The  National Pesticide

Tribal  Program:
  Achieving Public Health and Environmental Protection
      in Indian Country and Alaska Native Villages
       United States
       Environmental Protection
Office of Pesticide Programs (7506P)
Washington, DC 20460

October 2009


Message from Assistant Administrator	1
Tribal Facts and Figures	2
Introduction	3
Means to Ensure Protection in Indian Country:
 1 :Effective Partnerships	4
 2 Working  Efficiently	5
 3 Targeted Risk Assessment and Risk Management	6
 4 Protective Frontline Implementation	7
 Special Section:  Representative Tribal Pesticide
 Protection Activities	8
 5 Policy Development and Interpretation	11
 6 Program Performance Accountability	12
 7 Next steps in Indian country	12
Maps of Indian Reservations	13
Map of EPA Regional Offices and Pie Charts	14
EPA Headquarters Pesticide Tribal Program Offices	15
EPA Regional Pesticide Tribal Program Offices	15
Sources for Facts and Figures	16
  Front cover photos: First row, left to right:  Applicators of Navajo Agricultural Products Industry wear
  proper protective equipment to treat for rodent control; EPA Staff and Hutterite farmer conducting
  Worker Protection Standard Inspection on  Blackfeet Reservation; EPA Athens Lab employee on Poarch
  Band of Creek Indians reservation in Alabama demonstrating to two tribal members how to test soil for
  pesticides residues. Second row, left to right Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes Pesticide Circuit
  Rider conducts a worker protection safety inspection at tribal greenhouse; Confederated Salish &
  Kootenai tribes Pesticide Circuit Rider presentation on Circuit Riders; Colorado River Indian Tribe
  members disposing of pesticides. Third row, left to right: EPA employee conducting Integrated Pest
  Management training to tribal pesticide managers; Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribe and USGS
  conducting surface water sampling; Santee Sioux Nation Environmental Coordinator, Niobrara, NB.

A Message from Steve Owens, EPA Assistant
Administrator for Prevention, Pesticides and
Toxic Substances
Dear Readers:

EPA has a long history of supporting tribal pesticide programs.  EPA
Administrator, Lisa Jackson reaffirmed this agency's 1984 Indian Policy
on July 22, 2009. That policy put in place the framework and principles
by which the EPA's relationship with tribes and our support for tribal
programs are realized. Through the Policy, EPA recognizes the right of
tribes as sovereign governments to self-determination and acknowledges
the federal government's trust responsibility to tribes.  EPA works with
tribes on a government-to-government basis to protect the land, air and
water in Indian country.

This brochure describes the priorities, challenges and successes of the
Tribes, EPA, and stakeholders in the broad and complex arena of the
National Pesticide Tribal Program.  It describes how EPA and  tribes work
together as partners to achieve public health and environmental
protection in Indian Country.  Case studies of successful tribal pesticide
programs are provided, and some  key needs and program priorities are

I am extremely honored to have been chosen by President Obama to  be
the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and
Toxic Substances.  From my experience as the former director of the
Arizona  Department of Environmental Quality, I had the opportunity to
work with tribal governments  on a daily basis, and I understand first-
hand the challenges tribes face.  I  am strongly committed to continuing
EPA's support for tribal pesticide programs. The pesticide issues that
affect tribes today will require 21st century solutions and approaches.
Together we must improve upon our past efforts and focus our program
goals on the overriding goal of protecting human health and  the
environment in Indian Country.  To achieve this we must make the most
efficient use of the resources available.  We will continue to work closely
with our tribal partners to achieve  better protection in Indian Country
and ensure the safety of all people.

Thank you for taking the time to read about the National Pesticide Tribal
Program and the value of EPA and  tribes working together.
Steve Owens

     Tribal Facts and Figures
     General Statistics

     2.5 million American Indians and Alaska Natives (2000 Census).

     564 Federally recognized tribes (Bureau of Indian Affairs).

     66 million acres of trust land in Indian country.

