of Three Digesters and a Mixing 1
                         'or the Brightwater Treatment System
Project  Highlights
A 36-million-gallons-per-day regional waste treatment facility,
located on a 114-acre site in Woodinville, Washington.

Facility architects, engineers, and contractors incorporated
a variety of sustainable design and building practices. The
site includes a salmon habitat, a reforestation area, and an
environmental education and community center.

The Brightwater Team used 13,800 tons of fly ash as a
cement substitute, reused and recycled construction and
demolition (C&D) materials, reused 200 trees and root
wads for salmon habitat, recycled 15,000 cubic yards
of compost material, and used recycled materials in the
environmental education and community center.

To date, the Brightwater Team has diverted 67% of all C&D
materials, reused more than 370,000 tons of material
in construction, and saved more than $500,000 from
the reuse and recycling of materials. Environmental benefits
include reducing 12,723  metric tons of C02 emissions
from the recycling and reuse of fly ash and concrete and
eliminating approximately 925,000 vehicle miles through
the reuse of excavated soils onsite.
                                                         Treatment  System
                                                         Built with the  Environment in  Mind
To meet the growing service demands of the Puget Sound
region over several decades, King County, Washington, is
building one of the most sustainable wastewater treatment
systems in the country. This 1.8 billion dollar project, with
its conveyance outfall  partly funded through the Clean
Water Act State Revolving Fund, is King County's largest
clean-water capital project in 40 years, and incorporates
sustainable design and building practices in  all facets of its
construction and future operations.

Brightwater will treat on average about 36  million gallons
of wastewater per day, using membrane bioreactor
technology. Thirteen miles of pipes and pumps stretch
underground, taking wastewater to and from the plant,
with a marine outfall more than a mile long  and 600 feet
deep. The Brightwater Team will build a 15,000 square
foot environmental education and community center with
sustainable design elements on their 114 acre site, which
also includes approximately 70 acres of public open space.
Construction is expected to be  completed in 2011.

From the beginning, the Brightwater Team made a commitment
to sustainability. The architects, engineers, and contractors
working on the project  have been dedicated to protecting
natural resources, limiting the impacts of construction, and
leading the way in the development of sustainable practices.

Brightwater used four  key sustainable practices including:

• Using Coal Fly Ash in Concrete as a Cement Substitute

• Retaining Excavated Soils Onsite to Visually Screen
  Wastewater Processing Areas

• Reusing Materials to Create Salmon Habitat &
  Reforestation Area

• Building Green Onsite Environmental Education &
  Community Center

Sustainable  Practices:   From  Start  to  Finish
Using Coal Fly Ash in Concrete as a
Cement Substitute. Concrete containing
coal fly ash was used in the treatment facility,
portal, and deep tunnel conveyance. The
concrete mix utilizes 120 pounds per cubic
yard  of fly ash in lieu of cement. Since the
start of the treatment plant construction,
13,400 tons of fly ash has  been recycled by
using  it as a cement substitute. Similarly, in
2008, 400 tons of fly ash was used in the
conveyance tunnel construction. Recycling
these 13,800 tons of fly ash results in a
12,543 metric tons C02 emission reduction1,
which is equivalent to the annual greenhouse
gas emissions from 2,297 passenger vehicles.2
Construction workers pour concrete containing fly ash

Retaining Excavated Soils Onsite
to Visually  Screen Wastewater
Processing Areas. The construction team
used excavated soil to create landforms and
buffers-attractively screening processing
areas from public view. By eliminating the
need to haul  excavated material  offsite,
the number of truck trips to and  from the
site was significantly reduced. Bnghtwater
estimates that this saved 37,000 truck trips
of 25 miles each-eliminating approximately
925,000 vehicle miles.

Creating a  Salmon Habitat &
Reforestation Area. The northern 43 acres
of Bnghtwater have been redeveloped as a
restored and  enhanced  salmon habitat and
reforestation area.
1  Estimated using EPA's Waste Reduction Model (WARM)
(updated August 2008), http://www.epa.gov/warm
2  Estimated using EPA's Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies
Calculator (updated February 2009), http://www.epa.
                                            	Cost  Savings  and  Benefits
                                               Reused trees and mot wads in the salmon habitat

                                               Features include:
                                               •  Beused more than 200 trees and root wads
                                                  (cost savings: $20,000);
                                               •  Planted  over 22,000 native plants including
                                                  5,000 seedlings;
                                               •  Recycled approximately 15,000 cubic
                                                  yards of compost material (cost savings:
                                               •  Restored approximately 1,350  feet of
                                                  stream corridor and added 350 feet of new
                                                  stream corridor;
                                               •  Created 29,000 square feet of  pond habitat;
                                              •  Constructed 4 acres of enhanced emergent
                                                and forested wetland habitat; and
                                              •  Provided infiltration for stormwater runoff
                                                during construction in the established forest.
                                              Building On-Site Environmental
                                              Education & Community Center. The
                                              Center is in the process of pursuing Gold level
                                              certification or higher through the U.S. Green
                                              Building Council's Leadership in Energy and
                                              Environmental Design (LEEDI® standard.
                                              Sustainable building design elements include:
                                              •  Incorporating natural ventilation and
                                              •  Installing energy efficient lighting and
                                                ENERGY STAR® appliances
                                              •  Utilizing temperature controls and radiant
                                                floor heating from waste treatment plant
                                              •  Purchasing low-flow toilets that use
                                                reclaimed water from the treatment plant
                                              •  Using reclaimed water for irrigation
                                              •  Building a green roof
                                              •  Educating the public about the green
                                                building elements
Overall, the Bnghtwater Team has achieved a 67% diversion rate of all construction and demolition
materials to date. The Brightwater Team consistently looks for opportunities to first reuse materials
onsite and  then recycle where reuse is not possible. In all, more than 370,000 tons of materials
have been  reused in construction. Of this, 3,900 tons alone were concrete, and its reuse saved the
project approximately $39,000. The concrete reuse also resulted in 180 metric tons C02 emission
reduction,1 which is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from 33 passenger vehicles.2
The reuse of landscaping debris and onsite compost material  saved $470,000. In addition, using
13,800 tons of fly ash as a cement substitute resulted in a 12,543 metric tons C02 emission
reduction, which is equivalent to  the annual greenhouse gas emissions from 2,297 passenger
vehicles. Additional cost savings  and environmental benefits from the reuse and recycling of
industrial materials are expected  throughout the construction of this vital project.

Contact info	
Melissa Winters,
O.S. EPA, Region  10
winters, melissailepa.gov
Michael Popiwny,
Architectural Design and Mitigation  Manager
King County Department of Natural  Resources and Parks,
Wastewater Treatment Division
                                                 EPA PUBLICATION NUMBER: EPA530-F-09-005, AUGUST 2009