United Stales
              Environmental Protection
              Office Of The Administrator
November 1990
The Urban Environmental
Education Report



The Urban Environmental Education Report
                     prepared by:

           Patricia Roberts Harris Public Affairs
                  Howard University
    Charles Gaboriau, Donna Roesing, and David Small
             Worcester Polytechnic Institute

            The National Advisory Council on
     Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT)
          Committee on Education and Training
                           -  Library
                    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                      75 Hawthorne Street 13th Floor
                      San Francisco, California 94105
       The United States Environmental Protection Agency
    Office of Cooperative Environmental Management (OCEM)
                401 M Street, SW A-101-F6
                  Washington, DC 20460

                               TABLE OF CONTENTS
 CHAPTER I. The Washington, DC Urban Environmental Education Report
       Introduction   	1
       Outline       	2
       An Urban Perspective on Obstacles and Issues	4
       Urban Environmental Education:  The Federal Government	7
       Urban Environmental Education:  Non-Federal Organizations	12
       Recommendations	17
             A.    Center for Environmental Quality Report:
                    "Environmental Education in the Federal Government"
             B.    U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development:
                    "Catalog of Minority Support Programs"
             C.    Environmental Action:
                   "Environmental Action:  Beyond White Environmentalism"
             D.    Status of Women and Minorities in Supervisory Positions in EPA
             E.     Contact List

CHAPTER n. The Report on Environmental Education and Training for Urban Poor
                   and Minority Populations
      Executive Summary	1
      Introduction   	3
      Methodology  	4
      Urban Environmental Education:  Federal and State-level Programs	6
      Urban Environmental Education:  Non-Governmental Programs	10
      Analysis of Results	;	24
      Conclusions   	27
      Recommendations	29
            A.    Target Cities
            B.    Organizational Survey
            C.    School Survey
            D.    Contact List


       The Urban Environmental Education Report is the summary of two research
 projects which were conducted during the latter part of 1990 by a group of interns for the
 Education and Training Committee of the National Advisory Council for Environmental
 Policy and Technology (NACEPT).  Carried out in two stages, this project included an
 examination of what EPA, and the Federal Government as a whole, is doing to provide
 environmental education and training programs that are targeted toward inner-city minority
 populations, an assessment of the availability and efficacy of local grass-roots efforts, and
 finally, through research .of select urban areas nationwide, an assessment of the availability
 and efficacy of similar efforts across the country. The areas of the country which were
 studied, were selected in an effort to represent a cross-section of urban minorities
 throughout the United States.

       The Urban Environmental Education Report was submitted to the Education and
 Training Committee of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and
 Technology (NACEPT). The Committee was very impressed with the quality of this
 research and with the variety of concrete suggestions regarding the potential for EPA to
 play an active role in assisting efforts to provide quality targeted urban environmental
 education and training. At thier October meeting, {he Committee voted unanimously to
 endorse these recommendations for consideration and potential adoption by NACEPT.

       "The Washington, DC Urban Environmental Education Report", which is Chapter
 1 of the The Urban Environmental Education Report  is a summary of research conducted
 by Rory E. Verrett of the Patricia Roberts Harris Public Affairs Program, Howard
 University. Mr. Verrett researched environmental education and training programs in the
 District that either specifically targeted urban minorities or general environmental programs
 that included strategies transferable to an urban minority audience. The methodology of the
 research included data analysis, personal and telephone interviews, as well as actual
 participation in some of the environmental programs.  The wide variety of research
 methodology used in this project enabled Mr.Verett to gain a highly accurate understanding
 of the opinions held by the District's urban minority population regarding environmental
 education and training programs. The recommendations of this report reflect this

       The Report on Environmental Education for Urban Poor and Minority Populations,
 which is Chapter 2 of the The Urban Environmental Education Report, is a summary of
research conducted by Charles Gaboriau, Donna Roesing, and David Small, a intern team
 from Worcester Polytechnic Institute. The scope of their project was to investigate in a
 broader, national way, environmental education and training programs targeted to urban
 minorities. To accomplish this, they investigated efforts in five ethnically diverse cities
 across the country: Boston, Massachusets; Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Austin,
 Texas; and Sacramento, California as well as environmental education and training
programs in other cities (not necessarily urban) that included strategies transferable to an
 urban audience. During the spring of 1990, while still in residence at Worcester
 Polytechnic Institute, the students developed and disseminated several hundred
organizational/school surveys intended to determine the extent of environmental education
 efforts of a given organization/school and whether any of these efforts were targeted to
minorities. Upon coming to EPA in September and October 1990, the team followed up
this effort with a data analysis of the survey results and telephone interviews.  The
recommendations of this report reflect this national perspective.

       It is important to note that although these two projects employed differing research
methodologies to assess effective environmental education and training efforts directed to
the urban sector, they produced similar conclusions.  These conclusions agree that there is:
       •  minimal federal activity on urban environmental education training;
       •  significant grassroots work being done to educate urban minorities of
          environmental risks in their community;
       •  duplication of environmental education programs in many urban communities
          across the country;
       •  distrust on the part of urban minorities of environmental organizations,
          particularly federal agencies like the EPA;
       •  differing perspectives of "environmentalism" between mainstream and minority
       Similarly, both reports offered similar recommendations regarding the potential for
the Environmental Protection Agency to assume an active role in urban environmental
education and training.  The reports included suggestions concerning:
       •  partnerships between federal agencies/urban/minority institutions
       •  the EPA, as a clearinghouse of information on environmental
          education programs;
       •  participation of EPA regional offices;
       •  EPA public relations with urban communities;
       •  production of environmental materials suitable for an urban minority audience;
       •  research funding to minority colleges and universities.

              CHAPTER 1
        The Washington, D.C.
Urban Environmental Education Report


              Rory E. Verrett
    Patricia Roberts Harris Public Affairs Fellow
             Howard University



       This report assesses the environmental education efforts in Washington D.C. that
 are sponsored by various sectors of the community including the federal government, non-
 government organizations, and community groups. This report represents the first segment
 of a national project that will assess environmental education and training programs in
 several urban areas across the United States. These cities, intended to represent a cross-
 section of ethnic and geographic diversity, will be similarly studied.  By first taking a
 microscopic view of environmental programs in one community, the report will identify
 some effective methods for urban environmental education and training, and thus serve as a
 starting point  for similar studies in the other urban areas.

       The complete Urban Environmental Education  Report will serve as a tool for
 discussion for the Education  and Training Committee of the National Advisory Council on
 Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). With the report as a starting point, the
 Committee can discuss  methods for successfully  reaching  out to urban/minority
 communities and other currently disenfranchised groups  with environmental and training
 programs.  Ultimately, the  report should provide the Committee with some basis for
 adopting recommendations to the Administrator of EPA concerning what role the Agency
 should play in urban environmental education and training on a national level.


       The ultimate goal of any environmental education program is the formation of an
 enlightened citizenry that  is committed to preserving and protecting our natural
 environment.  Ideally, it would be desirable to have pervasive environmental education
 efforts both longitudinally as well as laterally; that is, environmental education that reaches
 from our youngest to our senior citizens and spans every cultural, ethnic, and socio-
 economic level. To achieve this, environmental education programs must be as innovative
 as they are comprehensive  and as easily understandable as they are profound in their
 treatment of environmental issues. To be sure, organizations  concerned with urban
 environmental  education must be willing to abandon traditional methods of education and
 training for more innovative techniques.  Moreover, urban communities must be made to
 realize the  connection between local environmental concerns and global environmental
 issues. Environmental education and training programs must, however, meet the specific
 needs  of the  particular community.  Therefore, any attempt  to educate or train an
 urban/minority community toward responsible environmental stewardship mandates the
 establishment of effective linkage mechanisms-ones that link the local issue to the global
 perspective, the community organizer to the environmental policymaker.

       This linkage process, however, is tremendously enigmatic. As community
 concerns reach up the ladder of influence and national policies attempt to embrace the
 disenfranchised, the  realization of this often distant relationship is hazy, ambiguous, and
 ineffective decisions from which neither side truly benefits. Government still seems to
 operate from an ivory tower and community concerns dissolve before they reach
 policymakers. The environmental crisis plaguing our urban communities requires not only
prioritized attention, but demands clarity and consistency in this linkage process.  No
 longer can the environmental movement confine itself  to certain ethnic and economic
constituencies while claiming to chart a global campaign to save the planet.  Seemingly,
those most impacted by environmental hazards are those  least affected by environmental
policies and programs. The Urban Environmental Education Report seeks to link the
government to the urban community by assessing successful strategies in environmental

 education and training.  The report has, as its primary focus, the realization of the
 Environmental Protection Agency's role in urban environmental education and training.


       As it is enigmatic to define what is and what is not to be considered environmental
 education, so too is it problematic to define "urban environmental education," There exists
 a broad array of activities that are intended to promote the responsible stewardship of urban
 minorities toward the environment.  Yet, this report does not intend to be too narrow nor
 too general in its classification of urban environmental education.  While a minority
 internship program at a national science observatory might introduce minority students to
 research careers in geology, it may not be appropriate to include such (nonetheless
 worthwhile) educational programs  in an  assessment of Washington,  DC urban
 environmental education and training programs. Contrastingly, it would be appropriate to
 consider a music  video  about global warming, which was produced by  a District
 environmental organization for minority communities, as an  example of an urban
 environmental education program. For definitive purposes, an effort will be considered
 "urban environmental education or training" if it satisfies one or more of the following

 •  it informs an urban minority audience about the specific environmental risks in their
   particular community;
 •  it educates an urban minority audience on global environmental issue(s) or establishes a
   connection between local and global environmental issue(s);

 •  it suggests specific actions that can be taken by community residents to affect/change
   their immediate and/or global surroundings.

 Moreover, when such a  definition is  placed in context of existing programs in the
 Washington DC area, this report establishes clear parameters for the classification of urban
 environmental education and training. Only programs with strategies transferable to an
 urban minority audience (Washington DC, for instance) will be similarly included.


       The Washington D.C. Urban Environmental Education Report intends to answer
 the following questions:                                                          »

 1.  Is the D.C. community actively seeking ways to educate minorities on local and and
   national environmental concerns? What organizations are involved? Are there any
   coordinated efforts among organizations?  Are there any national programs (outside of
   the District) that could be considered?

 2.  Do the existing programs address all of the minority community's  environmental

 3.  Do the existing programs administer to all of the community's needs for the successful
   implementation of the program? Is training provided? Are the programs offered in
   languages other than English?

4.  What are some suggestions for improving urban environmental education efforts in the
   Washington D.C. community? What role should the Environmental Protection Agency
   play   in   urban  environmental   education  in   Washington  D.C.?



I. What Is Needed: An Urban Perspective on Obstacles and Issues

      A. Obstacles
      B. Issues
             1. Energy Conservation
             2. Water Quality
             3. Airfollution
             4. Toxic Waste
             5. Toxic Chemicals in Homes

n. What Is Being Done: Samples of Urban Environmental Education Programs

      A. Federal Government Programs
      B. Non-Federal Programs

HI. What Can/Should Be Done: EPA's Role in Urban Environmental Education

       In order to be truly successful in urban environmental education, interested groups
 must first gain an  understanding of the vantage point from which an urban population
 views the environment. Similarly, it is crucial to grasp how these communities perceive the
 environmental movement, as well as certain environmental organizations, including the
 EPA.  Before any  suggestions can be offered concerning the role of the EPA in urban
 environmental education, these key perceptions held by many urban residents should be
 first considered. They are not necessarily viewpoints of Washington DC residents only,
 but reflect a somewhat national consistency of urban perceptions of the environmental
 movement, issues  and participants. Once these perceptions are fully understood, the
 Agency will be able to Affectively organize an appropriate strategy in urban environmental
 education that is truly beneficial and productive to all parties involved.


       Many of the perceptions of urban residents on the environment are rooted in their
 inability to meet  some of the basic  requirements for  normal living.  That  is, the
 environment, as a separate issue, is not embraced until the essentials of health, housing,
 food, and safety are met. Unfortunately in many urban communities, many of these basic
 needs remain unfulfilled.   Poverty, racial  discrimination, poor housing, financial
 insecurity, and violence are all barriers to the achievement of what is considered a normal
 standard of living.  Thus, the environment is viewed as a superfluous topic; other topics,
 which are viewed as more important than environmental issues, occupy the daily agendas
 of urban residents.  Moreover, the seemingly evident environmental crises facing these
 urban communities—problems of lead poisoning, weatherization, and asbestos—are not
 confronted as environmental problems; rather, they are realized as health and housing
 issues.  Thus, many organizations that address the environmental concerns of these
 communities are often organizations such as housing agencies or social justice groups,
 reflecting the growing sentiment in urban communities that the current status of the urban
 environment is a result of racial and socio-economic injustice.

       These community organizations have taken on tremendous responsibilities as voices
 of urban residents, providing  numerous  mobilizational  measures including protests,
 marches, boycotts,  community  meetings, and local, as well as national lobbying.  These
 organizations are quite confident of their own ability to address the community's concerns.
 This community self-reliance is a result, organizers say, of the resource mobilizational
 strength of community organizations. For instance, social justice groups that organize out
 of churches point to the fact that the church  provides a consistent audience through worship
 services and offers facilities that are readily available to the community. Few,  if any,
 organizations can claim to have a more consistent assembly than a church, community
 residents claim.  Sermons, they add, are effective mechanisms to instill environmental
 awareness; ministers urge environmental protection as one of mankind's responsibilities to
 the Creator. As a result of these and other mobilizational strategies, organizers argue,
 community organizations are "in the trenches," and constantly aware of the needs of
 urban/minority citizens. Comparatively, government agencies are perceived as operating
 from an "ivory tower," far removed the immediate urban crises. This perceived contrast in
 the proximities of government versus community organizations to urban environmental
needs is  one of the central obstacles that must  be overcome if the development of a
productive, working relationship is to occur between these groups. Certainly then, these
perceptions deserve elaboration.

 Community Perceptions: Federal Government

       As many local organizations feel confident in their ability to meet the community's
 needs for environmental programs, these groups view some of the environmental education
 attempts by the federal government  with disdain and caution.  Community leaders are
 skeptical of the motive behind government environmental education programs. Organizers
 propose  that the government is suddenly reaching out to embrace urban environmental
 concerns now that the environment is a popular issue;  that the recent attention directed
 toward urban  environmentalism is political in  nature and is not necessarily  rooted in
 genuine  concern.  Many community leaders recanted incidents in which the federal
 government attempted to "introduce" environmentalism to urban residents through short-
 lived programs thai appeared to fulfill a bureaucratic mandate rather than realistically
 educate minorities on environmental  protection. Thus, community organizations largely
 feel that they must bear the responsibility to educate the community.

       These  are not the  only reservations that the  urban  community has with the
 government.  Some minority communities that have battled against the siting of toxic
 facilities  in their communities allege that the EPA is allied with many toxic polluters. This
 government-industrial complex has, they maintain, led to the placement of many toxic
 facilities  in minority areas.  Community leaders point to emerging studies which hold that
 the racial composition of the community* is  the greatest common  denominator of
 communities near hazardous waste sites. With scarce numbers of minorities at the EPA
 and few,  if any, on local toxic waste site boards,  many in minority communities conclude
 that the growing number of toxic sites in minority communities is no coincidence. To
 guard against the disproportionate numbers  of hazardous waste sitings in minority areas,
 community leaders urge agencies like the EPA, as well as national environmental groups,
 to increase minority recruitment

       Having significant numbers of minorities employed at these environmental
 organizations will do more than protect minority communities from toxic waste placement,
 these organizers argue: it would hopefully be one significant step in catapulting urban
 environmentalism to the national forefront.   Specifically, community organizers hold that
 national environmental organizations need "translators"  that will be able to effectively
 communicate  with  urban  minorities.  One of the biggest obstacles to community
 organizations  educating urban citizens is the lack of technical information on the
 environment.  Moreover, to many minority communities, national policymakers are
 seemingly unaware of urban environmental needs. These translators could facilitate the
effective  exchange of information between, for instance, the EPA and an urban minority
community.  In this manner, the government would  be constantly  aware  of urban
environmental concerns while offering concrete assistance toward urban environmental

       Therefore, to fully comprehend the environmental crises facing an inner-city
community, it is necessary to confront the issues from a non-traditional perspective. Too
often, analyzing urban environmental concerns from a bureaucratic vantage point yields a
perspective that is both narrow and shallow. It becomes increasingly difficult to grasp the
complexity, if not the origin, of urban environmental problems when the issues are treated
separately, apart from their relationship to other urban frustrations. To be sure, the
environmental issues in the inner-city cannot be studied unless the complex entirety of
inner-city life is embraced. That is to say, the issues of economics, race, health, education,
and environment are all inextricably bound.

       The inner-city resident does not view a problem like poor water quality as an
 environmental issue-it is realized as a mixture of many issues-health, economic,  and
 educational to state a few. The resident initially confronts the quality of his/her water when
 usage/consumption becomes unhealthy.  The issue is addressed when, for instance, a
 family member, say a small child, develops an adverse reaction to the water.  Further, if
 adopting the necessary measures to improve the quality of water were financially feasible,
 and if the tenant were aware of the means to correct his condition, then he/she would
 probably change the situation.  However, with limited financial means, little, if any,
 education on the hazardous effects of lead-ridden water and what can be done to improve it,
 the urban resident  is powerless.  Thus, to equip the urban resident with environmental
 education is to catalyze individual behavioral changes that will ultimately instill a sense of
 environmental stewardship toward an individual's immediate and global environment.
 Consequently, effective Durban environmental education programs should:

 1)  Inform the resident about the specific environmental risks in the particular community;

 2)  Establish a connection between local and global environmental issues;

 3)  Suggest specific actions that can be taken by community residents to affect/ change their
    immediate surroundings.

 Though environmental needs differ from community  to community, there are certain
 common environmental concerns that are prevalent in many of the District's urban areas:

 A.  Energy Conservation:

       Most of Washington's urban population live in houses that are over fifty years old.
 Many urban families cannot afford necessary weatherization measures,  such as energy
 efficient doors and windows, to insulate homes from Washington's harsh seasonal
 temperatures. As a result, these urban families face uncomfortable living conditions as well
 as abnormally high energy bills.  Proper efforts must be undertaken to provide these
 residents with a comprehensive strategy to weatherize their homes.

 B. Water Quality

       Dilapidated plumbing systems in Washington homes carry poor quality water that
 contains abnormally high levels of lead and other toxic chemicals. A study issued by the
 Agency for Toxics  and Disease Registry reported that an alarming 44% of urban African-
American children are at risk from lead poisoning—four times the rate of Caucasian
 children. Low-level lead intoxication is known to have caused a range of impairments,
 including IQ reduction and mild mental retardation.  Since a significant number of District
 resident&JBEtirbanareas do not own their homes, they heavily rely on landlords/building
 managers to renovate the dilapidated water systems. Efforts must be made to educate these
 residents on the importance of quality water sources, as well as measures to promote the
 consumption of alternative water sources until efficient plumbing systems can  be

 C. Air Quality

       Due  to the proximity, to factories and intense automobile congestion,  urban
communities are most impacted by industrial and vehicle emissions. Unable to drift farther
away, these toxic gases become concentrated between buildings and create a carcinogenic
breeding ground in the District's urban areas. While environmentalists urge residents to
use public transportation to decrease the volume of vehicle emissions, urban residents are

 confronted with a troubling dilemma. Since the District's Metro subway transportation
 system seems to have bypassed service to many urban/minority areas of the city, increasing
 numbers of District residents are forced to use automobiles  more often, which, in turn,
 contributes to the toxic air quality that is daily ingested.  It is imperative that urban/minority
 residents be informed of measures to improve air quality.  Of particular importance is the
 formation of a working strategy to encourage individual efforts to improve air quality.

 D. Toxic Waste

       Some recent  studies have shown  that the racial  composition  of the particular
 community, rather than any other factor, including income level and property value, has
 been the prevailing common denominator in communities near hazardous waste facilities.
 (W. Wilson, 1989). ^To worsen matters, these communities are rarely informed of the
 hazardous dangers that they face as residents living near a toxic waste site. Contrastingly,
 Northwest Washington residents recently organized, with  the help of several community
 organizations, a resistance to the siting of the Pepco Benning Road incinerator.  In this
 case, educational information was provided beforehand on the possible dangers of the toxic
 waste site. Once cognizant of the toxic potential of such a facility, area residents were able
 to organize to oppose the siting. The Benning Road case provides an excellent example of
 the merits of urban environmental education. Specifically, it illustrates the resource
 mobilization strength of an urban community once an educational foundation has been
 provided.                                 v

 E. Toxic Chemicals in Homes

       Lead buildup in soil, resulting  from old, chipped household paint and gasoline, is
 another silent hazard that plagues many urban District residents.  Moreover, many are
 unaware of the toxic makeup of their yards and nearby playgrounds.  Educational efforts,
 as well as programs designed to improve the soil quality, are greatly needed. Such projects
 could serve as excellent opportunities for local residents to  actively interact with their
 immediate environment in an effort to establish and maintain healthy land areas.

       Asbestos fibers from insulation dissolve into dust particles that become part of
 urban residents' air content. This is a common situation in the  District; the heavy reliance
 on poor quality construction materials, such as the insulation  found  in many homes,
 contributes to a hazardous atmosphere.  Residents need to be informed  as to what
 individual  measures can  be taken to reduce the ingestion  of asbestos.  As  well,
 organizations with such technical information could supply data on potential alternative
 sources of insulation.

       Over the past two decades, environmentalism has evolved from an issue into a
global crisis.  Environmental advocates, who quickly realized the potential, irreparable
effects of rapid technological expansion and resource mismanagement, theorized that one of
the most effective ways of protecting our environment was to educate citizens on
environmental issues--to demonstrate how  "special interest" issues like smog, ozone
depletion, wildlife preservation affected every citizen.  Thus,  as the environmental
movement has expanded in its scope and constituency, so have environmental education
and training efforts.

       Recently, the Center for Environmental Quality produced a report, "Environmental
 Education in the Federal Government: An Assessment fo Activities and Strategies."  The
 report outlined how the federal government has engaged in a plethora of environmental
 education efforts including pilot projects, academic grants/internships, technical assistance
 to curriculum-based programs, and youth projects.  However, when compared to other
 environmental education programs, there seems to be little effort directed specifically
 toward urban environmental education and training. The compendium of nearly 50 federal
 environmental education efforts contained only two programs that specifically targeted
 urban minority audiences (Appendix A).  While the Washington DC Urban Environmental
 Education  Report discovered slightly more federal activity in  urban environmental
 education than the CEQ Assessment, it still appears that while general environmental
 education programs hive steadily increased in number and  scope over the past  two
 decades, the amount of comparative federal activity toward urban environmental education
 and training has been minimal.

       The  proposed Office of Environmental Education, as well  as the National
 Environmental Education and  Training  Foundation  would increase  attention to
 environmental eduction generally, and certainly boost education and training programs for
 minority/urban populations.   Both projects have measures that  outline  strategies for
 environmental  education and extension for urban minority audiences.   Below is a
 sampling of some various types of federal environmental education and  training programs
 that specifically target minority/urban populations or programs that include strategies that
 could be transferable to a minority/urban audience. Included at the end of the report is a
 more comprehensive catalog of Minority Support Programs within the Environmental
 Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (Appendix B).

 Department of Interior: Take Pride in America

       Take Pride in America  is a national campaign to increase awareness of the need for
 wise use of the nation's natural and cultural resources, encourage an attitude of stewardship
 and responsibility toward public resources,  and promote volunteerism. Supported by a
 partnership of 12 federal agencies, 48 states, and many private sector organizations, the
 campaign annually sponsors a national awards ceremony to recognize those who have
 made outstanding contributions to protecting and enhancing public resources. Award
 categories are:  constituent organizations; businesses and corporations; youth groups, civic
 and citizen organizations; media; educational institutions; individuals; public-private
 partnerships; local governments; state governments; federal agencies; and, private lands.

 US Department of Agriculture: Cooperative Extension System

       CES  sponsors youth education and 4-H programs to teach rural and urban youth
 about natural resource conservation in summer camps around the country.  Additional
 emphasis is placed on global climate change education.

 US Department of Agriculture:  The National Arboretum

       The National Arboretum created the Urban Gardening Demonstration on its
grounds in Washington, DC.  Funded by Friend of the National Arboretum (FONA), the
National Country Garden  is a three-acre demonstration area that  shows people how to
grow their own food and flowers in such unlikely places as roofs, decks, and vacant lots.
The demonstration garden, which reached over one million people between 1984 and 1986,
illustrates many techniques useful for urban beautification.

 The US Fish and Wildl(fe Service

       The US Fish and Wildlife Service developed and produced a series of educational
 packages to provide teachers and other educators with factual information about wildlife,
 habitat, and resource management.  The material was designed for use in fourth through
 seventh grades.

 Department of the Army: Corps of Engineers

       The Army Corps of Engineers conducts a variety of special events, programs, and
 projects at Crooked Creek  Lake in Ford City, Pennsylvania.   There are  numerous
 environmental educational programs and resource conservation activities to encourage
 citizens to  accept their responsibility as public land owners. The Corps' staff influences
 thousands of citizens each year from pre-schoolers to senior citizens, and encourages active
 participation from all segments of the population. The variety of special events has resulted
 in a local populace keenly aware of the environment and their responsibility toward it. The
 lands reclaimed and recreation areas created are a result of cooperative volunteer efforts and
 have instilled a pride of "ownership" in area residents.

 US Department of Health and Human Services:  Public Health Service—Agency for Toxic
 Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).

       ATSDR proposed a minority environmental health initiative  to examine current
 science issues in three main  areas:  demographics, health perspectives (e.g., nutritional
 status, lifestyle and socio-economic influences, and psychosocial impacts), and health
 communication/health education. With this conference, ATSDR will bring together
 knowledgeable experts to discuss these areas. The objectives of this conference are to:

 •   present information on the public health implications of exposures to environmental

 •   identify data gaps or  problems associated with  determining/evaluating and
    disseminating such information

 •   recognize the challenges  of addressing the health concerns of minorities living and
    working near hazardous waste cites or other sources of environmental contamination

       ASTDR invites submission of papers that focus on the main conference topics:
demographics, health perspectives, and health communication/health education.  The
conference will also sponsor  a student poster/essay competition. Ten poster competition
finalists and five essay competition finalists, selected from the students submitting abstracts
on  their research, will receive awards covering travel and per diem (lodging/meal)

US Environmental Protection Agencv/Cook Colleye: Discovery Program

       Discovery  is an academic enrichment and apprenticeship program designed to offer
minority and disadvantaged students with academic promise an introduction to college
study and careers in science and technology. Discovery is a comprehensive and residential
five-week summer program for rising high  school juniors and  seniors.  It includes
academic, apprenticeship, and residential components,  which offer students a range of
activities including  SAT  preparation, hands-on research  experience,  and cultural
perspective seminars.  The US EPA, which financially supports the program, provides

 student apprenticeships that involve water sample collection, activities from boats and
 helicopters, sample analysis in sanitary chemistry and microbiological sample analysis.

 US Environmental Protection Agency/Backus Junior High School

       In the Fall 1988, EPA headquarters formed a partnership with Bertie Backus Junior
 High School in Washington, DC, a predominantly minority school.  The objectives in the
 partnership are:

 •   to stimulate students' interest in studying mathematics  and science at the high school
    level and beyond;
 •   to inform students about careers at EPA and  elsewhere  for those with appropriate
    scientific and technical training; and

 •   to educate students about environmental issues that impact their daily lives.

    Programs included:

 •   a recycling project for white waste paper,

 •   classroom participation  by 20 members  or" the  EPA's  Speaker Bureau in which
    specialists in forestry, computers, toxic waste, air pollution, an other fields addressed
    as many as three classes a day on environmental issues;

 •   selection of three Backus  teachers and two students for summer internships at EPA;

 •   a "mentor shadowing" experience for 10 students who  observed Agency managers in

 •   frequent visits to the school by the EPA chorus and steps toward creating a Backus

 •   Participation by  30 students in the Agency's observance of the Martin Luther King, Jr.
    federal holiday.

 •   a "town meeting," in which students were  made aware of conflicting forces in
    environmentally-related decision-making in the development of a community.

 US Environmental Protection Aeencv: Minority Institutions Assistance Program (MIA)
       The US EPA, through its Office of Exploratory Research (OER), operates a special
assistance program to provide federal assistance to minority institutions. The Minority
Institutions Assistance Program  was initiated in 1981 in response to an Executive Order to
increase support for eligible minority institutions and to provide fellowships for students
attending these institutions. The objectives of the program are:

•  to identify existing and potential  environmental research capability within minority
   institutions and to assist them in participating in EPA research activity;

•  to help minority institutions to become more competitive with other institutions for
   federal funds;

 •  to provide an opportunity  for minority students to gain research experience in
    environmental science fields; and

 •   to promote good  working relationships between the Agency and participating

 US Environmental Protection Agencv/DC Public Schools: Superfund Seniors
 Summer Enrichment Project

       Superfund Seniors  is a joint venture between the EPA and DC Public Schools that
 attempts to foster career awareness and student involvement in science and technology
 fields.  The Summer Enrichment Project is a pilot 6 week summer program for 10 gifted
 high school juniors'tto learn about environmental issues and the role of Superfund in toxic
 waste cleanups.  Students  produce public awareness campaign lecture and support
 materials (videos, pamphlets, coloring and comic books, etc.).

 US Environmental Protection Agency: Region !! (New York}

      The EPA's Region II held  a "Rap and Rock" contest for students in grades 7
 through 12 in  both New Jersey and New York.  Music and lyrics were all developed
 around the contest's theme, "Pollution Prevention: You Can Make a Difference."  Winners
 were honored at Region H's Earth Day Festival in late April.

 US Environmental Protection Agency.• National Network For Environmental Education

      The Agency  is working to expand the National Network For Environmental
 Education (NNEE), a network of interactive centers across the country serving as regional
 centers for teacher training, community outreach, and environmental research.  As the
 Network reaches its full potential, these centers will serve as environmental education and
 information resources for  grass-roots America. EPA  is now working with other
 government  agencies and departments interested in  contribution to  and accessing the

 Smithsonian Institution: The Oakland Museum

      The Oakland Museum, a Smithsonian member,  sponsors the ScienceReach
Program, which consists of a visit to the Oakland Museum's Natural Sciences Gallery, a
 discussion with a professional in the field of resource conservation, and a classroom slide
 show.  The program attempts  to familiarize high school students to concepts such as
 adaptation, community, and interdependence. Of particular importance is the efforts of the
ScienceReach  program to make minority students aware of how issues like animal
extinction affect urban residents.

 US Department of Energy I Center For Environment. Commerce, and Energy:
 Urban Weatherization Project

      The Center For Environment, Commerce, and Energy and the Department of
Energy have established a partnership to weatherize 40 urban District homes. As of July,
 1990,20 homes have been weatherized with energy-efficient doors and  windows.

   District Programs, Curriculum-Based Programs, Environmental Advocacy
   Organizations, Community Organizations:
 While the federal government is currently expanding its role in urban environmental
 education, there exists a multitude of organizations that have been engaged in urban
 environmental education for some time.  Many of these  organizations are community-
 based, organizing and educating large numbers of urban minorities toward establishing an
 environmental ethic. In many of these urban communities, there exists no formal grievance
 machinery to represent local residents' needs.  As a result, these urban citizens resort to
 churches and housing rfgencies—groups with which urban minorities are in frequent, if not
 constant contact, to voice their concerns.   These  local groups,  often understaffed
 organizations with limited financial resources, are, nonetheless, engaged in a myriad of
 mobilizational activities including boycotts, marches, letter-writing  campaigns, and

 The rising grassroots environmental movement is also beginning to embrace  the area of
 urban environmental education.  Indeed, there are a rising number of environmental
 advocacy groups that specifically target urban minority issues.  As well, these newly-
 established  organizations  offer  some of the most  innovative strategies  for urban
 environmental education.  Below is a sampling of some types of urban environmental
 education programs that are  sponsored by various organizations.

 District Government:

 District of Columbia Asbestos Removal Program

 The District reviews demolition and renovation plans to ensure asbestos will be removed in
 a way that will protect the health of the construction workers and the public. Asbestos
 removal must be done by qualified workers, and their safety equipment is inspected before
 removal begins.  To protect the public, access to the  building is limited.  The District
 monitors disposal of asbestos to make certain it is properly packaged and  sent to an
 approved disposal site. Approximately 372 asbestos removal projects were completed in
 the District in 1987.

District of Columbia Soil and Water Conservation District

The Soil and Water Conservation District provides educational materials to the public, such
 as the "Homeowners Urban Guide on Ground Maintenance for Washington, DC." This
 guide-disease* seiterosion, drainage, and landscaping and  is available at libraries, garden
 clubs, and the SWCD.