     Tribal Poverty rate is about 23°/o, compared to the national average of 12.5%.
     Agricultural Statistics

     There are a total of 79,703 American Indian or Alaska Native operators on 61,472
     farms and ranches across the United States.
     American Indian farm operators are more likely than their counterparts nationwide to
     report farming as their primary occupation, to derive a larger portion of their overall
     income from farming, and to own all of the land that they operate, rather than renting
     or leasing land. Farmworkers and their families have a  high potential for exposure to

     The states with the highest percentage of American Indian principal operators are
     Arizona (53.9 percent), New Mexico (21.5 percent), Nevada (12.5 percent),
                             Number of Farms with American Indian
                                   or Alaska Native Operators
                   ~ctal Courses A.:h .American ndar
               ^      or Alaska Native Operators

   or no data
  6- 5C
Q51 - 1GQ
  101 -250
  251 -500
  501 oi moie
Page 2

                            Achieving  Public Health  and  Environmental  Protection  in
                                                 Indian  Country and Alaska Native Villages
  Pesticides are designed to
    harm insects, weeds,
 disease-causing organisms
 and other pests and, if not
  used properly, they have
    the potential to harm
      people and the
 environment. EPA's Office
  of Pesticide Programs is
  responsible for ensuring
   that pesticides will not
    cause unreasonable
  adverse effects on human
 health or the environment.
  EPA's Indian Policy

    "In carrying out our
  responsibilities on Indian
     reservations, the
  fundamental objective of
    the Environmental
   Protection Agency is to
  protect human health and
   the environment. The
 keynote of this effort will be
      to give special
   consideration to Tribal
  interest in making Agency
  policy, and to [e]nsure the
 close involvement of Tribal
  Governments in making
  decisions and managing
  environmental  programs
 affecting reservation lands."
 Environmental Justice is
  the fair treatment and
meaningful involvement of
 all people regardless of
race, color, national origin,
or income with respect to
    the development,
   implementation, and
    enforcement of
   environmental laws,
 regulations, and  policies.
 EPA has this goal for all
communities and persons
   across this Nation,
     including tribal
In the United States, there are 564 federally recognized Indian tribes, with a population
of 2.5 million American Indians and Alaska Natives; and there are approximately 66
million acres of trust land. Cultural practices, subsistence diets, location, and economic
status can create special concerns from pesticide exposure for Native Americans living
in Indian country. Unique jurisdictional issues and resource needs can complicate the
ability to address pesticide risk issues and
work toward the goal of protecting human
health and the environment in Indian

The federal government has a special
relationship with federally recognized
tribes, which retain important aspects of
sovereignty over their members and
territories. Federal policy in the United
States recognizes this sovereignty and
stresses government-to-government
relations between the United States and
tribal  governments.
     National Pesticide Tribal
     Program Strategic Goals
The primary goal of the National
Pesticide Tribal Program is to help
protect human health and the
environment by ensuring pesticides and
alternatives are available in Indian
country and can be  used according to
label directions without causing
unreasonable risks.  An additional goal
is to consider the unique  exposures and
cultural practices that pertain to tribes.
The Program uses a mix of tools,
activities, and  programs to protect tribal
members from potential pesticide risks:
•   Risk assessment and  risk
    management through pesticide
•   Frontline program implementation
    (e.g., grants, guidance, training,
    and technical assistance)
•   Policy development and
•   Advocacy and liaison
•   Consultation
•   Program performance accountability
Nature of Unique Challenges
Indian country is defined by statute at 18
U.S.C. and includes all land within
reservation boundaries, dependent Indian
communities, and allotments. Under the
statutory definition, Indian country
includes lands held in trust for tribes even
if those lands have not been  formally
designated as reservations.  Many tribes
are in remote locations.  According to
recent reports by the U.S. Census Bureau
and U.S. Indian Health Service:
•   43% of the Indian population resides
    in rural areas, with greater potential
    for exposure to agricultural
    pesticides—compared to  21% of the U.S. population as a whole.
•   A number of jurisdictional issues affect tribes, i.e., uniqueness of treaties, the
    patchwork of tribal and non-tribal land  ownership within Indian country, tribal law,
    and court decisions can make managing and resolving environmental issues more
•   Many tribes have limited  staff, funding, and equipment to devote to pesticide-
    related activities, and many tribes face difficulties hiring and retaining qualified
•   The general population of Indian country has larger families, less health insurance,
    and a  poverty level nearly twice that of the rest of the U.S.  population.
•   Because of varying practices among tribes, accurate data on tribal pesticide use are
    difficult to obtain, which makes measuring program progress and successes

   The Value of EPA and  Tribes Working  Together  as  Partners
Statutory Mandate
The National Pesticide Tribal
Program is undertaken
consistent with the federal
government's trust
responsibility to federally
recognized tribes, including
consultation with tribes on
actions affecting Indian
country, government-to-
government relationship with
tribes, and EPA's authorizing
statutes and implementing
regulations and policies.

