for all animals, including cats, dogs, and rabbits, with special atten-
tion  to livestock, including pigs, cows,  poultry,  horses,  and sheep.  Stalosan F virtually
eliminates offensive odors for neighboring residents and ammonia levels within  the produc-
tion  facility. This, in turn, creates  a better environment for livestock to grow  and thrive.
   Storin011en A/S, the Denmark-based manufacturer of Stalosan F, is selling this product in
the agriculture markets of 64 countries. ArchAngcl represents this  company in the United
States. Most recently, the U.S. EPA has evaluated Stalosan F  for registration and found
it to be safe for humans and animals.  ArchAngel is anticipating U.S. EPA  registration in
spring 2006.

Sustainable Earth® Cleaning Products Designed for
Health and the Environment
   Commercial cleaning products are used daily by professionals in schools, hospitals, and
commercial facilities. Although cleaning is beneficial, cleaning products commonly contain
chemicals harmful to human and environmental health. High concentrations of these chem-
icals  can negatively impact ground-level ozone concentrations,  aquatic  ecosystems, worker
safety, and human health. Coastwide Laboratories uses green chemistry to develop products
that  meet rigorous performance, environmental, and  human health criteria. Their strategy
involves: (1) fully assessing all ingredients to understand their potential human health,  envi-
ronmental health, and lifecycle  impacts;  (2)  creating  a  product  development standard,
Sustainable Earth® Green Chemistry Standard 114 (SEGC 114), to establish positive crite-
ria for product efficacy as  well  as human  and  environmental health benefits; and (3)
formulating products to meet SEGC 114. This strategy results in entirely new formulations
with remarkable benefits. Sustainable Earth® (SE) cleaning  products combine reagents deter-
mined to be safer for human and  environmental health  with  a hybrid surfactant system
containing a stabilized oxidizing compound. This system eliminates conventional, potential-
ly problematic ingredients such as alkyl glycol ethers, alkali  builders, alkylphenol  ethoxylates,
EDTA, and ethanolamine. SE products have increased functionality and  performance, use
fewer,  more benign  ingredients,  and reduce waste and  emissions. Current SE  products
include many types of cleaners, as well as an odor eliminator, floor finish, wax stripper, and
dust  mop treatment.  In 2005, Coastwide Introduced seven new SE products; its sales  of all
21 SE products were  $2.3 million.


3D  Trasar EioControl
   Microbes grow well in the  warm, nutrient-rich waters of cooling systems. Unchecked,
microbes coat the heat exchanger surfaces, impeding heat transfer and increasing energy costs.
Biocides are added to control microbial activity. Although 99 percent of the microbial pop-
ulation resides on the inaccessible surfaces of a cooling system, the industry standard was to
monitor only floating microbes because there was no method to monitor the total popula-
tion. The result  was cither excessive biocide  dosing (to preserve a margin for error) with
resultant discharge of biocides and corrosion products into natural waterways or insufficient
biocide dosing; either case increased energy use and public health concerns.
   3D Trasar BioControl adds a fluorescent molecule, Resazurin, to the water in cooling sys-
tems. When Resazurin interacts with active microbes, it reacts and its fluorescence changes:
BioReporter  (Resazurin)  + microbial  respirator)' enzymes =  BioProduct  (Resorufin).
Continuous monitoring of the fluorescence of both Resazurin and Resorufin allows instan-
taneous measurement of the total microbial activity in the system. Oxidizing biocide is added
to the system only in response to increasing microbial activity. Oxidizing biocides also react
with Resorufin and Resazurin, but at a much slower rate than the reaction with microbes.
Fluorescent detection of the degradation of Resorufin by the oxidizing biocide is used to
determine the precise endpoint for biocide addition.
   With 3D Trasar BioControl, biomonitoring and control are continuous and comprehen-
sive; biocide is applied only when microbial activity is detected and before the population
enters the log growth phase. Continuous monitoring avoids the use of excess biocide to catch
up after rapid microbial growth has occurred. 3D Trasar BioControl allows the most efficient
use of biocide, ensures microbial control, reduces the formation of absorbable organic halide
(AOX), and reduces toxic discharge. During 2005, Nalco deployed  over  1,200  new  3D
BioControl units for a total of over 1,700.

ACCOLADE™ Synthetic-Based Drilling Fluid System
   In 2001, Halliburton introduced a revolutionary  synthetic-based drilling fluid (SBF)
called the ACCOLADE™ system. ACCOLADE™ is the first SBF to couple superior envi-
ronmental compliance with exceptional drilling performance, allowing operators to drill with
high  efficiency while they minimize environmental impact in sensitive offshore areas.
Halliburton formulated  ACCOLADE™ to  exceed U.S. EPA's  environmental criteria for
sensitive areas; ACCOLADE™ is the highest rated of all drilling fluids for its low toxicity
and high biodegradability. The system far exceeds all regulations governing discharge of cut-
tings generated with SBF for drilling offshore  in the Gulf of Mexico.
   ACCOLADE™  contains  no commercial clay  or lignite  additives;  it  is the only
organophilic clay-free synthetic fluid on the  market. The base oil is a blend of 50 percent veg-
etable oil esters (from palm and cocoanut oils) and an internal olefin. The ester component
of the base fluid  makes ACCOLADE™ more  biodegradable than conventional SBFs.
ACCOLADE™ is characterized by desirable theological properties over a  range of tempera-
tures  from 40 to 350 °F, properties that provide unprecedented control over viscosity and
equivalent circulating density. The gel strength of the fluid develops quickly,  but is fragile.
With ACCOLADE™, downhole mud losses normally associated with tripping, running cas-
Halliburton Energy

Milliken & Company
ing, cementing, and breaking circulation are an average of 41 percent lower than those in
wells using traditional SBFs. To date, ACCOLADE™ has saved approximately 350,000 bar-
rels  (14.7 million  gallons) of drilling fluid and has  reduced  total  drilling additives. This
reduction translates into fewer crane lifts, reduced transportation expense, and less exposure
of workers to potentially hazardous operations.
   Through 2005, 20 different operators had used ACCOLADE™ to drill over two million
feet  of holes for more than 190 oil wells in the Gulf of Mexico.  In 2005, ACCOLADE™
also had its first international use, in Venezuela.

Alternative  Green Adbesives for Textile Composites in
Commercial Buildings: TractionBack™ and 180
   Indoor air quality can have a drastic impact on the health, comfort, and well-being of
building occupants. The U.S. EPA has identified it as one of today's top five environmental
health risks. Typically,  the thick,  blended acrylic latex adhesive  used to install  carpet tiles
emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for several months  to  years  after installation.
Chemicals used to prepare walls and install wall coverings emit VOCs as well.
   Milliken has developed floor and wall coverings that do not require adhcsivcs for on-site
application and, as a result, improve indoor air quality. Milliken's innovative TractionBack™
high-friction  coating for modular carpet tiles and its 180 Walls™  pressure-sensitive wall cov-
erings demonstrate the sustainable benefits of safer chemicals. TractionBack™ is a polyolefm
coating of amorphous polypropylene copolymers, polyolefm polymers, and tackifying resins,
both biobased and petroleum-based. 180 Walls™ contains a proprietary water-based, acrylic
adhesive that allows textile installation  with  essentially  no VOC  emissions;  it  replaces
poly(vmyl chloride)- (PVC-) based vinyl wall coverings. These  floor and wall coverings pro-
vide the design  and building  industry, facility  managers,  and  homeowners  with  green
   Milliken's adhesive solutions for textile composites (1) eliminate chemical pollutants such
as floor primers,  sealants, and other VOCs; (2) eliminate biological pollutants such as mold
and bacteria; and  (3)  reduce sanding and surface  preparation,  which create particulates.
Additional environmental benefits include: (1)  reduced energy during production;  (2)
reduced waste during installation; (3) reduced waste sent to landfill  because individual tiles
are  easy to reposition or replace, extending overall product life; (4) reduced down-time for
building spaces;  and (5) elimination  of PVCs. TractionBack™ is  currently available on
95  percent of the Milliken  floor coverings. 180 Walls'1 M has been on  the  market since
March 2005; it is currently available as the adhesive for 100 percent of Milliken's wall cover-
ing products.

Aminopyralid: Increasing Protection of Endangered
Species  through Improved Management of Non-Native
Plants While Maximizing Land Use and Significantly
Reducing Herbicide Volume and Application
   According to U.S. government policy, endangered plant species have potential scientific,
medical, ecological, aesthetic, recreational, educational, and historic value. A wide range of
programs has been put into effect in an effort to preserve them from extinction. Noxious and
invasive weeds threaten endangered plant species by transforming ever-increasing amounts of
habitat into monocultures with little to no biodiversity. Infestation of federal land with inva-
sive weeds is increasing at a rate of 4,600 acres per day. Invasive weeds also reduce the
productivity of farm and rangeland by approximately $20 billion per year at a time when
pressure for additional agricultural output is mounting.
   Aminopyralid belongs to the pyridine carboxylic acid class of auxinic herbicides. It is the
first noncrop herbicide ever registered by U.S. EPA as a reduced-risk pesticide; it is registered
for use in range, pasture, industrial, and wheat applications. It provides superior control of
invasive weeds at rates of application 4 to 20 times less than those for competitive products,
while reducing risk to people,  nontarget organisms, and the environment. Use of arnino-
pyralid for Invasive weed control maximizes land use and helps protect habitat for endangered
species. It also reduces the amount of herbicide active ingredient applied to the environment.
Aminopyralid degrades relatively quickly; its half-life is approximately 30 days. Its synthesis
includes a novel, one-step electrochemical reduction process in aqueous solution that results
in substantial, high-purity yields.
   Dow AgroSciences projects  that once aminopyralid becomes established in the market-
place, it will reduce the total yearly environmental load of broadleaf herbicides applied in the
United States by 2.4 million pounds, equivalent to a net 15-percent reduction. Against only
one invasive species, Canada thistle, Dow AgroSciences predicts that hay growers will save
$14.3 million each year in herbicide costs and eliminate $9.3 million in crop losses.

Beneficiation and Use  of Coal Combustion Fly Ash: A
Major Success in Reducing Solid Waste and Increasing
Supplies of Construction Materials  While Reducing
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
   Coal combustion generates approximately 55 percent of all electric power in the United
States. Over 70 million tons of fine coal ash, known as fly ash, are recovered annually; most
of it is disposed of in landfills or settling ponds. Using fly ash as a supplement in concrete
reduces the use of ordinary Portland cement, but concrete specifications limit the amount of
unburned carbon in the fly ash.
   Separation Technologies (ST)  has  developed  and  implemented innovative, patented
processes to reduce unburned carbon and detrimental ammonia  in coal fly ash. The treated
fly ash is suitable for use in concrete, and the separated carbon is a fuel for utility boilers. ST
takes advantage of the differing  surface chemistries between unburned carbon particles and
mineral particles in fly ash. When these particles collide, charge transfer (triboelectric charg-
ing) occurs and the carbon particles separate from the mineral particles in an electric field.
ST has also developed an economical process to remove ammonia as a gas from fly ash.
Dow AgroSciences
Technologies LLC

   ST's technology is operating commercially at eight large, coal-fired electric power plants
in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom to beneficiate coal ash into raw mate-
rials  for concrete production and to recover unhurried carbon  in the ash for its fuel value.
Cumulatively, ST has produced four million tons of concrete-grade fly ash with a corre-
sponding reduction in solid waste and emissions of greenhouse  gas (CC>2).