District of Columbia Soil and Water Conservation District:  Thomas L. Avers
 Outdoor Classroom Program

The Thomas L. Ayers Outdoor Classroom Program  is designed to integrate various
curricula such as science, geography, mathematics, social studies, and language arts in an
outdoor setting.  This experience offers urban youth  a hands-on approach to learning
activities. The District is  one of three co-sponsors of the Ayers Program. The two
remaining co-sponsors are the DC Public Schools-Science Department,  and the Soil and
Water Conservation Society-DC Chapter.

 Environmental  Advocacy Organizations:

 Center For Environment. Commerce, and Energy: Minority Environmental
  Internship Program

 In 1988, the Center For Environment, Commerce, and Energy Minority Environmental
 Internship Program sponsored fourteen (14)  interns and one volunteer at thirteen (13)
 environmental organizations and Maryland  Governor Donald Shaefer's Environment
 Office. The objective of the program is to increase the number of minority participants in
 the environmental sector. The program is also intended to provide students with the
 analytical and technical skills necessary to better their understanding of the environmental
 policy-making processes through a paid internship with various environmental, energy,
 wildlife, and natural resource organizations.

 Environmental Action Foundation

 Environmental Action, Inc. is a national membership-based organization which works for
 strong state and federal environmental laws.  The Foundation uses its educational, legal,
 technical  and organizing capabilities to promote environmental protection and  assist
 grassroots organizations. Environmental Action:

 •  promotes alternatives to incineration and landfills through waste reduction programs
   that minimize waste production and maximize recycling and composting;

 •  champions energy efficiency as the most  immediate and cost- effective response to
   global warming;

 •  helps citizens learn about toxic hazards;

 •  educates citizens on alternatives to chemical pesticides and helps them oppose the use of
   chemical pesticides in their communities.

 The Morning Star Foundation

       The Morning Star Foundation is a non-profit, tax-exempt organization promoting
 Native American cultural rights.  In 1989, the Foundation established a headquarters office
 in Washington, DC,  and developed an in-house program of  educational and cultural
 advocacy. The Foundation also provides organizational sponsorship for Native Children's
 Survival, which is international in scope and devoted to youth education and participation
 in environmental protection.  Native Children's Survival is sponsoring a series of music
 videos; thcJirst two of thc^eries deal with missing children and the world environment.

 The NatiffQl (7Hflrrf

       The Natural Guard is a new national, non-profit, environmental education, service,
 and advocacy organization designed for school age  youth.  Through education and
 involvement, the  organization hopes to inspire young people to recognize and  solve
environmental problems. The Natural Guard's five major goals are to:

•  Instill  in young people a better understanding of and appreciation for the local
   environment and, in turn, the world around them;

•  Generate service projects—such as recycling, pollution patrols, litter clean-up, energy
   conservation,  wildlife habitat enhancement, tree-planting, park  and monument


    caretaking, urban trailbuilding— designed to protect and enhance the environment,
    provide benefits for the entire community, and develop leadership skills in young

 •   Instill a sense of advocacy, and teach the skills necessary to achieve the goals of
    environmental protection and enjoyment;

 •   Institute a supervised exchange program among chapters that provides opportunities for
    outdoor exploration of different environments; and

 •   Emphasize career opportunities in the environment, conservation, and related fields.
       Within the next twelve to eighteen months, the Natural Guard  plans to establish a
 chapter in Washington DC, as well as several other urban areas.  The organization hopes to
 appeal to young people from many geographic, economic, and ethnic backgrounds.
 Special emphasis will be placed on communities that are not being reached by other
 environmental education programs.  The newly established environmental advocacy group
 plans to  target the increasing  number of communities where the primary language is
 Spanish;  accordingly, appropriate staff,  educational materials, and brochures will be

 National Toxics Campaign                    ^

       The National Toxics Campaign, headed in Boston, Massachusets, is a grassroots
 organization that helps to organize citizens in toxic neighborhoods to win relocation,
 cleanup  and fair compensation.  A  coalition of over 1000  grassroots  groups, NTC
 publishes "Fighting Toxics," a 500-page manual for protecting citizens from toxic hazards.

 National  Wildlife Federation:  Cool It! Programs

       The National Wildlife Federation's Cool It!  programs encourage college students to
 launch local projects that attack the pollution causing global wanning.  Some campus
 projects may double or triple the size of existing recycling programs. Other campuses may
 promote  public .transportation, energy efficiency, bike paths  and walkways, or try to
 persuade local food establishments to switch from plastic packaging to biodegradable paper
 cups and plates.  Cool It! emphasizes supporting projects initiated by culturally diverse
 groups. Organizers are assisting college students from diverse communities who are  not
 traditionally active in environmental issues to play an active role in solving environmental

 CurricuJom-Based Programs:

             vironmental Education Pilot Protect
       The Greenpeace organization produces  a student-directed,  process-oriented
curriculum that is used in 18 schools across the world, two of which are predominantly
minority schools in the US. The curriculum focuses on the environmental issues of the
local community, rather than environmental science in general.  Instead of the traditional
textbook learning method, the students coordinate research and site visits with local
environmental organizations and agencies. After field research, the students initiate their
own projects that are designed to encourage responsible environmental behavior.

 Thames Science Center: Watershed Worlds

       Watershed Worlds is an environmental science program for teacher enhancement
 and development of teaching materials. Based on a pilot project, the program (grades 6-10)
 will be developed and disseminated in a three-year project involving 495 teachers and their
 students at 65 pilot sites in the nation. An additional 1350 teachers will be introduced to the
 program through in-service programs.  The  curriculum aims to engage teachers' and
 students' interest  in a series of investigatory activities exploring current environmental
 problems and concerns. At the same time, participants explore concepts and theories of the
 planet's environmental systems and analyze the cumulative human impact upon them.
 These scientific investigations  are highly relevant to the students' everyday lives as they
 employ and compare local and global databases. The Watershed Worlds curriculum offers
 a thematic and sequential presentation of science concepts that crosses boundaries in all
 science disciplines normally taught in secondary schools.  It is designed to  serve all

 Community  Organizations:

 The Center For Community Action: Robeson County. NC

       The Environmental Protection  and Policy Project of the Center For Community
 Action was formed in 1984 in  order to develop creative strategies for the promotion of
 environmental protection in Southeastern North Carolina.  The Center seeks to:

 •   organize citizen participation in environmental concerns among the majority Native
    American and African-American populations of Robeson County; and

 •   provide programs and trainings to increase public education and analysis on  issues of
    hazardous and solid waste management, facility site selection processes and the role of
    race and economics in the selection process, waste reduction and disposal methods,
    recycling, landfill contamination, and  the  role  of religious  communities in
    environmental protection.

 Christadora. Fou,fl((ajif>n: Monies Education Center

       The Christadora Foundation operates in the city of New York as a grant-giving
institution. The Foundation's grants focus on environmental education.  The  common
ground of all Christadora grants is that they enable underprivileged city children to better
understand and value the environment that surrounds them.  Funded programs often bear
an essential relationship to the Manice Education Center. The primary goals of the Center
are to:

•   introduce students to the world of nature, stimulating their enthusiasm for learning in
    the outdoors;

•   nurture sensitivity to and understanding of the human place within natural ecosystems;

•   develop students' capacity for leadership, self-reliance, and group cooperation;

•   instill in students an appreciation for the natural world, the value of conservation and to
    help promote minority participation and leadership in the conservation movement and in
    the sciences in general.

 Students and classes are carefully selected from New York City public schools, grades 6-
 10, to attend the Center.

 The United Methodist Church: General Board of Church and Society:
 For: Our Children Video

       The United Methodist Church's General Board of Church and Society, a member
 of the Eco-Justice  Working Group, a network  of community environmental justice
 organizations, produces a video, "For:   Our Children" and an accompanying 40 page
 manual that discusses grassroots environmental organizing and issues. The video, which
 is about a half-hour long, contrasts community points of view with corporate concerns in
 an attempt to demonstrate the problematic nature of commercial incineration of hazardous
 waste. It also raises the fundamental question of mankind's relationship to nature.  The
 video packet is intended to promote discussion of the presented topics and is suggested for
 use in adult or youth Church classes.

 The United Methodist Church: The Greenhouse Crisis Foundation

       The Eco-Justice Working Group of the National Council of Churches and the Joint
 Strategy  and Action Committee produces a guide on ways that individuals and church
congregations can begin to take to save the earth. The " 101 Ways to Help Save the Earth"
manual presents specific actions that individuals-can take to change their daily  habits. It
also includes a section, "52 Weeks of Congressional Activities to Help Save the Earth" that
urges activities from tree donation drives to energy efficiency seminars.

 RECOMMENDATIONS:   The Environmental Protection  Agency's  Role in
                             Urban Environmental Education

 As a result of the research gathered for the Washington, DC Urban Environmental
 Education Report, the following recommendations for the US Environmental Protection
 Agency's role in urban environmental education have been developed:


 Some of the most effective environmental education programs in the Washington, DC
 community are partnerships between various organizations. This working relationship
 provides organizations with the opportunity not only to pool resources, but to share
 perspectives on environmental issues and strategies.
                   I                                                                      •
 Action:  The Environmental Protection Agency may consider expanding existing
          partnerships and establishing new ones with urban schools, as well as
          environmental advocacy groups and local community organizations that are
          involved in urban environmental education.

 Technical  Assistance:

 A significant obstacle to the success of many urban environmental education programs
 (ones not sponsored by government agencies)4s the lack or deficiency of technical
 information on environmental issues. Moreover, while many local organizations represent
 community concerns when a crisis situation results (e.g. the siting of a hazardous waste            j
 facility leads to the formation of a hazardous waste prevention organization), many times           \
 these groups need to be able to "translate" technical information on the environment into            \
 understandable terms to an urban audience.                                                  j
              Teacher  Recognition:

              One tremendous barrier to the implementation of environmental curricula in schools is the
              reluctancy of teachers, either because of time constraints, lack of interest in environmental
              issues, or poor reception by school administrators, to undertake environmental education in
              their schools. Those teachers that do decide to participate in environmental education
              programs should be rightfully acknowledged as innovators in education.

              Action:   EPA may consider instituting an Environmental Education Award specifically
                        for teachers who initiate or actively encourage environmental education in their
                        respective schools.

              Act as Clearinghouse/Coordinator for Environmental Education  Programs:

              There are many strategies and programs that operate in a vacuum; that is, successful
              methods for urban environmental extension are often not shared, but rather localized to
              specific communities. There is a strong need for a national organization to act as
              networking center to facilitate the exchange of information among groups, as well as
              existing as a catalyst for the formation of partnerships between various organizations.

              Action:   Through the newly created National Environmental Education and Training
                        Foundation which is in a unique position to act as a national clearinghouse, the
                        EPA should carry out a clearinghouse effort for the sundry environmental
                        education programs that currently exist. The Foundation may consider
                        extensively researching urban environmental education programs that currently
                        exist so that it may provide concerned organizations with appropriate program
                        information and contacts. As well, the Foundation may consider coordinating
                        federal efforts at urban environmental education en route to establishing an
                        comprehensive strategy for federal participation in urban environmental

f             Establish Pilot Programs:

I             One of the most innovative strategies in environmental education is the hands-on approach
I             of environmental education pilot programs. Urban youth are more likely to become
|             interested in environmental issues if programs allow actual participation and provide
I             information and solutions to issues that directly impact their daily lives. Many urban youth
j             do not realize the interconnectedness of many environmental issues. As a result, they are
              unlikely to devote much attention to programs that discuss "foreign" topics. Developing
              innovative urban pilot projects could be tremendously effective in introducing and instilling
              an environmental ethic in today's urban youth.

              Action:  EPA may consider developing pilot projects that are geared specifically toward
                       urban minority  children and the issues that directly affect them. Also, programs
i                       that connect global environmental issues to local concerns  would  bring
I                       environmentalism "closer to the urban home."

Regional  Publications:

EPA Headquarters cannot bear the responsibility of investigating urban environmental
concerns for every urban community in the country; EPA Regional offices, located in cities
with significant minority populations, could bear some of the responsibility for localizing
urban environmental education efforts.

Action:  Regional offices may consider expanding their liaison activities between the local
         urban minority communities in the Region and EPA Headquarters.  In this role
         they could provide detailed information to relevant Headquarters Offices and
         become the active interpreters of the specific current environmental concerns of
         those communities.
Historically Black College  and  University (HBCU)  Research Budget:

Most, if not all of our nation's Historically Black College and University and Minority
Institutions (HBCU-MI) HBCU-MTs are active in great numbers of community service
projects, many of which include environmental education programs for minority
communities. To support these institutions with significant funding is to feed money into
these already existing environmental education programs.

Action:   EPA may consider increasing research funding to HBCU's that are engaged in
          urban environmental education. Moreover, the Agency may seek to initiate
          programs through partnerships at universities without environmental education

             APPENDIX A
     Center for Environmental Quality Report
Environmental Education in the Federal Government

                         EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY
      There is a growing network  of  teachers, government  agencies,
 non-profit organizations and  corporations who are developing  and
 sharing environmental  education  programs.

      Many Federal  agencies whose missions encompass environmental
 issues  have some environmental education programs for higher
 education,  for the community, for the workforce and for
 elementary and secondary education  — the focus of this  paper.
 The  focus is on elementary and secondary education because that
 is where some of the greatest opportunities are to develop
 environmental literacy and an environmental ethic.

      Federal agencies  are sponsoring programs ranging from
 providing materials to guiding students and teachers in
 developing action  plans.  Although  coordination has not  always
 been effective in  the  past, there are organizational proposals
 which would ensure more effective use of limited funds and a
 wealth  of creative ideas.

      The following issues and recommendations reflect the current
 thinking and trends shared by the federal agencies as well as
 various non-profit organizations, education professionals and

 o     The most critical  focus  for environmental education should
      be developing environmental literacy and an environmental
      ethic  at the  K-12  level, when  individuals are forming values
      for life management.

      Further,  consideration should be given to targeting limited
      resources at  those communities which are affected
      disproportionately by pollution.  For example,  the special
      needs  of inner city  schools might be addressed first.

 o     Overlapping programs should be linked where possible.

      The National Advisory Council on Environmental Technology
      Transfer  has  recommended the formation of a new Interagency
      Council  on Environmental Education to replace the
      Subcommittee on Environmental Education of the Federal
      Interagency Committee on Education.

o    More funds should be specifically allocated for
      environmental education.

                     ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
                    IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT:


      The state  of  the world's environment has become one of  the
 most  pressing topics of the  late 20th century.  It will likely
 remain a pressing  topic in the 21st century.  The twentieth
 anniversary  of  Earth Day underscored the importance of individual
 action to prevent  pollution.  Environmental education is the key
 to  instilling an environmental ethic in society, and perhaps the
 most  important  group that this ethic must reach is our children.
 Establishing environmental literacy in America's school age
 population will contribute to developing this ethic.  Successful
 programs have been developed at all levels of government, by non-
 profit organizations, and in private industry.  The question this
 paper seeks  to  address is the state of environmental education
 programs in  the Federal government.

      Nearly  every  Federal agency has a project or a program
 dedicated to environmental education.  Lacking to date has been a
 coherent Federal strategy and coordination of activities,
 although successful work has continued in spite of this.  A
 strategy has been  emerging in an ad hoc fashion, and agencies
 recognize that  more coordination and structure are necessary to
 target efforts  and reduce unnecessary duplications of effort.   In
 examining the range of environmental education activities,  most
 if not all also support the Administration's goals for elementary
 and secondary education and complement many existing efforts such
 as the Department of Energy's initiative in math and science

     The  Council on Environmental Quality is charged with
 coordinating Federal environmental efforts.   It is consistent
 with CEQ's charter to take a leading position in the coordination
 of Federal environmental education initiatives,  since educational
 and environmental concerns cut across many jurisdictional
 boundaries in the Federal  government.   It is not,  however,  the
 intention of CEQ to dictate educational policy,  or exert
 authority over the many excellent and innovative programs
underway  in  Federal agencies.

 Federal Activities

      Nearly every Federal  agency  has  some  type  of  ongoing
 environmental education program,  under  the broadest  definition of
 environmental education.   Focussing on  elementary  and  secondary
 levels does not significantly  decrease  this number.  Most Federal
 environmental education activities  can  fall into one of the
 following categories,  although the  traditional  emphasis has  been
 on producing and distributing  educational  materials  to local
 school districts and educational  organizations:

      o    Curriculum Development  and  Guidance
      o    Educational  Materials (including software  and videos)

      o    Teacher Training and Instruction

      o    Field and Laboratory Learning Opportunities

      o    Educational  and  Research  Institutes

      o    Learning Networks       v

      o    Mentoring Programs

      o    [Awards/Recognition  Programs]

      Many  agencies are becoming increasingly proactive in their
approaches to environmental education through these  types of
activities.  Most agencies focus on their  area of particular
expertise,  e.g.  the U.S. Geological Survey's emphasis on earth
sciences.   Only one agency, EPA, has a cross-cutting national
focus on the environment, and  its efforts  reflect this charge.
The-Tennessee-Valley Authority has demonstrated a similar effort
on a  regional basis and has developed a model educational
program, to mention just one agency effort.  The following brief
sketches of Federal environmental education activities are
organized  by agency:

      EPA has convened an Agency-wide Environmental Education Task
Force, under the Office of Communications and Public Affairs, to
develop a  comprehensive strategic plan by late June and to
sponsor the Youth Environmental Action Forum,  which took place
May 20 - 23.  Major activities are also underway in the office of
Cooperative Environmental Management (OCEM) in conjunction with
the National Advisory Committee on Environmental Technology
Transfer (NACETT).  The Agency has supported S.  1076, the
National Environmental Education Act.   Specific EPA environmental
education activities include the following:

 The Office of Communications  and  Public Affairs  (OCPA)  has
 developed a curriculum  package  in a  cooperative  venture with
 General  Motors.   Titled "I  Need the  Earth and the  Earth
 Needs  Me," it will  provide  fourth grade teachers nationwide
 with a videocassette  plus instructor's guide.

 OCPA has coordinated  the distribution of educational
 materials for K-12  from across  the Agency by compiling  a
 resource guide titled,  "Environmental Education  Materials
 for Teachers and  Young  People  (K-12)".

 The Office of Isolid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) has
 prepared a curriculum to promote  recycling and to  increase
 general  awareness of  waste  in cooperation with national
 education and teacher associations.

 EPA's  Hazards in schools Committee was organized to
 coordinate the effort to reach  teachers, school
 administrators, and parents about environmental  hazards in
 schools.   While strictly speaking this does not  target  K-12
 students,  it does directly deal with the education of that
 group.   The Committee has held ^workshops and is  developing a
 handbook entitled "Environmental  Hazards in Your School."

 The Partners  In Education Program, which operates at both
 the Headquarters and  Regional levels, pairs EPA  offices with
 selected  schools.  Activities performed by EPA personnel
 include tutoring, career guidance, and the provision of
 hands-on  learning opportunities.

 Various regional offices have undertaken activities on  their
 own initiative such as working partnerships with schools,
 poem and poster contests, speaker's bureaus,  and information
dissemination.  ~

Regions 3  (Philadelphia), 6  (Dallas), and 9 (San Francisco)
administer Environmental Institutes,  providing a variety of
educational services.

 o    The Student  Conservation  Association  (SCA) program  will
      be  encouraged  to  expand opportunities  for high  school
      students-at-risk,  and minority populations.

 o    All National Park Sites will be presented to schools as
      "Learning  Laboratories,"  and will assist in curriculum
      development  and media presentations.   A videotape
      entitled "National Parks—Our Learning Laboratories"
      will accompany teacher packets on using park areas  as
      classrooms and classroom  materials.  Materials  included
      focus on Biological Diversity, Clean Air, Global
      Change, and  Endangered Species.

 Bureau of Mines

 o    Through films, videos, posters, and postcards,  the
      Bureau seeks to increase  awareness of  the
      indispensability of minerals.  Many of these materials
      are targeted at school-age groups, and the Bureau has
      been experimenting with new formats for presenting
      information on mining and minerals.

U.S.  Geological survey

o     The  Joint  Education Initiative (JEDI)  is being
      developed  in association with NASA, NOAA, the
      Smithsonian Institution, and others, to strengthen the
      teaching of science in elementary and secondary schools
      by  sharing scientific data through the storage medium
      of CD-ROM.   Teachers are being instructed in how to use
     the  system, which will have readers connected to PCs.

o    USGS cooperates in the Center for Excellence in
     Education's annual Research Science Institute for
     bright high school students.

o    USGS participates in American Geological Institute's
     grant program which funds teachers to work at AGI
          participates in the Partnership In Education
     Program, conducting science and career fairs, classroom
     presentations,  and traveling exhibits.

     The Teacher Assistance Program is comprised of
     science/teacher workshops,  hotline for science
     teachers, teacher-oriented earth science publications,
     displays, posters, films,  and computerized teaching
     materials, distributed free of cost.

             o    SCS coordinates  the USDA/Boy  Scouts of America Council
                  Conservation  Awards program,  now  in its  30th year.

             Department  of  Energy

             DoE  has  undertaken a  major math and science education
        initiative in support of the President's goal of leading the
        world in  math and science.  A major component of this effort
       ,includes  a focus on global climate change.  DoE is also concerned
       -with  education about energy efficiency.

       . o     The  Science Teacher Research Association Program (TRAC)
             provides teachers  with hands-on laboratory research related
             to various  aspects of global climate change.

        o     Summer institutes  beginning in 1988 at the Lawrence
             Livermore National Laboratory for middle and high school
             science  teachers have developed interdisciplinary curriculum
             about global climate change for grades 6-12.

        o     A collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore and the
             University  of  California, Berkeley has led to the
             development of a Macintosh "HyperCard" pilot project, based
|             on the tree of knowledge concept, where the trunk is the
I             topic "Global  Climate Change" and the branches are science
!             technology  and society issues.  The roots are the scientific
I             and  technical  disciplines.

I             Department  of  Defense

             DoD's primary  efforts in environmental education reside in
        the operation of its school system - the sixth largest public
        school system in the world, with 160,000 students.   As part of an
        on-going  environmental  education effort, roughly $300,000 per
        year  is spent to provide students with the opportunity for
        wilderness  trips and school camping events.  A teacher institute
        in environmental education is conducted each summer.   A teacher's
       manual has  been  developed in-house for use in grades K-12.
            The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is
       involved in two areas of environmental education:  global climate
       change and marine and estuarine protection.

       o    The Office of Climate and Atmospheric Research (OCAR) is
            developing pilot projects to bring global climate education
            to the local level;  this will include newsletters to keep
            teachers up-to-date on scientific and technological

 o    TVA is developing a comprehensive  energy  education program
      for K-1Z.   "The Energy Sourcebooks"  for grades  K-5 have been
      completed,  and Sourcebooks  for  grades  6-12  will be completed
      in 1993.

 o    TVA is beginning to develop a waste  education program  for
      schools as  well as the general  public.  A set of
      supplementary classroom materials  for  high  school  use  -
      "Waste:  The Hidden Resource" -  is  being distributed
      nationally  by Keep America  Beautiful.
 o    TVA is addressing land stewardship questions through
      producing integrated resource management  materials for
      middle school use - "TVA -  A World of  Resources."

 o    The Land Between the Lakes  (LBL),  an inland peninsula,
      offers interpretive sites and special  programs  for K-12

      National Science Foundation v

      The NSF's Committee on Earth Sciences, which includes  NASA,
 DoE,  and USDA, is  sponsoring a Global Change Education  and
 Training Program,  which,  as part of  its overall  program
 activities, will provide approximately  100  summer research
 internships for  high school students in 1991.  The Division of
 Teacher Preparation is also spending approximately $200,000  on
 proposals for curriculum development in grades K-12.
     Council on Environmental Quality

     CEQ is reviewing, beginning with this paper, and assessing
the success of Federal environmental education programs with an
eye towards improving effectiveness through coordination and
sharing ideas.

     CEQ has proposed a new initiative, the "Presidential Awards
for Excellence in Environmental Education.1*  This program would
award up to $5,000 to each of two recipients from each state and
one each from the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.  Criteria
would include creativity and transferability of teaching methods,
effectiveness in increasing environmental awareness, and the
positive impact of the teacher on students.

Other Programs

     This summary, with its focus on Federal agency activities,
only alludes to the vast array of activities that are on-going in
other sectors.  Several states have developed model environmental
education programs.  Wisconsin,  for example, requires instruction

                                                       •31 •—. , .
        in  environmental  protection,  its renewed commitment to improving
        American  education  as articulated in the President's six goals
        for education,  and  its ability to bring resources to bear in a
        field  in  which  small amounts  can achieve large results.

            As activities  continue,  the issues of coordination, resource
        allocation,  and educational content and methodology remain.  All
        are closely  linked.

:                         (
            The  environmental education community has, de facto,
        established  a loose confederation of organizations with similar
        goals.  Since several Federal agencies have jurisdiction over
        different aspects of environmental protection and conservation, a
        number of separate but thematically related programs for
        environmental education have been developed.

i            Efforts are  under way to link and coordinate these
t        activities without extinguishing the initiative and commitment
I        that individual agencies have already demonstrated.   It is not
|        the intention of  the Federal effort to limit the number of
\        players in this emerging field, but clearly some duplication is
jj        occurring, so wherever possible it makes common sense to
I        coordinate and thus reduce needless expenditures of resources.
I        In addition, overlapping programs in the private and public
        sectors,  should be,  wherever possible,  linked for the same
        reasons.  The nature of this linkage will,  by necessity,  vary on
        a case-to-case basis,  but at a minimum should involve the
        exchange  of information.   The Federal government should take an
        active role in learning from and promoting examples of successful
        state and non-profit programs.

            The National Advisory Committee on Environmental Technology
       Transfer,  through its Committee on Education and Training,  has
       recommended formation of a new Interagency Council on
       Environmental Education to replace the "passive" Federal
       Interagency Committee on Education Subcommittee on Environmental
       Education.  This council would be chaired by EPA's new Office of
       Environmental Education and Training (OEET),  in the  Office of the
       Administrator,  and would assert EPA as  the lead agency for
       environmental education.   OEET would develop national policy and
       implementation plans,  and produce an annual  report on
       environmental education.   This proposal has  received the support
       of the FICE Subcommittee and EPA.

            The continuity  and linkages between the work of FICE,
       NACETT,  and the Alliance for Environmental Education (AEE)  are
       key components  to the  success of the Federal effort.   In a field
       where cooperative ventures are the  norm,  AEE has linked many of
       the relevant participants in environmental education together in
       the expanding ERIC system,  providing a  nationwide network of
       environmental and educational professionals.   Overlapping systems

 as they should be.   Increased communication and coordination  will
 enhance the  ability  to  relay a complete message on the
 environment  and thereby support the  larger goals of producing an
 informed and enlightened citizenry.

      The "what" of environmental education is perhaps not so
 important as the "how".  Teachers have repeatedly indicated that
 they  need no additional materials, preferring that resources  be
 directed at  teacher  training and action-oriented student
 programs.  Increased Federal involvement and coordination can
 lead,  in effect,  to  more workshops for teachers who in turn learn
 about complex subjects  from the experts;  more effective and  more
 accessible learning  materials for teachers to choose from;  more
 opportunities for hands-on learning experiences;  more exchange
 of  successful curricula;  more incentives for teachers and
 students, such as CEQ's proposed Presidential awards for teachers
 and EPA's youth awards programs;  and more commitment through the
 integration  of environmental education goals and practices in

      Environmental education for elementary and secondary
 students will  remain largely in the hands of classroom teachers,
 as  it should.   The Federal role,  and one which it has undertaken
with  creativity,  enthusiasm, and,  recently,  commitment,  is one of
 empowerment —  empowerment of teachers,  students,  and parents
through grants, guidance,  forums and training — to achieve
environmental  literacy and the development of an environmental
ethic.  Federal agencies have undertaken a vast array of projects    \
and activities, often on their own initiative.   With a renewed       I
sense of environmental awareness in American society,  this effort    f
can be directed to complement the  many activities  underway in        ,
environmental education.                                             i

                      COUNCIL ON ENvinor,'M!ii\rv,L QUALITY
  The Honorable  J.  Danforth Quaylc
  United States  Senate
  Washington,  D.C.   20510

  The Honorable  Thomas  S.  Foley
  Speaker of  the House  of  Representatives
  United States  House of Representatives
  Washington,  D.C.   20515

  Dear Mr. President and Mr.  Speaker:

      Please  accept the enclosed  proposed  legislation for
  consideration  by Congress.  The  Presidential  Awards  for
  Excellence in  Environmental Education would establish a high
  level  program,  administered by the Council on Environmental
  Quality, to  recognize and stimulate excellence in  environmental
  education in elementary  and secondary schools.

      Pollution prevention,  rather than  after-the-fact clean up,
  is  the  long-term solution for our environmental problems.
  Education plays a  key role  in prevention.  Teachers  can lay a
  strong  foundation  in tomorrow's  adults  by teaching environmental
  awareness and means to prevent and minimize pollution.   Further,
  outstanding  teachers often work  without the recognition they
  deserve.  This proposal  addresses both  concerns.

      The President proposes to stimulate  environmental  education
  by establishing Presidential awards to  recognize excellent
  teachers.  The awards are one small, but  important,  component of
  the solutions to protecting our  resources and environment for
  future generations.

      The Office of Management and Budget has advised that there
  is no objection to the presentation of  this legislative  proposal
|to Congress, and that its enactment would be in accord with  the
 program of  the President.

      My staff or I can provide additional information as

      Thank  you for your consideration.

                          Michael R.  Deland
                             Recycled Paper

                                                         •»  .
 To establish a Presidential awards program, administered -fiy  the
 Council on Environmental Quality, to recognize and stimulate
 excellence in environmental education in Grades Kindergarten
 through 12.

      Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives  of
 fche United States of, America in Congress assembled,
      (a)  TITLE.  — This Act may be cited as the "Presidential
Awards for Excellence in Environmental Education Act".

      (b)  TABLE OF CONTENTS.  —

Sec*  1. Shott^title and table  of  contents,
Sec.  2. Ifih&iiigs.
S«i6« '9.*$«$toiifcl6ns.  .             .••-•<•.  .       '  '   • '    .
Sec.  4, tfresl'defrtial Awards  for Excellence
        in ^hVirdhmental Education.
Sec.  5. Authorisation.                              •
             •  FINDINGS.           ''";. ••••''••••  "7',.' '•'"",.," '•'••••"'. ;v'"-.  ,  •'-'..'"

     The Conc|fess fihds that —

     (1) Environmental protedtion, to be effective, must  include
     pollution prevention as well as pollution control.
                            h          .      ' .   .
     (2) Pollution prevention depends in large part on changes  in
     individual behavior— changes which can best be brought about
     through education.

     (3) The education of youth,  and through them their pafrents,
     can luat^i  yi eater understanding of the need for --—:-
     en vironli|fttai  Protection,  and consequently can bring about
     the modifications in behavior which will be necessary to
     imprbve' , We future  health  of our natural resoUrceflfand
     environment *

     (4)  Recognition and support  must be given from the highest
     level td those best qualified to provide students  with
    accuf ate, inf ofmation about environmental choices and
                 to the environment— -teachers.          .
    (5) The federal government, acting  through the Council on
    Environmental Quality, should recognize  and stimulate
                            Recycled Paper

               1  and effective  environmental  education  at  thc-
     elementary  and secondary  l.ov^l  by  nrcvidinr:  dcsorvinq
     teachers  froin each  State,  the District  of  Columbia,  and the
     Commonwealth of  Puerto Rico with Presidential  Av:ards
     Exec:Hence  in Environmental Education.         •'  ;:

     For the purposes of this Act, the  term--

     ID "Chairman" means the Chairman  of the President's Council
     on Environmental Quality;

     (2) "Council" means the Council on Environmental Quality  and
     the Office of Environmental Quality-

     (3) "Presidential award" means the Presidential Awards  for
     Excellence in Environmental Education established under this

     (a) The Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, on
     behalf of the President, is authorized to administer an
     awards program which recognizes elementary and secondary
     education teachers who demonstrate excellence in advancing
     environmental education through innovative and effective

     (b) The Chairman is authorized to develop an awards
     selection process and to establish an annual timetable for
     the awards process.  The selection criteria should include,
     but not be limited to:

          (1)  creativity of  the teaching method or project;

          (2)  transferability of the teaching method or project
          to other teachers;

          (3)  effectiveness  of the teacher in increasing
          students'  understanding and appreciation of the
          environment;  and

          (4)  positive  impact of the teacher on students,
          parents,  and  other  teachers.

     (c) The Chairman is authorized to  provide cash awards of up
     to  $5,000 directly to Presidential award recipients on an
     annual  basis.
                            Recycled Paper

      ((\\  Presidential Awards  for  Excel.lonco  in  Environmental
      Education or equal value  arc  co  be given annually  co  tv.-o
      teachers from each of  the United  States, to cne  teacher  from
      the  District of Columbia  and  to  one teacher from the
      Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

      (e)  Only teachers at public or private  schools with primary
      assignment to classrooms  at the primary or secondary  level
      (grades Kindergarten - 12) are eligible.   Prior Presidential
      award recipients are not eligible for subsequent awards
      under this section.