    The Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
(FIFRA) addresses the sale,
distribution, use, and labeling
of pesticides, as well as the
certification and training of
pesticide applicators, among
other things.  EPA generally is
the  primary enforcement
authority for pesticide use
violations in Indian country.
But  several tribes have
cooperative agreements with
EPA to help enforce FIFRA.

    Under FIFRA section 23,
EPA may enter into cooperative
agreements with tribes. These
agreements may include
provisions for tribes to assist
EPA in ensuring compliance
with FIFRA by obtaining federal
inspector credentials,
conducting inspections, and
recommending enforcement
actions to EPA. Additionally,
some tribes have their own
inspection and enforcement
authorities to ensure
compliance with their own
pesticide codes and ordinances.
                                Means to  Ensure  Protection  in  Indian Country:
1.  Effective Partnerships
To meet program challenges and succeed in achieving health and environmental
protection goals, a number of organizations collectively work with tribes.  EPA
works with tribal governments to implement pesticide programs under the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), and provides tribes
expertise, knowledge, and opportunities for partnership when pesticide issues
affect Indian country.  EPA provides funding to some tribes to offer pesticide
education, technical assistance,  and compliance and enforcement, and to develop
and implement pesticide programs under tribal law.  Each EPA Regional Office
coordinates tribal programs within its respective region, except for Region 3,
which does not currently contain federally-recognized tribes.
The Office of Pesticide  Programs' (OPP) efforts related to tribes and pesticides are
carried out in conjunction with EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance
Assurance (OECA), Office of Science Coordination  and Policy, Office of General
Counsel, American Indian Environmental Office, EPA Regional Offices, and other
federal agencies. EPA  also works extensively  with the Tribal Pesticide Program
Council (TPPC),  an organization  funded by OPP and representing almost 40
tribes, as our primary forum  for maintaining effective tribal  partnerships on a
national level.
   The Tribal Pesticide Program Council (TPPC) is a forum where tribal pesticide anc
   environmental officials can raise pesticide program implementation issues to EPA, offe
   input on national pesticide policy that affects tribes, offers a network for tribal
   pesticide officials to share information, and promote and enhance tribal pesticide
   program development. The expected outcomes of working with the TPPC include:

       Increased partnerships between EPA and tribes involved in various aspects of
       pesticide regulatory programs;

       Improved understanding for EPA on tribal pesticide concerns to more effectively
       protect human health and the environment in Indian country and Alaska Native
       Villages; and
       Enhanced capabilities of tribal participants through increased knowledge of how
       to implement quality pesticide programs, leading to better protection of human
       health and the
       environment in
       Indian country and                                               f +..•
       Alaska Native                              *•     »   •*•
                                      Photo: OPP and TPPC
                                         at annual meeting
   Page 4

  The Coeur d'Alene

EPA Region 10 provides funding
through a Cooperative
Agreement to the Coeur
d'Alene Tribe located in
northern Idaho to conduct
pesticide program activities on
behalf of EPA within that
reservation, as well as for five
other participating tribes in
northern Idaho (Kootenai, Nez
Perce) and eastern Washington
(Colville, Spokane, and
Kalispel). Eric Gjevre, who  has
served in the Coeur d'Alene
Circuit-Rider position for over
10 years, conducts inspections
to assure that pesticides are
sold and used properly within
the six reservations.  Eric also
provides technical assistance,
education and training on the
legal and safe use of pesticides.

Eric works closely with Idaho
and Washington  State pesticide
agencies on cross-jurisdictional
issues and to share training

This Circuit Rider program
benefits participating tribes by
providing low cost or no cost
access to a trained pesticide
specialist who can provide
pesticide education and
compliance monitoring
activities within their
Reservations. The program
also benefits EPA by providing
cost-effective pesticide
program coverage  over a large
geographic area  of Indian
                             Achieving Public  Health  and  Environmental  Protection in
                                                  Indian Country and Alaska Native Villages
2. Working Efficiently
To make the most efficient use of limited resources, the National Tribal Pesticide
Program pursues policies and approaches that can address the most serious
pesticide concerns and benefit the most tribes.  For example, OPP distributes
funds to the EPA Regional Offices to support tribal pesticide programs using a
needs-based formula that accounts for the number of federally recognized tribes,
and the total population and acreage in Indian country in each region.  Tribes
and EPA are preparing Pesticide Use Assessments to help identify pesticide-
related concerns in Indian country and prioritize our efforts. In addition, we are
developing training and circuit rider programs that can benefit multiple tribes,
where appropriate.  Circuit riders maximize our  resources because one tribal
pesticide expert can offer several tribes pesticide technical assistance, education,
training, and in some cases, assistance with assuring compliance with pesticide
laws and regulations. This initiative has allowed significant increases in program
coverage — an  increase in the number of tribes, population, and acreage
covered — meaning information on how to safely use pesticide products travels
farther and faster (see chart below).  To date, eight tribal circuit riders have
been established, providing program coverage for 30 tribes and more than
330,000 people on  more than 12.8 million acres.
Between 2007 and  2009, EPA funded four new pesticide tribal circuit riders,
covering an additional 13 tribes, 283,000 people and approximately 7.9 million
acres in Indian country.
              Expanded Tribal Coverage by
         Promoting Multi-Tribal Circuit Riders
                                       1999    2004    2005   2007   2008    2009
                        Number of Tribes • Millions of Acres Covered  -Ten-Thousands of Population Covered