BFRAC™ and BPX™:  Launching the Biorefining
   Ethanol is one of the most economical and viable alternative fuels. Broin is  the second-
largest producer in the industry, making more than 600 million gallons  of ethanol per year.
Broin has been working to usher in the biorefinery revolution by increasing the efficiency and
sustainability of ethanol production.
   BFRAC™ is a Broin technology that fractionates corn or other cereal grains into bran,
germ, and endosperm. It then uses the optimal fractions for ethanol production and refining.
Broin developed  this technology in collaboration with Satake USA, Inc., a world leader in
rice and flour milling. BPX™ is a complementary Broin technology that removes  the cook-
ing step in traditional  dry-mill ethanol production  and replaces it  with simultaneous
saccharification of raw starch and fermentation of the resulting sugars in an advanced enzyme
technology.  Broin  developed this  technology  in  collaboration  with  Novozymes North
America, Inc., a world leader in  enzyme development and a  major enzyme supplier.
BFRAC™ and BPX™ not only increase ethanol production efficiency by enabling higher
alcohol  levels during fermentation and during beer production, but also result in the pro-
duction of a higher-protein distillers dried grain from the no-cook plant material. An added
environmental benefit is reduced dryer stack emissions.
   The  BPX™ process is  currently in use at ten plants managed  by Broin. In May 2005,
Broin started up BFRAC™ and BPX™ operations at a retrofitted 50-million-gallon-per-year
ethanol  biorefinery in Coon Rapids, LA. Broin is currently marketing the  majority of its ovcr-
40-percent protein distillers grains from the BFRAC™ and BPX™ processes as Dakota Gold
HP (HP = high protein). This low-fat, high-fiber, high-protein product is opening  new mar-
kets to distillers grains in the swine and poultry  feeding industries.
Biobased Polyols
                                  Cargill has demonstrated an innovative approach to delivering environmental responsi-
                               bility along  with cost-effective  performance  to  the polyurethane  industry. Cargill's
                               hydrolytically  stable, biobased polyols can replace  traditional petroleum-based polyether
                               polyols and copolymer polyols. The Cargill polyols produce commercially competitive, flex-
                               ible urethane foams that meet industry requirements and provide superior performance in
                               both load-bearing properties and resistance to UV degradation. Production of Cargill poly-
                               ols reduces the risk of exposure to hazardous feedstocks used to manufacture conventional
                               petrochemical-based  polyols:  ethyl en e oxide, propylene oxide, styrene, and acrylonitrile.
                               Cargill polyols use the carbon that annual renewable plants remove from the  air during
                               photosynthesis. As a result, the net emissions of carbon dioxide from Cargill polyols are lower
                               than emissions from conventional urethane polyols and Cargill polyols have a smaller envi-
                               ronmental footprint than do conventional polyols. In addition, Cargill polyols diversify the
                               industry's existing supply options and can mitigate the risks associated with the uncertainty
                               and volatility of petroleum supply and pricing. Each million  pounds of Cargill polyol saves
                               2,200 barrels of crude oil.

   Most other commercial, soy-based polyols are better suited for rigid urethane foams, suf-
fer  from  inconsistent  product quality, have poor reactivity,  compromise polyurethane
performance, and have problems with odor and color. The U.S. market for polyols to pro-
duce urethanes is over 3 billion pounds and is growing at 3—4 percent annually. For the first
time,  Cargill's renewable-derived technology has made it possible to displace a substantial
portion of the 1.5 billion pounds of petroleum-based polyols presently used in flexible ure-
thane foam each year. Cargill's technology has the potential  to replace 100 percent of the
petroleum-based polyols. By the end of 2005, Cargill had produced over 500,000 pounds of
these polyols for two major customers; it is planning to build  a 200-million-pound-per-year
plant by 2008. Cargill biobased polyols can also replace petroleum-based polyols in other ure-
thane applications such as rigid foams, coatings, adhesives, sealants, and elastomers.

Bioderived Solvents, Surfactants, Fuel Additives,  and
   Many  applications of renewable resources require the transformation of these resources
into platform molecules,  which then are readily  converted into  commercial  products.
Levulinic acid is one such platform  molecule. Biofine, Inc. (winner of the 1999 Presidential
Green Chemistry Challenge Award in the Small Business Category) discovered a  manufac-
turing process to make levulinic acid from cellulosic biomass. This process  is  currently
moving toward large-scale commercial production.
   DuPont is taking the next step  by developing commercially viable processes to convert
levulinic acid into a host of desired products. DuPont uses novel catalytic transformations
along with other techniques of green chemistry to develop products derived from levulinic
acid that can replace petroleum-derived solvents, monomers, and transportation fuels.
   The largest opportunity for biobased feedstocks is the production of bioderived fuel addi-
tives.  DuPont has discovered several new, high-yield routes to levulinic acid esters that are
attractive additives to either diesel fuel or gasoline. As another example, DuPont can catalyt-
ically hydrogenate levulinic acid and primary amines in a single, high-yield step to a variety
of pyrrolidoncs; these are widely used as solvents and surfactants. Levulinic acid can also be
hydrogenated in very high yield to y-valerolactone, which has several uses including as an
intermediate for ''green" nylon 6 or nylon 6,6 and as a potential replacement for y-butyro-
lactone, the intermediate for a variety of polymers. Using levulinic acid in ways such as these
can reduce dependency on petroleum while consuming cellulosic waste.

Closing the Loop with "Benign by Design" Biobased
Fabrics and Backings
   Interface Fabrics has successfully developed and Introduced into the market a sustainable
quality  textile fabric that uses  biobased fibers, environmentally preferable textile  finishing
dyes and chemicals, and a biobased textile coating.  Technical innovations in yarn develop-
ment, dyeing, weaving, and finishing of biobased fibers were necessary to produce a fabric
that meets the stringent standards of the commercial interiors market. The base material for
the biobased Terratex® fabric and the BioBac™ textile coating is a homopolymcr of polylac-
tic  acid (PLA). The fabric is  woven  from Ingeo™ PLA fiber; BioBac™ is made from
Nature Works™ PLA resin. PLA Terratex® is an alternative to petroleum-derived fibers like
polyester;  BioBac™  replaces traditional acrylic or styrene-butadiene  rubber latex  coatings.
The biodegradability of PLA allows its reassimilation into plants as a nutrient, thereby clos-
ing the loop  on  raw material  utilization. PLA  Terratex® composts successfully in a
commercial composting facility under standard operating conditions.
(DuPont Central


   Interface Fabrics has developed a stringent dye and chemical protocol to screen all ingre-
dients used to dye and finish PLA Terratex® fabric; the company then selects only those that
are not harmful to health  or  the environment. To date.  Interface Fabrics  has screened
279 chemicals used in about 147 dyes, finishes, and auxiliaries, approving only about 30 of
these chemicals. The protocol excludes ingredients that are carcinogens, mutagcns, persistent,
bioaccumulative, or toxic chemicals (PBTs), skin sensitizers, etc. Many of these are in com-
mon use in fabrics today. To validate  the benign nature of its protocol, Interface subjected
fabric samples of six different color palettes to hazardous waste characterization and synthet-
ic precipitation leaching analysis. It screened for 179 chemicals of concern, including volatile
organic compounds  (VOCs),  semi-volatile  organic compounds,  metals, polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs),  pesticides, and carbonyls. It detected only  copper, fluoride, nitrate, and
sulfate, all at concentrations only marginally above the reporting limit.

Cylinderized Phosphine as  a Safer, More
Environmentally Friendly Alternative to Traditional
Stored Product Fumigants
   Agricultural  fumigants are used to  control pests that infest stored products such as dried
fruits and nuts, grains such as wheat, rice, and corn, and nonfood commodities such as tobac-
co. For over 50 years, stored products have typically been fumigated with methyl bromide or
metallic phosphides. Methyl bromide is being phased out in accordance with the Montreal
Protocol on ozone-depleting substances; therefore, an alternative fumigation method is need-
ed. Metallic phosphides  (typically aluminum or magnesium phosphide) release phosphine
gas when exposed to the ambient moisture in the air. Phosphine gas by itself is a very effec-
tive fumigant with no known chronic toxicity. The efficient release of phosphine gas from the
metallic phosphides, however, requires certain temperature and humidity levels that may not
be reached in practice; unreacted phosphide residues are often left after fumigation. These
residues must be deactivated and disposed of in  a  time-consuming and often dangerous
process; typically, they are hazardous waste.
   Cytec Industries has  developed and commercialized  a new technology for fumigating
stored  products. Cytec supplies phosphine gas in recyclable  cylinders. With  cylinderized
phosphine, workers can easily adjust phosphine concentrations from outside the fumigation
space, applying  only the amount necessary for complete fumigation. As a result, fumigation
requires less phosphine. Further, cylinderized products leave no unreacted residue or byprod-
ucts. Cytec's cylinderized phosphine products are inherently safer than traditional fumigants:
they require less worker exposure and do not significantly impact the environment. Cytec's
two products, ECChFUME and VAPORPH3OS, are currently used by some of the largest
food processing, milling, and storage facilities.

Dequest PB — Carboxymethyl Inulin: A  Versatile Scale
Inhibitor Made from  the Roots of Chicory
   Fouling of surfaces by mineral salts is a major problem in water-bearing systems because
scaling reduces the efficiency of heat transfer and interferes with the operational performance
of industrial processes. Previous scale  inhibitors were either products with poor biodegrad-
ability and moderate toxicity but good performance (e.g., polyacrylates) or biodegradable
products with limited  applicability (e.g., polyaspartates).
   Solutia and Cosun (The Netherlands) used inulin, an oligosaccharide harvested from the
roots of chicory, to develop  carboxymethyl inulin (CMI). CM I is a cost-effective, safe, and

versatile alternative to traditional antiscalants. It combines excellent scale inhibition of vari-
ous types of scales, particularly sulfate scales,  with good  biodegradability and very low
toxicity. The product can be used in many applications, but is suited especially well for envi-
ronmentally sensitive areas, such as offshore oil production. For example, CMI is used in the
Norwegian offshore oil-drilling sector of the North Sea. CMI  also is a suitable replacement
for poorly biodegradable scale inhibitors in water and process water treatment, in sugar refin-
ing, and  in pulp  and  paper operations. CMI is a candidate  to  replace polyacrylates  as  a
laundry aid to prevent re-deposition and as a builder component for automatic dishwasher
detergent. In addition to CMI,  Solutia and Cosun are developing a wider range of inulin-
based products with different functionalities.
   In 2004, Solutia began marketing CMI (the first inulin derivative) in the  United States
under the trade name Dequest PB. During  2005, U.S. customers  tested the product.

Development of Nike Brand Footwear Outsole Rubber
as Environmentally Preferred Material
   One of Nike's long-term corporate environmental goals is to eliminate from its products
all substances known or suspected to be harmful to human health  or the environment. Nike
is pursuing the vision of Considered Design, where its goals are to make innovative,  perfor-
mance-quality products that demand less of our natural resources and to incorporate sus-
tainability as a design component from the  beginning.
   With  these ultimate goals, Nike Footwear has demonstrated  its industry  leadership by
successfully eliminating many  toxic substances from its rubber outsoles. Nike Footwear
redesigned two of its rubber formulations using  the Cradle-to-Cradle1M Design Protocol to
assess chemicals against 19 human  health and environmental criteria. Using  this protocol,
Nike identified rubber ingredients to be replaced and preferred alternatives to meet  its per-
formance requirements. Using more benign accelerators, vegetable  oils, and modified
processing, Nike created new environmentally preferred rubber for outsoles. The new for-
mulations  contain 96  percent fewer toxic substances by weight than  the original
formulations, provide equal performance, look the same, and cost no more than traditional
rubber. To Nike's knowledge, these are the  most advanced and sustainable rubber formula-
tions within the footwear industry; they will help initiate collaboration with manufacturers
in other industries in the design and use of more sustainable materials. Nike is currently pur-
suing the establishment of a consortium of companies to pool resources to jointly research,
develop, and use preferred chemicals, helping both to improve cost factors and to increase the
sustainability of materials that can be used collectively. The goal is to increase the list of chem-
icals that are tested and categorized as well as to  open the protocol to scientific peer review.
   In 2005, Nike produced about 170 million pairs of shoes worldwide that contained some
of its new rubber  formulations,  representing approximately 25,000 metric tons of environ-
mentally  preferred rubber.