      (f)  Each State is to nominate four finalists.   The District
      of Columbia and Puerto Rico are to nominate two finalists

      (g) The Chairman shall work with the Environmental
     Protection Agency,  the Department of Education, the
     Department of Health and Human Services, the National
     Science Foundation and other Federal agencies and existing
     national,  State and local environmental and education
     organizations to the maximum extent possible to identify
     potential  Presidential award recipients.


      (a) There  is  hereby authorized to be appropriated to the
     Council on  Environmental Quality to carry out  this  act an
     amount not  to exceed $549,000 for each of fiscal years 1991,
     1992, and  1993.

     (b) Amounts made available pursuant to paragraph (a)  of this
     section^ shall be available for making  cash awards under this
     act,  for administrative expenses including award
     certificates  and printing, for necessary travel costs  and
     per diem expenses incurred by teachers selected as
     Presidential  award  recipients, and for special activities
     related  to carrying out this  act.

     (c)(l) The Council  is  authorized to accept  financial
     contributions, goods,  or  services from other Federal,  State
     or local agencies and  from non-governmental entities
     (including for-profit  and non-profit organizations)  in
     furtherance of the  objectives  of  the Presidential awards

        (2) The Chairman shall establish by regulation guidelines
     setting  forth the criteria the Council will use in
     determining whether to  accept  such financial contributions,
     goods, or services.  The  criteria shall  take into
     consideration whether  the  acceptance of  the financial
     contributions, goods, or  services  would  reflect unfavorably
     upon  the Council's ability to  carry out  its responsibilities
                            Recycled Paper

                       .\     ,   . -   i „  -  c-iif  and objective manner,  or v,'ou.o
             .•j'fi'oCff^E^'Pj-1- dasd.gf* \\\. '^i.*l!^H:,1,"in^-ji^b^3WibhxL(kni@eN>n61P''CD(t "..^oi!~['

             inttiCJ*"Ctltr¥\ <-€r %, 9©y
 Section 1 provides the title -- "Presidential. Awards
 Excellence in Environmental Education Act" -- and a table' of

 Section 2  presents findings emphasizing the importance of
 teachers educating youth to prevent pollution,and to protect the
 Section 3  provides  Jfelevant definitions.
 Section 4  authorizes the Council on Environmental Quality  to
 administer the Presidential awards program and to provide  cash,
 awards  of  up to $5,000 directly to each of 102 teachers, two  dfrom
 each State and one each from the District of Columbia and  the
 Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

 Section 5  authorizes the Council to use appropriated funds for
 the Presidential awards program, including the costs of travel
 and per. diem for recipients, cash aw&rds, printing, and other
 related expenditures.   This section also authorizes the Council
to accept outside cash contributions, goods,  or services in
furtherance of the program, and requires the Council to implement
regulations governing their acceptance.

        APPENDIX B
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Research and Development
Catalog of Minority Support Programs

Annual Puerto Rico Recruiting Effort
Recruitment of Scientific/Technical
  Personnel from Underrepresented Groups
Recruitment of the Physically Handicapped
Minority Recruitment Activities and
  Job Fairs
                      Training the Recruiter
                      EPA Faculty Fellows Program
                      Recruitment Databases
Mentoring Program

Federal Women's Program

Management Training

Secretarial Career Management Program
COMMUNITY AWARENESS    Training Grants for the  Native  American

                       Special  Observances






Minority  Contracts,  Cooperative Agreements.  19
  & Grants
Senior Environmental Employee Program

"2+2" Environmental Education Program

Small Business Innovation Research

Hazardous Substance Research Centers

Engineering Traineeships for HBCUs

Pilot Program to Incorporate Minority
  Institutions into the Gulf Coast
  Hazardous Substance Research Center






      This is a general overview of the existing and planned minority support programs within ORD. Many
      of the programs exist within each ORD office or laboratory,  if, within a given program, a specific
      point of contact is not listed for a particular office or laboratory, please contact the Office or
      Laboratory's Program Operations Office to locate the individual who has local responsibility for the
                         RECRUITING EFFORTS
TITLE:          Annual  Puerto Rico  Recruiting Effort

DESCRIPTION:   ORD actively supports the annual EPA  recruiting  trip
                to Puerto Rico.  ORD offices and laboratories
                provide specific job opportunities, primarily
                scientist and engineering positions,  for which the
                ORD representative  can make employment offers to
                qualified candidates during the recruiting trip.
                ORD has recruited nineteen Puerto  Rican scientists
                and engineers during the past two  years.

ORGANIZATIONS: All ORD Offices and Laboratories

CONTACT:        ORD:     Sandra Wells, ORPM, 382-2585
                Local:   Dee Hutchings, ERL Ada, 743-2227
                         Maxine Kellum, ERL Athens, 250-3517
                         Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
                         Nancy VanMeter, CERI Cincinnati, 684-7394
                         Diana Irwin, EMSL Cincinnati, 684-7485
                         Diana Guzman, RREL Cincinnati,  684-7953
                         Pam Taylor, ERL Corvallis, 420-4651
                         Sherry Linder, ERL Duluth, 780-5543
           	       Robert Menzer, ERL Gulf Breeze, 228-9011
                         Richard Garnas, EMSL Las Vegas, 545-2568
                         Patricia Gant, ERL Narragansett, 838-6005
                         Shirley Bowens, HRMD RTF,  629-4381

TITLE:         Recruitment of Scientific/Technical  Personnel  from
               Under-represented Groups

DESCRIPTION:   In December 1989, ORD implemented a  program to
               encourage the active recruitment of  scientists and
               engineers in underrepresented groups,  which includes
               women, minorities and the handicapped.  This program
               sets aside twenty-six positions per  year for
               recruiting qualified scientists and  engineers from
               the^e underrepresented groups.  The  Assistant
               Administrator provides funding for salaries and
               expenses during the first two years  for any
               individual recruited under this program.  In the
               third year, the recruiting office or laboratory must
               fund the expenses associated with the positions.

ORGANIZATIONS: All ORD Offices and Laboratories
ORD:    Art Payne, QRPM, 382-7462
Local:  Dee Hutchings, ERL Ada, 743-2227
        Maxine Kellum, ERL Athens, 250-3517
        Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
        Linda Schwaegerle, ECAO Cincinnati, 684-7535
        Diana Irwin, EMSL Cincinnati, 684-7485
        Pan Taylor, ERL Corvallis, 420-4651
        Sherry Linder, ERL Duluth, 780-5543
        Robert E. Menzer, ERL Gulf Breeze, 228-9011
        Richard Garnas, EMSL Las Vegas, 545-2568
        Art Sandoval, HRMD Las Vegas, 545-2414
        Lucy Garedo, ERL Narragansett, 838-6008
        Terri J. Burrell, HRMD RTP,  629-4359

Recruitment of the Physically Handicapped
HRMD Cincinnati has an active recruitment  program
for the physically handicapped.   HRMD notifies  the
Ohio Vocational Rehabilitation Office of all  vacancy
announcements.  All the facilities in Cincinnati are
easily accessible by the physically disabled  and all
major telephone exchanges have been adapted for the
hearing impaired.  The physically disabled represent
approximately 8 percent of Cincinnati's workforce.

ERL Narragansett is implementing a similar program
in conjunction with the Rhode Island Vocational
Rehabilitation Office.  The staff at Narragansett is
striving to make their entire facility easily
accessible by the physically disabled as funding
becomes available.

ERL Duluth is implementing a similar program in
conjunction with Minnesota Vocational Rehabilitation
Office.  All the facilities at ERL Duluth are easily
accessible by the physically disabled.

ERL Gulf Breeze has a similar program with the
Penniscola Junior College.  Many of the facilities
at ERL Gulf Breeze are easily accessible by the
physically disabled.

HRMD RTF is considering re-establishing this program
at the RTF Center.  All the facilities  in RTF are
easily accessible by the physically disabled and all
major telephone exchanges have been adapted  for the
hearing impaired.
OROAMIZATIOMi: ORD Offices and Laboratories
Local:  Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
        Sherry Linder, ERL Duluth, 780-5543
        Mary Merredith, ERL Gulf Breeze,  228-9246
        Art Sandoval, HRMD Las Vegas,  545-2414
        Brenda Laing, ERL Narragansett, 838-6021
        Randy Brady, HRMD RTF, 629-3071

               Minority Recruitment Activities  and Job  Pairs
         DESCRIPTION:   ORD representatives  have  participated  in  numerous
                        minority-sponsored recruitment  activities and  job
                        fairs.   The primary  purpose  is  to  identify potential
                        candidates for employment by providing information
                        concerning ORD missions,  programs  and  career

         ORGANIZATIONS: All ORD Offices and  Laboratories
               ORD:    Art Payne, ORPM,  382-7462
               Local:  Zandra Kern, OHRM (HQ Offices), 382-2973
                       Linda Exum, ERL Athens, 250-3145
                       Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
                       Sherry Linder, ERL Duluth, 780-5543
                       Mary Merredith, ERL Gulf Breeze, 228-9246
                       Brenda Laing, ERL Narragansett, 838-6021
                       Terri J. Burrell, HRMD RTF, 629-4359

               Training the Recruiter
Both HRMD Cincinnati and HRMD RTF conduct programs
to train senior scientists, engineers, supervisors
and managers within ORD laboratories and offices to
use effective recruiting methods when participating
in job fairs.  This training program includes the
identification of specific targeted markets  (such as
women, minorities and the handicapped) to be
considered during the recruitment process.
         ORGANIlATXOWt Cincinnati and RTF
               Local:  Sandra Bowman, HRMD  Cincinnati,  684-7801
                       Terri J. Burrell, HRMD RTF,  629-4359

 EPA Faculty Fellows Program
 Faculty  Intern Program)
(Minority  summer
 This  program was established in 1981 to provide
 opportunities  for  faculty members from accredited
 minority  institutions to work in Agency laboratories
 and offices during the summer.  This provides a
 unique  opportunity for the faculty members to
 actively  participate in ORD science and engineering
 research  activities in order to share these
 experiences and information concerning career
 options with the students and faculty at their
 respective colleges and universities.
ORGANIZATIONS: All ORD Offices and Laboratories.
Agency:  Le'Ontyne  Buggs, OHRM, 382-3266
ORD:     Art  Payne, ORPM, 382-7462
Local:   Sandra  Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati,  684-7801
         Jessie  Burdett, RREL Cincinnati,  684-7514
         Grady Neely,  ERL Corvallis,  420-4684
         Robert  E.  Menzer,  ERL Gulf  Breeze,  228-9011
         Shirley T. Bowens, HRMD RTF,  629-4381
 Recruitment Databases
 Most of the ORD Offices and Laboratories have
 developed either manual or automated recruitment
.databases which are used as mailing lists in
 recruiting women, minorities and the handicapped for
 scientific, engineering and support positions.
ORGANIZATION: ORD Offices and Laboratories
.Locals  Zandra Kern,  OHRM (HQ Offices),  382-2973
         Dee Hutchings,  ERL Ada, 743-2227
         Rosemarie C.  Russo, ERL Athens,  250-3134
         Sandra Bowman,  HRMD Cincinnati,  684-7801
         Pam Taylor, ERL Corvallis, 420-4651
         Sherry Linder,  ERL Duluth, 780-5543
         Mary Merredith, ERL Gulf Breeze, 228-9246
         Art Sandoval, HRMD Las Vegas, 545-2414
         Brenda Laing, ERL Narragansett, 838-6021
         Terri J. Burrell, HRMD RTF, 629-4359

Historically Black Colleges  and Universities
Senior scientists and engineers in ORD laboratories
have been named as adjunct professors in their areas
of expertise and provide laboratory work experience
for science and engineering students in Historically
Black Colleges and Universities.  This program also
provides a source for minority recruitment.
Local:  Linda Exum, ERL Athens, 250-3145
        Terri J. Burrell, HRMD RTF, 629-4359
        August Curley, HERL RTF, 629-2729
HBCU Lecture series
A lecture series has been initiated to strengthen
ties between the Agency and HBCUs.  These lectures
have been designed to provide a forum for discussion
on the role of minorities in science and engineering
as a key to national strength in research and
August Curley, HERL RTP, 629-2729
Dianne Laws, AOCR RTP, 629-4249

Minority Engineering Program
This is a cooperative agreement  with  the  University
of Nevada at Las Vegas to provide  engineering
students with training projects  and assignments
associated with environmental issues  and  research
Local:  Anders Denson, EMSL Las Vegas,  545-2577
Stay-in-School Program
DESCRIPTION:   This program provides scientific, professional,
               technical and clerical assistance to ORD offices and
               laboratories by providing student hires working on a
               part-time basis within these organizations.  The
               program is limited to students meeting financial aid
               requirements.  In several ORD facilities, a specific
               percentage of the available opportunities are set
               aside for minority and female applicants.

ORGANIZATIONS: All ORO Offices and Laboratories
ORD:    Art Payne, ORPM, 382-7462
Local;  Dee Hutchings, ERL Ada, 743-2227
        Maxine Kellum, ERL Athens,  250-3517
        Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati,  684-7801
        Pan Taylor, ERL Corvallis,  420-4651
        Sherry Linder, ERL Duluth,  780-5543
        Mary Meredith, ERL Gulf Breeze,  228-9246
        Art Sandoval, HRMD Las Vegas,  545-2414
        Brenda Laing, ERL Narragansett,  838-6021
        Shirley  Bowens, HRMD  RTP,  629-4381

Adopt-a-School Program
ORD facilities participate in the Agency-sponsored
"Adopt a School" Program by sponsoring activities
for local minority schools.  The program is designed
to foster an interest in sciences and engineering at
junior and senior high school levels.  Individuals
from the laboratories sponsor school activities;
provide tours of EPA facilities; judge school
science contests; sponsor environment-related public
awareness activities; collect coupons/receipts to
support the school's participation in education
bonus programs [e.g., Giant apple computer program];
and set aside a certain number of "Stay-in-School"
positions as employment opportunities for students
of the "adopted" schools.  Cincinnati laboratories
have instituted a "shadow" program which will allow
10 children from the "adopted" school to follow a
volunteer scientist in the ORD laboratory for a day.
         ORGANIZATIONS: ORD Headquarters Offices
ORD:    Art Payne, ORPM, 382-7462
Local:  Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati,  684-7801

School Outreach Program
 DESCRIPTION:   All of the ORD facilities participate in outreach
               programs at the local elementary schools,  high
               schools, colleges and universities,  including the
               minority schools, to cultivate an interest in the
               environmental sciences and engineering.   Individuals
               from the laboratories sponsor school activities;
               provide tours of EPA facilities; judge school
               science contests; sit on school panels;  sponsor
               environment-related public awareness activities; and
               participate in science fairs and career days.  Many
               of the EPA employee associations donate money for
               local school science awards/prizes and scholarship

 ORGANIZATIONS* All ORD Offices and Laboratories
ORD:    Art Payne, ORPM, 382-7462
Local:  Dee Hutchings, ERL Ada, 743-2227
        Robert Ryans, ERL Athens, 250-3306
        Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
        Pam Taylor, ERL Corvallis, 420-4651
        Robert Drummond, ERL Duluth, 780-5733
        Betty Jackson, ERL Gulf Breeze, 228-9011
        Marianne Carpenter, EMSL Las Vegas, 545-2168
        Brenda Laing, ERL Narragansett, 838-6021
        Billie Hudson, OSORDO RTF, 629-4303
ffoaea tad Minorities Honors Program
This program will provide scholarships  through the
University of West Florida to scholarly women and
minorities as an incentive to enter  graduate-level
training in the marine sciences.
Local:  Raymond Wilhour,  ERL Gulf Breeze,  228-9011

Minority Institution Assistanceship  (MIA) Program
The MIA Program was initiated  in  1981  to  increase
research support for eligible  minority institutions
(Historically Black Colleges or Universities,  and
Hispanic Association of Colleges  or Universities)  by
providing fellowships for their students.

The MIA Program has three separate components:
a Research Assistance Program  for faculty;  an
Undergraduate/Graduate Fellowship Program;  and a
Summer Intern Program for students who have
completed the Student Fellowship  Program.

The objective of the Research  Assistance Program is
to promote environmental research capability within
minority institutions and to provide an opportunity
for minority students to gain  research experience in
the environmental sciences.  Eight research grants
totaling $800K are funded in FY 1990.
The Student Fellowship and Summer Intern Program is
intended to encourage students to develop careers in
environmental research.   Approximately $6K per
student for one academic year is provided to pay for
tuition, fees, books and a monthly stipend.  All
fellowship recipients are required to serve a three
month summer internship at an EPA facility which
allows them to apply their newly acquired skills to
real-world environmental problems.  Twenty-three
fellowships and ten summer internships totaling
$200K are funded in FY 1990.
ORGANIZATIONS: ORD-sponsored program
ORD:    Virginia Broadway, OER, 382-7445
        Alvin Edwards, OER, 382-7445
Local:  Dee Hutchings, ERL Ada, 743-2227
        Maxine Kellum, ERL Athens,  250-3517
        Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati,  684-7801
        Diana Irwin, EMSL Cincinnati,  684-7485
        Grady Neely, ERL Corvallis,  420-4684
        Sherry Linder, ERL Duluth,  780-5543
        Mary Merredith, ERL Gulf  Breeze,  228-9246
        Evelyn Clay, EMSL Las  Vegas,  545-2326/2536
        Robert Mosley, EMSL Las Vegas, 545-2326/2536
        Brenda Laing,  ERL Narragansett,  838-6021
        Billie Hudson, OSORDO  RTF,  629-4303

Minority Research Apprenticeship Program  (MRAP)
Cincinnati has participated  in  the MRAP  since  1980.
The MRAP is an eight week program where  students
participate in ongoing research projects to gain
work experience and exposure to scientific and
engineering careers.  Thirty-five minority students
from Cincinnati area high schools and  colleges
participate in the program each year.    EPA
scientists and engineers volunteer to  be mentors  and
work on a one-to-one basis with the  students.

ERL Duluth has three programs under  the  auspices  of
the MRAP: an eight-week summer session for high
school students; the NISHOU program  in cooperation
with the University of Minnesota; and  a  six-week
hands-on training session with the  students  from
Staples Technical Institution at Cloquet, Minnesota.
In each of these programs EPA scientists and
engineers work on a one-to-one basis with the
students as mentors.  Currently there are three
students enrolled in the high school program, two
students in the NISHOU program and  three students in
the technician program.

RTF is establishing a MRAP in cooperation with Shaw
University.  During the academic school year the
high school students will participate in weekend
sessions at Shaw University in addition to an eight-
week summer session during their freshman and
sophomore years.  These students will then be
assigned to work with an EPA mentor at  RTF for an
eight-week summer session during both their junior
and senior years in high school.  RTF plans to
initially enroll 16 students in FY  1990 and expand
the program to  32 students  in  FY 1991,  rotating  16
new students each year.
ORGANIZATION: Cincinnati, RTF and ERL Duluth
Local:  Johnny Springer, RREL Cincinnati,  684-7529
        Andrea Tanner, OSORD Cincinnati,  684-7771
        Diana Irwin, EMSL Cincinnati,  684-7485
        Sherry Linder, ERL-Duluth,  780-5543
        Millard Thacker, HRMD RTF,  629-4356

                  CATALOG of MINORITY  SUPPORT PROGRAMS within ORD

         TITLE:          Equipment Donation  Program

         DESCRIPTION:    An OARM Pilot  Program has been established  to  donate
                        excess physical  plant property to  HBCUs.   It  is
                        anticipated that this program, if  successful,  will
                        reduce the Agency's excess  equipment  inventories and
                        provide useful laboratory and office  equipment for
                        use by minority  institutions. The current recipient
                        of the equipment is Benedict College  in Columbia,
                        South Carolina.

                        Cincinnati has a similar program to donate excess
                        equipment to the University of Cincinnati.   ERL
                        Duluth is implementing  a program to donate their
                        excess equipment to local  area  schools.

         ORGANIZATIONS:  Cincinnati, RTF and ERL Duluth

         CONTACT:        Local:  Bob Carr, OSORDO Cincinnati,  684-7966
                                Jeffrey Denny,  ERL Duluth, 780-5518
                                Dianne Laws, AOCR RTF,  629-4249
                                David Westmoreland, FMSD RTF,  629-2162

                     TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Mentoring Program
DESCRIPTION:   Guidelines were established two years ago for a
               laboratory mentoring program for newly-recruited
               Puerto Rican scientists and engineers  (See "Annual
               Puerto Rico Recruiting Effort") to help ensure the
               successful transition of these newly recruited
               members of ORD's workforce to adjust to their new
               careers.  HRMD Cincinnati has expanded on this idea
               to develop an orientation and mentoring program for
               all new employees, including special provisions for
               new minority hires.
               The Mentoring Program includes six segments:
                (1) a "sponsor" is assigned to all new hires;
                (2) a formal "human resources" presentation and
                    orientation is provided;
                (3) a presentation has been developed to provide  an
                    overall view of the laboratories and offices;
                (4) an orientation checklist, which emphasizes the
                    individual's role in the  office or laboratory,
                    has been developed;
                (5) a three-month feedback interview identifies  any
                    shortfalls in the orientation process;  and
                (6) a research mentor, where  appropriate,  is
                    assigned on a voluntary basis.

ORGANIZATIONS: All ORO Offices and Laboratories  (Guidelines)
               Cincinnati  (6-phase mentoring  program)
 ORO:     Sandra Wells,  ORPM,  382-7462
 Local:   Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
         Jeff Denny,  ERL Duluth, 780-5717
	     Martha Daniel, AEERL RTP^-541-2922

               Federal Women's Program
DESCRIPTION:   ORD participates in the Federal Women's Program at
               both the local and national level.   Greater
               Leadership Opportunity (GLO),  which has been part of
               the Federal Women's program,  is an active career
               development program throughout ORD.  Women in
               Science and Engineering (WISE) is very active in the
               recruiting, development and education programs
               throughout ORD.  In Cincinnati, WISE members have
               compiled a vacancy announcement distribution list
               which consists of organizations whose members
               include women in science,  engineering and technical
               fields.  WISE members have also volunteered to act
               as mentors under the newly initiated mentoring
               program in Cincinnati.

ORGANIZATIONS: All ORD Offices and Laboratories

               ORD:    Art Payne, ORPM, 382-7462
               Local:  Dee Hutchings, ERL Ada, 743-2227
                       Linda Exum, ERL, Athens, 250-3145
                       Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
                       Kathy Martin, ERL Corvallis, 420-4654/4599
                       Liz Durhan, ERL Duluth, 780-5515
                       Virginia Snarski, ERL Duluth,  780-5556
                       Betty Jackson, ERL Gulf Breeze, 228-9011
                       Faye Cromar, EMSL Las Vegas, 545-2566
                       Sanrda Baksi, ERL Narragansett, 838-6162
                       Suzanne Lussier, ERL Narragansett,  838-6083
                       Jewel Morris, OSORDO RTF,  629-4303

Management Training
HRMD Cincinnati has conducted several management
training sessions on the findings of Presidential
Commission Workforce 2000 Study.   This study
concludes that the number of women and minorities
entering the workforce during the next twenty years
will increase, while the number of professionals
with postgraduate degrees in science and engineering
will decrease.  This training provides management
personnel with relevant information concerning the
future of the ORD community.  The briefing is
presently scheduled to be given to the OMMSQA
Program Operations Directors.

ERL Athens has expanded the Zenger-Miller Management
Program to included employees at the GS-12 level who
have demonstrated supervisory or managerial
potential.  They have also targeted four women and
minorities below the GS-12 level who have displayed
supervisory potential to participate in the program
to enhance their career potential.
ORGANIZATIONS: Cincinnati, RTF and ERL Athens
Local:  Maxine Kellum, ERL Athens, 250-3517
        Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
        Randy Brady, HRMD RTF, 629-3071

                   CATALOG  of MINORITY SUPPORT PROGRAMS within ORD
Secretarial Career Management Program:
ORD is sponsoring a pilot program for secretaries
and support staff to provide career enhancement
opportunities.   The program includes title changes,
as appropriate,  and an evaluation process that
places emphasis  on developmental assignments,
assessment of existing support requirements, and a
training plan which focuses on the career goals of
the individual.
          ORGANIZATIONS:  ORD-sponsored  program
ORD:    Sandra Wells, ORPM, 382-7462
Local:  Carolyn Taylor, ERL Ada, 743-2228
        Joan Price, ERL Athens, 250-3134
        Sandra Bowman, HRMD Cincinnati, 684-7801
        Pam Taylor, ERL Corvallis, 420-4651
        Nancy Novy, ERL Duluth, 780-5708
        Bonnie Clayton, ERL Gulf Breeze, 228-9011
        Robin Shoemaker, EMSL Las Vegas, 545-2525
        Ina Taylor, ERL Narragansett,  838-6011
        Randy Brady, HRMD RTF,  629-3071

                       COMMUNITY AWARENESS
Training Grants for the Native American Tribes
These grants are made in support of curriculum
development for environmental concerns relating to
Indian Reservations and the dissemination of the
curriculum through workshops and seminars.
Additional grants are provided to assist Indian
tribes in their understanding of how tribal
governments can participate in the intergovernmental
task of protecting the environment.  Grants have
been made to:
     National Congress of American Indians
     Council of Energy Resource Tribes
     Great Lake Intertribal Council
     Minnesota Chippewa Tribe
     Michigan Intertribal Council
     Oneida Tribe
     S. Regis Tribe
     Americans for Indian Opportunity
Patricia Powers, OER, 382-2573

Special Observances
DESCRIPTION:   ORD Headquarters and each of the laboratories and
               field offices observe special events (e.g.,  Black
               History Month, Martin Luther King's Birthday, etc.)
               with local programs.

ORGANIZATIONS: All ORD Offices and Laboratories
ORD:    Art Payne,  ORPM,  382-7462
Local:  Chursey Fountain, ERL Ada, 743-2210
        Ava Ivery,  ERL Athens, 250-3467'
        Art Turner, EEO Cincinnati, 684-7941
        Grady Neely, ERL Corvallis, 420-4684
        Judy Rudman, ERL Duluth, 780-5585
        Emile Lores, ERL Gulf Breeze, 228-9011
        Evelyn Clay, EMSL Las Vegas, 545-2326/2536
        Robert Mosley, EMSL Las Vegas, 545-2326/2536
        Lucy Garedo, ERL Narragansett, 838-6008
        Diane Laws, AOCR RTF, 629-4249

                            CONTRACTS AMD GRANTS
TITLE:         Minority Contracts,  Cooperative Agreements  and

DESCRIPTION:   Throughout ORD,  every effort has been  made  to ensure
               minority-owned small businesses receive  an
               opportunity to participate in the contracting
               process.  There are a variety of contracts  and
               agreements in place which provide ORD  laboratories
               and offices with a variety of services,  including
               laboratory and clerical support.

               Minority procurement workshops are conducted to
               assist minority and women-owned environmental  firms
               in competing for EPA-funded procurements at the
               State and local level.

               Since FY 1985 the Center of Environmental Research
               Information (CERI) has maintained a Minority 8-A
               Set-Aside contractor to provide technical support
               services to include the development of seminars and
               user oriented handbooks and manuals.   A three year
               cost plus fixed fee contract for $1.5 million per
               year was awarded effective 1/1/90 to provide
               technical support services to any ORD activity with
               technology transfer activities relating to Hazardous
               Waste Control.

ORGANIZATIONS: All ORD Offices and Laboratories
ORD:    Colleen Lentini, ORPM, 382-7462
        Patricia Powers, OER, 382-2573
Local:  Jerry D. Davis, ERL Ada, 743-2209
        Annie Smith, ERL Athens, 250-3129
        Clarence Clemmons, CERI Cincinnati,684-7358
        Betty Livingstone, ERL Corvallis,  420-4654
        Arlene Shelhon, ERL Duluth, 780-5540
        Frank Wilkes, ERL Gulf Breeze,  228-9011
        Anders Denson,  EMSL Las Vegas,  545-2577
        Patricia Gant,  ERL Narragansett,  838-6005
        Jerry Dodson, CMD RTP, 629-2249

Senior Environmental  Employee  (SEE) Program
The SEE Program,  authorized  by  the  Environmental
Programs Assistance Act of  1984,  allows EPA to enter
into assistance agreements  with select organizations
in order to obtain the services of  Americans, age  55
years or older, to provide  technical  assistance  to
EPA.  These organizations include:
     American Association of Retired  Persons  (AARP)
     National Caucus/Center on  Black  Aged,  Inc.
     National Council of Senior Citizens'
     National Pacific/Asian Resource  Center on  Aging
     National Urban League
     National Council on the Aging, Inc.
     National Association for the Hispanic Elderly
     Green Thumb, Inc.

In FY 1990, EPA participation in the SEE program is
expected to encompass 70 agreements and 1100 SEE
employees totaling $33M.  The Office of Exploratory
Research manages the SEE Program; however, each EPA
program office is responsible for funding its own
grants.   Although the majority of agreements are
with AARP, the remaining organizations constitute 20
percent of the SEE agreements,  many of which are
minority organizations.  Although women, minorities
and the disabled are employed through the SEE
program; the extent to which these groups are
represented is uncertain.
ORD:    Patricia Powers, OER, 382-2573
Local:  Jimmie L. Kingery, ERL Ada, 743-2226
        Maxine Kellum, ERL Athene, 250-3517
        Diana Irwin, EMSL Cincinnati,  684-7485
        Jessie Burdett, RREL Cincinnati,  684-7514
        Grady Neely, ERL Corvallis, 420-4684
        Kimberly Johnson, ERL Ouluth,  780-5544
        Mary Meredith, ERL Gulf  Breeze,  228-9011
        Marianne Carpenter, EMSL Las  Vegas,545-2168
        Brenda La ing, ERL Narragansett,  838-6021
        Shirley Bowens, KRMD RTP, 629-4381

"2+2" Environmental  Education Program
Congress provided additional  funding  in FY 1990 for
Academic Training.  The "2+2"  Environmental Education
Program, which was initiated  in  FY  1989, will result
in a national model for cooperative technical and
vocational competency-based education programs
between community colleges and high schools.  Its
goal is to increase the number of hazardous material
technicians nationally to meet a critical  need.  The
program encourages high school counselors  to  promote
the environmental field as a  viable career choice
for women and minorities.
Patricia Powers,  OER,  382-2573
Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)
Public Law 97-219 requires EPA to devote 1.25
percent of its extramural budget to SBIR.  OER
manages EPA's SBIR program and provides contract
funding for small businesses with ideas relevant to
EPA's mission.  The program focuses on projects in
control technology or process instrumentation
development.  Proposals are solicited in the fall of
each year for Phase I research, which consists of
feasibility studies that are funded up to  $50K.  The
best Phase I studies are selected for product
development in Phase II and are funded up  to $150K.
Results from the SBIR Program are expected to  lead
to commercial development of a product or  process
used in pollution control.  The FY  1990  SBIR budget
is approximately $2.5M R&D and $.7M Superfund.
Women and minority owned businesses are  encouraged
to participate in this program.
Donald Carey,  OER,  382-7445


TITLE:         Hazardous Substance Research Centers (HSRC)

DESCRIPTION:   Authorized by the 1986 amendments to the Superfund
               Act, the HSRC program supports  five university-
               based research centers across the country.  The
               HSRCs are required to commit approximately 10 to 20
               percent of their funding to the development of an
               active technology transfer program.  Howard
               University, the University of Michigan and Michigan
               State are equal partners in the HSRC consortium
               which focuses on organic bioremediation research.
               Howard University receives a proportionate share of
               the Center's $2.0M start-up funding and the $1.0M
               annual funding for up to eight years.


CONTACT:       ORD:    Karen Morehouse, OER,  382-5750

               Engineering Traineeships  for HBCUs
               An FY 1992 budget proposal  will  support  several
               traineeships in engineering at approved  HBCUs.
               Approximately $1.7M would fund graduate  research  in
               hazardous waste reduction,  and $3.3M would fund
               undergraduate and graduate  education in  engineering
               disciplines supporting Superfund issues.   The
               proposal will include criteria for distribution  of
               the monies to participating minority institutions.
ORGANIZATIONS: ORD-sponsored program
Roger Cortesi,  OER,  382-5750
               Pilot Program to Incorporate Minority Institutions   [
               into the Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research
               Center (GCHSRC), Lanar University, Beaumont, Texas   \
               This program would involve minority institutions in
               joint research projects with the eight major
         -   _ universities which comprise the GCHSRC.  The goal is
               to share faculty, students and laboratories leading
               to an enhanced capability in minority institutions.
               It is.envisioned that the program can be expanded to
               include community colleges and magnet schools to
               encourage the early involvement of women, minorities
               and the handicapped in the sciences and mathematics.
         —		During phase one the University of Central  Florida
               will develop a partnership with the HBCUs in the
               State of Florida.  Upon sucessful development of  the
               Florida framework, this approach would be expanded
               to the other Gulf Coast states.