The Value of EPA  and Tribes Working Together as Partners
    Tribal Exposure to

   Agricultural pesticide use.

   Pesticide spray drift for

   workers and for those living
   close to agricultural fields.

   Special exposure scenarios,

   e.g., subsistence diet and
   exposure to pesticide-
   treated cultural artifacts.
   Pesticide use in schools and
   community buildings.

   Pesticides in water

   Pesticides used in homes to
   control pests.

   Illegal disposal of old or
   unused pesticides.
3. Targeted  Risk Assessment and Risk Management

Tribal members may be subject to different pesticide risks than other Americans
because of unique tribal lifestyles and exposure patterns.  OPP works to consider
and address these factors when registering pesticides:

•   EPA has considered tribes and other subpopulations in risk assessments,
    including consideration of factors such as atypical pesticide  use patterns,
    differences in diets (e.g., subsistence  diets, traditional foods, and other
    differences in food consumption), and bioaccumulation (especially for
    subsistence fishermen and breast milk).

•   EPA's risk assessment for the pesticide lindane specifically addressed
    concerns of Arctic tribal members.  EPA also worked with the Indian Health
    Service to phase out the use of lindane in shampoo to control lice.
•   Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) can adversely impact on
    tribal traditional lifeways, particularly  in Alaska. These products are generally
    no longer used in the United States. However, POPs migrating through the
    air from other countries are deposited in the Arctic, contaminating the food
    chain. OPP's efforts to eliminate  lindane use in the  United States are expected
    to reduce the production of lindane in other countries, which should result  in
    reduced deposits in the Arctic.
•   To ensure better science, EPA is developing exposure assessment tools, such
    as the Tribal LifeLine software. This software is intended to provide
    databases and models that allow risk assessors to consider  the traditional
    diets and activities of tribes. The Tribal LifeLine Project will provide
    regulators with the tools to  better characterize exposure and risk for focused
    populations and will build capacity within the Native American communities
    for informed decision-making about health and environmental concerns.
    Although the impetus for the project has been better science for tribal
    populations, the software is valuable for use with any focused population
    (e.g., farm workers, sports fishers, and coastal communities with high fish
Page 6

                             Achieving Public  Health  and  Environmental Protection  in
                                                  Indian Country and  Alaska  Native Villages
Personal protective equipment is
demonstrated at Pesticide Inspector
Residential Training (PIRT).
Pesticide Inspection on the Colorado
River Indian Tribe (CRIT) reservation.
4.  Protective  Frontline Implementation
Action at the point of pesticide use is critical to whether the Pesticide  Program is
successful at translating the intended risk mitigation of our regulatory mandates,
licensing actions, and policies into real world protection of human health and the
environment in Indian country.  Examples of these activities include:

•   Focused Assistance.  EPA regions work with tribes to build capacity to
    implement tribal pesticide programs. Activities include pesticide training, risk
    communication, and technical assistance.  Improved tribal understanding of
    program requirements, operational processes, recent actions, and emerging
    issues allows tribes to be more effective in their protection activities.

•   Funding helps support local programs. EPA funds cooperative
    agreements and grants with tribes for pesticide program implementation to
    enable tribes to support effective pesticide risk management. This funding is
    used for a variety of tribal activities, including training, outreach, and
    education, and encouraging integrated pest management. For example, EPA
    Region 2 recently entered into a Performance Partnership Agreement (PPG)
    with the St.  Regis Mohawk Tribe and provided funding to evaluate potential
    pesticide concerns as well as to establish  a pesticide outreach and education
    program unique to the Mohawk community's culture and values.  EPA also
    awards cooperative agreement grant funding to support tribal pesticide
    enforcement activities to address pesticide use in Indian country.  The
    purpose of a tribal pesticide enforcement program is to conduct compliance
    and enforcement activities under FIFRA or to ensure compliance with tribal
    pesticide codes.