Development of Water-Based Materials for Post-it®
Super  Sticky  Notes
   In the late 1980s, 3M developed  a prototype of a new, enhanced Post-it® Notes product
for use on vertical  and hard-to-stick surfaces. This prototype used solvent-based adhesive for-
mulations. At the same time, 3M launched an initiative to reduce volatile organic compound
(VOC) emissions by 90 percent by the year 2000.  Rather than install  pollution control
equipment to control the VOC emissions from the proposed manufacturing process  for the
Nike, Inc.

NanoKinetix, Inc.
new Post-it® Notes, 3M delayed introducing the product until it could develop a new, water-
based adhesive formulation. 3M finally introduced Post-it® Super Sticky Notes in 2003-
   The new water-based microsphere materials that 3M uses in its Post-it® Super Sticky
Notes yield the desired performance, generate fewer air emissions, have a reduced environ-
mental  risk profile,  and are  less expensive  to  manufacture than  the original, proposed
solvent-based formulations. The formulations are trade secrets, but they are based on acrylate
polymers. They do not contain any fluorochcmicals, alkylphcnol cthoxylatcs, poly(vinyl chlo-
ride), phthalates,  or  heavy metals  intentionally added or present  as impurities above de
minimus levels. The  new formulations reduce annual  VOC emissions by 33,400 pounds
(with pollution controls) or 2,170,000 pounds (before pollution controls) and Toxic Release
Inventory (TRI) emissions by  20,500 pounds (controlled) or 1,024,000 pounds (before con-
trol) compared to the projected emissions  of  the proposed, solvent-based process. The
water-based system eliminates the need for a thermal  oxidizer to control VOC emissions,
reducing 3M's emissions of CC>2 from fuel combustion.  It also increases worker safety and
reduces the possibility of fire, chemical release,  or explosion. The water-based system also
generates significant cost savings.
   3M's Post-it® Super Sticky Notes are an excellent example of the  benefits of green chem-
istry and the importance of integrating 3M's core values into decision-making. Following its
success with Post-it® Super Sticky Notes, 3M added water-based formulations  to  Post-it®
Sticky Picture Paper for printing digital pictures and to  other specialty applications in 2005.

Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide  by Selective
Nanocatalyst Technology
   Hydrogen peroxide (rTO-,)) is a clean, versatile oxidant with many industrial uses and the
potential for  many more. Projected global demand for HiCh in  2006 is  approximately
1.8 million metric tons. Applications include use in the pulp and paper industry, chemical
manufacturing, and laundry products. Demand for HjC^ has grown in recent years, but its
high production cost makes it more expensive than chlorinated oxidants, which have delete-
rious  environmental  impacts.  The  current  H^C^. manufacturing process is complex,
expensive, and energy intensive.  It also requires large amounts of hazardous and toxic chem-
icals and creates undesirable byproducts that must be kept out of the environment.
   Researchers  in  industry and academia have long sought an inexpensive,  commercially
viable, and environmentally benign method for  synthesizing H^Oi  directly from hydrogen
and oxygen. Several technical challenges (including the potential of hydrogen gas to explode)
have kept others from developing a safe, direct synthesis for HiCh in industrial settings.
   NxCat catalyst technology is a highly selective, robust nanocatalyst technology that has
overcome these challenges through the adroit use of a catalyst with proprietary molecular
templates and appropriate substrates. The molecular templates are usually made of organic
molecules or polymers with many functional groups that have specific effects on the catalyst,
a precisely tailored combination of palladium and platinum in a molar ratio of 50:1. Through
the precise control of the size, composition, dispersion characteristics, and stability of the cat-
alytic nanoparticles and the catalyst crystal structure, the NxCat technology achieves up to
100 percent reaction selectivity for H^Oj,. It requires no  hazardous materials and produces no
byproduct except water.
   Headwaters NanoKinetix  has tested its technology in partnership with a major H2<32
manufacturer and will be demonstrating it on an industrial scale during 2006. The new tech-
nology is expected to be ready for market in 2007.

Duraflame® All-Natural Manufactured Firelog
   Duraflame, Inc. is America's leading marketer of manufactured firelogs. Headquartered in
Stockton, CA, Duraflame is a privately held company that has been in business for more than
30 years.
   What started out as an effort to recycle the sawdust produced by wood milling operations
has grown  into a  way of doing  business for  Duraflame. The company's Research and
Development  Department regularly experiments with  resources  to  determine unique
approaches to product development and is continually striving to create convenient, envi-
ronmentally responsible products to meet consumer needs.
   Faced with a shrinking supply of petroleum wax and a rise in  restrictions on wood-burn-
ing fireplaces by air quality districts (particularly in  the Western States), the company has
focused on developing manufactured firelogs using materials that are both cleaner burning
and recycled or renewable. In 2004, Duraflame introduced a new all-natural firelog made
from recycled biomass products such as wood sawdust, ground nut shells, recycled cardboard,
and plant  waxes (to replace petroleum wax) as  a combustible binder.  Standard petroleum
wax—sawdust firelogs produce approximately only one third of key air pollutants associated
with residential wood combustion compared to an equivalent natural wood fire. In contrast,
Duraflame's new all-natural firelogs produce approximately one quarter of the emissions  of
an equivalent natural wood  fire. The Duraflame® All-Natural Firelog is now available  in
supermarkets across the United States and Canada.

Environmentally Advantaged Formulations for Aircraft
Ice Control
    During the 1992—1993 deicing season, the 20 largest airports in the United States used
over 11 million gallons of aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs). The large quantities of effluents that
are released into the environment during aircraft deicing operations  have resulted in several
reportable incidents of environmental damage  in the vicinity of airports throughout the
world. This damage is caused by the high biological oxygen demand (BOD) of current ADFs
that deplete oxygen levels in receiving waters sufficiently to distress  and kill  aquatic life.
Airports are  now  required to obtain  National  Pollutant Discharge  Elimination System
(NPDES)  permits  to discharge ADFs into storm water sewers. Regulations under develop-
ment by the U.S. EPA are expected to be much more restrictive. In addition, treatment costs
of current ADFs are between $12 and $20 per gallon of deicing fluid, several times the pur-
chase price of approximately $5 per gallon.
   LBOD, Foster-Miller's new ADF formulation, consists of a mixture of triethylene glycol
and glycerol. Foster-Miller designed it to have unique BOD characteristics that do not
impose an environmental threat: its 5-day BOD is as much as 85 percent lower than that of
current ADFs based on propylene glycol.
   The newr formulation can also be modified to have a high degradation rate with a reduced
BOD, making  it advantageous for high-volume users with onsite treatment facilities. The
flexibility of the newr ADF technology provides airport authorities with the option of either
treating their waste or discharging it without treatment, depending  on their size and situa-
tion. In cither case, the new technology will substantially  reduce life-cycle costs for deicing
fluids. The new technology is also expected to expedite the associated environmental per-
mitting process. Foster-Miller's technology is currently being demonstrated at the Niagara
Falls Air Reserve Station in Niagara Falls, NY.
Dyraflame, Inc.
Foster-Miller, Inc.

America,  Inc.
U.S. Army, U.S.
Army Edgewood
Chemical Biological
Enzymatic Degumming of Vegetable Oils: Reducing
Environmental Impact and Improving Oil Yield
   Typical production  of refined,  bleached, deodorized vegetable oil, particularly soy oil,
involves removing lecithin and phospholipid (the naturally occurring gums) with phosphor-
ic acid and caustic in succession. Centrifugation of the final aqueous-oil mixture removes the
aqueous phase along with the gum. The process uses a final pH in excess of 7, which saponi-
fies the oil and generates soapstock (a mixture of fatty acid salts and gums). This soapstock
has no value, and it is often sent to landfills.
   The new Bungc/Novozymes process uses relatively small amounts of citric acid and caus-
tic along with a phospholipase (Lecitase® Ultra) and about 2 percent water. Lecitase® Ultra
cleaves  the  fatty  acid from the 1-position, yielding  a /yw-phospholipid  and a fatty acid.
Centrifugation then readily removes the aqueous mixture containing /jw-lecithin, which is of
value tor animal teed. Finally, the deodorization step removes the tree fatty acids, which can
be used as a valuable coproduct or processed into other products  such as biodiesel fuel.
   Enzymatic degumming of vegetable  oil reduces the phosphorous content of the oil (a
measure of residual gums) to below 5 ppm. The process generates less water and soapstock
waste and increases oil yield, reducing the environmental impact with respect to traditional
   The average annual  production of soy oil in the United States is approximately 9-5 mil-
lion metric tons.  Lifecycle analysis  shows that if all of this oil were refined using  the
Bunge/Novozymes enzymatic process, carbon dioxide (COjJ emissions would be reduced by
an amount equal  to the average population environmental effects of over 200 million people
and energy would be saved by an amount equal to over 2 million barrels of refined gasoline.

Enzyme-Based Technology for Decontaminating Toxic
Organophospborus Compounds
   The  U.S. Army Edgewood  Chemical Biological Center (ECBC)  has  developed and
patented a technology that neutralizes chemicals such as nerve agents  and  related pesticides.
The technology consists of enzymes  in a dry granular form that can be added to water or
water-based application systems (e.g., fire-fighting foams and sprays; aircraft deicing solu-
tions). The enzymes quickly detoxify these hazardous chemicals before they can contaminate
wider areas. Because the  enzymes  are catalytic, only small quantities are required,  greatly
reducing transportation and storage requirements. They are also nontoxic, noncorrosive, and
environmentally safe. Initially intended to  decontaminate equipment, facilities, and large
areas, the enzymes could potentially be used in shower systems to decontaminate personnel
and casualties. Genencor International, the premier manufacturer of industrial and specialty
enzymes in the United  States, is using its state-of-the-art fermentation manufacturing tech-
nology to produce the enzymes. The enzymes will be sold to companies that produce and sell
fire-fighting foams, sprays, and other potential matrices. These companies will formulate the
en/ymes into products  for purchase  by fire departments, Ha/Mat groups, and other first-
responders. Genencor is marketing the enzymes under the general name DEFENZ™. Kidde
Fire Fighting introduced the first such commercial product, All-Clear™, in August 2005.

Enzymes to Improve Paper  Quality,  Reduce Energy Use,
and Increase Recycling of Paper
   Buzyme* from Buckman Laboratories is a novel enzymatic technology to modify the
wood fibers used  to manufacture paper. Buzyme® consists of a group of new cellulytic or
hemicellulytic enzymes; for each grade  of paper, Buckman selects the enzyme from the group
that  provides optimum results. This  enzymatic treatment of the wood  fiber reduces the
amount of mechanical refining required to reach desired fiber properties. In various com-
mercial applications in paper mills, this invention has given benefits such as increased use of
recycled paper, reduced energy needed to produce paper,  and  improved quality of paper
goods made from  recycled paper. This  technology improves the strength of paper and paper-
board, reducing the use of chemicals to improve strength. Less energy is needed to give the
required strength  to  paper products. The technology is already in use successfully in about
10—15 paper machines in North America; these machines  produce  tissue papers, napkins,
corrugated boxes,  and other grades of paper. One paper mill that makes dinner napkins was
able to use recycled fiber exclusively and save $1 million that it had been spending for virgin
wood pulp  each year.
   Buzyme® products make it possible to recycle more paper, produce paper more efficient-
ly, and  manufacture higher  quality  paper.  Enzymes  produce several  benefits:  enzyme
biotechnology comes from renewable  resources, is  safe to use, and is  itself completely recy-
clable. Use of these  enzymes reduces  requirements for  chemicals derived from petroleum
feedstocks. These enzymes are nontoxic to human health and the environment. They are pro-
duced by fermentation from readily available renewable resources. Although this technology
has been studied in laboratories for some years, Buckman has only recently found the keys to
make it successful on a full-scale industrial basis.