ORGANIZATIONS: Office of Environmental Engineering  and Technology
               ORD:    Darwin Wright,  OEETD,  382-4073


Annual Puerto Rioo Recruiting Effort
Recruitment of Scientific/Technical
Personnel from Underrepresented Croups
Recruitment of the Physically Handicapped
jyjinoritv Recruitment Activities & Job Fairs
Training the Recruiter
EPA Facultv Fallows Proaram
Recruitment Databases
HBCU Linkage
HBCU Lecture Sarias
Minority Enginaaring Program
Stay-in-School Program
Adopt-a-School Program
School Outraach Program
Woman & Minoritlas Honors Program
Minority Institution Assistanoaship Program
Minority Rasaarch Appranticaship Program
Equipmant Donation Program











































                       * includes SORDO, CERI, ECAO, EMSL and RREL
                       ** includes SORDO, AEERL, AREAL, ECAO and HERL

                        &* xO-
Mentoring Proaram
Federal Women's Program
Management Training
Secretarial Career Management Program
Training Grants for Native American Tribes
Soeoial Observances
Minority Contracts, Agreements ft Grants
Senior Environmental Employee Program
"2*2" Environmental Education Program
Small Business Innovation Research
Hazardous Substance Research Centers
Engineering Traineeships for HBCUs
Pilot Program to Incorporate Minority
Institutions into the Gulf Coast HSRC




































>. \



                     * includes SORDO, CERI, ECAO. EMSL and RREL
                     ** includes SORDO, AEERL. AREAL. ECAO and HERL

     Environmental Action
"Beyond White Environmentalism'

High cancer rates.
polluting chemical
   companies and
   toxic dumpsites
   drew people to
    the Louisiana
    Toxics March.
Beyond  White  Environmentalism
                      Minorities & The Environment
THING is a common myth in America today—one which
falls apart quickly upon exam. Reality is more complex.
  Black, Native American. Chicane, Hispanic—social
justice advocates in all these communities are fighting
so their people may live and work free of debilitating
pollution. Many of these struggles have raged for years.
Honoring and preserving the environment Is intrinsic
to Native American and other land-based cultures.
  Yet the national environmental groups are undenia-
bly white in leadership, staff and image. And activism
against environmental threats—grassroots, regional.
national—is too often divided, by culture and habits of
oppression, along ethnic lines. Each segment is largely
ignorant of the others' struggles and the common
ground they might share.
  Here again, generalizations distort. Conscious efforts
to explore and build links between the civil rights and
environmental communities have been attempted since
the early 1970s. Many top priorities of national envi-
ronmental groups, white though they may be, have a
direct bearing on minority communities—like air pollu-
tion, where radioactive waste is disposed and giving
communities the "right to know" about toxic threats.
The "environmental movement" is not a monolith. Love
of Earth does not belong to one people.
  This Re.-Sources section is devoted to exploring some
of the places that minority and environmental priorities
cross paths. We set forth aware of these issues' tre-
mendous complexity and the fact that we are the white
editorial staff of an environmental magazine. Many
approaches could have been taken. Rather than con-
centrate on national efforts to explore and bridge gaps
between communities, we chose to focus on efforts that
are growing from the ground up.
  What follows is divided into three parts. The first
explores some of the ways that environmental pollution
is devastating minority communities. The next section
profiles the environmental efforts of five minority
activists. And, in the final "viewpoint" section, several
authors point to conflicts, controversies, short-
comings—and even promising directions.
Minorities At Risk	


  • t has been over 20 years since the Kerner Com-
  • mission delivered its potent message: "Our nation
  • is moving toward two societies, one Black, one
 JU white—separate and unequal."
  There have been changes since. Black political power
has clearly grown; workplaces are far more integrated;
the Black middle class has prospered economically. But.
as figures generated for the Kerner report's 20th anni-

                      versary reveal, the overall situa-
                    tion has not changed, and may in
                  fact have worsened. In 1988, Black
                unemployment was more than double
                at of whites—the same was true in 1968.
            In 1988 Blacks' median income hovered at
          around 58 percent that of whites—again, the
        same level as 1968. Some sociologists assert
      that membership in a "permanent underclass" is
    the fate of a growing number of African-Americans,
  Hispanlcs and Native Americans. To daunting poverty
  are added high illiteracy rates, infant mortality, hous-
  ing scarcity and drug-related violence.
  .; .Poor and minority communities struggling to survive
 "must"also shoulder another burden—environmental
  pollution. In  many cases, environmental risks are In-
  extricably linked to poverty and racism—caused by
  them, worsened by them, solutions impeded by them.
  ,  In the workplace, minorities continue to be concen-
  trated In low-paying, high-risk blue collar occupa-
 tions—jobs that tend to have health-threatening envi-
  ronments and a ready supply of "replacement labor."  ;
    On the home front. Inadequate low-Income housing
  and housing discrimination play a key role iiyxmcen-.
  trating Black and Hispanic populations in inner city  '
"the'bldef,^deteriorating housihji increases rtsK^through
^exposure to lead and asbestos—not to mention higher
 'energy bills*. In releasing a May 1989 report, the Na-
 tional Consumer Law Center concluded that the energy
 crisis never ended for those in poverty.

 Lead Poisoning—The Silent Epidemic
   Lead poisoning provides a textbook example of an
 environmental problem that disproportionately affects
 the Black community, and of the ways in which pollu-
 tion problems are tied to other threats to minorities.
   Lead contamination is most prevalent in the inner
 city, with its most wUlepread source being chipped and
 flaking housepaint, followed by lead buildup in soil (in
 turn resulting from old houspaint and gasoline ex-
 haust—see Sep/Oct 1988). Studies have found that risk
 of lead poisoning increases for low-income children
 because deficiency of iron, calcium and other nutrients
 can raise the rate of lead absorption and retention.
   In July 1988. a landmark study on lead poisoning in
 children  from  the federal Agency forToxic Substances
 and Disease Registry; reported thatP44 percent of urban
 Black children are atYisk from lead poisoning—four
 times the rate of white children.
 	Industries that still
     U.S. population, by race
       non-   Span*!)
       Hitpanc orfin  81**
             7.9%   12.5%   3.0%
  1995   75.6%   8.7%   13.0%   3.3%
             9.4%  13.3%   3.5%
       71.5%  10.9%   14.1%   4.1%
       68.9%  12.3%  14.9%  4.6%
    SprtncngfimjyMoOryricr        ;
            SOURCE: U.S. CENSUS BUREAU .
process and reprocess
this lethal material (such
as battery manufactur-
ing, plating and secon-
dary smelting) are highly
populated with minority
workers. According to
occupational health ex-
pert Daryll Alexander, a
disproportionate number
of minority workers have
been found to have blood
lead levels above work-
place safety standards in
California and Texas-the
                                                                            have the
                                                                            highest rate
                                                                            of toxic
                                                                            poisoning of
                                                                            any work-
                                                                            place group.
 only two states that designate race on their lab forms
 for lead screening. Not only are these workers at risk,
 but they can take these poisons home to their families.
  4JH a May 1989 commentary in the American Journal
^oj PublicHealth, childhood lead specialist DrifHerbert
 Needleman theorizes that lead's known physical ''"'"'
 damages may contribute directly to the deadly cycles of
 crime and alienation in the inner city. He writes: "It is
 at the^ame time a reasonable conjecture that the dis-
 ordered thinking, impaired muscle control, reduced
 verbal skills, and the demonstrated increase in school
 failure that are a known product of lead exposure may
 increase the probability that some individuals will adopt
 antisocial responses to the challenges of society."

 Farm Poisoning*—Counting the Uncounted
  .According to the U.S. Department of Labor, our
 nation's three to four million farmworkers have the
i highest rate of exposure to toxic poisoning of any oc-
 cupational group in the United States. The source of
 this poisoning is, of course, pesticides.
   National figures on the frequency of such poison-
 ing—or even educated guesses—have not been compiled.
 Some information, however, has been gathered on the
 state level. Using California data, back in 1984, epi-
 demiologist Molly Coye estimated that as many as
 313.000 farmworkers in the U.S. suffer effects of pes-
 ticide-related illness each year.
   Eighty to 90 percent of the migrant workforce Is
 Chicano—of Mexican descent; African-Americans com-
 prise the next largest group, with a smaller number of
 Haitians, Filipinos. Vietnamese and others.
   According to Michelle Mentzer of the Evergreen Legal
 Services in Washington State (which has the fourth
 largest migrant farmworker population In the country),
 Chicano migrant workers are typically illiterate in Eng-
 lish. Those who work as pesticide applicators generally
 cannot read safety instructions on their own, and farm
 owners and foremen don't fill in.
   In a 1986 survey of migrant farmworkers by Ever-
 green Legal Services, two-thirds of those who regularly
                            ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 20

   applied pesticides to crops said they had never received
   any education or instruction in safety precautions. Nor
   is the risk limited to sprayers. Forty-three percent of
   the 460 farmworkers surveyed by Evergreen reported
   that pesticides had been sprayed directly upon them, or
   had drifted upon them, while they were working. For
   most, this had happened multiple times. Half of those
   sprayed reported feeling ill effects. Of those, less than 10
   percent sought medical attention. Workers are also at
   risk if they re-enter fields too soon after pesticides are
   sprayed. While national "re-entry standards" exist, they
   are too weak and enforcement is almost non-existent.
     Mentzer says workers don't bring up their safety
   concerns for fear of being discriminated against—or
   fired outright. "Most migrant farmworkers don't com-
   plain." she concludes. "The rashes, the headaches, diz-
   ziness, the nausea—it happens so often. They are used
   to it/They think of it as part of their job."

   Siting Toxic Facilities—The Race Factor
     In 1982, mainstream civil rights groups first focused
   national attention on an environmental issue: State
   efforts to site a PCB disposal facility in Warren County,
   North Carolina. Prominent Black leaders from around
   the country joined the largely Black local community to
   protest the facility—culminating In a nonviolent civil
   disobedience campaign and over 500 arrests. In July
   1982. the NAACP—National Association for the
   Advancement of Colored People—requested a preliminary
   Injunction to prohibit olacement of PCBs in the landfill
   on the basis of racial discrimination.
     The landfill was built, but a movement had begun.
     The District of Columbia's non-voting delegate to
   Congress, Walter Fauntroy (who had been arrested in
   Warren County), requested a report from the General
   Accounting Office on where commercial hazardous
   waste landfills were located in eight Southern states.
     The report, issued in July 1983, marked the first
   official recognition of a phenomenon long suspected, it
   found that Blacks rhade up the majority of the popula-
   tion around three of the four commercial landfills
   in the region?Inadditloh?at least 26 percent of each
   community had Income below the poverty level.;
     The GAO report paralleled the conclusions of a dif-
   ferent sort of report. Cerrell Associates was commis-
   sioned by the California Waste Management Board in
   1984 to advise the state on how to overcome political
   obstacles to siting mass-burn garbage incinerators. The
   report, published as one chapter of a lengthy technical
   series/concludes that the state is less likely to meet
   resistance in a community of low-Income, blue collar
   workers with a high school education or less.
     "All socio-economic groupings tend to resent the
   nearby siting of major facilities," advises the report.
   "but the middle and upper socio-economic strata pos-
   sess better resources to affectuate their opposition."
    While the category of race was conspicuously absent
   from CerreU's demographic analysis, the report has
   been widely criticized for targetting vulnerable sectors of
   the population, especially minority communities, for
   further environmental harm.
    The first national analysis of these Issues came In
   1987 when the Commission for Racial Justice, an arm
   of the United Church of Christ, released its report. ^
  "Toxic Waste and Race in the United States." The report's
  statistical analysis concluded that race was the most sig-
  nificant of several variables in determining the location of
  commercial hazardous waste
  sites in residential areas—even
  more significant than socio-
  economic status. The Commission for
  Racial Justice attributed these disturbing
  findings to an "insidious" form of "insti-
  tutional racism." Commission staffer Charles
  Lee sees the report as a starting point. He calls
  for further research into the risks to minorities,
  and the underlying causes for these patterns. In
  one step in this direction, the Centers for Disease
  Control is organizing a scientific forum for fall 1990
  where academics and regulators will examine how
  environmental contamination at hazardous waste
  sites is affecting minorities.
    For 10 years, sociologist Robert Bullard (now with
  the University of California-Riverside) has been
  researching pollution sites In minority communities
  through household surveys,  interviews and other re-
  search means. Bullard. who  has just finished a book.
  Dumping on Dixie, agrees that—even when you control
  for socioeconomic factors—a disproportionate number of
  hazardous sites are located In Black communities.
    In this as in other areas, says Bullard, "You can't
  speak about the condition of the Black community
  without acknowledging racism as a factor."
  Protection Quandry

  In  Indian Country	

                 BY GAIL E. CHEHAK
                 and SUZAN SHOWN HARJO
    ^l^^       Morning Star Foundation

   M       entral to all Indian religions and cultures is
   •       protection of Mother Earth. Indian people are
   ^L   j Increasingly disadvantaged. however. In the
   ^^fc^r modern struggle to protect our countries from
  the excesses of western civilization and fulfill our tradi-
  tional duties, which do not stop at reservation borders.
  Today Indian people are the poorest people in America.
  the richest country in the world, and we are dependent
  upon a federally based economic system.
   Tribal leaders must try to develop environmental
In 1978, Native Americans protested in Carlsbad, NM.
plans to truck nuclear wastes through their lands.
                            ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 21

                     programs when they lack healthy
                   tribal economies.
                   Forced to rely on federaJ funds to
               develop programs and pressured by
             outside forces to consider such economic
           ventures as hazardous waste dumps. Indian
         nations are fighting a battle of priorities with
        insufficient money, technical help or success- - •
     ful models, and little federal or state cooperation.
     'issues of air and water quality affect each of us.
  For Indian nations, these questions assume even
  greater significance, because tribal cultures, traditions
  and religions are site-specific and require that water or
  land remain in a natural, pristine state.
   In exchange for millions of acres,  the United States
  promised to protect Indian resources and environment.
  The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is respon-
  sible for administering federal programs'|o protect the
  U.S. environment. Because the first federal laws were
  silent on the role of tribal governments. EPA Ignored Its
  overall federal trust role and chose to ignore'tribes.
 'Despite a promising Indian policy statement issued in
 "1984, EPA officials continued to Interpret statutes in
  the narrowest and most exclusionary sense, refusing to
  provide funding or assistance to tribes. Ig.,1986 and .
  1987. the Safe Drinking Water, Clean Water and
  Superfund Acts were amended to require EPA recogni-
  tion of the authority of Indian tribal governments over
  environmental programs on Indianjands.
  ?"Even "with the new'laws, EPA improperly criticized o
  for moving too slowly to publish regulations and to fully
'Include tribes in various programs. Indian leaders
  complain that EPA's regional and program offices seem
"  to see Indian programs as optional or discretionary.
  EPA, with  its history of working closely with states,
  now faces state opposition to sharing financial
  resources and empowering tribes.
   Thus It is tribal governments who confront the dif-
  ficult task  of developing regulatory and enforcement
 programs to prevent environmental degradation within
  Indian country and stop further pollution from outside.
 For some tribal leaders, environmental protection
  means the refusal to develop their valuable resources.
  For too many, poverty and the lack of control over
  resources has meant development resulting in aban-
  doned mines, radioactive mill tailings, polluted water
  and ero^ on from timber cutting and overgrazing.
   In recent years, tribes have been approached by en-
  ergy and hazardous waste companies promising riches
  and employment in exchange for allowing hazardous
  waste sites to be located on their land. The Cortina
  Indian Reservation bordering California operated an
  asbestos dump until recently. Without environmental
  personnel to accurately evaluate the potential cultural
  and environmental impacts of such ventures, it is pos-
  sible that more projects such as this may occur.
   Tribal rights are still challenged by states and or-
  ganized anti-Indian organizations in their continuing
  effort to separate Indian people from our lands. In
  1989. the Wisconsin delegation to Congress introduced
  a bill that would abrogate federal treaties with the
  Chippewa Tribes. The delegation now threatens to stop
  any federal funding for tribes in their state because the
  tribes refuse to sell their fishing and hunting rights..
   Rather than challenging and trying tollmitthe.
  practical application 6ftribal sovereignty.^^g'ov-
  emmehts need support from federal, state: and private *
  entitles torimtheir ciwnprograms.tlndlah peoples also
 "fieed help frbm'ltHe^h^rbnmerital acfloh community to
 funding and technical assistance. Support is also
 needed to convince EPA to reallocate existing funds
 Immediately to meet the greatest emergency situations
 and to request realistic appropriations for tribal needs
 that will soon become urgent. Rather than taking either
 of these direct-to-tribes steps, EPA persists in funding
 ivory-tower projects'of third parties to think about the
 problems and barriers,  which tribes already have     p
 identified.  This is not the help Indian country needs. * '
[ GaUChehak(Klamath) Is associate director, and Suzan
« CI»^.Y«''tJ>i"J*k:V/^fc-^-«ifii.'j?>;"2iijt-^'^i>itilJi/iKiiE«i-j—ii*/4jr/£i-'-i—_
'Morning StarFoundation^ set up toprotect-thecultural and
 traditional rights of American Indian nations'and people.
                                             BY CLAUDE ENGLE
                          Richard Moore
                                  PUERTO RICAN
                                Director. SouthWest
                                 Organizing Project

            o, we're an endangered species. We're being
 killed In the workplace and killed in the community,"
 cries Richard Moore, a Puerto Rlcan.
   "Until the environmental movement is prepared to
 discuss the question of race and class, there will never
 be minorities in large numbers involved^" declares
 Moore, executive director of the multi-issue, multi-racial
 SouthWest Organizing Project (SWOP) In Albuquerque.
   The 41-year-old has been environmentally active for
 23 years. He grew up in a ghetto in Harrtsburg, Pa.
 wondering "why are we being forced to live in these
 conditions?" Later in Albuquerque: Why did the city
 ignore for 18 years the complaints of poor residents liv-
 ing near the Ponderosa Products sawmill of constant
 "snow" in the air, contaminated water and noise that
 cracked their adobes? Why did GTE simply move its
 plant from Albuquerque to Mexico when 70 Chlcano
 workers—contaminated on the Job by highly carcino-
 genic solvents—sued the company in  1984? A number
 of the workers died before the suit was settled.
   "When you grow up in the ghetto, you just know
                           ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 22

 there are a lot of things that don't have to be the way
 they are." Moore doesn't believe it's coincidental that
 the victims in these cases were poor people of color.
 That is why he co-founded SWOP in 1980. which or-
 ganized the sawmill residents into a chorus Ponderosa
 Products had to spend S2 million dancing to. It is
 Moore's hope and vision and belief that the workplace
 can be sale and beauty restored to the environment one
 community, one GTE at a time. In 1986.  SWOP drafted
a "Bill of Rights" enumerating eight rights that citizens
 have in relation to industry (for example,  the right to
decide whether an industry can be in their community
 in the first place).
 ^Minorities; don't,care? He's heard it before, answers
Moore, but it's not true: "We don't see apathy in the   /
            "We are offering to
             open up dialogue
          between two existing
                  Moore soys.
                                  jVhat we encounter
                                  is lack of organi-
                                  zation." As its
                                  •name states.
                                  SWOP's forte is
                                  ^Communities have
                                  an Incredible   .
                                 ;"amount of resour-
                                  ces You don't go
                                 : inland drain them,
                                 ^jCit;go mland
                                 "strengthen them.
   Moore spells out SWOP's purpose as "putting poor
 people in control of the decisions that affect their des-
 tinies, future and culture." In 1984. the Chicano
 community of Mountainview outside Albuquerque dis-
 covered that nitroglycerin contaminated a number of
 private wells. The low-income residents were forced to
 buy water from the city—as water hook-up charges
 jumped from S556 to 81,350. SWOP organized Moun-
 tainview—including a voter registration drive—and suc-v
 ceeded in rolling back the hook-up cost. Now SWOP is
 working to hold those who polluted the water respon-
 sible. The prime suspect? Kirtland Air Force Base.
   Moore says environmental groups have often barged
 into an area without doing their homework. To protect
 petroglyph rock paintings, one environmental group
 worked to designate some New Mexico land as a na-
 tional monument. The area was Atrisco Indian land.
 "This happens enough to be a problem," says Moore.
   "If environmental groups want to involve minorities,
 there's going to have to be a give and take on both
'sides." says Moore. Traditional groups and people may
 have to get involved in new issues. Rapport must be
 established and purely environmental groups must
 acknowledge racism and classism.
   In September. SWOP held "Inter-Denominational Hear-
 ings," during which GTE workers and others testified to
 leaders from the National and World Councils of Church-
 es about horror stories on the job. Now Moore has a new
 project: The SouthWest Training Center. It will be a cen-
 ter in Albuquerque "to train Third World people in a
 multi-issue approach to environmental justice prob-
 lems." If national environmental groups really want to
 find qualified minority staff members, says Moore, they
 should financially support the project.
  "We don't want to be a part of the environmental
 movement," Moore concludes. "We are offering to open
 up dialogue between the two existing movements, then
 we can move to greater obstacles."
                                                                    Jessie DeerlnWater
                 Founder. Native Americans/or
                 a Clean Environment
         he didn't have a summer internship at an
 environmental group in Washington. She did not take
 Organic Chemistry or even Evolution and Extinction at
 Oklahoma's state university: She didn't go to college.
 But. Jessie DeerlnWater did found a grassroots group.
 Native Americans for a Clean Environment (NACE).
  "I consider myself an activist trying to protect my
 family, my family's family and myself from death and
 cancer," the 46-year-old Cherokee says.
  DeerlnWater s town of Vian, Okla. (population 1,500)
 is home to Sequoyah Fuels, Vian's largest employer and
 deadliest threat. Sequoyah Fuels, until recently a sub-
 sidiary of Kerr McGee, processes uranium ore for
 bombs and nuclear reactors.
  In 1984 DeerlnWater discovered that Kerr McGee was
 discretery planning an injection well at Sequoyah Fuels
 that would inject radioactive waste deep into the earth
 between two fault lines. She immediately started
 spreading the word. Most Vlanians couldn't believe
 such a threat possible. Her fellow Cherokees believed
 her, and NACE was formed to meet the challenge.
   DeerlnWater points out that among
 native Americans "you don't have to       . ^ t OB
 overcome the delusion that the U.S.
 government is watching out for your
 best interests." NACE is now
 multi-tribal and multi-racial.
  The battle to protect Vian's
 health and environment has been
 lopsided: The Sequoyah Fuels
 plant employs one-sixth of Vian,
 and the Kerr name is big in Ok-
 lahoma. Former U.S. Senator
 Robert Kerr founded the com-
 pany. Robert Kerr Jr. chairs
 the state's Water Resource
 Department and his son,
 Robert Kerr 3rd (a sejf-
 proclaimed environmentalist),
 is Lt. Governor.
  DeerlnWater cites one incident when Kerr McGee
 spilled tons of toxic waste; the accident report was
 mysteriously misfiled at Oklahoma's Department of
 Health. NACE's mall would get lost more often than
 not. The local newspapers wouldn't print a word
against the neighborhood's radioactive provider, and
when DeerlnWater started spreading the word about
Kerr McGee. she was fired from her hairdressing job
(only spurring her to become an activist fulltime).
  In the dawn of DeerlnWater's activist career she
recalls. "Everyday I would find out something I never
wanted to know." Then again, she says, "Onceyou see
how these people operate, how can you just walk away?
How can you stop caring?" DeerlnWater recalls how a
Kerr McGee official once told her that the area's eco-
nomically depressed state was considered in siting the
                         ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 23

                     Sequoyah facility 20 years ago.
                     DecrlnWaterbelieves NACE's
                 scrutiny of Kerr McGee safety viola-
               tions, illegal practices and misman-
             agement has had some success. She notes
           that the company decided to sell the Se-
         quoyah Fuels plant to General Atomics in
       spring 1989. Presently. NACE is embroiled in a
     campaign to halt  the "raffinate" program. Under
   Kerr McGee and now under General Atomics, Se-
 quoyah Fuels disposes of tons of radioactive and toxic
 waste by converting it to a fertilizer, or raffinate. A
 nine-legged frog was found on land where the "fertilizer"
 was regularly sprayed.
   Still active in NACE, DeerlnWater is now in college,
 preparing to go on to study law so she can take her
 activism to a new level. And she remains optimistic
 about the future. "Look at any side\valk or broken
 street and through the cracks you will see little
 seedlings of grass coming up. Mother Earth can take
 care of herself, if we only let her."
                              Cora Tucker
                       Founder. Clttzensjor a Better
               hen you say environmental, you're
 tapping into a lot of Issues. Everything is connected."
 Cora Tucker is a modem-day Pied Piper whose entourage
 of children respond to her call: "Citizens for a Better
 America. Forward march."
  In 1975, the Winns Creek Youth Group outgrew
 Tucker's basement in the southern Virginia town of
 Halifax. From 20 kids gathering informally in her
 home, their numbers had grown to 200. Tucker and
 the youth group tried to build a recreational center, but
 county funds were approved, then disapproved when
	.  some Halifax denizens
                            discovered the center was
                            to be for Black and white
                              That year, the group
                            changed its name to
                            Citizens for a Better
                            America (CBA) and.
                            under Tucker's Inspired
                            auspices, the children
                            started a series of sur-
                            veys on local hiring,
                            bank lending and busi-
                            ness policies. Asking
                            innocent questions of
                            family friends and
                            neighbors yielded an
unpleasant surprise for the racially mixed group—this
thing called racism was alive and well in their town.
After CBA filed complaints with the feds, Halifax
County was ordered to clean up its hiring act or lose
federal revenue-sharing funds.
  "You have to do something to influence the children
in whatever you do," Tucker says. Though Tucker did
not go beyond high school, she believes education to be
 'I go to these
meetings, and
I'm the only
Black person
there," says
 a salvation. "We'ask the children, AVh,. do you want to
 do? What do you want to do?'" The next step, says
 Tucker, is to discuss what must be done to realize that
 dream. You want a recreational center, build one. You
 wonder if that's true? Investigate.
   Her earliest followers are now adults, and CBA has
 over 7,000 members in four East Coast cities. "A good
 organization works on all the issues," says Tucker, who
 heads the Halifax-based chapter. CBA has worked on
 voter registration, organizing a union, reforming
 employment habits and a slew of environmental issues.
 In the county of 30.000 people, Cora recalls, 8.000
 showed up for a public hearing CBA organized to pre-
 vent Halifax from becoming a nuclear repository. "We
 had to ask people to leave." When the mother of seven
 wanted to illustrate the need for recycling, she asked
 the children to save all their garbage for one week. This
 past December at CBA's prompting. Halifax County
 began a study for a county-wide recycling program.
  She is well aquainted with the woes of pesticides
 and intimate with devotion. Tucker's father was a
 sharecropper who died when she was three, leaving her
 mother to raise nine children. "There wasn't a choice"
 whether to become active, she says. At age six she
joined the NAACP. CBA campaigned for a  pesticide-user
 licensing bill that Virginia's Assembly just ratified.
  "I consider myself an environmentalist and a few
 other things, too." She sits on the board of the National
 Toxics Campaign and the National Health Care Cam-
 paign, visits nursing homes and works personally with
 "children at risk." CBA is now organizing and filming
 hearings in communities threatened by toxics.
  In Halifax. Tucker says, whites and Blacks have
 worked well together when the issue was education—a
 tutoring program, for example—or an environmental
 threat. But the going gets rough, she says, when the
 issue is race, discrimination, civil rights. JTRacism is'a
 big factor In a lot of environmental issues." Tucker
 says. "Most of the time I go to these traditional envi-
 ronmental meetings, and I'm the only Black person
thertj" These traditional groups "ask me what to do. I'
 fefl "eih, then they go and do the opposite thing."
  From 20 kids to 7,000 active Citizens for a Better
America: there's something here that can't be denied.
"It doesn't have anything to do with me personally. It's
just the time has come when people want to take con-
trol of their lives," Tucker says.
  Over the challenges, under the successes and
through the threats Tucker's love perserveres. "As dif-
ficult as things get, I am always optimistic. I believe
God will open that door no matter what we've done."
                                                                                  r rancisca Cavazos

                                                                                      Director, Maricopa County
                                                                                              Organizing Project

                                                                     ' n October 3, 1977, a nightmare came true
                                                              for the agribusiness executives of Arizona's citrus
                                                              "sweat-shops": Their predominantly undocumented
                                                              workforce went on strike for the first time in U.S.
                                                              history. One of the citrus owners was Barry Goldwater's
                                                              brother. The heroes of the successful two-year strike
                          ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 24

   were the Mexican nationals who knew this meant in-
   slant deportation: the master mind, the Maricopa
   County Organizing Project (MCOP).
    At the time. Francisca Cavazos was a student
   volunteer fundraising for the strike.  Both of her
   parents, farmworkers who belonged  to the United Farm
   Workers union, voluntarily supported the strike in any
   way they could. A lot of support was needed, after all it
   was Third World proleteriat v. Arizona's noblesse.
    "We do have a Third World in the United States."
   says Cavazos. "All you have to do is go in the ghettoes.
   go out into the farmlands and youll see it." Before the
   second-generation Chicana was pushed into college by a
   high-school counselor, she had worked for two years as
  a farmworker. Tolling in the grape, lettuce, onion and
  cotton fields, she saw the atrocious conditions that
  brought on the strike: No sanitary facilities, drinking
  water laden with carcinogenic pesticides, workers who
  hadn't been given a raise in  15 years.
    In 1987, Cavazos became director of MCOP. which
  focuses on civil rights, pesticide regulation, safe work-
  ing conditions, immigration policies and more. "You
  can't make structural changes in society with a single
  issue group," argues 32-year-old Cavazos. An ingenious
  gain from the strike was the creation of Cooperativa Sin
  Fronteras. whereby employers contribute 20 cents per
                                .hour per worker to
                                support agriculture
                                projects back in the
                                migrant workers'
                                  Since organizing
                                the Arizona Farm
                                Workers Union for the
                                1977 strike, MCOP
                                has revamped the
                                state's sanitation laws
 and created the Centre Adelante Campesino (a
 farmworker's service center). The group is training   -v
 doctors to deal with pesticide poisoning. And a lobby
 campaign is pushing for state laws obligating farmers
 to document what, how much, where and when they
 spray pesticides.
   MCOP's artful approach is illustrated by the group's
 effort to overthrow the grower-dominated state Board of
 Pesticide Cpptrol. Instead of trying to elect a worker
 representative into a "captured" agency, MCOP
 launched a two-prong attack. First. MCOP filed a
 lawsuit claiming the board violated the "equal protec-
 tion" requirement of the U.S. Constitution by not
 allowing farmworker membership. Second, they or-
 ganized a statewide coalition to get an initiative on the
 ballot calling for the overhaul of Arizona's water quality
 and pesticide laws. Fear of the Initiative by agribusi-
 ness and chemical companies brought the governor and
 state legislature to the bargaining table.
   "(People) may not  have political power, clout or any-
 thing, but they have hope. You must capitalize on that.
   "You have to continually keep the community In-
 volved in something. When people's minds are active,  it
 empowers them," says Cavazos.
   Does Cavazos think she's an environmentalist?
 "Certainly, yes. (We) work to protect the environment
 from perpetual poisoning.
  "(Chicanes) come from a long history of harmony
with nature. We believe in progress, but not at the
expense of our most vital resources."
                                  Tobacco and
                                  booze com-
                                  panies have
                                  targeted minor-
                                  ities as a
             Alberta Tinsley-Williams
                Founder. Coalition Against Billboard
                  Advertising of Alcohol and Tobacco
               hen Alberta Tinsley-Williams organized
a march against a large semi-nude "Wild Irish Rose-
billboard next to a church and house for runaway
children, she brought national publicity to the issue of
targeting of minority neighborhoods for such ads.
  It was her second billboard target. Shortly after her
1987 election as a commissioner for Wayne County.
Tinsley-Williams organized a letter-writing campaign
against a billboard noticed by her four-year-old daugh-
er that told its inner city     9SS1SSS^^^S
audience to "Reach for the                ~~
Top" and use Tops rolling     BY CYNTHIA TAYLOR
papers: Tinsley-Williams calls
 the ad a thinly veiled promotion for rolling marijuana
 joints (there "are no cowboys left in Detroit." she notes).
 The offending billboard came down, but the councilwo-
 man was moving on the larger issue.
   "The issue is not Black and white," she says. "The
 issue is the haves vs. the have-nots, because poor
 people, I don't care what color you are. suffer in this
 country. All we want is a level playing field for poor
 children. As far as  I'm concerned, billboards are 24-
 hour pushers of legal drugs." A city planning commis-
 sion survey instigated by Tinsley-Williams revealed that.
 in the five poorest zip codes. 55 to 58 percent of bill-
 boards advertised alcohol or tobacco. In the five zip
 codes with the highest incomes, only 34 to 43 percent
 of billboards touted these products.
   "I'm just sick about all the alcohol and tobacco bill-
 boards in our comrifunity. It makes no sense when
 people are dying," Tinsley-Williams says. She notes
 statistics showing that low-income Black and Hispanic
 populations are most affected by alcohol and tobacco-
 related Illness and death.
   To organize the urban community on the issue,
 Tinsley-Williams founded the Coalition Against Billboard
 Advertising of Alcohol and Tobacco (CABAAT). Initially
 concerned about the message, Tinsley-Williams now
 says the medium—the billboard itself—is an un-
 warranted intrusion on the urban community.
  "The most significant thing about the work of De-
 troit citizens has been educating people who have been
conditioned  to accept things as they were. That con-
sciousness gives them real power," she says. "People in
Detroit are more attuned to their environment because
of the billboard debate."
                           ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 25

                                 WORDS FOR ENVIRONMENTALISTS,
                                 WHITES & MINORITY COMMUNITIES
  Grammar for  Ecologists

               BY RICHARD GROW

     I    oo much of the wru i ag and speaking found
     I    within ecologically orienteil media and
     I    gatherings reflects an outlook which is quite
    JL   unecological and white supremacist or, to put
  it a bit less provocatively. Euro-centric.
   What is it in the language and expression of the
  movement that offends?
   Sloppy use of pronouns, especially "we."
  Statements that start with "if we are to survive, we
  must..." are usually describing changes that must be
  made by modern industrialized, predominantly white.
Environmentalists may want to "preserve" the very land
that a Native American or other land-based people
needs for economic survival.	

  culture. Most of these statements would sound absurd
  if made, for instance, to a South American Indian who
  for 20 years has been defending his homelands, which
  we (?) refer to as "rainforests." Is the ecology movement
  just a bunch of industrialized white people talking to
  each other? And if It's not. then who is this "we" that
  keeps showing up in the movement's writings?
   White superlatives. Environmental writing is too
  liberally spiced with superlatives like "the most im-
  portant thinker of the entire century." Written off in
  such a statement are all the "thinkers" who don't speak
  (or haven't been translated into) the author's language,
  and all the members of cultures who haven't been, or
  have been unwilling to be. converted (reduced?) to the
  written word.
   It is also notable that, almost without exception,
  environmental writing describes Native Americans only
  in the past tense. "Among the nature-based people
  there was no separation..." Thus are Native Americans
  reduced to footnotes, cited in support of white
  theoreticians who ignore the fact that these "primal
  peoples" are still with us, still vital and have not con-
  verted to the new industrial megastate religion.
   White people discovered the earth. The age-old pre-
  sumption of white supremacy shows up in more forms
  than can be enumerated here, but in general terms is
  present whenever somebody proclaims yet another
  "new" discovery by the ecology movement. Expressions
  such as "new paradigm." "new breed of ecologists,"
  "new perspectives" would be simply embarrassing for
  their inaccuracy, arrogance and naivete If they weren't
  so deadly. All of the tendencies described before come
  together here. All of them liquidate the centuries-old,
  but continuing, ecological struggles by land-based
  peoples all over the world.
  Excerptedfrom Raise the Stakes: the Planet Drum Review.
  Volume 15. Fall 1989.
 Protect  and  Preserve,

 Or Protect and Survive?

