Worcester, MA
Expanding Markets and
Revitalizing Communities
Sustainable reuse of brownfield properties involves an emphasis on reducing the environmental impacts of building renovation.
One of the most effective ways of reducing these impacts is the recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) material.
Recycling of C&D material can prevent loss of useful property, wasted materials and embodied energy. It conserves raw materials
through the use of existing materials, conserves energy and water, and reduces the production of greenhouse gas emissions and
other pollutants. Furthermore, by providing materials to local vendors and processors, C&D recycling can create employment
opportunities and economic activities that sustain local economies.
Project Highlights

In June 2003, EPA awarded Main South Community
Development Corporation (CDC) in Worcester,
Massachusetts a $200,000 Brownfields Cleanup
grant to address contamination discovered
on 7.8  acres of the Gardner-Kilby-Hammond
Neighborhood Revitalization Project—an ambitious
$32 million dollar, 30-acre inner city neighborhood
redevelopment project. Cleanup of contamination
present in the soil and the abandoned industrial
  Construct/on and Demolition Material

  Construction and demolition (C&D) material is
  produced during new construction, renovation and
  demolition of buildings and structures.

  C&D material includes bricks, concrete, masonry,
  soil, rocks, lumber, paving materials, shingles, glass,
  plastics, aluminum (including siding), steel, drywall,
  insulation, asphalt, roofing materials, electrical materials,
  plumbing fixtures, vinyl siding, corrugated cardboard,
  and tree stumps.

  C&D materials can be recovered through  reuse
  and recycling. In order for materials to be  reusable,
  contractors generally must remove them intact (e.g.,
  windows and frames, plumbing fixtures, floor, and
  ceiling tiles) or in large pieces (e.g., drywall and lumber).
  In order to be recyclable, materials must be separated
  from contaminants (e.g., trash, nails, and broken glass).
buildings was completed in March 2006. To help
keep cleanup costs within Main South CDC's
budget, McConnell Enterprises recovered multiple
construction and demolition (C&D) materials from
the abandoned industrial buildings, including:
15,000 tons of concrete and brick, 1000 tons of
steel, 200,000 broad feet of hard yellow pine, and
2000 tons of granite. Salvaged materials were sold
through local and global markets, reused onsite for
new construction, or recycled, strengthening the
local market for C&D materials. Main South CDC
realized a savings of approximately $200,000 as
a result of its C&D material reduction strategies.
Early planning and a phased approach to the
cleanup and development of the property also
allowed for a major phase of the Gardner-Kilby-
Hammond Neighborhood Revitalization Project
to move forward: the construction of a Boys and
Girls Club and affordable housing for first-time


The Main South CDC, a non-profit organization,
was incorporated in 1986 to address the social,
environmental and economic decline of the Main
South Community in Worcester. The CDC's mission
is to improve and sustain the quality of life for
neighborhood residents by working together on
projects and issues that will create and sustain safe
affordable housing, support economic opportunities
for businesses and residents of Main South, enhance

the physical image of the area, and instill a strong
sense of place. To put its mission into action, Main
South CDC, working closely with Clarke University
and the City of Worcester, launched the Gardner-
Kilby-Hammond Neighborhood Revitalization
Project. The 30-acre inner city neighborhood
redevelopment project plan called for the
construction of the Worcester Boys and Girls Club,
a new athletic field, and over 80 affordable "green"
homeownership units for sale to first-time low-to-
moderate income homebuyers.

A critical barrier to the Neighborhood Revitalization
Project was the assessment and cleanup of a
7.8-acre abandoned and contaminated industrial
complex built in the early 1800s in Main South.
A preliminary  environmental assessment of the
property indicated soil and buildings contamination
from prior uses including a former foundry,
metal fabrication shop, a paper mill, a wood
patterning shop and auto detailing and repair
shops. A Phase II environmental assessment was
the necessary next step. An environmental Phase
II assessment completed in 2001—with EPA
Brownfields Assessment grant funding awarded in
1999—revealed soil and buildings contaminated
with metallic residues, paint, solvents and
petroleum requiring cleanup. To assist with cleanup
costs, EPA awarded Main South CDC a $200,000
EPA Brownfields Cleanup grant in 2003.
         Main South CDC would like
         to thank all of its public and
              private partners:

         We recognize that without shared
       vision, plans may remain ink on paper.
        Shared vision puts plans into action,
          in this case restoring hope and
       creating opportunity for current and
               future generations.