•   Direct Implementation.  EPA generally has pesticide program
    implementation and enforcement responsibility and seeks tribal partnership to
    support that work.

•   Enforcement and compliance training provides tribes with knowledge
    and experience to implement effective pesticide enforcement and
    compliance programs in Indian country. OECA provides  Pesticide
    Inspector Residential Training (PIRT) courses annually for state and tribal
    inspectors.  All PIRT courses include training to improve basic inspection
    skills, mock inspections and worker safety. In 2008, OECA developed a
    tribal-specific PIRT course in Structural Pest Control.  Participants were tribal
    inspectors who conduct pesticide use inspections and investigations to assure
    that pesticides are sold, distributed, and used in accordance  with federal and
    tribal pesticide laws.  This course provided information about conducting use
    inspections and investigations for pesticides used in structures such as
    schools and other buildings. OECA also offers the Tribal Compliance
    Assistance Center at  This is a Web-
    based tool that serves as resource for tribes to access comprehensive, easy-
    to-understand compliance information targeted specifically for environmental
    issues in Indian country.
                                  Continued on page 10...


  It's essential that all tribal pesticide programs, especially a
    one-man-show like many tribes operate, including Salt
   River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC), reach
       out to one another and outside agencies to pool
  resources, and work with the allocated grant funds.  All of
     these tribal programs, SRPMIC included, are at some
  intermediate growth stage and look outside to the horizon
     for opportunities to learn from others facilitating their
               growth to successful maturity.

     - Mark Aaron,  Indian Community Senior Environmental
       Specialist, Pesticides and Hazardous Substances, Salt
                River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, AZ
    Environmental  Protection  and Natural Resources Division

  The regulation and use of pesticide products are complex
  programs. Sharing  knowledge and collaborative learning
  opportunities can accelerate development of program
  expertise, thereby enhancing protection.  SRPMIC has
  aggressively pursued such opportunities.

  Mark Aaron has established a network with the two
  Arizona agencies that regulate pesticides (Arizona
  Department of Agriculture and the Office of Pest
  Management), the Navajo Nation, Gila River Indian
  Community (GRIC), and the Colorado River Indian Tribes
  (CRIT). The Arizona Department of Agriculture and the
  Office of Pest Management have scheduled special training
  sessions for  tribal inspectors at the SRPMIC's requests.
  Mark has been allowed to shadow inspectors who
  coordinate personnel within their agencies to answer
  questions regarding verification of state licensure, product
  registration verification, and compliance and enforcement
  actions they have taken in their jurisdiction, and to
  provide forms, boilerplate language, and training manuals.

  Mark has also  attended multi-agency inspections with
  GRIC coordinated by EPA as a training exercise at
  producer establishments, and joined the Navajo Nation on
  State  of Arizona follow-up inspections, and WPS and
  maintenance yard inspections. He  has shadowed CRIT on
  an inspection and attended  meetings with agricultural
  applicators to  provide Worker Protection  Standard
  compliance awareness. CRIT has also provided Mark with
  an in-depth look at how it manages its database of 1080-
  Notice of Intent Pesticide Applications, which allows CRIT
  to plan an effective schedule of daily inspections before
  arriving on site.
Collaborative protection efforts are enhanced by effective
resource support to advance critical projects.  For
example, with federal assistance grants, the Navajo
Nation EPA Pesticide Enforcement Program (NNEPA)
conducts compliance inspection, monitoring, and
investigations on Navajo Nation, and has achieved some
significant accomplishments. Inspections have resulted in
multiple instances of violations that were corrected,

•   Application of pesticides at a residential construction
    site without proper personal protective equipment.

•   Herbicide treatments at several electrical substations
    without proper  personal protective equipment, and
    reentry into treated areas before specified time.

•   Spot treatment of areas in an occupied office building
    that were prohibited by the label.

•   Illegal disposal  of a pesticide.

•   Herbicide application at oil wells, around tank
    batteries, with improper application equipment.

EPA Region 9 has assisted the Navajo EPA  Pesticide
Program in funding  a position for an individual to work
within the Navajo EPA Pesticide Program to:

 •   Improve the USEPA/NNEPA Program inspection

 •   Provide their inspectors with the knowledge  and skills
     needed to successfully meet program goals and
     enrich the dialogue between the USEPA and NNEPA,

 •   Assist the NNEPA in its development of vital pesticide
     enforcement documents.
                                                               Colorado River
                                                               Indian Tribes
                                                               (CRIT) photo of
                                                               applicator wearing
                                                               proper personal
                                                               equipment during


Protection through education and timely information
exchange are important tools to help growers minimize
pesticide risks.  The Colorado River Indian Tribes (CRIT)
pesticide program conducts a comprehensive compliance
assistance and outreach program for all the agri-business
in the community.