Flexible NORYL* Resins for Wire Coating
   Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) has  been widely used in the wire and cable industry as both
insulation and jacketing material for decades. The current annual U.S. consumption of PVC
for these applications is about 300,000 metric tons. During its product cycle, PVC  con-
tributes significantly to ozone depletion, global warming, and the release of cancer-suspect
dioxin and  phthalate. It releases toxic  smoke containing hydrogen chloride and cancer-sus-
pect dioxin during its manufacture and incineration.
   GE Plastics has invented and commercialized ten grades of flexible poly(arylene ether)
resins that substitute for PVC in coatings and coverings for wire and cable. They market them
as Flexible NORYL* resins. GE's Flexible NORYL* resins are based on proprietary compo-
sitions containing poly(arylene ether), polyolefm, and a nonhalogenated flame retardant.
Flexible NORYL* resins totally eliminate halogenated compounds, heavy metal stabilizers,
pigments, and phthalates. Moreover, Flexible NORYL* resins may facilitate the reuse of wire
coating to benefit the environment. Wire coatings  made with Flexible NORYL* resins have
helped the consumer electronics and automotive industries meet stringent environmental ini-
tiatives, such as the European Union's  ISO 14020 and ISO  14024 and EcoMark in Japan.
   For the consumer electronics industry, wire coatings made from Flexible NORYL* resins
offer better heat performance, increased flame retardant properties, and lower costs due to
reduced weight. In the automotive industry, NORYL* resins can improve vehicle  perfor-
mance by improving abrasion resistance, improving heat performance, and allowing more
compact electronics. The light weight of Flexible NORYL* resins and their outstanding abra-
International, Inc.

LLC and the U.S.
Agricylture (USDA)
sion resistance enable ultrathin wall wire construction. They may reduce an automobile's
wire-resin weight by as much as 25 percent. Flexible NORYL* resins can make a significant
contribution to helping global automotive manufacturers meet end-of-life and take-back
requirements including the European Union's Restriction of Hazardous Substances and End-
of-Lifc  Vehicle directives,  Japan's Automobile Recycling  Law  (2005),  and  the  Japan
Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) guidelines.

GF-120™ NFNaturafyte™ Fruit Fly Bait
   Tephritid fruit flies, including the Mediterranean fruit fly,  are important quarantine pests
that can devastate fruit and vegetable production and limit the transportation of produce.
Previously,  a wide range of insecticide baits had been used to control these  fruit flies; the
results were often inconsistent, however, due to a lack of understanding of fly attractiveness,
feeding  biology, and quality control. The active ingredients in these baits were organophos-
phates. The organophosphates were generally used at rates as high as 0.5—1.0 pounds per acre
to overcome their inadequacy. The International Atomic Energy Association and  others had
developed irradiated sterile insect techniques (SIT), but this tool works best with low insect
populations. An improved bait system using an environmentally sound active ingredient was
needed  (1)  to reduce population  levels so that sterile insect and other integrated pest man-
agement solutions could be used and (2) to protect  fly-free regions such as the  United States.
   Dow AgroScicnccs had already developed spinosad, a new reduced-risk insecticide active
ingredient that was successful in spray applications. Dow AgroSciences combined its project
management, industrial manufacturing, quality control, and  formulation science skills with
USDA's knowledge of fruit fly biology and behavior. Together, Dow AgroSciences and USDA
developed a superior bait technology, GF-120 NF™, to protect fruits and vegetables from
the Mediterranean fruit fly and similar pests. This is the first bait plus active ingredient (spin-
osad) that contains only organically acceptable components; it is so  attractive to flies that
farmers  need less than 0.003 pounds of spinosad per acre. Between 2000 and  2004, farmers
used GF-120 NF™ to treat over  six million acres. GF-120 NF™ is now the fruit fly bait of
choice in much of the world.

Green Chemistry  in the Redesign of the Celecoxib
   Pfizer has redesigned its celecoxib manufacturing process with green chemistry objectives
as some of the project's primary  goals. The results are dramatic environmental and worker
safety improvements in the manufacture of the active ingredient in the medicine, Celebrex®.
These improvements followed the elucidation of two unprecedented reaction mechanisms
responsible for the formation  of  isomeric impurities whose presence required a subsequent
recrystallization with its concomitant loss of yield and increased expense. Celecoxib made by
Pflzer's new process is pure enough to permit final isolation directly from the reaction mix-
ture; such isolations are very rare in the pharmaceutical industry. Pflzer's new mechanistic
understanding increases the process efficiency significantly with respect to raw materials, sol-
vents, energy, and waste.
   The  environmental and safety improvements are also significant. Compared to its initial
process, Pflzer's new process (based on 2003 production volume) reduced total  waste (exclud-
ing water) from 8.9 million to 2.4 million kilograms per year (waste  reduced from 23-4 to
6.3 kilograms per kilogram celecoxib). In total, Pfizer has eliminated  5,200 metric tons per
year of organic solvents. Pfizer has also completely  removed tetrahydrofuran and 35 percent

hydrochloric acid (212 metric tons per year). Organic solvent washes during isolation have
been partially  replaced by water. In  addition,  raw materials have been reduced by over
150 metric tons per year. By eliminating the recrystallization and using the heats of reaction
and other temperature parameters judiciously, Pfizer saves over 4 billion Btu per year.  Pfizer
has also improved worker safety by reducing the number of unit operations required per
batch and improving the process payload (product produced/reactor volume), resulting  in the
need for fewer batches to fulfill demand.
   The U.S. FDA has approved Pfizcr's improved manufacturing process for celecoxib; more
than 50 similar agencies worldwide have also approved  the new process. These regulatory
authorities now require Pfizer's new process for all commercial pharmaceutical manufacture
of celecoxib.

Green  Chemistry in the Redesign of the Pregabalin
   Pregabalin is the active ingredient in the medicine Lyrica®, which received FDA approval
in the United States in December 2004 for the management of neuropathic pain associated
with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and posthermetic neuralgia. Pfizer's initial commercial
synthesis of pregabalin was launched in late 2005. In this route, Pfizer synthesized the desired
chiral molecule as a racemic mixture  and resolved it in  the  final step  with  stoichiometric
amounts of (S-)mandelic acid. The resolution was only modestly efficient, and the undesired
cnantiomcr could not  be recycled. Nearly 70 percent of all process material, including  inter-
mediates, reagents, and solvents, ultimately became waste.
   Pfizer's new route to pregabalin uses an innovative biocatalytic route. Pfizer identified the
enzyme for its new route by high-throughput screening. The new process uses a relatively
inexpensive, food-grade enzyme, operates at high substrate concentrations, eliminates organ-
ic solvents  from  all four  reaction  steps,  and  dramatically improves  environmental
performance and worker safety. At projected peak production, the biocatalytic process will
eliminate  5 million  gallons  of organic  solvents annually,  including  tetraliydrofuran,
methanol, and ethanol. Additional gains  in process efficiency have also  reduced starting
material  demands and  reagent consumption.  Based  on a  projected  production  of
400 to 500 metric tons per year for pregabalin, the overall annual reduction in reagents and
starting materials ranges from 893 to 1,116.3 metric tons. Using its biocatalytic route,  Pfizer
can recycle the undesired enantiomer of the starting material, increasing the overall yield sig-
nificantly and reducing the amount of starting materials  required.  Pfizer believes that
pregabalin must be one of very few pharmaceutical agents in which every chemical step in
the manufacturing process is performed in water.
   Pfizer has successfully demonstrated its new biocatalytic process at production scale and
will increase the batch size further in  2006. Because Pfizer implemented its new synthesis
soon after FDA approval, it will realize the environmental benefits for almost the entire  prod-
uct lifecycle.

Guar-Based Chemistry Advances Targeted Performance
of Crop Sprays by Reducing Drift and Improving
   It is estimated that less than 10 percent of all sprayed  pesticides reach their intended tar-
gets. A major reason for the off-target movement of pesticides is the drift of the droplets and
the inability of the droplets to stick to a leaf or plant surface.


Company      Johns
   Rliodia uses derivatives of guar, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, to solve this prob-
lem. Hydroxypropoxylation (HP) of guar improves its hydration, making it amenable to uses
in a wide range of temperatures. Rhodia's technology uses HP-guar to mitigate the effect of
drift and improve the retention of pesticide droplets on target surfaces. Guar-based polymers
can reduce drift by increasing droplet size and can improve the retention of droplets by pro-
viding a "shock absorber"  effect. The  results of field  trials  using  pesticides corroborate
Rhodia's fundamental studies: when guar-based polymers are added to a fungicide against the
pathogen Asian soybean rust, both the efficacy and  the crop yield increase. Also, results of
field tests  using an herbicide show that guar-based  polymers increase weed kill across the
board. More importantly, a very small amount of HP-guar (0.07  percent) can increase effi-
cacy considerably, irrespective of the active ingredient.
   Rhodia sells HP-guar for agricultural applications as AgRHO™DR 2000. Farmers cur-
rently apply AgRHO™DR 2000 on more than  16 million acres  of soybeans in the  United
States, which represents 15  percent of the total sprayable soybean acreage. Within the next
five years, Rhodia expects to apply its technology to other crops covering more than triple the
current sprayable acreage.

Invention and Commercialization  of Environmentally
Smart Thermosetting Binders
   Thermosetting binders give  shape and strength to nonwoven fibrous materials, including
fiberglass insulation. The most  common thermosetting binders are formaldehyde based, but
concern with formaldehyde's potential as a carcinogen and as  an indoor air pollutant has
sparked research for safer alternatives. Manufacturing operations  and products that  rely on
formaldehyde-based technologies also require expensive emissions abatement equipment,
employee protection measures,  special handling, and transport.
   In response, Rohm and Haas  Company (ROH) has developed and patented Aquaset™
acrylic thermosetting binders, a family of formaldehyde-free, curable, aqueous solutions of
poly(acrylic acid), triethanolamine, and sodium hypophosphite  (NaHP). Hypophosphite
catalysis had been used earlier for esterification in permanent press fabric applications; ROH
adapted it to fiberglass insulation to achieve greater network formation and robust physical
properties. ROH enhanced reactivity and cross-linking by using NaHP as both an esterifica-
tion catalyst and a chain-transfer agent. Ultimately, they enhanced the mobility of the polyol
within the curing resin, increased the reactivity of primary alcohols such as triethanolamine,
and optimized the cure temperatures.
   Combining these steps, ROH created a class of acrylic thermosets that is an ideal green
chemistry alternative  to phenol-formaldehyde resins. The byproduct of cure is  water; the
technology eliminates formaldehyde wastes, emissions, and exposures. Aquaset™ technolo-
gy is  nonreactive, nonflammable, recyclable, and  benign  at ambient  conditions to ease
handling, transport, storage, application, and cleanup.
   Johns Manville (JM) has been  refining the Aquaset™ technology along with ROH. Since
2002, when it began manufacturing formaldehyde-free fiberglass insulation, JM has con-
verted  all of its building insulation products to the Aquaset™ technology, eliminating the
emission of more than 200,000 pounds of formaldehyde and one  million pounds of ammo-
nia each year. JM has also eliminated more than 180,000 pounds of phenol and 280,000
pounds of methanol emissions per year. JM is now the only manufacturer exempted from the
U.S. EPA National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Wool
Fiberglass Manufacturing.

