United States
                          Environmental Protection
                          Administration and
                          Resource Management
                            August 1999
       mission of the

 U.S. Environmental

 Protection Agency is

  to protect human

  health and to safe-

  guard the natural


water, and land—upon

 which life depends.
   We are pleased to provide another issue of Greening EPA. Our cover
story is an article on important changes expected with the new energy-
efficiency Executive Order. Please be sure to read it. We also have interesting
articles on EPA's new green buildings at Ann Arbor and Ft. Meade, EPA's
alternative fuel vehicle fleet and chemical management programs, and an
article on biomass—a renewable energy source EPA is investigating  for use
in  its facilities. I hope you enjoy this issue. Please call  me if you have ques-
tions or comments on any of these articles.

                                                —Phil Wirdzek, FMSD
Updated Energy Management
Executive Order  Signed
        With more than
        500,000 build-
        ings, the federal
government is the  nation's
largest energy consumer and
perfectly positioned to be an
energy management  leader.
To help make that happen,
President Clinton signed
Executive Order (EO)
13123, Greening the
Government Through
Efficient Energy Management,
on June 3, 1999. The EO
sets greenhouse gas and
energy reduction goals and
encourages the use of renew-
able and  highly energy-
efficient technologies.
Implementing EO 13123 will
help EPA and other agencies
save taxpayer dollars and
protect the environment.

EO 1 3123 increases
the energy consumption
reduction goals estab-
ished in EO 12902,
signed in  1 994, and
includes new
greenhouse gas
goals. No
federal facili-
ty will be
exempted from these goals
unless it meets new exemp-
tion criteria to be issued by
DOE. The box on page 3
provides specific information
on each of these goals.
       continued on page 3

                                        GREENING EPA
Biomass—Harvesting  Tomorrow's Energy
  In the search for alterna-
  tives to Earth's limited
  energy sources, EPA and
other organizations are look-
ing with hope to a unique
combination of technology
and ancient agricultural
practices—biomass energy.
For centuries, humans have
subsisted  by cultivating the
Earth's vegetation. Now, thanks
to advancing technology,
harvesting organics could be
the key to a clean and sus-
tainable energy future.
   Biomass is plant matter,
most often composed of
wood and wood wastes, that
naturally stores supplies of
solar energy as complex
carbon-based molecules. As
biomass undergoes photo-
synthesis, carbon dioxide
combines with water to pro-
duce carbohydrates,  the
basis of biomass energy. By
burning biomass, we can
extract the energy stored in
the chemical bonds and har-
ness it to generate power.
   Already a viable energy
option, there are three main
ways that biomass can be
used for energy  generation:

•  Direct combustion—bio-
   mass is burned, creating
   steam, which can move a
   turbine attached to a

•  Gasification—gasifiers
   heat biomass in an oxy-
   gen-starved environment,
   breaking  it into chemical
   components and  creating
   a product gas suitable for
   fueling  advanced power
•  Pyrolysis—heat is used to
   chemically convert bio-
   mass into pyrolysis oil,
   which is easier to store
   and transport than solid
   biomass material. This oi is
   then  burned, like petrole-
   um, to produce  electricity.

   Emerging bioconversion
and thermal conversion
technology will inevitably
enhance the cost-
effectiveness and practice ity
of biomass energy,  but its
environmental appeal is
inherent and already well-
   Nonrenewable forms of
biomass, such as coal, gas,
and oi,  represent carbon
deposits laid into the earth
millions of years ago from
decaying plants and animals.
As we use these fuels, carbon
deposits are released, alter-
ing the natural carbon cycle.
The existing carbon cycle
cannot assimilate these new
releases of carbon, allowing
carbon dioxide and methane
to accumulate in the atmos-
phere trapping solar radia-
   Burning biomass, however,
contributes no stored carbon
dioxide to the atmosphere.
The carbon dioxide released
during combustion is balanced
by new plant growth. As a
result, the greenhouse effect
and air emission problems
associated with fossi fuel
combustion are eliminated,
and carbon releases are
ready for plant assimilation.
   Biomass resources have a
regenerative cycle of 30
         Breaking New Ground—

     EPA's  Biomass Energy  Projects

     Athens, Georgia. Results of a recent feasibility
    study conducted for the Athens laboratory indicate
    that large quantities of biofuel are available locally.
    Next, the size, type, cost, and potential funding
    options for the plant equipment will be determined.
    A strong partnership between EPA, DOE, USDA, and
    state agencies will be the foundation for making this
    project a success.
     Richmond, California. EPA has just signed a con-
    tract to purchase 1.8 million  kilowatt hours of elec-
    tricity generated from landfill methane  gas. Due to
    deregulation of California's electric industry, EPA,
    along with other electricity consumers in the state,
    can now purchase electricity  that is generated using
    renewable resources such as biomass.
years or less, making the
possibility of biomass crops,
specially harvested and
replenished, a plausible sce-
nario for future energy sup-
   Many options exist for
biomass energy  use. Biomass
can be converted into trans-
portation fuels such as
ethanol, methanol,  biodiesel,
and additives for reformulat-
ed gasoline. These  biofuels
can be used in pure form or
blended with gasoline.
Biomass also can be used to
manufacture products such
as solvents, sorbents, and
construction materials.
   Thus far, we have just
begun to explore the benefits
of this alternative energy
source; its  potentia , howev-
er, is vast and promising. For
more information on bio-
mass energy and products,
their various uses, and the
latest technological develop-
ments, visit
, or
. B