              BY LYNDA TAYLOR
              Southwest Research and Information
I              Center
      fan environmentalist is asked, "What is most
      important to you beyond your family and
      friends?" the answer typically is, "Protecting and
      preserving our environment." If the same question
 is asked of a Native American, Chicano or other person
 from a land-based community, the answer is usually,
 "Water and land, which are the basis of the communi-
 ty, culture and survival."
   Those answers might appear to be saying the same
 thing since they both demonstrate a deep concern and
 respect for the natural world. There is, howevgr, a
 philosophical difference that needs exploring JnShe
 " eyes of land-based people, .the environment isfrreco-
• ^system In which people exist as one part of a harmon-
 ious whole; deriving food and materials, as needed, for
 their continued social, cultural, and economic existence.
fcln the'«yes1bf environmentalists, the same land may
 represent an area that should be protected for its own
 sake, for its beauty, for wildlife habitat or recreation.
 (Neither view Is inherently "right" or "wrong." each ex-
 ists for valid reasons, each is necessary.
   In my view, some conflict between environmentalists
 and land-based people is almost Inevitable, though not
 unreconcilable. That is because both groups are looking
 at essentially the same lands, i.e. "public lands" main-
 tained by the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land
 Management, and both groups have had successes in
 influencing how those lands are used.
   Over the last decades, the courts have restored a
 number of tribes' "sovereignty" rights relating to water.
 hunting, fishing, religion, taxation and, in particular,
 land. When an environmental group pushes for a wil-
 derness area or park, the land in question may well be
 the very land claimed by an Indian tribe as its ancestral
                        ENVmONMEnTTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 26

          home, or land the tribe or community uses for basic
          needs (grazing, fishing, gathering fuelwood. etc.) or
          depends upon economically (for logging, mining, etc.).
            One example involving the Inuit tribe of Canada is
          worth noting here. Animal rights and environmental
          groups recently waged a sutx  -sful campaign to ban the
          importation into Great Britain of baby seal pelts from
          Canada. The ban. aimed primarily at Russians, was
          designed to prevent the brutal killing of young seals.
devastating the economies of the Inuit communities
that depended on the seal trade.
Says an Inuit leader: "Unemployment, drug and
alcohol abuse, and teen suicides all shot way up in the
wake of the ban. We can't grow corn up here. Seals are
our life."
Observes a leader of the animal rights groups that
coordinated the ban: "The social and economic status
of Canadian natives is appalling. The answer is edu-
cation. Give them the choice to leave the bush and be
assimilated Into the economy."
Says the Inuit, "We have a word for assimilation: It's
Excerptedjrom the July-September 1988 issue of The
Workbook., an environment-social change quarterly published
by Southwest Research and Information Center.
Getting Beyond "C-ERA"
United Methodist Church
* "^ % ^L I hat's this "C-ERA' Club? I don't think
% / % / we have them In my city." It was the
M/ ml third day of a national church leader-
V m ship training event focusing on the "*
church's response to communities facing toxic threats.
The speaker, a Black intellectual and activist, was con-
cerned about the problems of toxic waste In poor
communities, but had never seen or heard of the Sierra
Club. Indeed, neither the Sierra Club nor any of the
other major environmental organizations were active in
the politics of his community. After hearing of the work
of the major environmental organizations, the minority
community organizers present at the church conference
were Impressed with that work's scope, but wondered
why they had not been sought out more by these large
groups. Why did it seem that the environmental groups
had so little appreciation of the environmental activist
potential of the minority community?
The major environmental groups have recently begun
efforts at broadening their membership and staff base.
but these efforts are too modest. If the national envi-
ronmental groups were Fortune 500 companies, the
churches would be requesting meetings with their
CEOs asking them to explain why their recruitment of
minorities and even women falls so short.
The task will not be easy. Voluntary associations like
the "Gang of Ten" environmental groups rely on In-
formal networks for recruiting both members and staff.
Moreover, these groups were historically, not just white.
but groups of upper class professionals. In the language
of the church, these folks aren't people you would send
In to evangelize in a poor inner city neighborhood, even

William Clay Mo. -1st 91 81 86
Canllss Collins IU.-7th 82 81 82
JohnConyers Mich.-1st 97 88 93
George Crocket Mich.-13th 69 75 72
Ronald Oellums Calif.-8th 95 94 95
Julian Dixon Calif. -28th 66 81 74
Mervyn Dymilly Calif.-31st 72 63 68
Mike Espy Miss.-2nd na 50 50
Floyd Rake N.Y.-6th na 88 88
Harold Ford Tenn.-9th 50 72 61
William Gray Pa.-2nd 80 69 75
Augustus Hawkins CalH.-29th 53 75 64
Charles Hayes lll.-lsl 71 88 80
John Lewis Ga.-5th na 75 75
Donald Payne N.J.-10th na na na
KwelslMfume Md.-7th na 100 100
Major Owens N.Y.-12th 77 81 79
Charles Rangel N.Y.-16U) 74 94 84
Gus Savage Hl.-2nd 79 88 84
Louis Stokes Ohlo-21st 74 81 78
Edolphus Towns N.Y.-11tn 69 63 66
Alan Wheat Mo.-5th 79 81 80
Mack CMOS Avenge 75 79 78
Congress Avenge 50 54 52
na * not in office
if they wanted to go there.
Thousands of small local environmental groups have
sprung up to work on local environmental problems.
Feeling that the major national groups either don't care
about their problems, or are too busy compromising
with Washington politicians, these groups often rely on
networks developed among themselves to share Infor-
mation and develop strategies. Fanners, housewives,
angry academics and minority activists are found on
these organizations' boards. In short, the environ-
mental movement as a whole has grown faster and
much broader than the major environmental groups. _
< Despite the rapid growth of alternative voices de- .
fending the human and natural environment, the major
environmental groups should be expected to use their
resources to bring more of the community-based activ-
ist groups to the political table. Gone are the days when
a few lobbyists from a few well-funded organizations
can cut deals to save the environment. That approach
may work to save a wilderness area, but it Isnt work-
ing on clean air. toxics, garbage and a host of other
problems that confront people In their dairy lives. Fail-
ure to mobilize greater numbers of persons from all
walks of life, all races and all classes will mead the en-
vironmental consensus we get out of Washington will
continue to be too little, too late.
Jaydee Hanson directs the Department of Environmental
Justice and Survival, General Board of Church and Society.
the United Methodist Church In Washington. D.C.
                                   ENVTRONMEmVVL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 27

           Embracing  Diversity

                          BY MARGO ADAIR
                          AND SHARON HOWELL
                          Tools Jor Change

          Those of us who identity as environmentalists
          know that diversity is vital to nature's well-
          being. Yet we find ourselves reflecting only a
          narrow segment of society—the white, middle
 class. We need to ask ourselves why.
  This Is particularly perplexing when  it is the least
 powerful among us most directly affected by environ-
 mental crisis. Native Americans' land is desecrated for
 uranium and coal mining: farm workers are poisoned
 as they care for our food: neighborhoods in our inner
                        from "Embracing Diversity"
 An Individual From The...
 Dominant Group
 Defines parameters, judges what
 Is appropriate, patronizes.
 Assumes responsibility Jor keep-
 Ing system on course. Acts un-

 Presumptuous, does not listen.
 interrupts, raises voice, bullies.
 becomes violent.

 Initiates, manages, plans, proj-

 Sees problems and situations in
 personal terms.

 Often needs to verbalize feelings.
 Thinks own view of reality Is
 only one. Disagreements result
from lack of Information, mis-
 understandings, personalities.

 Turns to others' culture to enrich
 humanity while invalidating It
 by calling It exotic.
 Oppressed Group

 f'eeJs inappropriate, awkward.
 doesn't trust own perception.
 looks to expert for definition.

 Blames self for not having
 capacity to change situation.
 Finds it difficult to speak up.
 timid, tries to please. Holds back
 anger, resentment, rage.

 Lacks initiative, responds, deals.
 copes, suwlues.

 Sees problems in social context.
 results of system, "them."

 Sees no point in talking about

 Always aware of at least two
 views of reality, their own and
 that of the dominant group.
Uses humor, music, poetry, etc.
to influence situation and cele-
brate collective experience. Sees
these forms as being stolen.
  The monoculture Is upheld by patterns that cause us to dupli-
cate the very roles we are trying to transform. These patterns per-
meate our every interaction from the intimate to the occasional. It
Is these patterns that keep us separate from each other, unable to
appreciate what each of us has to contribute. Alliance building is
close to impossible.
  The behavior we aspire to, what is accepted as normal, Is that of
the dominators. But our society's hierarchical and competitive na-
ture gives everyone plenty of opportunities to experience both
  Power exists as a relationship. Altering either side of this
dynamic forces change on the other. Changing our own tenden-
cies toward domination or submission cultivates a context of trust
and cooperation that includes everyone's contribution.
 cities are used for toxic dumps and giant incinerators.
   The common solution is "outreach."This usually
 means getting people different from ourselves to work
 with us. We are oblivious to the fact that we have de-
 fined the problems and the resulting agenda without
 any awareness that the agenda itself would be altered if
 other perspectives were included from the beginning.
   Then, to create a comfortable atmosphere in which
 everyone feels included, we minimize all differences. We
 say "we're all people." But this backfires. People justly
 feel their experiences are then invisible. There is no
 reason to believe these organizing efforts will change
 the painful and dehumanizing aspects of their own life
 and the lives of those with whom they identify. Instead
 of our diversity making us strong, we have only created
 one more arena in which we are alienated.
   Sustaining work together across our differences will
 be uncomfortable because we are continually learning
 unfamiliar ways of being. There is no quick fix to this
 situation. The accompanying box shows some of the
 "power patterns" that we try to reveal and alter in
 workshops on race and sexism.
   Creating relationships of trust, in which everyone's
 contributions are honored, means breaking some of the
 most powerful taboos in our culture. It means con-
 sciously acknowledging the real power differences that
 exist among us. Those of us with privilege have the
 responsibility of naming the price others have had to
* pay for the privilege we enjoy. For example, when we
 state as a simple fact that we are living on stolen land.
 Native American struggles are no longer invisible. The
 death-courting monoculture breaks down and the life-
 sustaining customs from all our diverse groups weave
 the fabric of a resilient culture capable of protecting the
 sanctity of life.
   Excerptedfmm an essay in the upcoming Earth Island In-
 stitute book. A Call to Action: Handbook for Peace. Justice and
 Ecology, to be published by Sierra Club Books in spring 1990.
 Achilles Heel
                 BY PAT BRYANT
                 Guy Coast Tenant Leadership
 .——^        Development Project

    •    he Achilles heel of the environmental
    •    movement in the United States is its white-
    I    ness. Especially in the Deep South, it is
   JL   locked up in traditions of liberal do-gooding
 and racial inequities that make It very difficult to build
 a mass-based movement that has the power to change
 the conditions of our poisoning. The key to building a
 multi-racial drive against toxic pollution is to—first-
 have people of color talking and organizing amongst
 ourselves. Very important work in this direction is
 underway in southern Louisiana and along the gulf
 coast of Mississippi.
  A leader in this movement is Janice Dickerson.
 Janice is African-American. She grew up in Reville-
 town, a community founded by ex-slaves after the civil
 war across the Mississippi River from Baton Rouge.
 Janice doesn't live in Revilletown anymore. The entire
                           ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 28

 community was poisoned by vinyl chloride emissions
 loosed from Georgia Gulfs manufacture of plastics.
 Georgia Gulf bought their homes and resettled them.
  At a candlelight vigil last year in which Black and
 white environmentalists mourned the death of Reville-
 town, Janice said racism and corporate greed were at
 the heart of the poisoning of Revilletown.
  "I really think white politicians thought years ago
 that the ill effects of Georgia Gulf would be contained in
 Revilletown," Janice said then. Janice's concerns are
 supported by the 1987 United Church of Christ study
 that cites race as the most important variable in the
 location of poisonous sites.
  Les Ann Kirkland—a progressive white environmen-
 talist in the area—agrees that "racism is rampant" and
 discusses it if somebody "brings it up."  But she worries
 that if color is  made a central issue, environmentalists  ,
 will not be able to take on a broader organizing agenda.
 And she does not agree that race is the  most important
 variable in the siting of toxic facilities.
  It is very easy to postpone dealing with questions of
 racism until later. That seems to be the strategy of
 leaders of major environmental organizations. These
 groups cannot reach out to African-Americans and
 people of color as long as they are nearly all white.
  The understanding of Janice and other Afri-
 can-Americans that the environmental movement is a
 critical place to fight against racism is a bright light for
 the future. Janice is involved in a two-state organizing
 effort through the Gulf Coast Tenant Leadership De-
 velopment Project, a predominantly African-American
 organization. The primary focus of the project is to
 encourage Blacks in schools, churches and communi-
 ties to organize around environmental concerns and to
 provide those Blacks with the organizational support to
 nurture their development as environmentalists.
  Weekly meetings are held in Baton Rouge in which
 Black activists and Black environmentalists openly dis-
 cuss inter-relationships between community poisoning,
 racism, environmentalism, housing and other issues.
Staff from New Orleans, Baton Rouge and Gulfport
counsel members and visit leaders in their towns.
  One of the tenant leaders' first efforts  is to confront
 major industrial powers over the poisoning of Monte
Santo Bayou. The bayou  meanders from the all-Black
Scotlandville section of Baton Rouge, through many
                                                                Blackbirds Jly from
                                                                boarded-up Revilletown,
                                                                contaminated by the
                                                                Georgia Gulf plant at rear.
        communities, past Exxon's refinery
        and chemical plants, to empty like a
        sewer into the already poisoned Missis-
        sippi River. When the river is high in the
        spring, a backwash reverses the poisons up-
        stream past a public housing complex called
        Monte Santo Village.
          Crawfishing is a favorite springtime activity
        here. Black children from the housing projects
        wade and swim  in the bayou too. But Sharon
        Lewis wants these activities curtailed until she
        is convinced the bayou is safe. Sharon  is the
        mother of three  children and vice-president of
        the Monte Santo Tenants Organization. Since
                         still has much to learn about
                      building diversity in  its ranks. But
                    ignorance is not an excuse, especially
                  for environmental "experts." And I didn't
                come to work for a national environmen-
              tal group just to educate white folks. 1
           feel my primary responsibility is to learn as
         much as I can about environmental problems—
       and solutions—so that I can integrate this
     knowledge into minority communities' campaigns
  for justice.
    Whether the concern is toxics, pesticide  poisonings.
  groundwater contamination or nuclear waste.
  minorities and the poor are affected disproportionately
  by environmental pollution. We cannot—and should
  not—look to some white knight to come and rescue us.
    Minority communities have problems;  we must ad-
  dress them. We must make environmental pollution a
  priority on our social justice agenda, along with hous-
  ing, jobs, the military buildup, drugs and illiteracy.
                           For example, the South is a toxic dumping ground.
                         The South is also home to the highest proportion of
                         Black elected officials—on the state, local and national
                         level—and the bastion of Black higher education.  I look
                         to all our leaders, whether in the political, academic.
                         media or industrial realm, to inspire us and make en-
                         vironmental concerns a part of our life.
                           Yes. "environmentalists" must fulfill their responsibil-
                         ity to combat environmental problems wherever they
                         strike—including across racial, ethnic and economic bar-
                         riers.  However, minority communities must continue to
                         hold our elected officials accountable.
                           In grassroots struggles for environmental justice
                         across the U.S.. we are building a new generation of lead-
                         ers, just as we did through the civil rights movement. A.
                         few are  profiled in this section: scores of others are not.
                         From  these new leaders come strength and vitality.
                         And—even though they may not call themselves
                         environmentalists—they also provide the greatest hope
                         tor the future of the environmental movement.
 Local Groups       ''-.•*
   The/allowing are just ajewaf the many
 local and regional groups that Include envi-
 ronmental issues on their generally broad
   Alabamians for a Clean Environment 491
 Country Club Road. York. Ala. 36925. (205)
 392-7443. Kaye Kiker.
   Focuses on Emelle hazardous waste dump.
   Center for Community Action. PO Box 723,
 Lumberton. N.C. 28359. (9191 739-7851.
 Richard Regan.
   Targets CSX hazardous wastejactlity In
 Warren County.
   Citizens for a Better America. PO Box 356.
 Halifax. Va. 24558. (8O4) 476-7757. Cora
   See profile, page 24.
   Commission on Religion in Appalachia
 (CORA). TO Box 10867. Knoxvllle. Term.
 37939-0867. (615) 584-6133. Tena WUlemsma.
   Ecumenical coalition of 40 + groups In 13
 states.  Works to empower communities.
   Gulf Coast Tenants Leadership Development
 Project PO Box 56101, New Orleans. La. 70156.
 (5041 949-4919. Pat Bryant. Baton Rouge office,
 (504) 387-2305. Sharon Lewis.
   See article, page 28.
  Highlander Center. Rt 3. Box 370. New
 Market. Term. 37820. (615) 933-3443. Paul
  Offers research Internships and workshopsjor
 grassroots activists.
  Maricopa County Organizing Project 5040 S.
 Central Ave. C-l. Phoenix. Ariz. 85040. (602)
 268-6O99. Franclsca Cavazos.
  See profile, page 24.
  Native Americans for a Clean Environment
 (NACE). PO Box 1671, Tahlequah. Okla. 74465.
 (918) 458-4322. Vickie McCullough.
  See profile, page 23.
  Puerco Valley Navajo Clean Water Associa-
 tion. PO Box 155, Fort Wlngate. N.M. 87316.
 (602) 688-9928. Rita Begay.
  Focuses on the massive uranium spill In
 1979 at United Nuclear.
  Southwest Organizing Project (SWOP). 1114
7th Street N.W., Albuquerque, N.M. 87102.
(505) 247-8832. Richard Moore.
  See profile, page 22.
  Tools for Change. TO Box 14141. San
 Francisco. Calif. 94114. (415) 861-6838. Margo
  An Institute offering racism workshops, and
 education, mediation and consultation services.

 National Groups
  Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste.
 PO Box 926. Arlington. Va. 22216. (703) 276-   "
 7070. Will Collette.
  A national organization devoted to helping
 grassroots groupsJight toxics and waste.
  Eco-Justice Working Group of the National
 Council of Churches. 474 Riverside Drive. New
 York, N.Y. 10115. (212) 870-2483. Dean KeUy.
  Coalition of grassroots justice and church
 groupsfocusing on environmental issues.
  Migrant Legal Action Center. 2001 S Street
 N.W. Suite 310. Washington. D.C. 20009. (202)
 462-7744. Shelley Davis.
  Works on/armu>orfcer health and safety
 Issues, pesticide regulation and compensation.
  Human Environment Center. 1001 Con-
 necticut Ave. N.W. Suite 827. Washington, D.C.
 20036. (202) 331-8387. Andrew Moore.
  Sponsors minority internship and conserva-
 tion corps programs.
  National Toxics Campaign. 37 Temple Place.
 Boston. Mass. 02111. (617) 482-1477.
  Helps communities and citizens Jight toxics.
  Scenic America 216 7th Street S.E.. Wash.
 D.C. 20003. (202) 546-1100. Joan Moody.
  Protects scenic landscapes. Includes/ecus on
 billboards In minority communities.
  Marketing Booze to Blacks. Available from
the Center for Science In the Public Interest
(CSPI). 1501 16th Stree< V W.. Washington. D.C.
(202' 332-9110. 84.95. . '.-7.
  Report on hoto alcohoi companies are target-
ting the Black community. Another report looks
at "Marketing Disease to Hlspanlcs.'
  Dumping In Dixie: Race. Class and Envi-
ronmental Quality. By Robert D. Bullard. To be
published in spring 1990 by Westvlew Press,
5500 Central Ave., Boulder. Colo. 80301. (303)
444-3541. 837.95.
  Sociological study of the emergence of envi-
ronmental activism In Black communities.
  Richmond at Risk: Community Demo-
 graphics and Toxic Hazards from Industrial
 Polluters. Citizens for a Better Environment.
 942 Market Street. Suite 505. San Francisco.
 Calif. 94102. (415) 788-O690. 1989.
   Detailed study of the toxic hazards In one
 heavily Industrialized city.
   Toxics ft Minority Communities. Center for
 Third World Organizing. 3861 Martin Luther
 King Jr. Way. Oakland. Calif. 94609. (4151
 654-9601. 1986.
   A Q&A summary of dumping In minority
 communities, uranium mining, pesticides, lead.
 Includes resources and contacts.
   Toxic Waste and Race in the United States.
 Produced by the Commission for Racial Justice.
 United Church of Christ. 105 Madison Ave. New
 York. N.Y. 10016. (212)683-5656. Charles Lee.
   First nation-wide report documenting the
 disproportionate presence of hazardous waste
 sites in ethnic communities.
   Pesticide Exposure and Health: A Study of
 Washington Farmworkers. Issued by Evergreen
 Legal Services. Farm Worker Division. 120
 Sunnyslde Ave.. PO Box 430, Granger. Wash.
 98932. Michelle Mentzer. (5O9I 854-1488. 1988.
   Thejlrst study c/Jarmuwrfcers' exposure to
 pesticides In Washington State.
   Siting of Hazardous Waste i-»n«mn« and
 Their Correlation with Racial and Economic
 Status of Surrounding Communities. U.S.
 General Accounting Office.
   Key 1983 report on demographics at the four
 commercial landfills  In southeastern states.
   "The Workbook." Southwest Research Informa-
 tion Center. PO Box 4524. Albuquerque. N.M.
 87106. (505) 262-1862. 812/year.
   Ouorterly Journal with Indexed sources of
 In/ormaflort about environmental, social and
 consumer problems. Regularly covers Native
.American and minority issues.
   The Egg: A Journal of Eco-Justice." Write
 CRESP. Anabel Taylor Hall. Cornell Univ.. Ithaca.
 N.Y. 14853. (607) 255-4225.
   Quarterly Journal of the Eco-Justice Working
 Group and Cornell's Center fat Religion. Ethics
 and Social Pbf'ru.

            -BULK ORDERS OF
              50 -
52.50 each
$1.75 each
SI.00 each
                                ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 1990 • PAGE 3«

                 APPENDIX D
Status of Women and Minorities in Supervisory Positions in EPA

Status of Women and Minorities in Supervisory Positions in EPA
                          (as of 11188)

GM-13 #
GM-14 #
GM-15 #
Across #
Levels %
By ^ «
Race %
By #
Sex %
Women Men
46 55
6.0 7.2
30 60
2.8 5.7
14 , 32
2.0 4.5
1 10
91 157
3.2 5.6
Total Male
Women Men
162 499
21.3 65.5
211 763
19.8 71.7
128 537
17.9 75.6
32 202
13.1 82.8
533 2003
19.2 72.0
91.1 1
Total Female
          Women and minorities currently fill 28% of GM and SES positions

  Contact List

                                  CONTACT LIST
Department of Agriculture
US Forest Service - S&PF
PO Box 96090
Washington, DC 20090
Pam Godsey
Tel: (202)382-9043

Army Corps of Engineers
Natural Resource Management
Attn: DAEN - CWOR \
20 Massachussetts Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20314
Darrell Lewis
Tel: (202)272-0247

Army Corps of Engineers
Ecomeet Program (Pittsburgh)
Pete Colangelo
Tel: (412)644-4190

Bureau of Indian Affairs
Education Office
Tel: (202)208-6175
California Department of Water Resources
1416 Ninth St.
PO Box 94236
Sacramento, CA 94236
Tel: (916)445-8228

Commission on Civil Rights
1121 Vermont Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20425
Tel: (202)376-8582

Department of Defense
Environmeniallducation Office
The Pentagon
Washington, DC 20301
Tel:  (202)545-6700

Department of Energy
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20585
   Individual Contacts:
   Jim Gardner
   Weatherization Division
   Tel: (202)586-2480
Sarah Kirchen
Tel:  (202)586-1893

Sandy Monje
Conservation Division
Tel:  (202)586-8295

Richard Stephens
Tel:: (202)586-8949

Environmental Protection Agency
401 M St., SW
Washington, DC 20460

   Individual Contacts:
   Douglas Cooper
   Special Assistant to the Administrator
   Tel: (202)382-4727

   Lew Crampton
   Associate Administrator for
    Communications and Public Affairs
   Tel: (202)382-4454
   Lolette Guthrie
   Director (Acting),
   Education and Training Committee
   National Advisory  Council for
    Environmental Policy and Technology
   Tel: (202)475-8169
    Regina Langton
    Project Coordinator
    Office of External  Affairs
    Tel: (202)382-4454

 Department of Interior
 Take Pride In America
 18th and C Streets, NW Rm. 5123
 Washington, DC  20240
 Nancy Love
 Tel: (202)208-3726
 National Institute of  Health
 9000 Rockville, Pk.
 Bethesda,MD 20894
 Tel: (301)496-4000

 Public Health Service
 5600 Fishers Lane
 Rockville, MD 20857
 Tel: (301)443-2403


 Center for Community Action
 PO Box 723
 Lumberton, NC  28359
 Stony Locklear
 Tel: (919)739-7851

 Center for Environment, Commerce, and Energy
 733 6th St., SE#1
 Washington, DC 20003
 Norris McDonald
 Tel: (202)543-3939
 Center for Third World Organizing
 Francis Calpotura
 Tel: (415)601-0158
 Christadora, Inc.
 666 Broadway - Suite 515
 New York, NY 10012
 Dr. Robert Finkelstein
 Executive Director
 Tel: (212)529-6868
 Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste
 PO Box 926
 Arlington, VA 22216
 Will Colette
 Tel: (703)276-7070
 Commission on Religion in Appalachia
 PO Box 10867
 Knoxville, TN 37939-0867
 Tena Willemsma    ~            ~
 Tel: (703)835-8219

 Gulf Coast Tenants Leadership Association
 PO Box 56101
 New Orleans, LA 70156
 Pat Bryant
 Tel: (504)949-4919

 Migrant Legal Action Center
2001 S Street, NW - Suite 310
Washington, DC 20009
 Shelley Davis
Tel:  (202)462-7744
 Native Americans for a Clean Environment
 POBox 1571
 Tahlequah.OK 74465
 Vicki McCulJough
 Tel: (918)458-4322
 Southwest Organizing Project
 Albuquerque, NM 87102
 Tel: (505)247-8832

 United Methodist Church of Christ
 Environmental Justice
 100 Maryland Ave., NE
 Washington, DC 20002
    Jaydee Hanson,
    Tel:  (202)488-5601
    Maria Paz Artaza
    Assistant Director
    Tel:  (202)488-5649

 Alliance for Environmental Education
 10751  Ambassador Drive, Suite 201
Jrfanassas, Virginia 22110
 Jan Hunt
 Tel: (703)335-1025
 Environmental Action
 1525 New Hampshire, NW
 Washington, DC 20036
 Thomas Atkins
 Assistant to the Director
 Tel: (202)745-4870   J
 Environmental Consortium for Minority Outreach
 Jerry Stover
 Tel: (202)331-8387
 Morningstar Foundation
 403 10th St., SE
 Washington, DC 20003
 Gail Cheyak
 Assistant Director
 Tel: (202)547-5531
 National Association of African-American
 Suleman Al-Mahdi
 Tel: (404)521-3731

 National Toxics Campaign
 37 Temple Place
 Boston, MA 02111
 Gary Cohen
 Tel: 617-232-0327

 National Wildlife Federation
 Cool It! Program
 Yewande Dada
 Cultural Diversity Coordinator
 Tel: (202)797-6631

 Ocean Alliance     j
 Ft. Mason, Building E'
 San Francisco, CA 94123
 Margaret Elliot
 Tel: (415)441-5970

 WorldWatch Institute
 1776 Massachussetts Ave., NW
 Washington, DC 20036
 Tel: (202)557-9859

Association of Science Technology Centers
Bonnie Dorn
Tel:  (202)371-1171
California Museum of Science and Industry
Ann Muscat
Tel:  (213)744-7532
 National Science Foundation
 Washington, DC
 Ed Brian
 Environmental Systems
 Tel:  (202)357-7955
 Roosevelt Calbert
 Minority Research
 Tel:  (202)357-7350
 Lola Rodgers
 Tel:  (202)357-7456
 New York Academy of Science
 Talbert Spence
 Director of Educational Programs
 Tel:  (212)838-0230

 The Oakland Museum
 1000 Oak St.
 Oakland, CA 94607
 Smithsonian Institution
 Office of Environmental Awareness
 Judith Gradwohl
Tel:  (202)357-4797
 Vanderbilt University
 Student Environmental Health
 Program (STEP)
Hubert Dixon
Tel: (615)322-6278

                   CHAPTER 2
The Report on Environmental Education for Urban
          Poor and Minority Populations


         Charles Gaboriau, Donna Roesing, David Small
              Worcester Polytechnic Institute


       Historically, environmental education has been directed toward studying nature,
 primarily in rural areas.  However, because  of the increasing number of complex
 environmental issues and the growing concern for protecting the environment, the field of
 environmental education has  broadened its scope.  The American  public has come to
 recognize the importance of education in  order to  enhance  environmental  awareness.
 Nevertheless, when compared to general environmental education efforts, there appears to
 be little effort specifically targeted to urban poor and minorities, now a large percentage of
 our country's population.

