Clean  Vehicles +  Clean hel=  Cleaner Air
  EPA's Tier 2 Vehicle and Gasoline Sulfur program, which was finalized in December 1999,
   is now taking effect.

  This historic new program will result in cars, SUVs, pickups, and vans that are 77-95 percent
   cleaner than todayis cars and trucks.

  At the same time, the program will result in cleaner-burning gasoline that contains 90 percent
   percent less sulfur.

  For the first time:
   >   All passenger cars and light trucks will be covered by the same emission standards.
   >   Vehicles and fuels are being treated as a system, so that the cleaner vehicles will have the
       low-sulfur gasoline that they need to run their cleanest.
   >   The emission standards will apply to all vehicles, regardless of the type of fuel they
       operate on (e.g. gasoline, diesel, or  alternative fuels).

  The Tier 2 program is the result of a groundbreaking cooperative effort  among EPA, the auto
   industry, the oil industry, states, environmental and public health groups, and others.

  Industry has stepped up to the challenge of meeting the very stringent standards.
   >   The auto industry will significantly exceed the required number of very clean vehicles
       sold for Model Year 2004 (estimated to be 35 percent, rather than the required 25
       percent).
      Oil refiners have been making large investments, and several refiners are already
       introducing cleaner gasoline earlier than required.

  The changes to vehicles and gasoline will be essentially transparent to consumers:
   >   The performance and product selection of vehicles and fuels will  not change.
   >   The very large benefits of this program will cost about $70-250 per vehicle and less than
       2 cents per gallon of gasoline.

  For these costs, EPA expects significant air quality and health improvements:
   >   Even with the continuing increases  in vehicle population and in the  number of miles
       driven, the nation's air quality is expected to improve.
   >   Less pollution from cars means fewer cases of respiratory disease and costs  associated
       therefrom (lost work productivity, medical expenses, etc.)

  A simplified version of the Tier 2 NOx standards and phase-in schedules, including the
   emission standard bin structures, are below.

EPA420-F-04-002                                                              January 2004

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              Phase-In Schedules for NOx Standards and Fuels
               (does NOT include a number of exceptions and options)
Phase-in schedule for 0.07 g/mi NOx average
(all vehicles not complying with Tier 2 must comply
with interim standards through the phase-in period)
Year
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Cars & Light Trucks
25%
50%
75%
100%
100%
100%
Heavier Trucks




50%
100%
Phase-in schedule for sulfur reductions in gasoline
Year
2004
2005
2006
Refinery Caps
300 ppm
300 ppm
80 ppm
Corporate Average
120 ppm
90 ppm
90 ppm
Refinery Average
N/A
30 ppm
30 ppm
Tier 2 Bins - NOx standards
Binl
Bin 2
Bin 3
Bin 4
Bin5
Bin 6
Bin 7
Bin 8
Bin
Bin
Bin
9 (expires in 2006)
10 (expires in 2006)
1 1 (expires in 2006)
0.00
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.07 (average standard)
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.30
0.60
0.90
EPA420-F-04-002
January 2004

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