Transport Partnership
 U.b. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies:
              Retrofit  Devices for  Drayage
           Integrating retrofit technologies into the existing drayage fleet can achieve significant reductions in
           emissions depending on the technology selected.
    What is the challenge?
    With the development of cleaner engine
    technologies, the emission profiles of diesel trucks
    have improved over time. These cleaner
    technologies take time to work their way into the
    existing truck fleet however.  The drayage fleet,
    since it typically consists of the oldest trucks on the
    road, is the last to see improvements from the
    cleaner technologies added to new trucks.
    Consequently, areas served by the drayage fleet
    are subject to higher pollution levels.

    What is the solution?
    Engine replacement will capture the technological
    improvements recently introduced, however it is
    often prohibitively expensive. If engine
    replacement is not an option, there are a number
    of retrofit technologies or fuel additives that can
    improve emissions from older trucks.  Retrofit
    control devices tend to be engine-specific, with
    options for older trucks remaining more limited
    than for newer models. Proper maintenance and
    use of the retrofit device  is required to ensure
    continued effectiveness of these devices on older
    higher emitting trucks.

    The U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency has
    signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with
    the California Air Resources Board (CARB)
    establishing reciprocity in the verification of
    emissions control technologies. There are
    approximately six technologies/additives  available
    for pre-1988 engines on the lists of verified
    technologies for both CARB and EPA.
        The results are in  ...
        The technologies/additives that are approved for
        use in older trucks are listed in the table below
        along with the expected emissions improvement.
        All of these options come with slight fuel efficiency
        penalties.  Retrofit devices applied to older engines
        have the potential to reduce particulate matter
        (PM), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons
        (HC) whereas devices that reduce nitrogen oxides
        (NOX) or carbon dioxides (CO2)  are still being
        developed. Also, these devices must be
        maintained properly and operated using low  sulfur
        (500 ppm or less) on-highway fuel. Adding
        biodiesel is one of the few options to improve CO2
        emissions from older trucks, however biodiesel
        potentially increases NOX emission rates.

        Next steps
        The technology to  improve the emissions profile of
        older trucks exists. It is simply a matter of paying
        for it. There are no efficiency improvements that
        accrue to those adopting the new technologies,
        requiring the provision of incentive mechanisms.
        California's Carl Moyer Program helps fund
        technologies that achieve greater than required
        emission reductions.  This government funded
        program is one mechanism that could speed the
        adoption of retrofit devices.

        The EPA's Voluntary Diesel Retrofit Program Web
        site highlights information for fleet
        owners/operators considering retrofit options for
        their vehicles, and can be found at:
        www.epa.gov/otaq/retrofit/overview.htm.
                                                              Percent Emissions Reductions
Manufacturer
Engelhard
Lubrizol
Lubrizol Engine Control Systems
Various
Various
Johnson Matthey
Technology
CMX Catalyst Muffler
PuriNOx
Water emulsion fuel
AZ Purimuffler
AZ Purifier
Biodiesel (1 to
100%)
Cetane Enhancers
CEM Catalyst Muffler
PM
20
16 to 58
20
Oto47
n/a
20
CO
40
-35 to 33
40
Oto47
n/a
40
U.S. EPA Office of Transportation & Air Quality  EPA420-F-06-003  (734) 214-4767 phone  smartway_transport
NOx
n/a
Qto20
n/a
Oto-10
Oto5
n/a
gepa.gov 
HC
50
-30 to -120
50
Oto67
n/a
50
www.epa.gov/smartway

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