Irbesartan (Avapro®) Greenness Project
    Irbesartan, which is chemically synthesized, is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used
to treat hypertension and renal disease in type 2 diabetic patients. Although clinical trials had
demonstrated the medical benefits of Irbesartan, the original synthetic process was difficult
to manage from an environmental, health, and safety (EHS) perspective. The primary con-
cerns included a potential runaway bromination reaction, severe skin and eye irritation from
an  intermediate  product, and  negative environmental  effects of several  organic solvents.
Previously, Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) had mitigated some of the negative EHS impacts of
the original  synthesis,  but the bromination in the first synthetic step remained a concern.
This  bromination created a  nonbiodegradable byproduct that required incineration and,
thereby, created a significant waste disposal problem.
    To address that problem  and further minimize EHS impacts, BMS has modified  the
bromination and crystallization processes it uses in the synthesis and modified the recrystal-
lization process for the active  pharmaceutical ingredient. These modifications have increased
yield, saved  energy,  reduced  the use of hazardous materials, reduced  waste, and improved
workplace health  and  safety.  Based on projected five-year production of Irbesartan, BMS
expects to save over 680 metric tons of solid chemicals, over 40 million liters of solvents, and
4.4 million liters of water. Other projected benefits include a 325-ton reduction in solid waste
requiring incineration  and a savings of 24,400 megawratts of energy from recycling the two
remaining process solvents.

JONCRYL® FLX5000: A High-Performance, Water-
Based Polymer to Facilitate  the Conversion from
Solvent-  to Water-Based Inks in Surface Film Flexible
Packaging Printing
    The inks used in  the flexible packaging industry  must meet extensive performance
requirements. They are expected to print well  on a variety of flexible substrates and provide
good print quality, excellent water and chemical resistance, adhesion, crinkle resistance, and
heat resistance. Traditionally, such requirements have demanded that printing inks  be sol-
vent-based. Typical solvents are alcohols and acetates. An estimated 135—150 million pounds
of solvent-based inks are used each year in the United States for applications on film and lam-
inated flexible packaging. This high-volume use is, however, associated with environmental
and handling concerns.
    Johnson  Polymer has developed a unique, water-based, self-cross-linking polymer system
that has enhanced the  performance of water-based inks significantly. Specific improvements
include water-resistance, crinkle-resistance, and adhesion. At the same  time, the new inks
maintain the on-press rcsolubility that is critical for high-quality printed images.
    This nomination compares the performance of JONCRYL® FLX 5000, a new self-cross-
linking, water-based polymer, to that of traditional water-based polymers; it also compares
print trials using water-based inks based on JONCRYL® FLX 5000 to a traditional solvent-
based ink.
    Johnson  Polymer formally introduced JONCRYL® FLX 5000 to the U.S. printing  ink
manufacturing market in October 2005, culminating a  research and development effort in
the United States and Europe spanning the previous three to four years. Johnson Polymer has
conducted multiple press trials, resulting in ongoing commercial sales in Europe and initial
trial sales in  the United States.
Johnson Polymer,

Merck & Co., Inc.
Kilogram-Scale Purification of Pharmaceutical
Candidates and Intermediates Using Preparative
Supercritical Fluid Cbromatography
   Preparative chromatography is increasingly used in the pharmaceutical industry to purify
kilogram quantities of developmental compounds for preclinical evaluation. Historically, the
industry  has  carried  out these  separations by  high-performance  liquid chromatography
(HPLC) using large amounts of petrochemical-derived organic solvents. Merck has recently
demonstrated the possibility of performing these separations at the kilogram scale using sub-
critical or supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), in which pressurized carbon dioxide
(CO;;) replaces the hydrocarbon solvents often used in HPLC.
   Using custom-designed preparative SFC equipment prepared in collaboration with sever-
al vendors, Merck has recently carried out the first kilogram-scale SFC enantioseparations of
pharmaceutical intermediates in the pharmaceutical industry. Merck has reported its results
in a recent publication (Welsh, C.J. et al., LC-GC,  2005,  16-29). In one example, enan-
tioseparation of 2.5 kilograms of an intermediate was projected to require 36,000 liters of
solvent by HPLC versus only 900 liters by SFC. Although this example is extreme, a 10-fold
decrease in solvent consumption is typical. Equally important, SFC also produces a corre-
sponding decrease in solvent evaporation, leading to considerable savings in equipment, time,
and energy. Further, preparative SFC is generally more productive than HPLC, especially for
chiral separations. The SFC advantage can be extreme, as in the case where there was no suit-
able HPLC purification for a single stereoisomer of a drug candidate intermediate, yet SFC
(5 cm i.d. column, 350 g/min, 830  L organic solvent) purified 1.7 kilograms easily in only
72 hours. During 2005, Merck demonstrated preparative SFC using a 15-ton CCh bulk tank
and custom-built, 3-kilogram-per-minute CC*2 delivery system.
   Merck has demonstrated that preparative SFC is not only a more environmentally friend-
ly method for purifying development drugs  and intermediates, but is simply better,  with
greater productivity and cost-effectiveness, both important considerations for large-scale sep-
arations to support pharmaceutical manufacturing.

Mesotrione and Callisto®  Plant  Technology
   The mesotrione story began when a U.S. Syngenta scientist noticed that tew weeds were
growing under a Callistemon citrinus (bottle brush) plant. Upon analyzing a soil sample,  he
discovered that the Callistemon plant secretes an herbicidal compound through its roots,  an
ability known as  allelopathy.  Using a combination of infrared spectroscopy,  mass spcc-
troscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, he identified the structure of the allelopathic
compound produced  by the bottle brush plant as leptospermone. This allelochemical, lep-
tospermone, presented interesting properties including good foliar activity, soil activity, being
tolerated well by corn, and control of a wide range of weeds.
   Scientists at Syngenta discovered mesotrione  (C^HisOyNS; MW 339-32) by modifying
and optimizing the backbone of leptospermone.  Mesotrione has the same mode of action as
leptospermone,  but  is 20  times  more  potent  and,  thus,  more  commercially viable.
Mesotrione is a member of the triketone group of selective herbicides that act by inhibiting
the enzyme ^>-hydoxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD). HPPD is part of the biosynthet-
ic  pathway for carotcnoid, a precursor of chlorophyll. Thus,  inhibition of HPPD causes
bleaching followed by necrosis in sensitive plants (i.e., target weeds).
   In 2001, U.S.  EPA approved mesotrione as a reduced-risk herbicide. Shortly thereafter,
Syngenta introduced Callisto®, a mcsotrionc-containing herbicide for post-emergent weeds.

Callisto® challenged all competitive broadleaf herbicides for use in corn crops: during its first
full-season year in 2002, it achieved almost a 25 percent share of the post-emergent, broadleaf
weed control market, treating more than four  million acres. Syngenta's introductions of two
mcsotrione formulations for pre-emergent weeds, LUMAX® in 2003  and Lexar® in 2005,
added strength to the Callisto Plant Technology family. Today,  farmers worldwide recognize
mesotrione and Callisto Plant Technology as unique herbicide products that  provide impor-
tant  benefits  including  exceptional  crop safety, unprecedented  broadleaf weed control,
application flexibility, and a 21st-century environmental profile.

New Asymmetric  Hydroxylation  Technology for  the
Commercial Manufacture of Indoxacarb
   Indoxacarb is a major new insecticide marketed worldwide  by DuPont Crop Protection.
The U.S. EPA has designated indoxacarb as both a reduced-risk pesticide and an organophos-
phate replacement.  Indoxacarb is the  insecticidally active S-form of a racemic pair; the
/?-form is not active.
   It is undesirable to manufacture and apply racemic mixtures  of pesticides, due both to the
environmental burden of the inactive enantiomer and to the waste  generated in its produc-
tion. Recognizing this, scientists at DuPont developed new proprietary technology for the
asymmetric synthesis of indoxacarb. The first-generation process used cinchonine to catalyze
an asymmetric hydroxylation, affording  a  50-percent enantiomerically  enriched product.
DuPont used this technology for its first  commercial production of indoxacarb  in January
2000. Then, improving  on its  earlier technology, DuPont developed a  second-generation
process that uses proprietary complexes of chiral diamine ligands and zirconium to carry out
the critical asymmetric hydroxylation in high yield with high enandomeric excesses.
   Commercial production of the first fully enriched indoxacarb (with over 98 percent enan-
domeric  excess) began in September 2005- At current production  volumes, DuPont's new
synthesis of indoxacarb is reducing the total material burden on the environment by hun-
dreds of tons  per year over the  first-generation process. In the  United States, indoxacarb is
marketed as DuPont Steward®  Insecticide and DuPont Avaunt® Insecticide; it is currently
registered in over 70 countries. Worldwide sales were $130 million in 2004 and are expect-
ed to reach $150 million in 2005.

Nexterra™ Carpet: Modified PET Carpet Backing
   Carpet tile backings have previously been made of polymers such as Poly(vinyl chloride)
(PVC), polyurethane, or mixtures of various thermoplastics that are derived from petro-
chemicals.  The  manufacture  or disposal of some of these backing materials raises
environmental concerns.  Further, the energy required for the physical  separation of the tile
backing and the face fiber (usually by grinding or air elutriation) adds to the cost of recycling
current tile backings. Physical separation  also  leads to impure component streams for recy-
   Beaulieu has developed a modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) backing system  that
contains  a much lower percentage of products derived from virgin petroleum, requires sig-
nificantly less energy to produce,  and offers new solutions to carpet tile recycling. Beaulieu
had already been purchasing postconsumer PET bottles and  converting them into carpet
fiber. Now, however, Beaulieu is also converting plastic PET bottles into a pliable, flexible car-
pet tile backing  system  using a unique  transesterification process (patent  allowed). This
process lowers both the molecular weight and the melting point of the polymer. Beaulieu's
 (DuPont Crop

modified PET polymer allows them to use postconsumer ground glass as a filler in their back-
ing. Altogether, their backing system contains 85 percent post-consumer materials and only
15 percent virgin  petrochemicals by weight. Traditional  carpet tiles have approximately
50 percent virgin petroleum content. The exclusive modified PET backing enables more cost-
effective and energy-efficient recycling. The solubility of the polymer in polar solvents allows
separation of the carpet tile backing from the face fiber (usually nylon 6 or 6,6). During recy-
cling, Beaulieu uses a glycol monomer bath at  150—180 °C  to dissolve the  polymer,
separating it and the glass from the insoluble face fiber.
   Beaulieu launched Nexterra™ carpet tiles in May 2005. The company estimates its 2005
product sales at $1—5 million; Beaulieu is expecting significant sales growth during 2006.