One tool CRIT provides to growers is a check list
identifying the components necessary to be compliant
with tribal and federal codes and regulations and to
perform a self-evaluation of its current operations.  At a
pre-determined date, pesticide inspectors review the self-
assessment check list with the  participant, point out areas
of concern, and answer any questions by the participant.
Both parties then agree  on the amount of time necessary
to address targeted areas for improvement.
With cooperation from farmers, pesticide dealers,
applicators, inspectors, pesticide control advisors (PCAs),
and local agri-businesses, CRIT has developed a Pesticide
Tracking System to provide inspectors with the necessary
information needed to proactively deal with pesticide
issues.  The system allows CRIT to identify and track
pesticide aerial, chemigation, and ground applications in
every single agricultural field of the 85,000 acres that are
currently under production.

CRIT is also able to track tribal and state pesticide
certifications and permit expiration dates of dealers, PCAs,
growers, pesticide handlers, and applicators. Information
in the tracking system is also portable by way of laptop
computers in vehicles that inspectors carry in  the field.
This allows pesticide staff to observe an application in
progress and identify the field and the grower in real time.
They can then look at the Pesticide Tracking System, and
verify if a form 1080, Notice of Intent, has been submitted
for  that application.

 Worker Protection
 Safety Training
 conducted at
 Colorado River
 Indian Tribes (CRIT)
In 2002, EPA provided a grant to support the development
of an integrated pest management (IPM) pilot project in
the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community schools.
The funds provided in that grant were used by the tribe to
perform an IPM assessment to identify the extent of the
pest issues in their community schools and to identify
strategies for ecologically sound pest management
approaches, such as:

    •   Improved hygiene standards.

    •   Exclusion methods.

    •   Habitat manipulation.

    •   Biological control  species, such as ladybugs,
        mantids, geckos,  and housecats.

    •   Selection of target specific control products that
        have low toxicity and environmental impact, such
        as insect growth regulators

    •   Non-chemical pest control products, such as glue
        boards and ultraviolet lights.

The goals of this pilot were a 90% reduction in chemical
pesticide usage in the piloted  schools, an 85% reduction
in pests, a better understanding of IPM, the ability to
further implement an IPM program in tribal schools, and
the knowledge to implement IPM methods in tribal homes
within the Salt River Pima-Maricopa  Indian Community.
EPA Region 8
staff conducting
IPM training for
tribal inspectors
at local school.
Proper food
storage in
school's kitchen
is discussed.

     The  Value of EPA  and Tribes Working  Together as Partners
Colorado River Indian Tribe (CRIT)
shreds pesticide containers for
recycling at the Woods Crop Dusting
Protective Frontline Implementation continued...

•   Training improves the effectiveness and efficiency of tribal programs
    and the TPPC.  In the spring of 2009, OPP offered a course targeted
    specifically to tribal  environmental and pesticide program managers and TPPC
    members through the Pesticide Regulatory Education Program (PREP). The
    goal of this course was to provide training in leadership, management, and
    program skills that could benefit both the individual tribal programs and the
    TPPC organization as a whole.

•   Clear and effective guidance leads to improved environmental
    protection.  OPP developed guidance on meeting pesticide container and
    containment requirements in Indian country. Information like this can be
    useful for programs such as the pesticide container recycling program
    implemented by the Colorado River Indian Tribe (CRIT), which provided a
    central location for farmers to dispose of their used pesticide containers free
    of charge. Currently, with the cooperation of applicators and farmers, a total
    of 24 tons of plastic pesticide containers  have been removed from the
    reservation for recycling, avoiding the need to burn or landfill these
    containers. This program provides  a way to avoid air, water, and soil
USGS Water Sampling:  EPA Region
8, USGS, and Confederated Salish &
Kootenai Tribes(CSKT) Personnel.
                                    Good data are essential for sound decision-making. EPA Region 9 and
                                    the Albuquerque District of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly funded a
                                    Groundwater Vulnerability and Aquifer Sensitivity Study with the Navajo
                                    Nation to help obtain information on the nature and severity of potential
                                    water quality concerns due to pesticide use. This study, which was
                                    conducted  as part of the Navajo Nation's Pesticide and Groundwater
                                    Management Plan, included information on geology, precipitation, soil
                                    properties, slope of the land  surface, and the location of stream  courses.
                                    This information is useful to help identify potential for pesticide contamination
                                    and areas to focus on  remediation.
                  Confederated Salish & Kootenai Tribes:
                         Water Quality Monitoring

