Transport Partnership
A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies:
          Gate Accessibility for Drayage
            Improved gate accessibility can increase terminal throughput while reducing time trucks spend idling in
            queue. This helps trucking companies save fuel while reducing greenhouse gas, nitrogen oxides and
            particulate matter emissions. Extended gate hours and gate systems improvements could save over
            SI, 000 in fuel costs and eliminate 5 metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions per truck annually.
         What is the challenge?
         Drayage truck traffic peaks during
         certain seasons and times of the day
         creating inefficiencies for the pick-up
         and delivery of cargo.  Daytime peaks
         in truck volumes reflect the terminal gate
         operating hours, warehouse hours, and
         the timing preferences of shippers for
         pick-ups and deliveries.  Traditional gate
         hours combined with inefficient gate
         access can result in lengthy lineups at
         gates and increased turn times. In a
         U.S. Maritime Administration survey,
         gate hours of operations were identified
         as an impediment to "efficient and
         effective cargo movement" at 38% of the
         country's largest container ports. These
         peaks in drayage traffic, which  often
         coincide with commuter rush hour traffic,
         not only increase fuel costs and delivery
         time, but also exacerbate air pollution.

         What is the solution?
         Gate Accessibility
         There are a number of options  that can
         improve the efficiency and throughput of
         terminal gates.  Reversible gates allow
         trucks to enter or exit depending on the
         demand for either service. Two-stage
         gates allow for the verification of
         information at one gate followed by
         actual gate inspection.  Terminal staging
         areas allow for the quick drop off or pick
         up of a trailer. These strategies make
         more efficient use of otherwise  idle gate
         capacity, reduce idling time and improve
         fuel efficiency.
      Shifting a portion of truck traffic to
      evening and weekend hours can reduce
      both the number of trucks waiting at
      terminal gates and those entering local
      highways during peak hours. Time-
      shifting programs require operational
      changes by port management, terminal
      operators, snippers, warehouses, and
      labor organizations. Components of
      time-shifting strategies include
      extending hours of operation for terminal
      gates, and warehouse and shipping
      facilities, ensuring labor availability  and
      initiating incentive programs such as
      peak shipping charges.

      The  results are in ...
      Studies have shown that a 50%
      reduction in wait time is possible through
      improved gate accessibility.  Savannah,
      New Orleans, Los Angeles are just a
      few of the ports that have implemented
      extended gate hours or individual gate
      improvements. Extended hours can
      benefit terminals with increased
      container throughput and customer
      satisfaction. Trucking firms/drivers
      benefit from increased  number of turns
      per shift, increasing income and
      providing an incentive to attract drivers
      into the industry.

      The Port of Savannah has nearly
      doubled container volumes  in recent
      years. Over the same period, truck turn
      times have decreased on average from
         U.S. EPA Office of Transportation & Air Quality  EPA420-F-06-006  (734) 214-4767 phone 

 75 minutes in 2000, to 42 minutes in
 2004. This has been achieved by a
 combination of gate and yard planning
 measures. The port has extended gate
 hours, added additional specialized
 traffic lanes and implemented a two-
 stage gate system.

 Terminal operators at the Ports of Los
 Angeles and Long Beach have
 established PierPass, a not-for-profit
 company whose mandate is to address
 congestion and air quality in the port
 regions. In July 2005, PierPass
 launched its OffPeak program to shift
 15-25% of cargo to off-peak hours
 through extended  gate hours and peak
 hour shipping charges.  Initial responses
 have been greater than expected, with
 nearly 30% of containers now shipped
 at night, an increase from 10% prior to
 the start of OffPeak.  During the
 program's  first four weeks 188,000 truck
 trips were diverted from peak-hour

 Next  steps
 Terminal operators and Port Authorities
 should  consider the implementation of
 gate  efficiency measures to reduce
 congestion in and  around port facilities.
 Consultation with stakeholders,
 including port management, terminal
 and warehouse operators, shippers,
 freight carriers, labor representatives
 and surrounding communities is a key
 step to  undertake early in the planning
 process in order to garner full support
 for the changes.
U.S. EPA Office of Transportation & Air Quality  EPA420-F-06-006  (734) 214-4767 phone