Nitamin® Steady-Delivery Fertilizers for Improved
Nitrogen Efficiency in  Crops
   Worldwide, farmers apply approximately 82 million metric tons of nitrogen fertilizer, pri-
marily urea, to cropland annually. Plants are often  unable to take up all of the nitrogen
released into  the soil from  urea hydrolysis and salt-based fertilizers such as ammonium
nitrate, so the  excess nitrogen leaches through the soil and contaminates nearby waterways.
Agricultural nitrogen is a major contributor to the increasing nitrate  levels in many water-
ways around  the world. These  excess nitrates create hypoxic areas in which the levels of
dissolved oxygen are too low to support life.
   Nitamin® fertilizers provide an economic solution to this problem  by slowing the rate at
which nitrogen is available to the plant.  By reacting urea with ammonia and formaldehyde
under specific  conditions to form a blend of small urea-formaldehyde polymers and cyclic
compounds, Georgia-Pacific can control the rate at which the nitrogen is released to plants.
The primary Nitamin* fertilizer product releases nitrogen for approximately 90 days, corre-
sponding  well  to the requirements of many crops. This controlled deliver)' allows the plant
to use more of the applied nitrogen, resulting in reduced application rates and reduced leach-
ing. Nitamin® fertilizer  reduces the amount of nitrogen used by 25 percent (onions and
tomatoes) to 55 percent (cabbage); in other studies with  potatoes, onions, and tomatoes,
Nitamin® fertilizer increased crop yields by 7—54 percent. Based on U.S.  figures alone, even
a 5 percent reduction in the amount of nitrogen applied to crops could lead to 810  million
pounds less nitrogen applied annually. This improved efficiency of nitrogen use coupled with
affordability is the highlight of this technology.
   Georgia-Pacific first commercialized its technology in January 2004. During 2005, uni-
versities and growers ran over 80 trials  with different  crops to verify the  marketability of
Nitamin®  fertilizer.  During spring  2006, Georgia-Pacific will  commercialize  a liquid
Nitamin® fertilizer for use on vegetables.
A Novel Cleaning System  Using Less Toxic, Safer
   The nominated process cleans and sanitizes the poly(ether sulfone) ultrafiltration (UF)
 membranes used in the dairy industry. The current, commercially available, cleaning process
 has been  a three-cycle  alkaline—acid—chlorinated  alkaline system.  Conventional alkaline
 cleaners typically consist of strong alkaline solutions of sodium and potassium hydroxide with
 a small amount of nonionic surfactants. The acid cleaners typically consist of high levels of

phosphoric and nitric acids. The sanitizer contains sodium hypochlorite at 200 ppm in solu-
tion. The current procedure also requires large volumes of water to rinse and neutralize the
   JohnsonDiversey's technology uses peroxygen chemistry to develop more efficient clean-
ers  and germicides with  safer and  more  environmentally preferable  chemicals.  Their
technology consists of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, a phosphorus-based acid,
phosphonate, and an anionic surfactant. This new technology yields safer cleaners by formu-
lating them at a more neutral pH.  Hydrogen peroxide provides a good bleach alternative that
sanitizes more gently than chlorinated alkaline sanitizers. Overall, this technology cleans and
sanitizes effectively using less toxic chemicals than current alternatives; it is also safer with
respect to human health and the environment. This technology has a great economic impact
by performing the cleaning and sanitization at lower temperatures; it saves energy by as much
as 43 percent, reduces plant downtime by as much as 1 8 percent, decreases water use by as
much as 33 percent, decreases wastewater generation, and improves the long-term stability of
the  LJF membrane. During  pilot  plant  studies, JohnsonDivcrscy's peroxygen products
demonstrated superior performance versus the current competitive products. Compared  to
the typical system, JohnsonDiversey has demonstrated average savings of $700,000 per dairy
plant per year. As of the end of 2004, JohnsonDiversey had tested and verified its new tech-
nology in a pilot plant membrane module for two years.

Oxygen-Enhanced  Combustion for NOx  Control
   The abundance of coal  and expected high costs for other fossil fuels, such as natural gas,
suggest that coal-fired power plants will still be in use for some time. Coal-fired utilities are
also, however, major emitters of pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx). Praxair's Oxygen-
Enhanced  Combustion  (OEC) technology for  NOx control is a unique combination  of
reduced NOx emissions and enhanced combustion. In OEC, oxygen replaces a small portion
of the combustion air in a staged combustion system, increasing the local temperature under
fuel-rich conditions. These higher flame temperatures convert NOx to N2 in the flame zone.
In equipment from laboratory-scale furnaces to a nominal 125-megawatt power plant,  oxy-
gen-enhanced staged combustion reduces NOx emissions by as much as 60 percent without
the operational  problems commonly associated  with staged combustion. An OEC system
operated  for  most  of  the 2003  and 2004 ozone seasons  at the Northwest  Utilities
125-megawatt Mt. Tom Station, achieving NOx emissions of less than 0.15 pounds per mil-
lion Btu. In two industrial boilers at the PH. Gladfleter Paper Company in Pennsylvania,
OEC systems reduced NOx emissions by over 40 percent.
   By minimizing NOx  formation in the combustion zone, OEC reduces or eliminates the
need for postcombustion cleanup technologies such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
that require ammonia. By minimizing the need for SCR systems, Praxair's OEC technology
also minimizes the  production, transportation, and storage of ammonia. Because ammonia
is hazardous, minimizing its use increases the safety of both plant personnel and the public.
Further, because ammonia production requires natural gas, minimizing ammonia also helps
preserve this important natural resource. Making broad assumptions about  600 coal-fired
plants in 22 states, Praxair estimates  that OEC technology could eliminate the use of over
500 million pounds of ammonia per  year and  atmospheric emissions of over 30 million
pounds of ammonia in flue gas per year.
Praxair, Inc.

U.S.                 of
Energy, Pacific
Laboratory, operat-
ed by
Picaridin: A Safe,  Effective,  and Environmentally
Friendly Insect Repellent that People Will Use
    Under a commitment to Responsible Care*', LANXESS Corporation and its parent com-
pany, LANXESS Deutschland GmbH (formerly part of Bayer AG), developed, manufacture,
and market picaridin, an insect repellent, Picaridin offers a safe, effective, user-friendly, and
environmentally responsible alternative to traditional repellents that are based on the widely
known and frequently employed active ingredient diethyl-»2-toluamide (DEET). Unpleasant
odors, stickiness, and cautions associated with many formulations of insect repellent too fre-
quently may deter people from using these products, thus leaving themselves unprotected
from the risk of bites, infection, and disease.
    Picaridin results  from  scientific innovations that  overcome the cosmetic disadvantages
that keep people from using insect repellents. The LANXESS active ingredient is marketed
globally under the registered trademark BAYREPEL*'; generically, it is recognized as picaridin
in the United  States, where LANXESS introduced it  in 2005. Picaridin was developed to
increase efficacy against a  broad range of insects and to improve  cosmetic performance. Its
attributes include (1) broad effectiveness against mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and  horseflies;
(2) cosmetic acceptability: gentle on the  skin, non-sticky, almost no scent to humans; (3) not
damaging to plastics, fibers, coatings, or sealing compounds; (4) can be used during preg-
nancy and breast-feeding; and (5)  safe for children age two and older.
    Picaridin is a custom molecule developed under a hypothesis that repellency is triggered
by action on specific olfactory receptors  of insects. Three-dimensional modeling was used to
map a molecule to interact with the insects' receptors. Picaridin undergoes a fast and thor-
ough primary  biodegradation, yielding  the  more stable metabolite, picaridin acid.  In tests
carried out in Germany, neither groundwater nor tap water contained residues of picaridin
or picaridin acid, indicating  the complete degradation and removal of the substances by
sewage treatment plants and groundwater conditioning systems.

Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica
Technology: An Alternative Synthesis of a Novel
Adsorbent for Mercury Source Reduction
    Mercury contamination has long been recognized as a serious threat to national and glob-
al environments.  Development of innovative  technologies to   remove  mercury without
producing harmful byproducts  or secondary waste is critically important to our constantly
changing industries and environment.
    Thiol self-assembled monolayers on  mesoporous silica (thiol-SAMMS) can absorb mer-
cury and other heavy metals  from low-volume  waste streams, but the original synthesis of
thiol-SAMMS created  its own environmental problems. SAMMS used to be functionalized
in toluene. The resulting waste stream consisted of wrater, methanol, toluene, and traces of
mercaptan. It was impractical to separate this mixture; therefore, the mixture wras usually dis-
posed of as hazardous waste.
    In response to this problem, scientists at  U.S. Department of Energy's  Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory (PNNL) have created and patented a green chemical  process to synthe-
size SAMMS  more efficiently. PNNL scientists use supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO-,)), a
green solvent that allows complete silane deposition and yields a higher quality product. With
this new process, PNNL can conduct SAMMS deposition faster and more efficiently. A reac-
tion that normally took several hours  in  refluxing toluene (110 °C) is complete in only a few
minutes in scCCh; the reaction now produces a defect-free silane monolayer with no resid-

ual silane left in solution. The only byproduct is the alcohol from the hydrolysis of the
alkoxysilane. The CO;> and the alcohol are readily separated; each is then captured and recy-
cled. The SAMMS emerges from the reactor clean, dry, and ready to use. This new synthesis
produces higher-quality SAMMS at one third of the  original cost with virtually no waste.
Steward Advanced Materials in Chattanooga, TN, has licensed the technology and will be
manufacturing SAMMS using the PNNL synthesis. Other licenses are pending with an oil-
and gas-filtration equipment company for offshore oil and drilling applications and a major
oil company.

SONOXIDE Ultrasonic Water Treatment System
   Both oxidizing and non-oxidizing chemical microbiocides are commonly used to control
microorganisms in recirculating cooling water systems. Typically, these chemicals are the
most corrosive, hazardous, and toxic portion of the overall water treatment program.  This
applies to both process and comfort cooling systems.
   SONOXIDE ultrasonic treatment eliminates the  use of chemical  biocides along  with
their hazards and toxicity. The SONOXIDE system is a self-contained, turnkey unit that
requires only plumbing and power for installation to a bypass of a recirculating water system.
It controls total bacteria, biofilm, and algae with a unique,  patented ultrasonic treatment
incorporating low-power, high-frequency ultrasound, and microbubble aeration. The result-
ing intraccllular  stress to microorganisms  is not immediately fatal; instead,  the treated
microorganisms circulate throughout the water system and disrupt the balance of the micro-
biological community,  inducing  systemwide  microbiological control. SONOXIDE
treatment reduces both sessile and planktonic organisms throughout the system. Controlling
microorganisms maintains  the cleanliness of water  systems, reduces energy  use,  extends
equipment life, and eliminates handling and disposal of chemical biocides.
   Ashland Specialty Chemical first introduced SONOXIDE treatment in  Europe  in 2003
and in the United States in 2004. Worldwide, SONOXIDE  units are successfully treating
over 350 recirculating cooling water systems with this technology.