       Urban poor and minority groups are frequently uninformed about the environmental
 risks in their areajas well as of their role in the environmental  movement.  Because many
 inner  city residents may be faced with  the immediate concerns  of poverty  and
 unemployment, they may be diverted from the necessity to protect their environment.  The
 National Advisory Council on Environmental Policy and Technology  (NACEPT)
 Committee on Education and Training has recognized the need to appropriately address
 these groups. The Committee requested this project group  to assess what is  being done
 nationally  in  environmental  education and training  efforts which are  targeted  to
 disadvantaged and minority urban populations. The  results of this project will assist the
 NACEPT Environmental Education and Training Committee to develop recommendations
 for the Administrator of the EPA as to how the EPA can positively influence and establish
 networks for existing efforts in this area.   ""

       In order to provide the Committee with an assessment of urban environmental
 education efforts, this  project defined two objectives:    to examine a  sample of
 environmental education programs targeted to urban poor and minorities; and to make
 recommendations as to what role the Committee should play in assisting these efforts.
 These objectives were accomplished through a combination of written surveys and phone
 interviews.   Both methods  were  used  to gather information  concerning  urban
 environmental education programs initiated by various organizations and departments
 throughout the United States.

       The results of this project are in the  form of currently  existing programs that are
 considered effective and that can possibly serve as model programs in other regions of the
 country.  In addition, the following conclusions have been developed concerning urban
 environmental education:
 •  There is an apparent need for more environmental education targeted to urban poor and
   minority populations.
 •  There appears to be a limited amount of federal and state activity directed toward urban
   environmental education.
 •  Thewaitrof this report indicate that grassroots organizations need adequate funding in
   order to be truly effective.
 •  Much of the work done by grassroots organizations seems to go without notice by
   governmental groups, environmental organizations, as well as the general public.
 •  There appears to be a need for more communication between grassroots organizations
   and the EPA.
 •  The findings of this  study support the need for  more minority students  to become
   educated in science and engineering Melds.

       Also, through research and  responses collected from phone interviews, the
following recommendations were made  to the NACEPT Environmental Education and
Training Committee:
•  The EPA could encourage each of its regional offices to conduct research studies on
   urban environmental education.


The EPA regional offices could improve their information distribution methods to better
assist organizations involved in urban environmental education.
The EPA could serve as a role model to others by employing minorities.
The EPA could support and become more directly involved with urban environmental
education programs.
The EPA could create a networking system through which organizations sponsoring
urban environmental education programs can communicate.
The EPA could support or participate in more environmental initiatives with two-year
colleges ih which there are high concentration of minorities.
The EPA could  advocate  and produce  materials that are easily understood by all
minorities and urban poor on all levels and in all necessary languages.
The EPA could enhance its public relations in order to appropriately address urban


       In the United States,  there is developing concern about the lack of adequate
 environmental education directed toward urban poor and minority communities. Increased
 awareness of environmental  degradation  in urban areas has caused both grassroots
 organizations and environmentalists to increase efforts in this direction.  The objective of
 this project is to assess national environmental education and training efforts targeted to
 disadvantaged and minority urban populations.  After such an assessment has been made,
 the report will suggest ways that the United States Environmental Protection Agency can
 assist in urban environmental education and training on a national level.

       Environmental education is  the learning process  that deals  with  people's
 relationship with their surroundings and includes such issues  as pollution, conservation,
 and regional planning in the total human environment (Minton,  1980). During the past few
 decades, the field of environmental education has grown.  The American public has come
 to recognize that our survival as a planet depends on the environmental responsibility of
 citizens.  Environmental issues are also becoming more complex. Crises are occurring at
 an alarming rate, pressures on the ecosystem are increasing, and competition for natural
 and financial resources is becoming more intense. Although there have been many notable
 environmental success stories that have addressed these issues in both the public and
 private sectors, such programs geared for urban and minority populations have been the
 exception rather than die rule (Cooper & Smith, 1989).

       Research has shown several reasons for the apparent low priority given  to
 environmental education in the urban areas of the United States. Limited funds, limited
 community  support,  and a lack of sufficiently trained educators  in the  field  of
 environmental education are just a few. Yet, it seems the major reason is that historically
 the design and approach of most environmental education programs has been inappropriate
 for urban minority groups.

       Traditionally, concern for our environment has been reserved to the middle and
 upper classes.  These groups not only constitute a low percentage of the urban population,
 but have different environmental concerns than low-income  minorities.   Congestion,
 traffic, noise, air pollution, lead paint, solid waste, and asbestos are some of the difficulties
 that residents in urban areas confront  on a daily basis.  While the majority of this
 population tends to consist of low income families, these families may not become involved
 in protecting  or improving  their environment die  to  the  exigencies poverty and
 unemployment (Cooper & Smith, 1989).

       It would  be ideal to have environmental education that reaches every cultural,
 ethnic, and socioeconomic level. To achieve this ideal, environmental education programs
 must  be easily  understandable and must stimulate interest in  their treatment of
 environmental issues. Urban communities must be made to realize the connection between
 local environmental concerns and global environmental issues.  Environmental education
 and training programs must inform residents about the specific environmental risks in their
particular community, as well as suggest actions that can be taken by community residents
to change their immediate surroundings (Verrett, 1990).

       The National Advisory Council on Environmental  Policy and Technology
(NACEPT) Committee on Education and Training realizes that there is a  need for more
information about the programs that are directed at addressing cultural differences and
urban environmental needs. As its primary focus, this report will examine successful
strategies in urban environmental education and training and make recommendations  to the
Committee as to what role the EPA should play in facilitating these efforts.

       In conducting this study, we chose five urban communities in the United States as
 target groups.  These target cities--  a community in the Northeast (Boston), one in the
 upper Midwest (Chicago), another in the Southwest (Austin), and still another in the West
 (Sacramento)-- insured a cultural cross-section of the country,  each with a  unique
 environmental concern. We examined the environmental programs and strategies for urban
 poor and minority groups in these communities through a combination of written surveys
 and phone  interviews.   We also contacted  relevant organizations and  departments
 throughout the country to collect additional information about possible existing programs
 directed at urban poor and minority populations at a grassroots level.

       In order to accomplish the project's main goal of examining  urban environmental
 education and training efforts and recommending ways for the Administrator of the EPA to
 assist these  existing programs, we took the following course of action.  By evaluating a
 sample of urban environmental education programs that are sponsored by various
 organizations, we were able to determine which programs were effective by how well they
 addressed the specific needs of a particular community. In addition, we determined which
 programs were transferrable and could be initiated in different areas of the country. Our
 results consist of a list of these successful programs that the EPA may use as "models" in
 its effort to form a national network of environmental education and training programs for
 minority and disadvantaged urban populations.

       The purpose of this project is to examine the environmental education efforts in the
United States that are directed at urban poor and minority groups.  Also, this report will
provide recommendations for their consideration to the Education and Training Committee
of the National Advisory Council on Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT)
concerning the potential role of the EPA in urban environmental education and training on a
national level. Our project group mailed written surveys and conducted phone interviews
to accomplish these objectives.  This specific methodology was chosen because it allowed
our group to gather information about urban environmental education programs that could
not be obtained  through research due to the very limited amount of literature on this
relatively new topic. Also, surveys could provide an effective assessment of what is being
done nationally  in environmental education and training throughout the country.  In
general, written  surveys and phone interviews provided the most appropriate means of
collecting information from the vast area of the country that we intpnded to study.

       Wfedfiifially focused our study on five urban communities located in different
regions of the United States— the Northeast, the South, the upper Midwest, the Southwest,
and the West These target cities were Boston, Atlanta, Chicago, Austin, and Sacramento--
because each of these cities were found to have a diverse minority population and serious
environmental concerns (See Appendix B).  However, to represent a more accurate cross-
section of ethnic  and geographic diversity (Verrett,1990), we later expanded our research
into a national study which would include several other urban areas across the country.

       In preparation for our work in Washington, D.C., we sent  written  surveys to
various school departments and organizations in the urban areas of our original focus.
Before this step, we developed our survey sample by using environmental education
directories provided by the Environmental Protection Agency. After accomplishing this
task, we called those on the "mailing list" to discover if these contacts were still involved
with environmental education and also to insure that these  people would be willing to
respond to our survey.

       We prepared two forms of evaluative surveys, one for organizations to determine if
environmental education is a part of their efforts, and the other for school departments to
determine if environmental education is included as part of their curriculum.  Both types
were created to obtain direct and open-ended responses. The purpose of the survey for
organizations was to collect general information concerning environmental education and
training programs.  For example,  the questions  in the surveys were designed to elicit
responses concerning the issues that these programs addressed and the specific groups, if
any, that these programs targeted. The surveys for school departments used questions that
examined the way in which schools were teaching environmental education, the materials
that were included in their curriculum, and their efforts  , if any, that addressed urban poor
and minority populations.  To insure that these questions were clear and easily understood,
we pretested our surveys in schools and organizations  in our communities.  Because the
basic format of our surveys was designed to obtain general information, we conducted
follow-up phone interviews  to those organizations and school departments that were
providing some form of urban environmental education. The phone interviews provided
detailed descriptions of the programs and enabled  us to determine if they were appropriate
for urban audiences.

       We also contacted relevant organizations  throughout the United States to collect
additional information about programs directed at disadvantaged and  minority urban
populations.  Since this was done in Washington, D.C., we  did not have time to  send
surveys out to these  organizations.  For this  reason, we  used unstructured  phone
interviews for this part of the study.  Instead of following a specific set of questions, we
chose to interact with these organizations in a more personal manner.  This step was
important because most of these groups are at a grassroots level and are sometimes hesitant
about talking to the EPA, especially if they feel  that they are being investigated  by the
federal government. From these phone interviews, we not only discovered a sample of
environmental education efforts that are being directed at urban populations across the
country, but also obtained suggestions of ways the EPA could assist these efforts.  Also,
whenever possible, we requested written material from these organizations and departments
that could further explain their environmental education programs.

       Both the jvritten surveys and the phone interviews were effective tools in collecting
data abouf the existing environmental education and training programs that are directed at
minority and urban communities.  The written surveys provided information about
environmental education primarily  at a federal government or state level.  In contrast, the
information gathered from phone interviews involved programs at a grassroots level. In
order to assess what is being done  nationally in urban environmental education, we
evaluated this sample of programs that our written surveys and phone  interviews

       We evaluated environmental education and training programs on the basis of their
effectiveness in providing education for urban poor and minority groups.   The written
surveys were designed to make these evaluations easily.  A specific question on the survey
determined whether the programs sponsored by organizations or the material used in
schools are directed at urban populations [Refer to Appendix C (organization survey) and
Appendix  D (school  survey)].  The efforts  that  address different cultural and
socioeconomic backgrounds suited  the needs of our project and are, therefore, considered
appropriate for urban population groups.

       However, if programs are not specifically  targeted to disadvantaged and minority
urban populations, they could still be considered appropriate for the sample we were
studying. A question on our survey determined what issues these organizations address in
their programs.  Programs that address such issues as pollution, lead paint, or solid waste

 could be effective in educating people who live in urban areas because these are the
 environmental problems that inner city dwellers may confront everyday. Other survey
 questions looked into the affordability of educational materials and the languages in which
 these materials are offered.  Since a majority of the urban population are low income
 families, programs that provide free or inexpensive environmental education materials are
 more appropriate for urban residents.  Also, materials written in different languages will
 better inform minority groups in communities in which that language is spoken.  We
 concluded that a  program that addresses environmental concerns of urban areas and/or
 provides affordable material and/or offers material in different languages is considered to be
 appropriate in educating urban poor  and minority  groups. Such programs  are then
 evaluated for their effectiveness.

       We evaluated the programs we discovered through our written surveys, as well as
 through  our phone interviews in  the  following way.  If a program was determined
 appropriate for urban populations by the above standards, it was further evaluated by using
 a set of criteria of what an effective environmental education  program should be. An
 effective  urban environmental education program should satisfy one or more of the
 following criteria: informing residents about specific environmental risks in their particular
 community, establishing a connection between local and global environmental issues, and
 suggesting actions that can be taken by community resident to affect or change their
 immediate surroundings (criteria from Verrett, 1990). In addition to how well it addresses
 the specific needs of a particular community, an effective environmental education program
 should also be transferrable. A program that is truly effective should be able to be initiated
 in several different areas of the United States.

       The results of this project are in the form of a list of currently existing programs that
 we felt were effective programs, ones that could possitily serve as model programs in other
 regions of the country. Accompanying this list is a brief description of each program and
 the names, addresses, and phone numbers of the people we contacted. It is from this list
 that we based our recommendations to the NACEPT Education and Training Committee.
       From the results of our surveys and phone interviews we provided the EPA with
 some recommendations as to what role it should play in working with these organizations.
 We hope that the outcome of our report will supply the Environmental Protection Agency
 with helpful information to positively influence or establish networks for existing efforts in
 environmental education for urban poor and minority populations.
Government and State level programs

       Over the past two decades, the field of environmental education has grown
considerably.  Environmental advocates, who have come to realize the potential, irreparable
effects of the  rapid industrial and technological advances of our society, determined that
one of the most effective ways of protecting our environment was to educate citizens on
environmental issues. The recognition that environmental concerns such as smog, ozone
depletion, and resource conservation affect every citizen has expanded the environmental
movement into a global effort. Thus, environmental education and training programs have
broadened their scope to help increase environmental awareness and establish a strong
"environmental ethic" in citizens throughout the world (paragraph paraphrased from
Verrett, 1990).

       "The federal government has engaged in a plethora of environmental education
 efforts including pilot projects,  academic grants/internships, technical assistance to
 curriculum-based programs, and youth projects. However, when compared  to other
 environmental education programs, there seemed to be little effort directed specifically
 toward urban environmental education and training efforts" (Verrett, 1990). This  was also
 found to be true of programs initiated at the state level also. The written surveys, which
 were sent primarily to federal and state organizations, discovered a limited number of urban
 environmental education programs.  In fact, after conducting follow-up phone interviews
 with these organizations, our team found only eight  organizations out of  the  127
 organizations that responded to the surveys are currently involved in programs that may be
 appropriate for urban poor and minority groups.  Three of the eight organizations sponsor
 urban environmental education programs at the state level. (These programs appear with an
 asterisk before their names in the list that follows this section.)
       While our sample included environmental education programs in several cities
 across the United States and was not a complete representation of all the existing urban
 environmental education efforts, it is still apparent that, at a federal or state level, general
 environmental education programs outnumber those environmental education efforts that
 are directed at urban poor and minority populations. Below is a sampling of some various
 types of federal and state environmental education and training programs discovered in our
 study that specifically target minority and urban groups. These programs, considered
 appropriate for urban poor and minority populations, satisfy one or more of the following
 criteria:  informing residents about specific environmental risks in the particular community;
 establishing a connection between local and global environmental issues; and suggesting
 actions that can be taken by community residents to affect or change their immediate
 surroundings (criteria from  Verrett, 1990).  In addition, these environmental education
 programs may  include strategies that could be transferable to minority and urban
 audiences.  The list of these  "model" programs is accompanied by a brief description that
 was obtained from brochures and other literature received in the mail. (Contacts for these
 programs may be found in Appendix D.)


 US  Environmental Protection  Agency/  City  of Lowell.  Massachusetts:
 Youth in the Environment Initiative
      The City of Lowell, Massachusetts and the US EPA co-sponsored  summer
employment/training opportunities for Lowell high school students.  The city, through its
existing assistance program  for disadvantaged youth, hired at  the minimum wage 10-12
qualifying Lowell high school students (age 16-21 years, from low income families, etc.)
to work at the City of Lowell's wastewater and water treatment plants during an eight week
period in the summer of 1990. The students worked on a rotating basis under a city co-
worker's  supervision at various work  stations  at the two plants, with some off-site
sampHiig~*KJik.' The New England Interstate  Water Pollution Control Commission
(NEIWPCC) provided transportation for the students, to sampling sites and on weekly
day-trips to various sites in New England designed to expose  the students to career
opportunities in the environmental field including drinking water, hazardous materials
management, solid waste management, air pollution and wastewater treatment ("Summer
Employment Opportunities- Lowell Wastewater Treatment Facility." US EPA Region 1,

 US Environmental  Protection  Agency/ Cook College:
 Discovery  Pro from
       Discovery is an Academic Enrichment and Apprenticeship Program designed to
 offer minority and disadvantaged students with academic promise an introduction to college
 study and careers in science and technology. Discovery is a comprehensive and residential
 five-week summer program for rising high school junior and seniors. Sponsored in pan
 by the US EPA, the program includes classroom instruction, as well as apprenticeship
 opportunities at Rutgers University/Cook College, the College of Engineering, the United
 States Environmental Protection Agency, and the New Jersey Department of Environmental
 Protection. The Discovery Program consists of cultural perspectives seminars, field trips,
 career exploration, and hands-on experience that addresses many of the complex problems
 today in  the environmentaJ and life sciences, biotechnology,  and agriculture ("The
 Discovery Program."  Rutgers University/Cook College).

 State-Level Programs:
 * California Air Resources Board
       The California Air Resources Board (CARS) is an example of an organization that
 is involved in environmental education in California.  CARS runs a community based
 project called CHICANITOF (Little Children) Science Project.  CARB tries to inform
 children about environmental issues and give them suggestions as to how they can help.
 They also take kids from MESA (Minority Education Society of America), an organization
 which recruits minority science  and engineering  students,  and places them with
 professionals to help encourage students to pursue fields in the environment.  Some of their
 efforts include doing  shows for kids in schools  and producing materials  in Spanish.
 CARB definitely makes a positive impact on urban communities.

 * State  of California. Department of Health Services
       The California Department of Health Services has a large program on environmental
 and occupational health hazards involving toxics. The department has published 'The
 Toxics Directory", a 120-page directory designed to help concerned individuals and
 communities find the information and resources they need on toxics.  The department also
 produces videos and textbooks that address environmental concerns at home, such as lead
 poisoning, and at the workplace,  such as the use  of pesticides.  These particular
 environmental issues  are common to most urban areas.  In  addition, the California
 Department of Health Services develops some written material on toxics in Spanish in order
 to address non-English speaking communities.

 California  Energy Extension Service:   Energy  Award  Program for Student
 Enerfy  Projects
      This program encourages students, K-12, to become involved in environmental
 issues by  awarding those students who create special  energy projects.  Not only do the
 students develop an understanding of their environment, but they also learn how they can
 actually make a difference by increasing the awareness of others. Although the program is
 initiated throughout the state of California, there is a greater participation by minority
 students.  Some examples include African American cheerleaders from San Diego who
 invented energy and recycling cheers and minority  students from Fresno who built
 dinosaurs operated by reusable energy that were later displayed at a local  zoo (phone
 interview, Ms. Bonnie Cornwall, California Energy Extension Service, September, 1990).

 *  California  State Water  Resources Control Board
      California  State Water Resources Board is an organization that is interested in
 getting minorities involved in environmental fields. They developed the Hispanic Advisory
 Commission in order to encourage more hiring of Hispanic scientists. They  also helped
organize a community college course to bring Hispanic populations into environmental
fields. California State Water Resources Board is also very active at the Hispanic Expo, an


 event that takes place at California State University at Sacramento involving 35 Hispanic

 State of Delaware  Department  of  Natural Resources  and  Environmental
 Control/Division  of Parks  and  Wildlife
       The eleven state parks in Delaware which contain thousands of acres of woodlands,
 wetlands, meadows,  and seashores, provide a  variety of recreational as  well as
 environmental education activities.  The Delaware Department of Natural Resources and
 Environmental Control serves many communities around the state including the city of

       Nature'sltClassroom:  Nature's Classroom is a series of outdoor environmental
 learning experiences provided at the Brandywine Creek State Park Nature Center for pre-
 school through sixth grade age groups aimed at increasing a child's understanding of and
 appreciation for the natural world and man's relationship to it ("Nature's Classroom at
 Brandywine Creek State Park."  Delaware Department of  Natural Resources and
 Environmental Control, 1987).

       Beach Studies: Beach Studies are a group of environmental learning experiences
 taught in a "classroom without walls" - Cape Henlopen State Park. These programs are
 provided year-round for  adults as well as children.  Beach Studies encourage an
 environmental ethic and stress small groifp interaction ("Beach Studies at Cape Henlopen
 State Park."  Delaware Department of Natural Resources and environmental  Control,

 Massachusetts Department  of Environmental  Management:   Household
 Hazardous  Waste
       The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management provides educational
 programs and technical assistance to communities and individuals interested in the proper
 disposal of household hazardous waste.  The programs describe what happens to the
 environment if household hazardous waste is disposed of improperly, and also the correct
 and proper way to dispose of the waste.

       Although these programs  are not specifically targeted to urban poor or minority
 populations, they are indeed included in the programs focus, for everyone has some type of
 household hazardous waste ("Household Hazardous Waste." Massachusetts Department
 of Environmental Management).

Mass Re Leaf:  Boston. Massachusetts
       This program  encourages the planting of shade trees as a means of  combating
 global warming. The  Commonwealth and its citizens can take a small but important step
 toward fending off global warming and at the same time help to improve the quality of life
 in the neighborhoods.

       The brochures  describe how trees absorb carbon dioxide, help conserve energy and
 cut energy costs by providing shade, and take some of the heat out of urban "heat islands."
Trees also provide color and wildlife habitat in urban as well as suburban areas.  This
program is open to all  populations of the Commonwealth. Though funded by ENVest, the
program is carried out  by the local tree warden ("Mass ReLeaf."  ENVest, 1989).

 URBAN  ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION:   Curriculum-Based  Programs,
 Environmental Advocacy Organizations,  and Community Organizations

       Urban  environmental education is being implemented  in a wide variety of
 organizations  at a  local and grassroots  level.  There is an  increasing number of
 environmental advocacy groups that target urban minority issues, as well as community
 groups that inform urban residents of their role in protecting their environment.  This
 knowledge was supported by the information gathered from phone interviews.

       For the purposes of this study, the information collected from the phone interviews
 proved to be of more use than the information obtained from the written surveys. These
 phone interviews, which were conducted with various groups and organizations around the
 country, supplied the team with an array of environmental education programs appropriate
 for urban audiences.  In comparison, out of the eight "useful" written  surveys, we
 discovered only two environmental advocacy organizations, one group that implements
 curriculum-based programs, and two community organizations that are currently involved
 in urban environmental education.  (The programs sponsored by these organizations are
 denoted by an asterisk in the list immediately following this section.)

       Below is a sampling of some types of urban environmental education programs
 sponsored by various non-government and community organizations.  These programs,
 considered appropriate for urban poor and minority populations, satisfy one or more of the
 following criteria:  informing residents about specific environmental risks in the particular
 community; establishing a connection between local and global environmental issues; and
 suggesting actions that can be taken by community residents to  affect or change  their
 immediate surroundings (criteria from Verrett,  1990), These programs may also include
 effective strategies that could be transferrable to minority and urban audiences.   Each
 program includes a description that  was provided by brochures and other written
 information that was received through the mail.  (Contacts for these programs may be
 found in Appendix D.)              ^

 Environmental  Advocacy Organizations:

Agency for  Toxic  Substances  and Disease Registry  (ATSDR):    Minorit\
 Health  Initiative
      This program tries to  identify minority populations living near  or working on
 hazardous waste sites and to address those populations special health concerns and unique
requirements for health  communication.

      The Minority Health Initiative seeks to define public healtft issues concerning:
 •  demographics of minority populations in proximity to hazardous waste sites
 •  minority nealth perspectives, including nutritional status, lifestyle and socioeconomic
   influences, and psychosocial impacts
 •  methods of effective communication and dissemination of environmental health
   information to minority communities

      In  December,  1990, the ATSDR will sponsor  the National Minority  Health
Conference to discuss implications, concerns and data gaps of the Minority Health Initiative
("Minority Health Initiative."  The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,

 * Greenpeace
       Greenpeace, over the years, has been one of the most vocal environmental activist
 groups. Greenpeace has also done a lot to include urban poor and minority populations in
 their efforts.  One of the many things they do is produce fact sheets on such things as toxic
 waste. They also have some material, specifically on hazardous waste, that is translated in
 Spanish. Videos, which portray Afro-Americans, Native Americans, etc., are one of many
 tools Greenpeace uses to spread their message. Perhaps the most unique thing they do is
 go into Afro-American communities to speak to the residents and inform them about
 environmental hazards in that community and refer them to other activists that they can
 contact for more information.

 Nationol Toxics
       The National Toxics Campaign, headed in Boston, Massachusetts, is a grassroots
 organization that works to implement citizen-based preventive solutions to the nation's
 toxic and environmental problems.  NTC publishes "Toxic Times", a newsletter with
 information and support from the National Toxics Campaign Fund.  NTC Fund is an
 educational and research organization that shares NTC's policy objectives. The National
 Toxics Campaign Fund provides material on ozone layer protection including "Fighting
 Toxics", a manual for protecting citizens against toxic hazards ("Toxic Times." National
 Toxics Campaign, 1990).

 National Wildlife  Federation:   Cool I tT Programs
       "The National Wildlife Federation's Cool It! Programs encourage college students
 to launch local projects that attack the pollution causing global warming. Some campus
 projects may double or triple the size of existing recycling programs. Other campuses may
 promote public transportation, energy efficiency, bike paths and walk ways, or try to
 persuade local food establishments to switch from plastics packaging to biodegradable
 paper cups and plates.  Cool It! emphasizes supporting projects initiated by culturally
 diverse groups.  Organizers are assisting college students from diverse communities who
 are not traditionally active in environmental issues to play an  active role in solving
 environmental problems" (Verrett,  1990).

 New  York Academy of  Science:   Career Orientation and  Internships  in
 Environmental Education for  Minority  Youth
       This summer leadership  internship program is an attempt to increase the
 representation of minorities in the field of environmental education. It provides real life
 experiences which may lead minority high school students to seek careers in environmental
 education or environmental studies.  It also tries to develop opportunities for North
 American Association for Environmental Education  (NAEE) members and affiliate
 organizations to benefit from participating in a structured minority outreach program.

       In 1988, six minority interns were chosen from New York City to work with three
 environmental education orientated organizations.  Each intern participated in various
 projects of the organization and were exposed to many diverse activities and opportunities
 to learn new skills and knowledge enhancing their understanding of possible career choices
 in the environmental sciences (lozzi & Shepard, 1988).

PBS;  Operation Earth
       A year-long  project consisting of 35 hours of new environmental specials and
 series, Operation Earth was designed to connect local viewers with environmental issues in
their own backyard.  Series will involve issues such as global wanning, deforestation, and
energy use, while emphasizing the need to preserve our ecology.  Working with advisory
committees drawn from local environmental organizations, PBS stations will plan activities
such as radio forums and youth contests for the best essay, song, video, or photo about the


 environment.  Through bodies like the National Education Association, Operation Earth
 booklets, buttons, and posters will be distributed to thousands of schools across the United
 States ("Operation Earth."  PBS, 1990).

 * Sierra Club.  Georgia Chapter
       The Sierra Club is an organization which has been concerned about the environment
 for many years. One of the programs they are involved in is a inner-city outing.  This is a
 relatively new program (2 years) which takes inner-city kids into the woods. The main
 goal of such a program is to teach children about camping and to show the importance  of
 the environment to the existence of the earth. Although this outing is a new program, it
 shows very good promise and has very good participation.

 Curriculum-Based Programs:

 American Water  Works Association
       The American Water Works Association publishes a 82-page catalog of everything
 to know about water. "The Water Education Package" includes teacher's guides for grades
 K-3, 4-6, and 7-9.  "The Story of Drinking Water" is a 16-page illustrated book that
 describes the history and modern workings of drinking water and is available in English,
 Spanish, or French.  "Water Fun for You" is an action-packed workbook on water for
 students  in grades K-3 ("The  Texas Water Education  Network Directory." The Texas
 Water Development Board, 1990).

 BOCES  Outdoor/Environmental  Education  Program
       In cooperation with SCOPE (Suffolk County Organization for the Promotion  of
 Education),  BOCES  has developed a variety  of. outdoor/environmental education
 programs. These programs are designed to help school districts meet their particular needs
 at a number of different  sites, primarily in New York.  Financial arrangements are also
 available; BOCES Outdoor/Environmental Education  Programs are  affordable for any
       Day-Use  Program: This BOCES/SCOPE  program uses a  multi-disciplinary
 approach to strengthen and broaden existing school curricula. The objectives of the Day-
 Use Program are:
 •   to develop in teachers and students a greater awareness, understanding, and respect for
    the natural environment
 •   to integrate environmental concepts into the instruction of English, math, social studies,
    science, and the arts
 •   to gain an understanding of basic ecological concepts and the interdependence of all
    living things                                          .
 •   to create an understanding of the need to conserve  and preserve natural and historic
 •   to coordinate and utilize available land and water resources  for the instruction of
    students and the training of teachers

       ("Day-Use Program." BOCES Outdoor/Environmental Education Program)
 Residential Programs: While living together in an outdoor setting, teachers and students  in
 the residential outdoor/environmental education program pursue the series of activities that
relate the natural  environment to the school curriculum.  The objectives of residential
programs are:
•   to provide a stimulating educational environment emphasizing interdisciplinary and
    multi-sensory learning
•   to integrate environmental concepts into the instruction of English, math, social studies,
    science, and the arts

 •  to provide experiences that develop the attitudes, values, and behavior necessary for the
    wise use of natural resources
 •   to develop self-confidence by enhancing the student's opportunities for individual
 •   to offer activities that develop conceptual, communicative, and computational skills
 •   to prepare students to solve problems through independent as well as cooperative
    learning situations
 •   to provide a comprehensive living experience that permits time for in-depths learning

 ("Residential Programs." BOCES Outdoor/Environmental Education Program)
 WALDEN Program:  The WALDEN Program, the alternative environmental education
 program for secondary students, provides opportunities for young people to "learn by
 doing."  This expedience combines community service projects and other outdoor education
 programs with academic learning. Students participating in this program have a history of
 difficulties which have negatively affected school performance.  The  benefits of the
 program include:
 •   improved student moral and involvement in learning
 •   a reduced dropout rate through early intervention
 •   improved self-esteem
 •   a path provided for high school graduation— essential to higher education, a job, and a
    career ("The WALDEN Program." BOCES Outdoor/Environmental Education
 California State  University:    Environmental  Education   as  Dropout
 Prevention Teacher In-Service  Program
      The goal of this program is to infuse environmental education into the curriculum in
 order to motivate "at-risk" students in school.

      Twenty-six 4- 12th grade teachers volunteer to participate in the in-service program.
 Some of the teachers come from elementary schools with alternative programs, and some
 from alternative high schools.  The objectives of the program are to:
 •   target environmental lessons to needs of specific at-risk students while planning for
    entire class
 •   infuse environmental activities which reflect content of texts
 •   teach appropriate definition of environmental education for grade level/subject
 •   use the out-of-doors at least once a week as part of  school-based implementation of
    environmental education
 •   consider extending or modifying an environmental concept to link it with at-risk student
    problems related to personal characteristics and school, family, and other factors
 •   if possible,  include home activity to involve parents
         e in-service program used well-known environmental curriculum guides such as
Project Wild and Project Learning Tree (Engelson & Disinger, 1990).

California  State   University.   Havward:     Environmental  Education
       The Environmental Education Laboratory is an environmental education resource
center that has been funded for twelve years by Environmental License Plate grants from
the California State Department of Education. The EE lab is open to everyone and provides
a comprehensive collection of published and unpublished curriculum  material  for
environmental education. Some curriculum material is bilingual and addresses such urban
issues as urban  ecology, solid waste,  and multicultural studies.  In-service and  student
teachers are trained in environmental education through environmental workshops. Many
other leaders are trained through this university program to work in parks, museums, non-

 profit organizations, and government agencies ("Environmental Education Laboratory."
 California State University, Hayward).

 *  Clark Atlanta  University:  Atlanta. Georgia
       Clark Atlanta University offers a research program that trains minority graduate
 students in the field of environmental science.  This program utilizes both the classroom
 and research laboratory to address environmental concerns including acid rain, urban
 ozone, and air pollution.

 CYO-Caritas:   San  Francisco. California
       This five day summer camp for inner-city 4-8th grade students includes pre- and
 post-camp classroom work.  The program emphasizes the interdependence of people and
 nature by exploring redwood forests,  grasslands, and fresh water ecology ("Ecology
 Center Newsletter," Ecology Center,  1990).

 Delta College:   Localized  Topic Video/Curriculum
       This premature project will  link local PBS  affiliations with universities and
 community colleges in an effort to promote an awareness of local environmental issues.
 The project will provide curriculum  material and videos for teachers to present to their
 classes. The material is geared toward urban high school students and involves concerns
 of the particular area.  For example, Delta College faculty and a PBS station in Saginaw,
 Michigan may develop an environmental education package specifically targeting this city's
 high school audience. The college faculty will work together with high school teachers so
 that Saginaw students may be informed of the need for wetland preservation. A similar
 project in Houston may include material in Spanish in order to appropriately address the
 Spanish students in Houston of their role in protecting their environment (phone interview,
 Dr. Brad Smith, September, 1990).

