Control  of Hazardous Air Pollutants
    from  Mobile Sources:  Final  Rule to
    Reduce  Mobile  Source Air Toxics
        The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing
        a final rule to reduce hazardous air pollutants from mobile
    sources.  Hazardous air pollutants, also known as air toxics, in*
    elude benzene and other hydrocarbons such as l,3*butadiene,
    formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene.  Air tox*
    ics emitted by motor vehicles and other moving sources (called
    "mobile source air toxics," or MSATs) contribute significantly to
    the nationwide risk from breathing outdoor air toxics. The final
    standards will significantly lower emissions of benzene and the
    other air toxics in three ways:  (1) by lowering benzene content
    in gasoline; (2) by reducing exhaust emissions from passenger
    vehicles operated at cold temperatures (under 75 degrees); and
    (3) by reducing emissions that  evaporate from, and permeate
    through, portable fuel containers.
    Background
    Section 202(1) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to set standards to control hazard-
    ous air pollutants from motor vehicles, motor vehicle fuels, or both. EPA published
    a rule under this authority in March 2001 that established toxics emissions perfor-
    mance standards for gasoline refiners and committed to additional rulemaking to
    evaluate the need for and feasibility of additional controls. This final rule fulfills that
    commitment from the 2001 rule.

    In addition, EPA is adopting emission standards for portable fuel containers (such
    as gas cans) under the consumer products authority of the Clean Air Act (section
    183(e)).
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                    EPA420-F-07-017
                      February 2007

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 Reason to Reduce Mobile Source Air Toxics
 MSATs are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health or environmental effects.
 Benzene is of particular concern because it is a known carcinogen and most of the nation's ben-
 zene emissions come from mobile sources. People who live or work near major roads, or spend
 a large amount of time in vehicles, are likely to have higher exposures and higher risks.  People
 living in homes with attached garages are also likely to be exposed to benzene levels that are
 higher than average.

 Many MSATs are part of a larger category of mobile source emissions known as volatile organic
 compounds (VOC), which contribute to the formation of ozone and possibly particulate matter
 (PM). Ozone and PM can contribute to serious public health problems, including premature
 mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, damage to lung tissues and
 structures, altered respiratory defense mechanisms, and chronic bronchitis.
 Fuel  Program
 EPA is requiring that, beginning in 2011, refiners must meet an annual average gasoline benzene
 content standard of 0.62 percent by volume (vol%) on all their gasoline, both reformulated and
 conventional, nationwide. The national benzene content of gasoline today is about 1.0 vol%.
 (Gasoline sold in California will not be covered because California has already implemented
 more stringent standards similar to those EPA is establishing.)

 The regulations include a nationwide averaging, banking, and trading program. In addition to
 the 0.62 vol% standard, refiners must also meet a maximum average benzene standard of 1.3
 vol% beginning on July 1, 2012.  A refinery's  or importer's actual annual average gasoline ben-
 zene levels may not exceed this maximum average standard. The Agency expects that gasoline
 in all areas of the country will have lower benzene levels than they do now, and there will be
 less geographic variability in gasoline benzene levels.  Areas where benzene levels are currently
 highest, such as Alaska and the Northwest, will experience the most significant reductions.
 EPA is providing special compliance flexibility for approved small refiners or any refiner facing
 extreme unforeseen circumstances.
 Vehicle Program
 EPA is adopting new standards to reduce non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) exhaust emis-
 sions from new gasoline-fueled passenger vehicles. NMHCs include many mobile source air
 toxics, such as benzene. Recent research indicates that the current test procedures often do not
 result in robust control of NMHCs at colder temperatures below 75 degrees. Therefore, we are
 requiring that passenger vehicles meet new NMHC exhaust emissions standards at colder
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 temperatures. As shown in Table 1, each manufacturer's vehicles will be subject to a sales-
 weighted fleet average NMHC level of 0.3 grams/mile for lighter vehicles weighing 6,000
 pounds (Ibs) or less. Vehicles above 6,000 Ibs (which include trucks up to 8,500 Ibs and pas-
 senger vehicles up to 10,000 Ibs) must meet a sales-weighted fleet average NMHC level of 0.5
 grams/mile. The standards phase in between 2010 and 2013 for the lighter vehicles, and be-
 tween 2012 and 2015 for the heavier vehicles. A credit program and other provisions provide
 flexibility to manufacturers, especially during the phase-in periods.
 Table 1 - Cold Temperature NMHC Standard and Phase-In Schedule
Vehicle Weight Class
(GVWR)A
< 6000 Ibs
> 6000 Ibs to 8500 Ibs plus
passenger vehicles up to
10,000 Ibs
NMHC Emission Level
(grams/mile)
0.3
0.5
Phase-In ScheduleB (percent)
2010
25