Tide Coldwater®: Energy Conservation through
Residential Laundering Innovation and
   Procter & Gamble has recently commercialized a patented, breakthrough chemical inno-
vation  in environmentally friendly cleaning technology to provide superior cleaning and
significant energy savings in low-temperature (60 °F) wash water. Over 6 million U.S. house-
holds have used Tide Coldwater® since its introduction in North America in January 2005-
   Tide Coldwater®  uses surfactant systems designed to  be more hydrophobic than other
detergents. The liquid detergent formula uses an optimized combination of alcohol ether sul-
fate, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, ethoxylated zwitterionic surfactants, and alkyl amine
surfactants. The powder detergent formula is based on high-solubility alkyl sulfate, a propri-
etary branched surfactant. In combination with a unique bleach activator,  builder/chelant,
soil suspension, enzymes (protease and amylase), and brightener systems, these proprietary
surfactant systems deliver superior cleaning performance in cold water.
   Blind consumer tests have shown that Tide Coldwater® provides superior cleaning in cold
water relative to detergents formulated for warm and hot water. Without sacrificing perfor-
mance in stain removal or whitening, consumers can save up to $63 per year in home energy
Chemical Drew
Procter &

           & Coming
Ecolab Inc.
costs while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. Using a peer-
reviewed model for residential energy use, Procter & Gamble estimates that Tide Coldwater®
will reduce the fraction of residential energy used to heat water by up to 26—36 percent, with
an associated reduction in carbon dioxide (CC>2) emissions of up to 1,259 pounds per house-
hold per year. The potential benefits of this innovation are significant: if everyone  in the
United States  switched to cold water tor laundry, the potential energy savings would be
70—90 billion kilowatt-hours per year, representing up to 3 percent of the nation's energy con-
sumption. These savings  are  the  equivalent of 26—34 million tons of CO?  per year,
representing over 8 percent of the CO;> reduction target for the United States set in the Kyoto

Tin- and Copper-Compatible Conductive Adhesive for
Lead-Free Electronic Circuit Assembly
   Tin—lead eutectic solder is currently the most common product used to attach electronic
components on circuit boards.  Lead, however, is a known toxin. Because lead can leach into
the environment, Europe has passed legislation mandating recycling of consumer electronics
containing lead by 2006. This has prompted electronic circuit assemblers to seek an alterna-
tive attachment product. Conductive adhesives have  also been used for years, but their use
has been limited to attaching components terminated with palladium—silver, silver, and gold
(noble metals) on both ceramic hybrid boards and flexible polyester circuits. Previous con-
ductive adhesives were not stable on low-cost tin- and tin—lead-terminated components.
   Emerson & Cuming's novel and patented  chemistry allows it to achieve stable contact
resistance and stable adhesion under damp-heat and high-temperature aging conditions with
tin, tin—lead,  and copper finishes. Compatibility with these finishes was not possible in the
past. This compatibility was achieved by preventing galvanic corrosion on these less expen-
sive,  non-noble metal finishes. The incorporation of a corrosion inhibitor and a low-melting
alloy into the  adhesive formulation prevents oxidation on these finishes under extreme envi-
ronmental conditions and leads to stable performance over time. About 30 electronic  circuit
assembly companies currently purchase the Emerson & Cuming adhesive. Over the last three
years, this product has effectively eliminated the use of 6.1 metric tons of tin—lead eutectic
solder, in five years, it  should replace 50 metric tons of solder a year.

Wash 'n Walk'™ Floor Care System
   Standard industrial floor cleaners are based  on heavy-duty alkaline or acid blends of sur-
factants and water conditioners. They typically require  warm water and rinsing after use.
Over time, however, lime scale, polymerized grease, and detergent residuals build up, con-
tributing to slippery floors and worker accidents.
   Ecolab has introduced a revolutionary floor care system that removes kitchen grease from
foodservicc floors. This system uses a novel no-rinse procedure, leaving enzymes on the floor
to digest and  break down accumulated grease deposits.  Formulated to clean kitchen  floors,
Wash 'n Walk™ incorporates a patent-pending, low-alkaline blend of surfactants, water con-
ditioners (including Trilon M),  lipase, and spore-forming, fatty-acid-degrading microbes that
break down the hard-to-degrade fatty acid components of floor grease. This chemistry pro-
vides  immediate  cleaning, comparable to  industrial-strength floor cleaners, as well as
long-term deep cleaning by removing imbedded organics left in pores, cracks,  corners, and
crevices. Its key benefits include: (1)  clean floors using substantially less water; (2) clean grout,
reducing the potential for growth of odor-producing bacteria; and (3)  extensive removal of

polymerized grease, resulting in  a significant increase in the  coefficient of friction (i.e.,
increased slip resistance) of kitchen quarry tile floors and reducing worker accidents. In addi-
tion to institutional and industrial floors, Wash Yi Walk™ is suitable for cleaning floors and
grout in household kitchens,
   Ecolab  introduced Wash 'n  Walk™  in January 2004;  by December 2005, over
50,000 customer sites in North America were using this product. If halt of these 50,000 loca-
tions employed Wash 'n Walk™ daily, 273 million gallons of water would be saved each year.
Ecolab has introduced this product in Canada and will expand to global sales in 2006.
Globally, Ecolab estimates that there are over one  million  potential institutional and indus-
trial users for this technology.

Xerox's Emulsion Aggregation Toner Technology
   Toner is the dry ink for laser  printers and copiers. Xerox's Emulsion Aggregation (EA)
toner technology represents a breakthrough in the  chemistry and chemical  processing of
toner materials. It is a unique, environmentally friendly technology that allows customers to
print  in color  more accurately and affordably. There are over 400 patents protecting this
Xerox innovation.
   Toners are  a mixture of plastic resin, colorant, and other ingredients. The conventional
method of making toners uses a  top-down approach: a mechanical mechanism physically
grinds composite polymeric materials into micron-sized particles,  which are then sorted by
size. The EA technology uses sophisticated chemical design- and control-based nanotechnol-
ogy methods to generate  toner particles of about 3—5  microns in diameter from nanoscale
components in a bottoms-up approach.  The process includes a scmicontinuous emulsion
polymerization in water to generate nanometer-scale polymer particles.
   The key advantages of EA technology are its ability to control the size, shape, and struc-
ture of the particles. This technology improves print quality, uses less toner, wastes less toner,
and decreases energy use,  both for manufacturing toner and for using it in printing. Xerox
can now produce toner using 25—35 percent less energy per pound of toner. Combined with
40—50 percent less toner needed during printing, EA technology offers  an estimated
60—70 percent energy savings  per printed page.  EA technology produces less waste and
increases the life of machine parts. EA is an environmentally friendly, water-based process.
   The Xerox  Research Centre of Canada and its Xerox partners in the United States and
Japan jointly developed this technology. Xerox introduced its EA technology in 2002 in its
DocuColor 1632/2240 color copier/printers; currently, several other Xerox products  also use
this technology In June 2005, Xerox announced plans to build a second EA toner plant on
the company's  property in Webster, NY.

Zero-VQC,  Zero-HAP,  No-Odor Industrial Coatings
   Sierra Performance Coatings by Rust-Oleum have eliminated the traditional use of sol-
vents  to manufacture and  apply industrial coatings. Through a number of patented and trade
secret processes, Sierra has developed a way to combine uniquely designed resins and resin
systems into a line of industrial  coatings that contains zero volatile organic compounds
(VOCs), zero hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), and no odor. As a commercial product line,
these  coatings  are reducing VOC  and HAP emissions, which have in return translated into
broad-based benefits tor end-users (paint applicators, workers, and building occupants) and
the macro-scale environment.

        Sierra Performance products range from single component (IK) acrylic and acrylic-ure-
     thanes to two-component (2K) epoxies and acrylic-epoxies. The IK compositions are unique
     resin systems that achieve application and finished properties by manipulating particle size,
     molecular weight distributions, and chemical composition without solvents. These composi-
     tions, combined with other traditional raw materials for paints and coatings, activate upon
     the evaporation of water. The principal component of the 2K products is a proprietary,
     advanced molecular-weight epoxy polymer with a unique distribution of molecular weight;
     it produces high-performance coatings that cure quickly without requiring solvents to reduce
     viscosity or aid coalescence,
        Rust-Oleum's development  of alternative  processes and material compositions, both
     patented and trade-secret, have made possible new designs for waterborne resins,  coatings,
     and paint products that meet the demanding performance of institutional  and industrial
     environments, while  not contributing any airborne environmental emissions or worker safe-
     ty issues.


Award winners are indicated with *.

3M Office           Division
Development of Water-Based Materials for Post-it® Super Sticky Notes	39
Stalosan F Microbial and Environmental Control for Use in Housing of All Animals. . ,  . 32
*Arkon                           Technologies, Inc.
Environmentally Safe Solvents and Reclamation in the Flexographic Printing Industry. .  . .  4
          Specialty Chemical Drew
SONOXIDE Ultrasonic Water Treatment System	 53
Aygystine,         L.,  Center for
Bromine-Free, TEMPO-Based Catalyst System for the Oxidation of Alcohols	9
                     Institute,           of     Pacific North-
       National Laboratory for  the U.S. Department of Energy
Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica Technology!: An Alternative
Synthesis of a Novel Adsorbent for Mercury Source Reduction	52
           Group, LLC
Nexterra™ Carpet: Modified PET Carpet Backing	49
Bristol-Myers         Company
Irbesartan (Avapro®) Greenness Project	47

BFliAC™ and BPX™-: Launching the Biorefining Revolution	36
                          International, Inc.
Enzymes to Improve Paper Quality, Reduce Energy Use, and Increase Recycling of Paper.  . 43
                                                  America, Inc.
Enzymatic Degumming of Vegetable Oils: Reducing Environmental Impact and
Improving Oil Yield	42
Cargill, Incorporated
Biobased Polyols	36
                   University,               of Chemistry,
Dramatic Reduction of Copper Catalyst Content in Atom Transfer Radical
Polymerization	10
Center for                         University of
                 Lowell,         L. Cholli
High-Performance Macromolecular Antioxidants for Materials:
A Green Chemistry Approach	14
Center for           Catalysis,        Hall Uniwersity,
        L. Aygystine
Bromine-Free, TEMPO-Based Catalyst System for the Oxidation of Alcohols	9

     Center for                         University of Delaware,
     Green Materials from Biomass	 13

     Chiral Qyest, Inc.
     Practical Asymmetric Catalytic Hydrogenation	31

     Cholli,        L., Center for                        University of
     High-Performance Macromolecular Antioxidants for Materials: A Green
     Chemistry Approach	 14

     Sustainable Earth® Cleaning Products Designed for Health and the Environment	32

     *Codexis, Inc.
     Directed Evolution of Three Biocatalysts to Produce the Key Chiral Building Block for
     Atorvastatin, the Active Ingredient in Lipitor*	 6"

     Cornell University, Fiber          Program, Anil N.
     Green Composites: Environment-Friendly and Fully Sustainable ................... 12

     Cylinderized Phosphine as a Safer, More Environmentally Friendly Alternative
     to Traditional Stored Product Fumigants	38

     Diwekar, Urmila,               of Bio,  Chemical,
     Industrial Engineering, and  Institute for Environmental
     Science      Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago
     Greener by Design: An Efficient, Multiobjective Framework under Uncertainty	14

     Aminofyralid: Increasing Protection of Endangered Species through Improved
     Management of Non-Native Plants While Maximizing Land Use and Significantly
     Reducing Herbicide Volume and Application	35

                          LLC      U.S.               of
                 (USDA) Agricyltyral
     GF-120™ NFNaturalyte™ Fruit Fly Bait ................................. 44

     DyPont Company  (DyPont Central Research and Development)
     Eioderived Solvents, Surfactants, Fuel Additives, and Monomers	37

             Company  (DyPont Crop
     New Asymmetric Hydroxylation Technology for the Commercial Manufacture
     oflndoxacarb	49

     Duraflame, Inc.
     Duraflame® All-Natural Manufactured Firelog ............................... 41

     Wash 'n Walk™ Floor Care System	 54

     New One-Step, Chromate-Free Anticorrosion  Coatings for Aluminum Alloys
     and Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel	28

               & Coming
     Tin- and Copper-Compatible Conductive Adhesive for Lead-Free Electronic
     Circuit Assembly.	...,...,..,...,...,..,...,...,......,.. 54

     Exelys, Inc.
     ExSact: A "Green" Gasoline Technology	23

FluidPhase Technologies Inc.
A Preproduction System for Re-Refining Used Oil Using Closed-Loop, Patented,
Atomization Technology.	 31

Foster-Miller, Inc.
Environmentally Advantaged Formulations for Aircraft Ice Control	41

Fyngi Perfect!, LLC
Mycopesticides and Mycoattractants	 27

Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A., Department of Chemistry
Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles
Solvent-Free, Crystal-to-Crystal Photochemical Reactions: The Synthesis of Adjacent
Stereogenic Quaternary Centers	 16