Division of Fish &  Wildlife:   Phoenix. Arizona
       The Division of Fish and Wildlife has offered wildlife programs in the form of
 teacher training workshops and hands-orkactivities for children since  1969. The Division's
 environmental education has had an excellent response with Native American teachers, a
 large part of the population served by the Division of Fish and Wildlife, because the
 training methods used are specifically  geared for those groups (phone interview, Mr. Kevin
 Baldwin, Division of Fish and Wildlife, September, 1990).

Hawthorne  Year  Round  School/Oakland  Unified  School   District:
Environmental Day  Camp
       This summer day camp gives teachers a place to introduce  the environment to 120
inner city students in kindergarten through third grade.  The five-<|ay day camp takes place
on the break of the students' year round school schedule ("Environmental Education Grant
Program."-California State Department of Education, 1989).

Heart of the Earth  Survival School:   Minneapolis, Minnesota
       This school is an alternative school for Native Americans.  It was founded because
of high drop-out rates of Native Americans, and racial problems in public schools. The
school stresses environmental education and awareness through the Indian culture's respect
for the land and their view of the land as Mother Earth. They incorporate various
environmental practices through the curriculum of the school (phone interview, Bill Means,

Historically Black  Colleges  and  Universities and Minority   Universities
(HBCUIMI):  Research. Education, and  Technolofv Transfer (RETT\ Plan
       HBCUs/MIs which have the strongest academic training and research trackrecords
in the science, mathematics, and engineering preparation of African Americans, Hispanic


 Americans, and  Native Americans for the environmental restoration  and waste
 management, have demonstrated their knowledge of minority manpower needs. The RETT
 Plan acknowledges the roles to bz played by both the majority and minority institutions,
 National Department of Energy laboratories,  federal  agencies and labs, and the waste
 management industry in developing minority manpower to address these critical needs.
 The HBCU/MI Consortium targets its program to the development of minority human
 resources in the following and other areas:
 •   environmental impact— quality analysis and testing of air, water, soil; health monitoring
 •   environmental restoration— site characterization for restoration; modeling environmental
    contamination to determine remediation needs; remediating contaminated soils and
    groundwater, decontaminating and decommissioning inactive facilities
 •   waste management— remote monitoring; robotics; waste minimization; development of
    new process; w|iste treatment; heavy metal recovery; recycling  ("The RETT Plan in
    ER/MI." The HBCU/MI Hazardous Materials and Waste Management Consortium,

 Hunter College  of the City University of New  York
       The college has been very active in the environmental education movement.  Its
 projects' activities have generated dramatic results from both teachers and students:  more
 interest in science, enhanced abilities to solve problems, a deeper concern for their peers
 and teachers, and a better awareness of environmental problems.

       An Urban Environmental Program for Middle and Junior High School Teachers:
 Under a grant from the National Science Foundation, this interdisciplinary teacher training
 program was developed to promote the teaching of environmental science in middle and
junior high schools. In the summer of 1989, fifty New York City .teachers- the majority of
 which were members of minority groups- met daily for three weeks for workshops and
 lectures conducted by leading academic scientists and specialists from industry and
 government. The program also included  a weekend stay at the Pocono Environmental
 Education Center to compare the urban environment  to that of a rural setting (Niman,

       The Diamond Project:  A mathematics, science,  and technology program  for
 "youth-at-risk" and their teachers, the Diamond Project involved 140 minority students
 between the ages of 9-14^and 28  teachers in an innovative educational experience
consisting of :  a residential program at the Pocono Environmental Education Center;
 science workshops at the Educational Technology Center of Hunter College; and field trips
to urban sites. The PEEC experience introduced inner city students and their teachers to the
natural elements and lifestyles of a rural environment. The workshops focused on hands-
on problem-solving activities in math and science (Niman, 1990).

Local  Government Commission.  Inc.
       ThETorganization distributes K-3, 4-6, 7-8 curriculum entitled  "Toxics In My
Home?  You Bet!".  Available in both English and Spanish, this school curriculum
identifies toxics in the home environment, methods for reducing exposure to household
toxics, unsafe circumstances involving toxic products, and safer alternatives to using such
products ("Household Hazardous Waste Publications."  Golden Empire Health Planning

Manomet. Massachusetts Bird Observatory
      Museum  Institute  for  Teaching  Service (MITS):  The observatory has a
collaborative effort with eleven museums to provide a summer institute, follow-up training,
and a magazine subscription for 100 teachers state wide. The  teachers are  trained in
environmental education at their own school about biological diversity and habitat
destruction.  The observatory also holds outreach, on-site, and  public programs.  The


programs use slide shows, curricula guides, and posters.  Some of these efforts  are
specifically targeted to minority or urban poor populations.

       Care for Coastal Birds:  The objective of this program is to help teachers and
students understand the fragility of wetlands using birds as environmental monitors. Other
groups, as well as minority and urban poor populations, participate in this program.
(information received from Janis Albright-Burton,  1990)

Massachusetts  Water  Resources Aftthority  (MWRA}:   School Programs
       The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority has developed school education
materials to :
•   increase understanding of water as a limited resource
•   improve awareness of personal water use
•   instill positive water conservation attitudes
•   improve water use habits

       "Water Wizards" introduces basic environmental principles and concepts of water
supply to third and fourth grade students.  "Water Watchers" is designed for seventh and
eighth grade science and social studies classes and includes lessons that  call for active
student involvement in classroom and home assignments.  "Water Wisdom" consists of 24
stand-alone activities on water supply and water conservation in a variety of disciplines for
high school students.  Classroom activities on wastewater treatment and household
hazardous waste are now being developed.  These will help students understand the effect
of wastewater on Boston Harbor and the plans to rebuild the treatment plant  at Deer Island.
All materials and services of the MWRA School Programs are available on request at no
charge ("MWRA School Programs." Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, 1990).

Murray  State  University:   Center for Environmental  Education
       Since 1976, the Center for Environmental Education has provided quality programs
and materials to area schools and Murray State University faculty and students. The Center
has grown and expanded with the financial support of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the
college of education of Murray State University,  and the West Kentucky Environmental
Education Consortium.  It offers the following services: Resources Room- a lending
library of curriculum materials; Environmental Education Van- a mobile unit that travels to
area schools and provides environmental  education programs in  cooperation with
classroom teachers; graduate  course and workshops; and in service programs such as
Project Wild, Project Learning Tree, Power Switch, and Energy Sourcebook ("Center for
Environmental Education."  Murray State University).

Navajo Community  College:   Navajo Nation.  Arizona  ^
       Though  not an environmental education  program as a whole, the college does
educate about the environment to its Native American students. The Navajo educational
philosophy, based on Navajo culture and tradition, places human life in harmony with the
natural world and the universe. This philosophy is integrated into the college curriculum at
Navajo Community College, especially in subjects such as agriculture, biology, education,
geology, social science, and Navajo studies ("General Catalog  1990-1991."  Navajo
Community College, 1990).

Ocean Alliance
       Ocean Alliance was formed by a merger of the San Francisco Chapter of Oceanic
Society and the Whale Center. Ocean Alliance's education programs provide tomorrow's
decision-makers with a marine conservation ethic.

       Project OCEAN; Using the ocean as a central  theme, Project OCEAN helps
elementary and middle schools bring an "oceanful of science"  into the  classroom by


 providing teacher training; education material; Ocean Weeks, a week-long program in
 which the whole school becomes a integrated laboratory for studying the ocean; and
 follow-up programs. For students with special needs Project OCEAN provides:
 •   a content-based language acquisition program which promotes simultaneous learning of
    English language and sophisticated science concepts
 •   enhanced second language acquisition through hands-on activities, multi-media visual
    supports, bilingual materials, cooperative learning, and sheltered English strategies
 •   greater classroom participation and self-esteem
 •   multicultural sharing of ocean heritage, careers and lifestyles-a culturally sensitive
    curriculum ("Project OCEAN." Ocean Alliance)

       Sea Camp; Sea Camp introduces children to the marine environment. Campers
 explore rocky tide|ools and other aquatic habitats, conduct science experiments, and enjoy
 and learn from a host of other hands-on activities (Sea Camp." Ocean Alliance).

 Ohio  Department of Natural  Resources/Division  of Litter  Prevention  and
 Recyclinf:   Super Saver Investigators
       Super Saver Investigators is an interdisciplinary environmental studies activity
 guide book about solid waste, recycling, and natural resources for grades kindergarten
 through eighth. The "Super Saver Investigators," a group of kids, minorities represented,
 appear throughout the  guidebook.  The hands-on activities allow students to investigate
 environmental problems as well  as learn how to actually save their environment ("Super
 Saver Investigators." Ohio Department of Natural Resources, 1988).

 Oklahoma  State University  (OSU)ICenter  for  Environmental  Education:
 Hifh  School Summer Academy for Environmental  Science
       The OSU's Summer Academy is an extensive four-week program of study with
 follow-up activities for thirty, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade high school students
 interested in and qualified to study environmental science.  Underrepresented minority
 groups and females across the state are sought as participants. The staff of the Academy
 are primarily minority and female environmental Ph.D. and master's graduates of the OSU
 Environmental Science Degree  Program.  The Summer  Academy is designed in two
 phases.  The first phase takes  place  on the OSU campus and includes classroom,
 laboratory, and field instruction.  The second phase, follow-activities, involve the students
 in conducting home and school analysis of use patterns for energy, water, toxics, solid
 waste/recycling, transportation. The overall goal of the Academy is to make a select group
 of high school students:
 •   aware of major environmental issues and problems
 •   knowledgeable about the ecological concepts that connect the issues and problems
 •   able to identify the exciting opportunities they have to deal with these problems in the
    futureC'High School Summer Academy for Environmental Science."  Oklahoma State
              •Higher Education, 1990)
Project  Wild
       Deadly Links:  "Deadly Links" is just one of the programs from the Project Wild
collection. It deals with the idea of having a world-healthy body. This idea is then applied
to alcohol and drug abuse. Though not specifically targeted to any one group, this program
would be relevant in all walks of life.

       Habitat Lapsit: Habitat components are food, water, shelter, and space in a suitable
arrangement. What happens when a component is missing?  How are students like the
components? This curriculum-based activity shows how each student contributes vitally to
his/her own class, family, and world. This activity teaches the individual student about
how he/she affects his/her own immediate environment, as well as the global environment
(Engelson & Disinger, 1990).


 Refuse  Industry Productions. Inc.
       Refuse Industry Productions, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Grass Valley
 Disposal, Inc., produces a complete waste management curriculum, "Garbage in America,"
 for grades  K-12.  The curriculum includes information on all waste management issues
 including landfills, recycling, household hazardous waste, natural resources and  the
 environment, and waste-to-energy.  "Garbage in America" comprises nine individual
 envelope packs, one for each grade. The curriculum uses multicultural characters as
 "recycling  friends" in the K-4 packs.  New characters, a Native American family,  are
 introduced in grade five.  Math, science, an, and English are incorporated into all  the
 lessons so  that they can easily  be integrated into a teaching schedule.  In addition to
 curriculum materials, Refuse Industry Productions, Inc. also distributes educational aides
 such as videos and coloring books, and supplementary items such as litterbags and  mini-
 trash cans ('"Garbage in America' A K-12 Solid Waste Management Curriculum." Refuse
 Industry  Productions, 1988).

 Schlitz Audubon Center of the  National Audubon Society:    "Living Lifhtlv"
       The "Living Lightly" book series help students develop an awareness and
 appreciation of the natural and built environment.  They will recognize our interdependence
 with the  natural world.  Students will gain knowledge of ecological concepts and will
 recognize how humans can have an impact on the environment.  They will also develop
 problem-solving skills and take action for environmental responsibility.

       "Living Lightly in the City" targets K-6 graders while "Living Lightly on  the
 Planet" is specified for 7-12 graders.  The programs all use audio-visual materials, hands-
 on experience, and discussions.  An example of one of the activities included in the K-3
 curriculum is the  program that challenges the students to learn about and explore their
 neighborhood environment.  Another program included in all of the cuniculums is  the
 program  which shows  how the natural  world can be made relevant to urban students
 (Gross, Wilke, &  Passineau, 1989).

 Science  Oriented Learning:  Science Alive!
       Science Oriented Learning, a non-profit affiliate of the Earth Island Institute, has
 developed an innovative science and social studies program designed  for grades 3-6.
 Science Alive! has:
   hands-on activities that require few materials and little preparation time
   standardized student worksheets in English and Spanish
   cooperative learning strategies built into the activities
   problem-solving, democratic decision-making and critical  analysis emphasized in
   experiments and projects                                 \
   been adapted for use by teachers and youth leaders indoors as well as outdoors
   been designed in an easy to understand step-by-step format ("Science Alive!" Science
   Oriented Learning)

Southern   University   at   Baton  Rouge/Center  for   Energy   and  the
       Minority Undergraduate Training for Energy Related Careers (MUTEC): The
center offers research and internship programs for minority undergraduates in science and
engineering. The Center for Energy and the Environment hopes to baptize more minorities
into the field of environmental science.

       Environmental  Restoration in Waste Management: This program is done in
conjunction with  the Department of Energy to get Historically  Black Colleges and
University (HBCU) students to undertake professional careers in environmental education
(phone interview,  Dr. Robert L. Ford, 1990).


 The  University of  Michigan/School  of Natural Resources:   Rouge  River
       "With approximately 1.5 million residents in its mostly urban watershed, the Rouge
 has been identified as one of the worst of 42 pollution hot spots in the Great Lakes Basin."
 The Interactive Rouge River Water Quality Monitoring Project is an innovative program
 that raises students' awareness of their surroundings while they take steps to clean-up the
 river. It has produced a computer communications network in which hundreds of students
 from not only the Rouge basin, but riversheds across the United States and in a growing
 list of other countries, can discuss their concerns, strategies, and courses of action to
 improve water quality.  The program's technology helps override socioeconomic and racial
 boundaries to forge strong links among the students. In Saginaw, the Rouge runs through
 the center of the cit^creating a gap between the minority and the white middle class
 communities. The Rouge River Project helps bridge this gap between suburban and inner-
 city students in the connection between themselves and the environment ("Recovering the
 Rouge... or the River as Classroom."  Beebe.A.).

 Community Organizations:

 * American  Lun? Association:  Sacramento. CA
       The American Lung Association develops environmental education material for the
 general public and for 120 urban public schools. Videos and brochures, which are
 sometimes written in Spanish, are used to address the environmental concern of air quality.

 Camp  Esteem:   Fresno. CA
       Camp Esteem is an environmental education program for "at-risk" middle school
 kids. Combating the problem of high drop-out rates, this outdoor camp for young people
 from Fresno develops positive self-images, encourages interest in academics, creates
 awareness of the environment and man's role as  steward of the environment, provides
 positive role models, and discourages the abuse of alcohol and other drugs.  Funded by
 local sources, the two-week Camp Esteem is an  ongoing program that has about 200
 seventh and eighth grade students participating each year.  Selection is determined by
 Fresno Unified School District personnel who attempt to choose those students who are at
 risk of becoming involved in substance abuse and who are potential dropouts. The
 program draws students from throughout the city; all social, economic, and ethnic groups
 are represented ("Camp Esteem- Environmental Education Program for 'At-Risk' Middle
 School Kids." Fresno Unified School District).

 Christodora  Foundation:   Manice Education Center
       The Christodora  Foundation operates  in New York City as a  grant-giving
 institution.  The Foundation's grants focus on environmental education.  The common
 ground of tfl-€hristodora grants is that they enable city children to better understand and
value the environment that surrounds them.  Funded programs often bear an essential
relationship to the Manice Education Center, an  environmental center situated in the
 Berkshire Mountains of Northwestern Massachusetts ("Christodora, Inc."  Christodora
Foundation). The primary goals of the Center are to:
•  introduce students to the world of nature, stimulating their enthusiasm for learning in
   the outdoors
•  nurture sensitivity to and understanding of the human place within natural ecosystems
•  develop students' capacity for leadership, self-reliance, and group cooperation
•  instill in students an appreciation for the natural  world, the value of conservation and to
   help promote minority participation and leadership in the conservation movement and in
   the  sciencesin general ("Manice Education Center."  Christodora-Manice Education

 East Bav  Regional Park District:   Tilden Regional Park Junior Rangers
       The Junior Ranger Program is run by naturalists from the Environmental Education
 Center in Tilden Regional Park. Jr. Rangers gain the skills and confidence to develop a
 lifelong environmental ethic. Because enrollment is limited to thirty children, interested
 boys and girls, nine to twelve years old, are given short, informal interviews. Selections
 are made by lottery with priorities given toward maintaining a balance of ages, sexes, and
 races ("Tilden Regional Park Junior Rangers." East Bay Regional Park District, 1988).

 Ecology Center.  Berkeley.  California:   Ecology  Center Newsletter
       The newsletter is a guide to Bay Area Environmental Education Resources.  This
 monthly publication also  prints  written statements  and an by young children on
 environmental issues.  The Ecology Center Newsletter also prints editorials on specific
 environmental action topics.

       The guide is a chart listing the Bay Area Environmental Education programs geared
 toward assisting parents and teachers.  The available resources are divided into seven
 categories;  camps,  curricula, day trips, general information, materials, mobile resources,
 and teacher information/workshops.   There  is a brief synopsis about each program
 describing  prices, age groups, times, phone numbers,  and programs ("Ecology Center
 Newsletter." Ecology Center, 1990).

 General Land Office:  Austin. Texas
       In an effort to promote a generally sound environment, the General Land Office
 organizes programs that address environmental issues such as recycling and household
 toxics. Adopt-a-Beach is one of their effective projects in which organizations "adopt" a
 mile sector of the gulf coast beach to clean up. When- publicizing their programs, such as
 Adopt-a-Beach, the General Land Office translates the material into Spanish to better
 accommodate the large Spanish population in Texas (phone interviews, Mr. John Hamilton
 & Mr. Don Cook, General Land Office, September, 1990).
 Greater Newark  Conservancy
       The Greater Newark Conservancy is  a non-profit  organization that addresses
 environmental, urban horticultural, and revitalization issues.  GNC publishes a newsletter,
 "City Bloom, " which brings a  greater awareness  to Newark residents of the need to
 become better informed about our changing environment. As a part of the Greater Newark
 Conservancy's effort to reach  the city's Hispanic  population, it uses the media— an
 interview on a television show  that serves the Hispanic community. Topics  covered
 included recycling, air and water pollution, the greenhouse effect, global  wanning, the
 need for active involvement of citizens and how these issues affect the Hispanic and urban
 communities ("City Bloom." The Greater Newark Conservancy .ft 990).

 Los Anfeles Conservation Corps:   Clean and  Green
       This program employs approximately 300, generally minority, junior or senior high
 school students to work four days a week doing environmental educational related projects.
 Three regional coordinators find projects through community  groups for the workers.

       The one day they  do not work, they receive environmental education  through
environmental hands-on activities and skills (phone interview, Anne Savage,  1990).

Mount Clair State College:   Jersey Citv  Program
       The Jersey  City Program is a year-long camp  that has been in  existence for
 approximately ten years. Many of the teachers and  children in the camps are minorities
 from cities around New Jersey. The Jersey City Program provides an interaction between
cultural groups while teaching an appreciation for the environment. Children are involved

 in hands-on activities including field work and studies on water ecology (phone interview,
 Dr. John Kirk, August, 1990).

 Newark Of nee  of Reeve line
       In its efforts to promote recycling and "precycling" (making environmentally sound
 decisions at the store), the Newark Office of Recycling offers recycling guides and
 provides, free  of charge, containers for  Newark residents in which  to store their
 recyclables. In addition, they  distribute recycling calendars written in Portuguese and
 Spanish to inform members of non-English speaking communities about the need for waste
 reduction (Newark Office of Recycling, 1990).

 Oakland Museutp
       Science Refch Program: The Oakland Museum uses this program to teach middle
 school "at risk" children who have English as a second language about environmental
 education.  Literature and slide shows are used by the teacher to familiarize the class with
 the museum and its programs before they visit.  When they get to the museum they will
 participate in two "classroom" type environmental education activities, and tour the
 museum. They will also be addressed by people of color, who work at the museum, about
 environmental education.

       African American Professionals in the Sciences Program:  African Americans  in
 science fields guest lecture to the children about their specific science profession. This
 program  is an attempt to teach "at risk" children about the environmental sciences, and
 hopefully to attract more of the minority population to the environmental staff.

       Species and Communities At Risk Program: The object of this museum program is
 to link children to the concepts of the community environment. The children discover the
 diversities within their families, communities, and the world. These activities are followed
 up by being addressed by community activists.

       Family Science: This programs focus is to achieve equity in science education
 targeted to black families.

       Interface Institute: Interface Institute is an afterschool program that targets people
 of color in middle school. It is involved with enrichment activities in math and science.
 The institute also tries to provide environmental education resources to those who need it.
 (phone interview, Sandy Bredt, Oakland Museum, 1990)

 "Passport  Earth" Project:  Palo Alto.  California
       This program was started at the Earth Day 1990 Festival. It is concerned with
 everyday environmental problems, but its main focus is to raise awareness of the value of
 the naturaFBiy Area in the Palo Alto area.

       This program is aimed at children in grades K-6 from the largely minority populated
 Palo Alto and East Menlo. The purpose of the program is to reward a child for the
 completion of an environmental activity with a stamp in their "passport." Some of the
 activities were  concerned with environmental issues such  as wetland conservation,
 pollution, and recycling. The goal of the children is to complete as many environmental
 activities as possible in order to collect stamps in their "passport."  After a certain amount
 of stamps, they are rewarded with prizes (phone interview, Emily Renzel, 1990).

Pocono  Environmental Education  Center  (PEEC):   Summer  Enrichment
Program for New York  Citv Youth  at  Risk
       PEEC, in cooperation with the National Park Service, is a self-supporting, non-
 profit organization that is committed to the education of individuals, minorities, people with


 special needs, and social communities.  The PEEC Summer Enrichment Program is a
 residential environmental studies component of the New York City Division of High
 Schools Summer Chapter One program for incoming high school students. This school-
 based summer program serves to facilitate the development of at-risk youth in the use of
 field experiences which provide experiential learning. The program is designed to improve
 the chance of school success for incoming ninth and tenth grade students who often lack
 first hand knowledge of the world beyond their immediate environment other than school-
 based experiences.  The PEEC Summer Enrichment Program includes activities that:
 •   enhance self-esteem
 •   create positive attitudes toward learning
 •   foster psychological growth
 •   increase the feeling of responsibility for our environment ("Summer Enrichment
    Program for New York City- Youth at Risk at the PEEC." Pocono Environmental
    Education Center, 1990)

 Project USE (Urban  Suburban Environments}
       Project USE is a private, non-profit educational corporation. During this past year,
 Project USE has operated two programs for youth-at-risk for the New Jersey Division of
 Youth and Family ("Friends of Project USE." Project USE, 1989).

       Trek Program: The Trek Program is a 60-day wilderness program designed for at-
 risk youth, from Newark, New Jersey, who are in need of support services. The program
 includes wilderness experiences, counseling and community service projects.  A similar
 program has been run by Project USE for the past six years (letter received from Phillip
 Costello, Executive Director, Project USE, 1990).

       Division of Youth and Family Services:  For the past seven years, Project USE has
 conducted 7-day outdoor courses with youth-at-risk, who are under the care of the Division
 of Youth and Family Services, from about twelve different New Jersey communities (letter
 received from Phillip Costello, Executive Director, Project USE, 1990).
 "Skipping  Stones":   Cottage  Grove. Oregon
       This periodical expresses sensitivity toward and creative interaction  with nature. It
 expresses that "environmental activities are best when they include  sensory interaction,
 critical thinking, and creative expression.  Activities that lead to further questioning,
 synthesizing, and exploration allow us to feel comfortable with the complexity of our living

       The magazine prints writing and artwork by children  and young adults that will
 increase cultural awareness and encourage reader participation. It especially encourages
 submissions by children from under-represented populations. Thef writings may be in any
 language ariong as there is also an English translation.  "Skipping Stones" has featured:
 •    environmental games and puzzles in Spanish and English
 •    a special bilingual issue in Spanish
 •    writings and artwork from children in  Russia, India.Nicaragua, Ethiopia, Japan,
     China, and Taiwan ("Skipping Stones.",  1990)

Slide Ranch:  Muir Beach. California
       Slide Ranch is a  non-profit demonstration teaching farm.  It operates as a Park
Partner with the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and has been offering educational
programs since 1970.  Slide Ranch:
•  teaches principles of ecology using the farm, wildlands, and ocean environment
   through interactive learning experiences
•  expands  the opportunities of multi-ethnic, inner city, and  physically or mentally
   disadvantaged Bay Area residents for contact with farms and wildlands


 •   introduces the wonders of the natural world in a non-threatening manner
 •   provides responsible stewardship for the land and the natural communities
 •   develops teaching and professional skills of residential environmental interns ("Slide
    Ranch." Slide Ranch, 1990)

 *  University of Illinois
       The University of Illinois has developed a program which includes urban students
 called ROAR (Recycle Our Available Resources).  Through the use of music, they try to
 teach kids about recycling.

       Action Speak:  This program, which is more targeted for urban youth 7  years old
 and up, tries to show the impact these students can have on the environment. One of the
 activities that is stressed the most is having students read material on current environmental
 issues.           •

       Plastics: This program is strictly for nigh school students. Some of the activities of
 "Plastics" are the same as those of "Action  Speak", but perhaps, the most interesting
 activity is making playground equipment from recycled plastic.

       ROAR is a program which  has been very successful in reaching out  to urban
 students to inform them about environmental issues. There have also been follow-up
 studies of the students that have been involved in ROAR each year that have shown that
 these students have a higher tendency to recycle and to become more involved in their
 respective communities.

 University of Rhode Island:   Environmental Education  Center
      The center works  toward  increasing  awareness and  knowledge  of one's
 surroundings and how we can work toward a better environment.  Their concerns are
 mainly water quality, wildlife conservation, and sustainable land use and development.
 They work in their local area, but not exclusively.

      The center is involved with a camp for 8-12 year olds. The foci of the camp are
 farmsteading and ecology. There is also a summer teen expedition for 13-16 year olds.
 Both of these programs offer scholarships for disadvantaged populations to cover the cost
 of the fee.

      The center is  also  involved with schools through environmental education
 programs.  They are concerned with forest and freshwater ecology, farmsteading and
 gardening, Native American studies, and Rhode Island and rural New England cultural
 history.  Also involved with the school are their teacher training workshops. They offer
 graduate and internship programs in environmental education.
           centeTalso loans out videos  and books on environmental topics to  aid
environmental education (information received from Martha Cheo, 1990).

Younf  Growers Produce
      Young Growers Produce is a young and growing company which was founded and
is operated principally by the youth and young adults of North Richmond,  California.
Through the sponsorship of Neighborhood House of North Richmond, Dr. Shelby
Givens, of Oakland, designed and implemented the program. Young Growers Produce is
now administered through a non-profit organization cofounded by Dr. Givens and Patricia
Hicks, President of Hicks and Associates, Management Consultants, also of Oakland.
Young Growers Produce has become a fully functioning business enterprise that provides
urban youth and young adults with training in urban agricultural production and  the

 development of entrepreneurial skills ("Young Growers Produce."   Young Growers
       As the  results of this  report indicate,  there are an  increasing number of
 environmental  education efforts that appropriately address urban poor and  minority
 populations.  The  majority of the programs discovered in this  study are  initiated at a
 grassroots level and are geared toward educating the youth in America, suggesting a trend
 in environmental education. Environmental education is sometimes integrated into school
 curricula, in teacher training workshops, and in youth camps. Although this sample is not
 conclusive of a trend across the entire United States, it is apparent that our country has
 recognized the importance of increasing the environmental awareness of the youth today in
 order to preserve our world for the future.

       The urban environmental education programs examined in this project appear to
 follow a general pattern.  The common ground of many youth-oriented programs is that
 they enable inner  city children to better understand and value the environment that
 surrounds them.  Hunter College of the  City University of New York, for example,
 sponsors projects for young minority students and their teachers that introduce them to the
 natural elements and lifestyles  of a rural environment-- an environment many of them may
 never have seen before.  Many programs such as these provide activities to compare the
 urban environment to that of a rural setting in hopes that what inner city children take away
 from their experiences will later be incorporated into their own urban environment.

       The objectives of these programs  are accomplished in various ways.  Outdoor
 camps, workshops, field trips, and school programs are a few of the successful methods
 for educating youth discovered in this study. An increasing number of school programs
 are being developed to strengthen and broaden  existing curricula  by integrating
 environmental concepts into the instruction of English, math, social studies, science, and
 the arts, creating an understanding of the environment in both teachers and  students.
 Outdoor youth camps, also found to be a popular means of providing urban environmental
 education, generally offer hands-on activities and field trips that involve active participation
 in solving environmental problems.  Camps appear to be very effective in stimulating
 enthusiasm for learning in the outdoors, and as a result, are being implemented throughout
 the country. For example, Sea Camp  introduces children to the marine environment in
 California, while Nature's Classroom provides outdoor environmental learning experiences
 at the Brandywine Creek State Park Nature Center in Delaware.
       In addition,  programs targeted to urban poor and minorities often include  activities
 that increase self-esteem and promote leadership in the environmental movement and in the
 sciences in general. This goal is important because underrepresented groups frequently
receive little encouragement to pursue education, and may have negative attitudes toward
learning.  The Christodora Manice Education Center, an excellent example, introduces
 students from the city to the world of nature, while developing their capacity for leadership,
self-reliance, and group cooperation.

      There also appears to  be a rising number of colleges and universities that are
providing opportunities for urban poor and minority populations  to study environmental
science. Oklahoma State University's High School Academy is designed to make a select
group of high school students aware of major environmental issues and problems such as
energy conservation, toxics, solid waste, and recycling. Through the use of classroom,
laboratory, and field instruction, underrepresented minority groups and women become
knowledgeable about the ecological concepts that connect the issues and the problems,


 while learning of their role in dealing with these problems in the future. The High School
 Academy ,  as well as  programs similar to it, not only actively  seek minorities as
 participants, but also are designed to specifically target the environmental concerns of these
 underrepresented groups. Urban environmental education efforts like these can clearly be
 considered effective efforts at instilling an environmental ethic in urban communities. In
 fact, all the programs listed in the previous results section are considered to be effective in
 providing urban environmental education.  Each program satisfies all the criteria geared to
 determining its effectiveness: informing residents about specific environmental issues;
 establishing  a connection between local and global environmental issues; and suggesting
 actions that  can be taken by community residents to affect or change  their immediate
 surroundings (criteria from Verrett, 1990).

       After examining  the programs, it became obvious that although many different
 methods are used, the final product is the  same; these programs seem to have a positive
 impact on urban poor and minority communities. For instance, school curricula designed
 to inform urban students of the need to recycle in order to conserve natural resources uses a
 different approach from that of a water quality monitoring project where students'become
 aware of their surroundings while they take steps to clear up a water source. However,
 both are examples of programs that may effectively address urban poor and minority

       While all the programs discovered in this study arc felt to be effective, a few appear
 to stand out among the others.  It was felt that these programs offer some of the most
 innovative strategies for urban environmental education.

       The Pocono Environmental Education Center provides a number of programs that
 introduce inner city students to a rural environment  The Summer Enrichment Program for
 New York City Youth At-Risk, as just one example, is a summer program for New York
 City high school students who often lack first hand knowledge of the world beyond their
 immediate surroundings  other than school-based experiences.  Designed to improve the
 chance of academic success, the activities  of the Summer Enrichment Program increase
 self-esteem, create positive attitudes toward learning, and inform of the necessity to protect
 the  environment.  The program uses field experiences which provide hands-on outdoor
 activities as  a means of investigating environmental problems  in order  to increase
 environmental awareness. ~

       Delta College's Localized Topic Video/Curriculum, although still being developed,
 should prove to be very effective in addressing urban poor and minorities all over the
country. Local college faculty and PBS affiliations will develop curriculum material and
videos for urban high school teachers to use in their classroom to inform their students of
 the environmental problems in their particular area. This educational "package" has a basic
design whtefrom be adapted to appropriately address different urban areas so as to include
 the environmental concerns of those areas.  For example, a package to be developed for a
 high school teacher in Houston, Texas may address the problem of marine debris and
include material in Spanish to better accommodate the Hispanic students in that school.
 Because curriculum material is frequently not  specifically targeted  (ie.  a video of
environmental problems of Newark,  New Jersey shown to a class  in Sacramento,
California), Localized Topic Video/Curriculum offers a new approach  that will enable
 students to understand the environmental concerns in their own area. As a result, students
may be encouraged to  become actively  involved  in protecting or improving their
environment. Since this  project is transferable to any urban area in the country, it  seems
that this idea could expand other existing efforts in urban environmental education.