      Within the reservation boundary of the Confederated Salish &
      Kootenai Tribes (CSKT), there are approximately 180,000 acres of
      rivers, lakes, streams, and wetlands. Pesticide applications to nearby
      orchards and farms may impact water quality through runoff and
      agricultural return flows. In addition, non-native fish and vegetation
      are often controlled through direct pesticide applications to water.
      EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey awarded a  grant to CSKT to begin
      baseline water quality monitoring. The data generated from these
      types of baseline monitoring projects can direct a tribe to areas that
      may  be impacting water quality and help to focus outreach and
      inspection activities within the areas of greatest concern.
     Page 10

                           Achieving Public  Health and Environmental  Protection in
                                                Indian  Country and Alaska Native Villages
Native Americans weaving plants
to make baskets.
  Policy Development and
 in Navajo Indian Country
The implementation of a
Federal Plan for the
Certification of Restricted Use
Pesticide Applicators in
Navajo Indian country
provides  federal certification
allowing individuals
possessing a valid
certification with the states of
Arizona and Utah to legally
apply restricted use pesticides
within the exterior  boundaries
of the Navajo Nation,
including the satellite

A Memorandum of
Understanding has  been
established between USEPA
Region 9, Navajo Nation,
Arizona State Department of
Agriculture, Arizona Office of
Pest Management,  and the
Utah State Department of
Agriculture Pesticide Program.

More information can be
found at
oppfead I/safety/
                                   Special Projects. The Agency also welcomes opportunities to collaborate
                                   with tribal organizations.  OPP worked with the California Basketweavers
                                   Association to develop a brochure informing tribal basketweavers about
                                   potential exposure to pesticides while collecting native plants and weaving
5. Policy Development and Interpretation
EPA has developed several policies in recent years to help assure equal access to
pesticide tools for growers in Indian country and equal protection of human
health and the environment. We rely on the TPPC to help identify where policies
or programs need to be developed to address pesticide issues in Indian country.
EPA gives special consideration to tribal interests in making Agency policy and
honors tribal sovereignty through government-to-government consultation with
federally recognized tribes on issues that may affect tribes and Indian country.
Two recent examples are:
    Use of Pesticides for Emergency Use and Special Local Needs. FIFRA is
    silent on whether the benefits of emergency (FIFRA sec. 18) or special local
    need (FIFRA sec. 24(c)) pesticide products are available to tribes and farmers
    in Indian country.  With considerable help and input from the TPPC, EPA
    instituted a three-year, nationwide pilot program ensuring that, under certain
    conditions, pesticide users in Indian country have the same access to
    emergency and special local need pesticide products that are available
    outside of Indian country. Tribes may exercise their sovereignty  by electing
    not to  participate in the pilot program.  Visit

    Certification and  Training of Pesticide Applicators. In most cases,
    restricted use pesticides (RUPs) are not available for use in  Indian country
    because of the lack of approved tribal certification plans/programs.  EPA is
    developing options to make RUP certification available in Indian country
    nationwide.  This will help ensure growers in Indian country have access to
    the same pest control tools available outside Indian country, and that
    applicators are properly trained to use these hazardous pesticide  products

 The Value  of EPA  and Tribes  Working Together as Partners
 Attention to structural pest
 control is an important effort
where there are large housing
 complexes in Indian Country
 that are treated on a regular
6. Program Performance Accountability
Government agencies must ensure the maximum return on our investment of
public funds, focus on the greatest concerns, work toward achieving strategic
goals, and monitor our performance.  For these reasons, performance
requirements and accountability are built into tribal cooperative agreements.

OPP measures our progress in Indian country by tracking increases in the
Pesticide Tribal Program coverage for the number of acres, tribes,  and people
living in Indian country. We are also investigating other ways to measure
environmental gains in Indian country. For example, we believe that Pesticide
Use Assessments in Indian country that help identify tribal needs and set
priorities may also be useful in measuring the performance of the Program.
These assessments could also replace the needs-based formula currently used to
determine resource allocations.  Finally, multiple activities targeted at reducing
pesticide risk in areas of high concern could be developed based on the outcome
of the assessments.
                                 7. Next steps in Indian country
                                 Tribes, EPA, and other stakeholders face many challenges because the National
                                 Pesticide Tribal Program is broad and complex. We've made good progress in
                                 addressing some key needs and program priorities with the resources available.