2011
50

2012
75
25
2013
100
50
2014

75
2015

100
AGross Vehicle Weight Rating
B Percent of each manufacturer's fleet, by model year, that must comply with the standard.
 Along with the vehicle exhaust standards, we are also adopting more stringent evaporative
 emission standards for new passenger vehicles. The new standards are equivalent to California's
 standards and codify the approach that manufacturers are already taking for 50-state evaporative
 systems. We are implementing the evaporative emission standards in 2009 for lighter vehicles
 and in 2010 for the heavier vehicles.
 Portable Fuel Container Program
 EPA is establishing standards that will limit hydrocarbon emissions that evaporate from or per-
 meate through portable fuel containers such as gas cans. Gas cans are consumer products used
 to refuel a wide variety of gasoline-powered equipment, including lawn and garden equipment,
 recreational equipment, and passenger vehicles that have run out of gas.  The new requirements
 also apply to diesel and kerosene containers.  Starting with containers manufactured in 2009,
 the standard limits evaporation and permeation emissions  from these containers to 0.3 grams of
 hydrocarbons per gallon per day. We are also adopting test procedures and a certification and
 compliance program in order to ensure that containers meet the emission standard over a range
 of in-use conditions.

 EPA has worked closely with major container manufacturers and it is expected that the new
 cans will be built with a simple and inexpensive permeation barrier and new spouts  that close
 automatically.
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 Program Benefits
 The new fuel benzene standard and hydrocarbon standards for vehicles and gas cans will togeth-
 er reduce total emissions of mobile source air toxics by 330,000 tons in 2030, including 61,000
 tons of benzene. As a result of this rule, new passenger vehicles will emit 45 percent less ben-
 zene, gas cans will emit 78 percent less benzene, and gasoline will have 38 percent less benzene
 overall. Our analyses show that this rule provides the biggest benefit to individuals from areas
 experiencing the highest levels of risk. That includes areas such as the Pacific Northwest, where
 fuel benzene levels are currently among the highest in the country, and cold temperature vehicle
 emissions are high as well.

 In addition, the hydrocarbon reductions from the vehicle and gas can standards will reduce
 volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions  (which are precursors to ozone and can be precur-
 sors to PM25) by over 1 million tons in 2030.  The vehicle standards will reduce direct PM25
 emissions by 19,000 tons in 2030 and may also reduce secondary formation of PM25. Once the
 regulation is fully implemented, the Agency estimates these PM reductions will result in the
 avoidance of nearly 900 premature deaths annually.

 We estimate that most of the benefits of this final rule will come from the reduced direct PM2 5
 emissions of the vehicle standards, estimated to be about $6 billion in 2030. Some additional
 benefits will come from reductions in mobile source air toxics and VOCs, although we have not
 been able to monetize these benefits.
 Estimated  Costs per  Program
 The additional cost of producing gasoline to comply with the new benzene standard is expected
 to average $0.0027 per gallon. This per-gallon cost would result from an average of $14 million
 in capital investment in each refinery that adds equipment to reduce gasoline benzene levels.

 We estimate that the annual net social costs of this rule will be approximately $400 million in
 2030 (expressed in 2003 dollars). These net social costs include the value of gasoline savings
 from the new fuel container standards,  which is estimated to be worth $92 million in 2030.

 We estimate that the additional cost to manufacturers will be less than $1 per vehicle. The
 costs will be associated with vehicle research and development and recalibration, as well as
 facilities upgrades to handle additional development testing under cold conditions. We are not
 anticipating additional costs for the new vehicle evaporative emissions standard since manufac-
 turers will likely continue to produce 50-state evaporative systems that meet California's stan-
 dards.

 The average additional cost of producing portable fuel containers that comply with the new
 standards will be less than $2 per can.  The reduced evaporation from containers will result in
 gasoline savings over the life of the container that will more than offset the increased cost for
 the container.
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 For More Information
 You can access documents on this rulemaking on EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality
 Web site at:

       www.epa.gov/otaq/toxics.htm

 For further information, please contact the Assessment and Standards Division at:
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
       Office of Transportation and Air Quality
       2000 Traverwood Drive
       Ann Arbor, MI 48105
       Voicemail: (734) 214-4636
       E-mail: asdinfo@epa.gov
Final Rule to Reduce Mobile Source Air Toxics

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