       The University of Michigan's Rouge  River Project is an innovative  water
monitoring project that has already been successful in expanding the urban environmental


education movement.  It has produced a computer communications network in which
hundreds of students from not only the Rouge basin, but riversheds across the United
States and even in other countries, can discuss their concerns, strategies, and courses of
action to improve water quality.  In Saginaw, Michigan, the Rouge runs through the center
of the city, separating the minority and white middle class communities. The Rouge River
Project, and similar projects in other areas in the country, encourage students to immerse
themselves in their efforts to evaluate and understand their environment.  In addition, these
programs help override socioeconomic  and racial boundaries to forge a link between
suburban and  inner city  students in  the connection  between themselves and the
environment. -:

       Although some of the programs found in this study appear extremely successful in
their urban environmental education efforts, including the examples above, others
examined did not specifically target minority and urban audiences at all. However, it was
felt that these programs include  strategies that could appropriately address these  groups.
Some programs are  developed  in urban areas where there is a large concentration of
minorities; others address environmental issues such as solid waste, pollution, and lead
paint which  are most evident in urban areas; and some even provide material in languages
other than English that accommodate minorities  who are non-English speaking.  As a
result, these  programs are reaching urban poor and minorities without specifically targeting
their efforts.

       An example is the Energy Award Program for Student Energy Projects which is
sponsored by the California Energy Extension  Service.   Although it is conducted
throughout California and is not specifically targeted to any particular group, there is
generally greater participation by minority students.  Another example is the school
curriculum produced by Refuse Industry, Inc.  The material, which includes  information
on waste management  issues, uses multicultural  characters as  "recycling friends" and
incorporates a Native American family into its lessons. While this curriculum is developed
for an entire school, its approach will appropriately address all audiences, urban minorities

       In summary,  there appears to be many positive accomplishments in the  area of
urban environmental education, particularly at a grassroots level. Although this study
produced only a small sample of all the existing efforts in our country, it is apparent that
our society has recognized the need for everyone, especially those in urban communities
where environmental concerns are most evident, to become environmentally literate in order
to effectively protect our environment. If the programs discovered in this study are any
indication of the total urban environmental education effort, it appears that we are definitely
on the right track in helping to establish a strong environmental ethic in our country.


       As a result of this study, the following conclusions have  been developed
 concerning urban environmental education:

 CONCLUSION:  There  is  an  apparent  need  for  more   environmental
                  education   targeted   to  urban   poor   and   minority

       A large percentage of our society now resides in urban areas--a majority of which is
 low income and minority.  It is no secret that urban environmental problems are extensive
 and include such Issues of congestion, pollution, lead paint, asbestos, and solid waste.
 However, because many inner city residents are frequently faced with the more immediate
 concerns of poverty and unemployment, they may be unaware of the necessity to protect
 their environment. Urban residents are also frequently unaware both of the environmental
 risks in their area, and the relationship between local environmental concerns and global
 environmental issues.  It is therefore imperative that we not only appropriately address the
 environmental concerns of urban America, but that we also empower this community
 through environmental education.  Only through education can urban poor and minority
 populations learn how to enhance their role in protecting and improving their environmental
 health.                               ^

 CONCLUSION:  There  appears   to  be  a  limited  amount  of  federal
                  and  state  activity  directed toward  urban  environmental

       The results  of this study  support  the findings of a previous EPA report in
 confirming that there are a limited number of urban environmental education and training
 efforts initiated at the federal and state level.  Federal and state organizations provide
 services for a large audience consisting of a wide variety of population groups. Therefore,
 many of these organizations feel that while they develop environmental education programs
 to inform  the general public, it is inappropriate to specifically target urban poor and
 minority groups. Thus, most environmental education and training programs sponsored by
 the federal government or by state governments and organizations address the needs of the
 entire nation or an entire state instead of targeting the particular needs of one community.

 CONCLUSION:  Grassroots organizations  need adequate funding in order
                  to be truly effective.

       There are a rising number of innovative urban environmental education programs
 that in 11 liHHj tin i Injii il by grassroots organizations.  Many of these organizations are
 community-based and are able to specifically target their environmental education efforts to
 urban poor and minority groups. Urban grassroots organizations have close contact with
 the local community and thus become aware of the specific environmental risks facing that
 community.  They can, therefore, appropriately target their programs to address these

       Unfortunately, many grassroots  organizations lack the funding needed to provide
 truly effective programs.  Some may  be  in need of more staff; some may need new
equipment, or even new  office space.  Limited funds, always a problem for  small
 grassroots organizations, may indeed force the closing of initiatives that are innovative and
 successful. With adequate funding, grassroots organizations could continue and even
expand their efforts to provide programs that include effective strategies for reaching
community residents with practical and targeted environmental education initiatives.

 CONCLUSION: Much of the work done  by grassroots organizations seems
                  to   go   without   notice   by   governmental   groups,
                  environmental  organizations,  as  well  as  the  general

       This study discovered several grassroots organizations that are actively involved in
 environmental education targeted to urban poor and minority populations. However, the
 team concluded that there may be a multitude of grassroots organizations that remain
 undetected because much of the work done by these groups seems to go without notice.

       There appears to be little communication among individual grassroots organizations
 and even less between these groups and federal  or state organizations.  Because of the
 limited amount of networking between organizations, many organizations never learn of
 other successful urban environmental education programs. Also, many organizations,
 particularly small community groups, do not publicize their efforts. Some organizations do
 not possess the needed funds to publish literature and others  do not feel that written
 material appropriately addresses the audiences that they target.  Such organizations may
 prefer to use a "word-of-mouth" method to inform urban poor and minority communities
 about environmental issues.

 CONCLUSION: There  is  a  need  for   more  communication  between
                  grassroots organizations and the EPA.

       While organizations at the grassroots level  need to better understand the EPA's role
 in urban environmental education, the EPA also needs  to learn of effective urban
 environmental education efforts that are being developed  by grassroots organizations.
 There appears to be a need for more inter-communication between these two groups.

       In  general, it  was found  that  most grassroots organizations are skeptical of
 environmental education attempts  of the Environmental Protection Agency.  They often
 believe that the EPA is only concerned with regulating or taking control of existing urban
 environmental education programs. Moreover, local groups feel that the EPA is unaware
 of local urban  environmental needs and is unable to address the needs and concerns of
 urban poor and minorities at a level which these groups can understand. Because of this
 communication gap, grassroots organizations may not recognize that the Environmental
 Protection Agency has a genuine interest in assisting on-going, successful environmental
 education efforts which are targeted toward urban poor and minority populations.

 CONCLUSION: There is  a  need  for  more  minority  students  to become
                  educated  in  science  and engineering fields.

       America is changing demographically, particularly in the composition of its young
 people. Minorities now make-up a large percentage of this population and so are
 increasingly entering the workforce. However, the number of minorities preparing for
 careers in science and engineering is minimal. Many minority students are frequently never
 given real encouragement to enter technical fields and thus, never fully develop a long-term
 interest in math and science fields.

       Most of our country's experienced scientists and engineers recruited after Sputnik
will be retiring in the 1990's, creating a void of science and engineering professionals. At
the same time, the workforce is increasingly becoming comprised of minorities and women
(The Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology,
 1988). For this reason,  it is imperative that we encourage minority students to become
more literate in mathematics and science. If we are to continue as an advanced industrial
society, many  must enter science and engineering careers.  As environmental issues


 become more complex, the need arises for those in technical fields to study environmental
 problems and become active in environmental organizations.  It is apparent that decision
 makers in all fields must become environmentally Literate if we are to effectively protect our

       One of the goals of this research project was to formulate and present a set of
 recommendations to the Education  and  Training Committee of the EPA's National
 Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology. The Committee will consider
 these recommendations regarding how the Environmental Protection Agency can best assist
 environmental education efforts for urban poor and minority populations.   These
 recommendations will lay the groundwork for its effort to develop recommendations to be
 forwarded to the EPA Administrator which address this issue.                 ,,

       Below is the set of eight recommendations formulated by this research team. Each
 one was formulated by either one or both of the following procedures:
 • Through a literature review and data search
 • Through phone interviews with environmental educators or faculty


       Because EPA is recognized as the central organization in environmental protection
 across the United States, smaller programs  and organizations look to it for assistance.
 Although ready to  help, the EPA may not always be able to because it is already
 overwhelmed by requests for information.  For example, at the EPA Headquarters in
 Washington, D.C., the  EPA operates a hotline which is manned by 30 operators who are
 overwhelmed with requests for information.  A great deal of the information requested
 from this hotline may also be available at the regional offices. Since many who use the
 Headquarters' hotline are calling from regions outside of Washington, D.C., they may be
 able to obtain the information they need through their respective regions.

 RECOMMENDATION 1: The  EPA  regional  offices  could  improve  their
                          information  distribution methods.

       A regional hotline set up at each  regional office would not only alleviate the
 pressure on Headquarters,  but would also allow the EPA to better distribute  its

       Another way regional offices could improve their distribution methods would be to
 organize regional directories.  The public could have access to updated information
 concerning regional environmental  education programs, including  phone numbers,
 addresses, and program descriptions.  Although the total fulfillment of this idea may be
 difficult, it does have some merit.   For instance, regional  studies on environmental
 education would be less difficult if regional catalogs existed.


       The limited amount of effort directed at urban environmental education may be a
result of the inadequate representation of urban poor and minorities in the field of
environmental science. Without their input and involvement in this field, it is difficult to

 develop programs that appropriately address urban environmental needs and concerns. It
 appears that there are not enough minorities in the environmental sciences to affect change.
       In the near future, minorities will make up a large pan of our society.  If we are to
 continue to improve our environmental situation in the  future, we need to educate this

 RECOMMENDATION 2:  The  EPA could serve  as a  model  by  employing
                           minorities as  interns, researchers,  or  employees.

       This recommendation was introduced to us through contacts during our phone
 interviewing. One program director suggested that grassroots organizations could steer
 minorities  to the EPA  who could, in turn, offer them apprenticeships or other job
 opportunities. If the EPA takes the initiative to introduce minorities to the environmental
 sciences, other organizations may follow its lead.  In the long run, this could increase
 minority involvement in the environmental field.


       Environmental education and training on ail levels and in all areas have traditionally
 been  underfunded.  This can be attributed to the tradition of such programs  being
 undervalued. Proactive environmental programs that aim to achieve long-term results do
 not seem to receive the priority of prevention programs that produce immediate results.

       During our phone interviewing, we asked  the respondents about their opinion
 regarding how the EPA could best assist the existing efforts in environmental education and
 training for urban poor  and minority populations. The overwhelming responses were
 grants and staff assistance.

 RECOMMENDATION 3: The EPA could support and become more directly
                          involved  with  urbanenvironmental  education

       The EPA may consider offering grants to certain model urban environmental
 education programs.  The non-profit programs would be  selected through an application
 process. These programs would then be considered EPA "model" programs.  Not only
 would this process act as an incentive to many programs, but it could also help support
 effective programs that lack the proper funding needed to expand their efforts.


       In pur research, we found some successful environmental education and training
programs.  Unfortunately, there is little communication  among the various sponsors of
these  programs.  There appears to be no  network through which these  sponsors can

       This idea of networking was also one of the top responses given to us in regard to
our our question:  How can the EPA best assist existing efforts in environmental education
for urban poor and minority populations?

RECOMMENDATION 4: The  EPA  could  create  a  networking  system
                          through  which    organizations   sponsoring
                          environmental programs can communicate.

       Because of the lack of a networking infrastructure, the sponsors of programs may
be unaware of relevant work done in a particular area.  As a result, a program may be


 implemented in one area that has already been unsuccessful somewhere else, wasting
 precious time and money.

       With an adequate network system, environmental organizations could be exposed to
 the best and most up-to-date environmental education and training methods, materials, and
 data bases.


       Through our extensive information search, we found a number of programs that in
 one way or another work with four year colleges or universities to improve environmental
 education for minorities.  It was pointed out to us during our phone interviewing that a
 larger concentration of urban poor and minorities may be found at the two year community
 college level.      ^

 RECOMMENDATION  5:  The  EPA could support or  participate  in  more
                          urban environmental education programs with
                          two year community colleges.

       Specifically targeted environmental  education  programs for the urban poor and
 minority populations may have better participation in a place where more minorities and
 urban poor students are located.


       When creating  our surveys, we tried to think of a few reasons why some
 environmental  education programs may be  attractive to minorities and  urban poor
 populations. A few of these reasons include cost, availability, and the language barrier.
 With this in mind, we formulated questions to gain information from programs concerning
 these topics. From a combination of survey information and phone interview information,
 we determined that written communication may be a problem between the EPA  and
 minority and urban poor communities.  It is sometimes difficult for urban poor  and
 minorities to understand the EPA's material, which is often used in urban environmental
 education programs. If the problem was not a foreign language barrier, it was a technical
 language barrier.

 RECOMMENDATION  6:  The  EPA  could advocate  and  produce materials
                          that  are easily understood by  all  minorities and
                          urban poor on all   levels  and in  all  necessary


       Our last recommendation came as a direct result from the opinions expressed by our
 phone interviewees.  By speaking with many of our contacts,  we discovered that the
 smaller environmental education groups feel out of touch with  the EPA. Some of the
 contacts feel intimidated and uneasy about working with the EPA.

 RECOMMENDATION  7:  The EPA could enhance its public relations.

      The EPA should let the public know that it is  there to help. Some suggestions
 would  be to produce a few public service announcements, make on-site visits with
environmental educators, and engage in more guest-lecturing to schools.  Not only could
 these suggestions  improve public relations,  but also they could serve to advocate
environmental protection.


   Target Cities

Target City
   Total       Percent          Environmental
Population  Black  Hispanic     Problem(s)




                     641,000    22.4    6.4
                    495,000    66.6    1.4
                  3,369,000     39.8    14.0
                    254,000     12.2    18.7
                    257,000     13.4    14.2
                               water pollution
                               air pollution
                               soil pollution
                               toxic waste
                               lead in water
                               pesticides '
                               vapor release
(United States Department of Commerce, 1989)

Organizational Survey

 Your Name:  	
 Name  of Organization:
 1.)  Do you offer materials for environmental education as part  of
 you usual efforts?
                                              Yes  No  (circle one)
 2.)  If  yes, what  sort of material(s)  do you offer?
                                         (you may circle  more than
                                         a.)  films
                                         b.)  videos
                                 ^       c.)  workbooks
                                         d.)  textbooks
                                         e.)  slide shows
                                         f.)  computer  software/
                                         g.)  other	
3.)  Are  the materials  you offer specifically  targeted at the
environmental concerns  of your  organization in the geographic  area
where  you  are  located?
                                              Yes  No  (circle one)
3a.)  If yes, ^hat are"your environmental concerns?
4.)   Are your materials targeted  at  specific  population  groups such  as
urban  populations  or  minorities?
     .._:	                         Yes  No (circle one)
4a.)   If yes,  what  population  groups?
5.)   If  you don't  offer educational  materials,  do your efforts  involve
the environmental education  of urban  poor/minority  communities?
                                              Yes  No (circle one)
6.)   Do you offer your environmental education materials in  a
language  other  than  English?
                                              Yes  No (circle one)

6a.)  If yes, what  other  language(s)?
7.)   Why does  your organization develop environmental  education
            a.)   for use in schools
            b.)   for  the  general public
            c.)   other 	
8.)  Do  you offer training  in the use of your material(s)?  (ie.  does a
member  of your organization  show  the  user of your  material(s)  how
to use  it(them))?
                                                Yes  No  (circle one)
8a.)   If  yes,  is  this  training voluntary?
                                                Yes  No  (circle one)
8b.)   If  no, is  the  training mandatory as a  requirement  for  using  the
                                                Yes  No  (circle one)
9.)  What sort of training  do you offer?
10.)   Is there  a charge for your training?
                                               Yes  No  (circle one)
11.)   Is the  training provided at the user's site (ie.   at  the school)?
                                               Yes  No  (circle one)
12.)   Is your  material updated  periodically?
                                               Yes  No  (circle one)
12a.)  If yes,  how often  is  your material  updated?

      After receiving your completed survey, we will be conducting
follow-up phone interviews in order to obtain more detailed information.
If you would like to participate please fill out your name and telephone
number on the following section of this survey.  Thank you.
Name	\	
Position in Organization
Addres s	
Telephone number (  )-_
Best time to contact you
Do you know other experts or possible contact people we should contact
who might complete this survey? (please list names, addresses, and phone
Do you know other organizations or institutions we should contact? (please
list names,  addresses, and phone numbers)

  School Survey

 School or School District  name
 1.)   Is  environmental  education currently part of  your  curriculum?
                                              Yes   No   (circle one)
                                              Not  sure
 2.)  Do you intend  to include  or continue to include  environmental
 education as part of your  curriculum  in  the  future?
                                              Yes   No   (circle one)
 2a.)  If  not, why?   (please explain)
3.)  Do your students  express  concern about their  urban
                                              Yes   No   (circle one)
3a.)   If so, what issues concern them?  (please explain)
4.)   What  type of materials(s) do you  use to aid in educating you
students  about  environmental  issues?
                                         (you  may  circle more than
         	                            a.) films
                                         b.)  videos
                                         c.)  workbooks
                                         d.)  textbooks
                                         e.) slide shows
                                         f.)  computer software/
                                         g.) other	.

 4a.)  which of (a-g) is used  most  frequently?   Why?  (please
4b.)  Out of the items  listed which  do you feel will  work the best for
your  students?  Why?  (It may be different from response in 4a.)
4c.)  Are you  familiar  with environmental education materials
available  from:                               (circle  one)
            Project Wild                      Yes  No
            Project Learning  Tree             Yes  No
            National  Wildlife Federation       Yes  No
            ERIC                              Yes  No
            EPEE                              Yes  No
            Water Pollution Control Federation Yes   No
            National  Geographic               Yes  No
            TVA                              Yes  No
            ECONET          v               Yes  No
            Environmental  Clearinghouses     Yes  No
            Universities'  Schools of Education  Yes  No
            Environmental  Studies            Yes  No
            Your  state departments of  health, environment, education
                                              Yes  No
4d.)  If yes, please circle  the names above  that yqu are most  familiar
  •  ,                                             't
5.)    Do  your students have access to personal computers?
                                              Yes  No  (circle one)
6.)   Is  the  material that you use  appropriately targeted  to  your
                                              Yes  No (circle one)
7.)   Is  this material  written at  an appropriate age level?
                                              Yes  No (circle one)

 8.)   Does this  material acknowledge  the ethnic differences among
 your  students?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
 9.)   Is this  material targeted to an urban  population?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
 10.)   Does this  material address  the  environmental  concerns  of your
 geographical  arga?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
 11.)   Do you find  the  appropriate material readily  available?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
 12.)   Is there any form of training offered/available  in the use of
 these  materials for those  administrating the  program?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
 12a.)  If  yes, is the training easily accessible?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
 12b.)  If  no,  would the program  work more effectively  with  some
 type  of training?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
                                               Not Sure
 13.)  How is the training provided?
                                         a.)   by trained  professionals
                                         b.)   by volunteers
                                         c.)  other	
14.)  How  effectively  is  environmental education integrated  into  your
total  curriculum?
not  integrated                                totally  integrated
15.)  Could you please  list  some of your  criteria for effectiveness?

 16.)   Do  you believe environmental  education  should  be integrated
 into existing  courses, or should it  be a separate course?   (please
 explain  your  answer)
 17.)  How  did  you find  out  about  the  materials available to aid  you in
 your environmental  education  curriculum?
18.)  Do you have a budget that  will allow you  to  purchase  materials
that are  necessary for environmental  education  programs?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
18a.)  Is there  a fee  for materials?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
19.)  Do you  find appropriate material readily available?
                                               Yes   No  (circle one)
20.)  How do you access environmental materials  (ie.   on loan from
the  library,  purchased,  provided   free from the  organization)?
20a.)  Please list contacts if possible and  describe the way you go
about  getting  material.

      After receiving your completed survey, we will be conducting
follow-up phone interviews in order to obtain more detailed information.
If you would like to participate please fill out your name and telephone
number on the following section of this survey. Thank you.
Name	i	
Position in school system
Telephone number  (   )-	
Best time to contact you _.
Do you know other experts or possible contact people we should contact
who might complete this survey? (please list names, addresses, and phone
Do you know other organizations or institutions we should contact? (please
list names,  addresses, and phone numbers)

   Contact List

 The following list of contacts are of those we interviewed over the
 telephone.  Although their information was not appropriate for our study, it
 may be of some use to the Environmental Protection Agency.  The contact
 names are listed in alphabetical order.

 Lisa Abbot
 Student Environmental Action Coalition
 Campus Y
 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
 CB#5115, rm. 102 YMCA Bldg.
 Chapel Hill, NC   27599-5115
 Howard Adams •
 The National Center for Graduate Education for Minorities

 American Council on Education
 Office of Minority Concerns
 (202) 939-9395

 Carl Anthony
 Earth Island  Institute              v
 (415) 547-1794

 David Baker
 National Wildlife Federation
 (202) 797-5472
 (716) 877-2004

 Dr. John Baker
 Agriculture and Natural Resources
 (413) 545-4800

 Rachel Baker
 San Francisco Conservation Corps.
 (415) 826-7800

 Clyde Belcourt
 (612) 872-7812

 Tom Benjamin
 FUND Consultants, Inc.
 (703) 335-1816

Dr. Bernard  Benson
University of Tennessee
(615) 755-4237

Dr. Richard Berne
Western Carolina University
Center for Environmental/Energy Education
(704) 227-7476

 Jack Bond
 City Manager, Durhant, NC
 (919) 560-0000

 Dr. Kofi Bota
 Clark Atlanta University
 (404) 880-8597

 Lester Brown
 World Watch Institute, Pres. CEO
 (202) 452-1999

 Miles Brown
 Department of Environmental Protection
 (617) 292-5500

 Steve Brown
 Council of State Governments
 (606) 231-1866

 Richard Brown
 Dir., Office  of Environment and Energy
 (202) 708-2894

 Bunyan Bryant
 University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources
 (313) 763-2470

 Pat Bryant
 Gulf Coast Tenants Leadership ^
 (504) 949-4919

 Care Butler,  Program director
 Opening Doors to the World
 The Fresno County Office of the Superintendent of Schools
 2314 Mariposa
 Fresno, CA  93721
 (209) 488-3337

 Cal. State Univ. at  Hay ward                       '
 (415) 881-3016
 (415) 881-3361

Dona Canales
 National Audubon Society
 (212) 832-3200 NY
 (202) 547-9009 DC

Dr. Zerle Carpenter
Natural Resources,  4H (Austin)
(409)  845-7967

            Bill Carter
            Ecology Action
            (512) 474-6247

            Center for Environmental Management
            (617) 381-3486

            Center for Third World Organizing
            (415) 654-9601

            Dr. Ben  Chavis
            United Church of Christ
            Commission for  Racial Injustice
            (212) 870-2077

            Marsha Chen
            (617) 426-4375

            Ed Chiosso
            County Office of Education
            (415) 363-5400

            Jack Clifford, Program Analyst
            Office of Water
            Washington, D.C.
            (202) 382-5684

            Tom Colwell
            New York Center for the Urban Environment

            Jeff Cooke
            CEIP Fund
            (617) 426-4375

            Doug Cooper
            Office of Administrator, EPA
            (202) 382-4727
           Dr. Anthpny C<
           Dean, Center for Environmental Management
           Tufts University
           Medford, MA

           Don Dahlston
           U Cal., Dept. of Nat. Resources
           (415) 642-4249

           Dianne Davis                                                                j
/          Natural Resources, 4H(Atlanta)
(          (404) 485-2831                                                              '(

            Desquesne University
            (916) 758-0470

            Herbert Dixon
            (615) 322-6178

            Cheryle Dobbins
            Historically Black Colleges/Universities and Minority Institutions
            (202) 907-0322

            Dr. Pat Doyle
            Middle Tennessee State University
            Jones Hall, Box  173
            Murfreesboro, TN  87132
            (615) 898-2069

            Education Commission of the States
            (202) 624-5838

            David Engleson,  Environmental Education Consultant
            Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
            Box 7841
            Madison,  WI  53707
            (608) 267-9266

            Environmental Lobby of Massachusetts
            (617) 742-2540

            Executive Office of Environmental"Affairs
            (617) 727-9800

            Dr. Kenneth Farrell
            Natural Resources, 4H(Sacramento)
            (415) 987-0060

            Kevin Flanagan
            National Center for Municipal
            Development, City of Boston                       \
            (202) 429-0174

            Ann Foskey, Outdoor Activity Center
            1442 Richland Rd.,  SW
            Atlanta, GA  30310
            (404) 752-5385

            Robin Freeman
            (415) 655-3637

 Dr. Earl Gardner
 University of North Alabama
 P. O. Box 5015, Pine St.
 Florence, AL  35632
 (205) 760-4228

 Dr. Linda Gibboney, Ph. D., Director
 Education Extension, UCLA
 (213) 825-4191

 Dr. Shelby Gibbons
 Entrepenurial Training in Urban Agriculture

 Ellie Goodwin
 Natural Resource Council SF
 (415) 777-0220

 Tim Gordon
 East Bay Regional Park District
 (415) 525-2233

 Shirley  Griffin
 Department of Education
 (508) 827-5907

 Michael Guirrero
 Southwest Organizing Project
 (505) 247-8832

 Herb Gunther
 Public Media Center
 (415) 434-1403

 Dr. Bill Gustafson, Ph. D.
 Continuing Education Specialist
 Department of Engineering, Science, and Math, Division of Science
 UCLA Extension/UCLA
 (213) 825-7093

 Dr. Cynthit Harris
 ATSDR (Minority Health Initiative)
 (404) 639-0600

 Dr. Maurice Hartley
 Rutgers University

Bill Harvey
Governors School on the Environment
 (919) 737-3590

 Chappell Hayes
 (415) 655-9832

 Joan Heidelberg
 NAEE (North American Association for Environmental Education)
 Troy, NY
 (513) 698-6493

 Dr. Robert Helgesen
 Natural Resources, 4H(Boston)
 (413) 545-2766

 Amahia Hicks
 Commencement 2000

 Lela Hill
 Camps, Inc.
 (415) 524-9280

 Don Hplums
 Council of Chief State School Offices
 (303) 866-6787

 Libby Hopkins
 US Fish and Wildlife
 (617) 965-5100 ext. 212

 Bob Howe

 Human Environment Center
 (202) 331-8387

 Garland Hunter
 Citizens for a Better Environment
 (612) 824-8637
Dr. Louis lozzi
Rutgers University
(201) 932-9465

Janet Jackson
Philadelphia Zoo
(215) 243-1130 ext. 245

Carol Johnson
Opportunities in Science, Inc.
P. O. Box 1176, 1503 Jefferson Ave., SW
Bcmidji, MN 56601

 Robert Johnson
 Environmental Performance,  TVA
 (615) 632-6599

 Roy King, Coordinator
 Environmental Education Outreach Programs
 (904) 487-7900

 Ken Komoski, Executive Director
 EPIE Institute, Water Mill, NY
 Environmental Products Information Exchange
 (576) 283-4922  ,
 Winona LaDuke
 Land Recovery Project
 (218) 573-3049
 (705) 658-4731

 Kirk Laflin
 New England Regional Wastewater Institute
 2 Fort Rd.
 S. Portland, ME  04106
 (207) 767-2539

 Mark Ledebetter
 American Council for Energy Efficient
 (202) 429-8873

 Charles Lee
 United Church of Christ
 Commission for Raciat Justice
 Bill Leland
 Harbinger Comm. Directory
 (415) 923-0900

 Deborah Lentin
 City University of New York
 (212) 650-7000

 Victor Lewis
 Contribvtiiif-Editor, Creation Magazine
 (415) 547-6723

 Jack Liebster
 California Coastal Commission
 (415) 543-8555 ext. 221

Gary Longfellow
 Marin County Office of Education

 Karen Marshall
 Center for the Environment
 (606) 231-1939

 Vicky Me Cullough
 Native Americans for a CLEAN ENVIRONMENT
 (918) 458-4322

 Norris McDonald
 Center of Environment, Commerce, and Energy
 (202) 543-3939

 James Me Elfish, Jr.
 Environmental Law Institute
 (202) 328-5150

 Tracey Me Leod
 Environmental Editor, Southern Reader
 Oxford, MS
 (601) 234-2569

 Alan Miller
 Univ. of Maryland
 (301) 454-0945

 Ty Minton
 Antioch New England Graduate School
 Roxbury St.
 Keene, NH  03431
 (603) 357-3122

 Jeff Mori
.Japanese Youth Center
 (415) 563-8052

 Mary Mullin
 American Lungs  Association (Houston)

 Deb bie Mvjels
 PenninsuTi Conservation Center
 (415) 494-9301

 Ted Nash
 Urban Redevelopment Corp.
 (202) 376-2671

 National 4H Council

 National Toxics Campaign
 (916) 446-3350

 Robert Nichols
 Schlitz Audubon Center
 (414) 352-2880

 Dennis Nishikawa, Director
 LEAP (Leadership Education for Asian Pacifies)
 200 North St.
 City Hall Rm. 370
 Los Angeles, CA  90012

 John O' Connor |
 Director,  National Toxics Campaign
 (617) 232-4014

 Bob Olsen
 Institute for Alternative Futures
 (703) 684-5880

 Allan O'Neal, Jr.
 Bear Creek Watershed Environmental Education Project
 P. O. Box 880, Waterloo Rd.
 Russellville,  AL  35653
 (205) 332-6200

 Peter O' Neil
 Department of Environmental Management

 Sonja Pena
 Center for Third World Activists
 (415) 654-9601

 Marsha Phillips
 Department of Conservation and Historic Resources. Division of Litter
 1215 Washington Bldg., Capitol Square
 Richmond, VA  23219
 (804) 786-8679

 Corky Potter
 Penn S me University
 (814) 863-2000

 Barbara Popolow
 Environmental Volunteers
 (415) 424-8035

April Pulley
National Wildlife
(202) 790-4205

Quality Education for Minorities Network
(202) 659-1818

 Mary Lou Rajchel
 Director and Chief Cabinet Aide
 Office of Cabinet Affairs
 Florida Department of Education
 Tallahasse,  FL

 Doug Ratlcdge
 Cedar Creek Learning Center
 111 Union St.
 Greenville,  TN  37743
 (615) 638-6100

 Renew America
 (202) 232-2252

 Dr. Charles Rhyne
 Jackson State University
 1400 John R. Lynch St.
 Jackson, MS  39217
 (601) 968-2595

 Jane Rogers
 San Francisco Foundations
 (415) 543-0223

 Paul Rothkrug
 Fund for the Rescue of the Environment

 Parker Elementary School
 (415) 863-1444

 Gary Sanjulian
 National Wildlife Federation HQ

 Maurice Sampson                                 .
 Urban Recycling Institute, Philadelphia             *
Rudolph Shafer
Western Regional Environmental Education Council
2820 Echo Way
Sacramento, CA  95821
(916) 971-1953

Dr. Joe Sharpe
Tennessee Tech. University
(615) 372-3459

 Dr. Carolie Sly
 San Francisco School of Education
 (415) 338-1170

 Pete Soto
 Supt., Indian Boarding Schools
 (602) 379-6741

 Debbie Stansel
 Administrator  Assistant, National Wildlife Federation
 (703) 790-4504
 Gerry Stover
 Environmental Consortium for Minority Outreach
 (202) 381-8387

 Dr. Erika Tallman
 NSU Center for Understanding Environments, Science and Technology
 Box 740
 Aberdeen, SD  57401
 (605) 622-2456

 Tom Taylor
 US Fish  and Game
 (703)  358-2156

 Nick Tedoruk
 Awareness Program
 (202)  857-5168

 Josephina Tinajero
 University of Texas, College of Education

 Marsha Trouten
 Fort Sunston, Environmental Sciences
 (415) 239-6065

 Eugene Tseng, Director
 Internatiojul Business Development
 American Ecology Corporation
 30423 Canwood St.
 Agoura Hills, CA 91303
 (818)991-7361 ext. 63105

 Cora Tucker
 Citizens for a Better America
 (804) 476-7757

Steve Ulsh
PA Fish Commission

Water Education Foundation
(916) 444-6240

Dr. Lynn M. Waishwell, Ph. D.
Associate Professor
Director, Health Education Program
Illinois State University, Department of Health Services
(309) 438-8329

West County Toxics Coalition
(415) 232-3427

Ron White
American Lung Association (Boston)
(212) 315-8700

Morris Wiener
Northern Illinois University
Taft Campus, Box 299
Oregon, IL  61061
(815) 732-2111

Susan William, EEP Coordinator
Highland Research and Education Center
1959 Highlander Way
New Market, TN  37820

Dennis Yockers
State of Wisconsin              ^
Bureau of Solid Waste Management
P. O. Box 7921
Madison, WI  53707
(608) 266-0870

Julian Zaragoza
Director of Programs, MESA(U Cal.)
(415) 642-5144