Flexible NORYL* Resins for Wire Coating. .................................. 43
Georgia-Pacific Corporation
Nitamin® Steady-Delivery Fertilizers for Improved Nitrogen Efficiency in Crops	50

Go-Tec, Inc.
Acetylene: A Viable Fuel Alternative for the Internal Combustion Engine	1.9

GreenBIye (Green       Institute)
CleanGredients'™ Information Technology for Green Chemistry	20
        Chemistry Program, University of
Lowell, John C.
Bioinspired Photopolymers: A Green Chemistry Platform for Innovation, Research,
Education,  and Outreach	9

GreenEarth Cleaning, L.L.C.
GreenEarth Cleaning: Dry Cleaning With Silicone Solvent	24
                o   J       o
ACCOLADE'™ Synthetic-Based Drilling Fluid System	33

New Water-Based Organic Corrosion Inhibitor	29

              NanoKinetix, Inc.
Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Selective Nanocatalyst Technology  	40

Hytchison,         E., Department of Chemistry     Director,
                               University of
Greener Approaches to Functionalized Nanoparticle Synthesis and
Nanoscale Patterning.	13

Innovative Formylation Company
Ecological Paint Antimicrobial Clear Coat	22

           for                               Policy, University
of Illinois at Chicago, Urmila
Greener by Design: An Efficient, Multiobjective Framework under Uncertainty ........ 14

Interface Fabrics
Closing the Loop with "Benign by Design" Biobased Fabrics and Backings	37

IPAX Cleanogel,  Inc.
Commercialization and Broadening of Market for an Environmentally Friendly
Cleaner and Degreaser. ................................................. 21

     iSoy Technologies Corporation
     Biocatalytic Production ofBiobased Personal Care Products	20
     Johns                                 Company
     Invention and Commercialization of Environmentally Smart Thermosetting Binders . ... 46
     Johnson Polymer,  LLC
     JONCRYL® FIX 5000: A High-Performance, Water-Based Polymer to Facilitate the
     Conversion from Solvent- to Water-Eased Inks in Surface Film Flexible
     Packaging Printing	47
     JohnsonDiwersey,  Inc.
     A Novel Cleaning System Using Less Toxic, Safer Chemicals	50
     Krische, Michael J., Department of Chemistry
     Biochemistry, University of        at Austin
     Hydrogen-Mediated Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation	 ... 14
     LANXESS Corporation
     Picaridin: A Safe, Effective, and Environmentally Friendly Insect Repellent
     that People Will Use	52
     LATA Groyp, Inc., The
     New Green Technology for Eliminating Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous Systems,
     Especially Petroleum Industry Systems.	 28
     Li, Kaichang, Department of Wood Science      Engineering,
     Oregon       Uniwersity
     Development, Characterization, and Commercial Applications of Environmentally
     Friendly Adhesives for Making Wood Composites .............................. 10
                               of Technology, Chemical
     Engineering                          W. Tester
     Replacing Organic Solvents and Homogeneous Catalysts with Water
     and Carbon Dioxide	16
                                   University of
     Greener Approaches to Functonalized Nanoparticle Synthesis and Nanoscale Patterning. . 13
     Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof, Department of Chemistry, Carnegie
     Dramatic Reduction of Copper Catalyst Content in Atom Transfer Radical
     Polymerization	 10
            & Co., Inc.
     Kilogram-Scale Purification of Pharmaceutical Candidates and Intermediates Using
     Preparative Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. .............................. 48
     *HVIerck & Co., Inc.
     Novel Green Synthesis for fi-Amino Acids Produces the Active Ingredient injanuvia™ ... 5
     Milliken & Company
     Alternative Green Adhesives for Textile Composites in Commercial Buildings:
     TractionBack™ and 180 Wails™. ........................................ 34
     MIOX Corporation
     On-Site Generation of Mixed Oxidants Using Sodium Chloride Brine as a Safe
     Alternative for Chlorine Gas Disinfection	30

                    Uniwersity, College of
Tor P.                      D.
Employing Low-Cost, Benign Antioxidant and Metal Chelator Additives in
Totally Organic Wood Preservative Systems	/ /
Environmentally Benign Deicing/Anti-Icing Agents	22

Multipurpose Exopolymer as a Raw Material	26
Nalco Company
3D Trasar BioControl	33
            Anil N., Fiber          Program, Cornell University
Green Composites: Environment-Friendly and Fully Sustainable	12

Nicholas, Barrel D.,      Tor P.          College of
Employing Low-Cost, Benign Antioxidant and Metal Chelator Additives in
Totally Organic Wood Preservative Systems	11
Development of Nike Brand Footwear Outsole Rubber as Environmentally
Preferred Material.	 39
Novozymes        America, Inc.      Bynge North America
Enzymatic Degumming of Vegetable Oils: Reducing Environmental Impact
and Improving Oil Yield 	42
*NyPro Technologies, Inc.      Arkon Consyltants
Environmentally Safe Solvents and Reclamation in the Flexographic Printing Industry. . . . 4

Ohio        Uniwersity, Department of Chemistry,
Ethylene in Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis: A General Route for 2-Arylpropionic Acids
including (S)-Ibuprofen from Styrene Derivatives and a Practical Solution to the
Exocyclic Stereochemistry Problem	 11

Oregon        University, Department  of Wood Science
     Engineering,            Li
Development, Characterization, and Commercial Applications of Environmentally
Friendly Adhesives for Making Wood Composites .............................. 10

Pacific                        Laboratory,  U.S.               of
Energy,            by
Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica Technology: An Alternative
Synthesis of a Novel Adsorbent for Mercury Source Reduction	52

                      University,               of Chemistry,
Practical Asymmetric Catalytic Hydrogenation	7.5

Pfizer                         Dewelopment
Green Chemistry in the Redesign of the Celecoxib Process	44
Green Chemistry in the. Redesign of the Pregabalin Process ....................... 45
Polnox  Corporation
High-Performance Macromolecular Antioxidants for Materials:
A Green Chemistry Approach	25

     PostSaver®	30
     Praxair,  Inc.
     Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion for NOX Control.	51
     Procter &           Company
     Tide Coldwater*: Energy Conservation through Residential Laundering
     Innovation and Commercialization	53
                  J. V. (Baby),               of Chemistry,
     The Ohio        University
     Ethylene in Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis: A General Route for 2-Arylpropionic Acids
     including (S)-Ibuprofenfrom Styrene Derivatives and a Practical Solution to the Exocyclic
     Stereochemistry Problem	 11
     Innovative Process for Treatment of Hog Waste and Production of Saleable
     Products from This Waste	25
     Guar-Based Chemistry Advances Targeted Performance of Crop Sprays by Reducing
     Drift and Improving Retention	45
     Invention and Commercialization of Environmentally Smart Therrno setting
     Binders	46
     Ryst-OIeym Corporation
     Zero-VOC, Zero-HAP, No-Odor Industrial Coatings	55
     Schyltz, Tor P.              D.                     of
     Employing Low-Cost, Benign Antioxidant and Metal Chelator Additives in
     Totally Organic Wood Preservative Systems	 11
     *S.C.            & Son, Inc.
     Greenlist™ Process to Reformulate Consumer Products. .......................... 7
                  Technologies LLC
     Eeneficiation and  Use of Coal Combustion Fly Ash: A Major Success in Reducing
     Solid Waste and Increasing Supplies of Construction Materials While Reducing
     Greenhouse Gas Emissions	35
            Hall Uniwersity, Center for
     Bromine-Free, TEMPO-Eased Catalyst System for the Oxidation of Alcohols. .......... 9
     Solytia  Inc.
     Dequest PB — Carboxymethyl Inulin: A Versatile Scale Inhibitor Made from the
     Roots of Chicory	38
     A New Polymer Coating for Increasing the Efficiency of Phosphorous Use and
     Reducing Its Environmental Impact	29
     StoIIer               Inc.
     Alternative to Methyl Bromide to Overcome Nematode Damage to Crops:
     Stoller Root Feed™.	 19

Syper Trap Inc.
GEL-CORIM: A New, Environmentally Compatible Bullet-Trapping Medium for
Small-Arms Firing Ranges,	...,...,..,...,...,..,...,...,......,.. 24
*Syppes, Galen J., Department of Chemical Engineering,
Uniwersity of  Missoyri-Colymbia
Eiobased Propylene Glycol and Monomers from Natural Glycerin	3

Mesotrione and Callisto® Plant Technology	48
Tester,           W., Chemical Engineering
                          of Technology
Replacing Organic Solvents and Homogeneous Catalysts with Water
and Carbon Dioxide	16
Uniwersity of  California,                             of
Chemistry     Biochemistry,         A. Garda-Garibay
Solvent-Free,  Crystal-to-Crystal Photochemical Reactions: The Synthesis of Adjacent
Stereogenic Quaternary Centers	 16
Uniwersity of  Cincinnati,               of Chemical
Engineering, Wim J.     Ooij
Novel, One-Step, Chromate-Free Coatings Containing Anticorrosion Pigments to Replace
Chromate Pretreatment and Pigments	 15
Uniwersity of  Delaware, Department of Chemical  Engineering,
Green Materials from Biomass	13
University of  Illinois at Chicago,               of      Chemical,
                Engineering, Urmila Diwekar
Greener by Design: An Efficient, Multiobjective Framework under Uncertainty ........ 14
Uniwersity of                 Lowell, Center for
                   L. Cholli
High-Performance Macromolecular Antioxidants for Materials:
A Green Chemistry Approach	 14
University of                 Lowell, School of Health      the
Enwironment, John C. Warner
Bioinspired Photopolymers: A Green Chemistry Platform for Innovation,
Research, Education, and Outreach	 9
*University of Missoyri-Columbia,               of Chemical
Engineering,        J.
Eiobased Propylene Glycol and Monomers from Natural Glycerin	3
Uniwersity of  Oregon,              of Chemistry,        F.
Greener Approaches to Functionalized Nanoparticle Synthesis and Nanoscale Patterning—13
University of        at Aystin, Department of Chemistry
Biochemistry, Michael J. Krische
Hydrogen-Mediated Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation	14
U.S. Army, U.S. Army
Enzyme-Based Technology for Decontaminating Toxic Organophosphorus Compounds . . . 42

    U.S.               of Agricyltyre (USDA) Agricyltyral
    GF-120™ NF Naturalyte™ Fruit Fly Edit ................................. 44
    U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National
    Laboratory,           by Battelle  Memorial Institute
    Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica Technology: An Alternative
    Synthesis of a Novel Adsorbent for Mercury Source Reduction	 52
         Ooij, Wim J.,               of Chemical
    Engineering, University of Cincinnati
    Novel, One-Step, Chromate-Free Coatings Containing Anticorrosion Pigments
    to Replace Chromate Pretreatment and Pigments	15
    Development of High Performance, Environmentally Benign Hard Disk Drive
    Polishing Fluids and Corrosion Inhibitors	21
    Warner, John C, School of Health          Environment
    Director,        Chemistry Program, University of
    Bioinspired Pbotopolymers: A Green Chemistry Platform for Innovation,
    Research, Education, and Outreach	 9
    W.F. Taylor Co., Inc.
    Meta-Tec™ Low-VOC, One-Component, Cross-Linking Adhesive: Innovative
    Science-Applied Technology	26
    Wool,          P.,              of Chemical Engineering, University
    of                         for
    Green Materials from Biomass	 13
    Xerox's Emulsion Aggregation Toner Technology	55
    Zhang, Xymu,               of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania
    Practical Asymmetric Catalytic Hydrogenation	 15

    High-Efficiency Olefin to Polyolefin Process with Toxic Solvent Elimination. .......... 25
    New Biomass Catalytic Reforming Process for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Generation. . . 27




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