                                 Nonetheless, there still remains work to be done. For example, out of the 562
                                 federally recognized tribes, only about 30 have pesticide cooperative agreements
                                 with EPA. We need to continue effective planning and efficient program
                                 management to target resources and attention to the highest needs. Working
                                 with tribal partners, we can achieve better protection and meet the challenges of
                                 the 21st century.
                                                              Visit EPA's Tribal Portal at

                                                              Here you can access all EPA related tribal information.
 Page 12

                      Achieving Public Health and Environmental Protection in
                                        Indian Country and  Alaska Native Villages
               Indian Reservations in the Continental United States
Map of Indian Reservations in the
Continental United States
Map of Indian Reservations in Alaska
This map shows the location of Federal
Indian Reservations in the continental
United States, with numbers indicating
the locations. The key to the reservation
names is available at http://

Map of Indian Reservations in

This map shows the reservations in Alaska
and the green dots represent the
federally recognized tribes and Native

The  Value of EPA and Tribes Working  Together as Partners
      AK         M
   '^B   ^^^^h  iH
                                               6            MS  AL  GA
    Tribal Population in Each EPA Region
        Region 1
                  Region 2
  Region 10
   Region 9
Region 4
                                 Region 5
                                   Region 6
                                   Region 7
 ^Region 8
                             Region 10
                                 Tribal Land in Each EPA Region
Region 2  Region 4
         °-4"/°_Region 5
                    Region 6
                                                     Region 9
                                                             Region 7
                   Region 8
  Page 14

        Achieving Public Health and  Environmental Protection in
                        Indian Country and Alaska Native Villages
EPA Headquarters Pesticide Tribal  Program Offices

•  Office of Pesticide Programs (7506P), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Washington, DC

•  Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxic Substances (7101M) 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue
   NW Washington, DC  20460

•  Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance(2225A), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue
   NW Washington, DC  20460
   EPA Regional Pesticide Tribal Program Offices
Region 1
(ME, VT, NH,
MA, RI, CT,)
Region 3
(DC, DE, MD,
Region 5
(IL, IN, MN,
Region 7
(KS, IA, MO,
Region 9
(AZ, CA, HI,
U.S. EPA Region 1
1 Congress Street,
Suite 1100
Mail Code SEP
Boston, MA 02114
Currently no federally
recognized tribes are in
Region 3
U.S. EPA Region 5
77 West Jackson Blvd
Mail Code LC-8J
Chicago, IL 60604
U.S. EPA Region 7
901 North Fifth Street
Kansas City, KS 66101
U.S. EPA Region 9
75 Hawthorne Street
Mail Code CED-5
San Francisco, CA
Region 2
(NY, NJ, VI,
Region 4
(AL, FL, KY,
Region 6
(AR, LA, NM,
Region 8
(CO, MT,
Region 10
(AK, ID, OR,
U.S. EPA Region 2
Raritan Depot
2890 Woodbridge Avenue
Mail Code 500MS500
Edison, NJ 08837
U.S. EPA Region 4
61 Forsyth Street, S.W.
Atlanta, GA 30303
U.S. EPA Region 6
1445 Ross Avenue,
Suite 1200
Mail Code 6PDP
Dallas, TX 75202
U.S. EPA Region 8
1595 Wynkoop St.
Mail Code 8P-P3T
Denver, CO 80202
U.S. EPA Region 10
1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite 900
Mail Code OCE-084
Seattle, WA 98101

The  Value  of EPA and  Tribes Working Together as Partners
     Sources for Facts and  Figures
        Agricultural Statistics and Map: 2007 Census of Agriculture: American Indian
        Map of Indian Reservations in the Continental United States: http://
        Map of Alaska Native Villages: Bureau of Indian Affairs. September, 2002
        Indian Lands and Native Entities in the United States (IND3_2002)
        Number of federally recognized tribes and acres: Bureau of Indian Affairs at and
        Acres of trust land:  Bureau of Indian Affairs at and
        Population of tribes: Census Bureau Table 2 at
        Facts on Indian Population:  Indian Health Service, January 2008 at http://
        Numbers of Americans With and Without Health Insurance Rise: U.S.
        Census Bureau, Income Stable, Poverty Up,  Census Bureau Reports, New Release,
        August 2004 at
        Fact Sheets on American  Indian Demographics: Census of Agriculture at
  Page 16

Achieving Public Health and  Environmental Protection in
              Indian Country and Alaska Native Villages