To adhere to Massachusetts' material reduction
goals and manage project costs, Main South CDC
incorporated C&D material reduction activities
directly into their Request for Proposal (RFP). The
                Project Funding
     EPA Assessment grant funding
     to City of Worcester	$ 161,500
     EPA Cleanup grant funding to Main
     South CDC	$200,000
     In-kind funding from Main South
     CDC usedforcleanup	$40,000
     Leveraged for redevelopment
     from private sources	$12,950,000
RFP required contractors bidding on the cleanup
project to access the scrap and recycling value of
the project and include the value in the project
pricing. Subsequently, Main South CDC hired GZA
Environmental Inc., to cleanup the environmental
contamination present in the soil and the abandoned
buildings, while Ryan Construction  was retained to
perform the demolition and construction phase of
the project.

Cleanup of the soil and abandoned building was
completed on March 20, 2006. Next, demolition of
the old industrial buildings began. In stark contrast
to conventional demolition, McConnell Enterprises
salvaged market-value materials such as steel, brick,
granite, and lumber from the abandoned industrial
building. Prior to the recovery of C&D materials,
GZA Environmental, Inc. determined that a portion
of brick was painted with lead. Testing revealed it
was an insignificant amount of lead, and as a result,
the Massachusetts Department of Environmental
Protection approved a beneficial use determination
to allow building debris to be reused as back fill
after the removal of contaminants. Crew members
from McConnell Enterprises deconstructed the
clean bricks and stored them on the  property for
reuse during the new construction. The excess brick
salvaged was sold in Boston to other construction
companies to restore historically zoned homes and
buildings. The salvaged pine heart lumber was sent
to lumber mills in Mountain Pine, North Carolina
and exported to parts of Spain for restoration
projects. The recycled steel was exported to other
countries, such as China. In addition, the lumber
which was not recyclable was ground and burned at
a power plant with natural gas in Maine to produce
a mulch-like material, which has a variety of uses.

  Recycled Materials from the Former
  Industrial Complex
      15,000 tons of concrete and brick
      1000 tons of steel
      200,000 broad feet of hard yellow pine
      2000 tons of granite
      Four three-decker duplex buildings

As a direct result of the construction and demolition
material reduction strategies, Main South CDC
and its partners realized significant reductions in
cleanup costs which kept the project competitive.
Stephen Teasdale, the director of Main South
CDC commented that the "actual cost of site
acquisition, demolition and cleanup was greater
than the market-value of the site. To keep the
project cost competitive, materials were salvaged,
reused or recycled resulting in huge savings; thus
the 'value' created outweighed the costs." Some of
the value created includes the revitalization of 7.8
acres of industrial brownfields. In its place stands
a state-of-the-art Boys and Girls Club facility and
a clean site awaiting a new track and all-weather
athletic field owned by Clark University; this will
be made available for use by  the Boys and Girls
Club.  In addition to the C&D material recycling
of the abandoned industrial buildings, Stutman
Contracting moved, relocated, and revitalized four
three-decker duplex buildings from Kilby Street to
Hollis Street. As a result, approximately $100,000
in additional project savings realized due to avoided
demolition and disposal costs. In addition, 35
new affordable and "green" housing units (using
energy efficient boilers, low flow toilets, R-4 rated
windows, bamboo flooring, and avoided vinyl
products) were constructed and sold to first-time
low and moderate income buyers, providing the
community with needed affordable and sustainable
housing. The final phase of the housing project is
underway and includes the construction of 10 new
duplex housing units with solar panels on the roofs.

The Neighborhood Revitalization Project is helping
to create a new perception of the Main South
area. Revitalization projects completed to date
are helping increase property values for adjacent
property owners; decrease crime rates; inspire new
developers and renew developer interest in the area;
motivate residents to maintain their neighborhood;
and create a stronger sense of community.
More information on Construction and Demolition
Debris and brownfields can be obtained at www.
epa.gov/brownfields/tools/tti_assess_cleanup.htm or
by contacting the EPA Office of Brownfields Land
and Revitalization (OBLR) at (202) 566-2777.
The EPA Brownfields Program provides grants to fund environmental assessment, cleanup, and job training activities.The Program is designed to
empower states, communities, and other stakeholders in economic redevelopment to work together in a timely manner to prevent, assess, safely
clean up, and sustainably reuse brownfields.
C&D Success Story
Expanding Markets and Revitalizing Communities
Worcester, MA
Solid Waste
and Emergency
Response (510'
      April 2008
ia. aov/brownfields