                                      GREENING  EPA
New Executive Order continued from page 1
The new EO also mandates
that by 201 0, every agency
reduce its greenhouse gas
emissions associated  with
facility energy use by  30
percent compared to  1 990
levels. Greenhouse gas
reductions related to  other
agency efforts, such as the
use of alternatively fueled
vehicles, can count toward
facility greenhouse gas
reduction goals if approved
by the Office of
Management and Budget.
Agencies will continue to
conduct  energy and water
audits as previously mandat-
ed in EO 12902.

EO 1 31 23 strongly encour-
ages federal agencies to
expand the use of renewable
energy and energy-efficient
technologies within their
facilities. The government
will strive to install 2,000
solar energy systems at fed-
eral  facilities by the end of
2000, and 20,000 by
201 0. This will be done to
support the  President's
Million Solar Roofs Initiative,
which hopes to install 1 mil-
lion  solar energy systems
across the United States by
2010. The newEO also
encourages agencies to pur-
chase Energy Star® and
other energy-efficient prod-

According to the new EO,
DOD and GSA, in consulta-
tion  with DOE and EPA, will
develop sustainable design
principles. Agencies will
optimize life-cycle costs, pol-
 lution, and other environ-
 mental and energy costs
 associated with the construc-
 tion, life-cycle operation,
 and decommissioning of
 facilities. In addition, agen-
 cies should strive to meet
 the Energy Star® Building cri-
 teria for energy performance
 and indoor environmental
 quality to the maximum
 extent practicable by the end
 of 2002. To help fund these
 projects, agencies are
 encouraged to use energy-
 saving performance con-
 tracts, which allow them to
 implement energy-efficient
 or renewable technologies
 without having to incur the
 associated capital costs.
    For a copy of EO
 13123, visit . HI
     EO  13123

  (1990 BASELINE)
  20 percent by 2005
  25 percent by 2010

  (1985 BASELINE)
  30 percent by 2005
  35 percent by 2010

  Note: Every federal facility
  must meet these goals unless it
  meets new exemption criteria.
Headquarters  Drives Down Electric  Avenue
     EPA Headquarters has
     added a new electric-
     powered pickup truck to
its fleet of alternative fueled
vehicles (AFVs). The Ford
Ranger electric vehicle, which
generates no emissions, has
an approximate range of 50
miles between charges and a
maximum speed of 80 mph.
   Five to 10 FMSD employ-
ees will use the vehicle three
to four times  per week to
serve Headquarters' satellite
buildings and to transport
equipment and displays to
EPA ceremonies and special
events. The Potomac Electric
Power Company (PEPCO)
loaned the vehicle to EPA in
February 1 999 for a free 2-
month trial period through  its
Federal Fleet Electric Vehicle
Program. The
staff, who will
lease the vehi-
cle for 3 years at about $350
a month. The Federal Fleet
Electric Vehicle Acquisition
Program, created by PEPCO,
DOE, and the Ford Motor
Company, is a pilot project to
help  make electric vehicles a
commercial reality. In addi-
tion to free trial periods, the
program provides special
financia  arrangements for
federal agencies interested in
leasing electric vehicles.
   Similar electric vehicle leaner
programs exist in Richmond,
Virginia; Los Angeles; San
Diego; Atlanta;
                                     continued on page 4

                                         GREENING  EPA
OARM  Resources
       How well is EPA living
       its mission? You can
       find out by looking at
two new documents that
chronicle some of EPA's
environmental activities in
fiscal year (FY) 1998.
   The Pollution Prevention
Progress Report in Compliance
with Executive Order 12856
describes EPA's activities in
the areas of chemica man-
agement, energy and water
conservation, waste preven-
tion and recycling, affirma-
tive procurement, and green
buildings. In addition, it cov-
ers the programmatic assis-
tance provided by EPA's
Office of Administration and
Resource Management
(OARM) and  describes the
communications  and out-
reach methods OARM uses
to convey its pollution pre-
vention messages.
   Each year, in compliance
with the Energy Policy Act of
1 992 and two EOs, EPA
submits a report—
Environmental Protection
Agency Management and
Conservation Program—to
DOE. This document dis-
cusses the goals, strategy,
tools, and implementation
activities of EPA's Energy and
Water Conservation
Program. Also detailed are
facility pilot projects and
funding mechanisms for
these projects. Appendices
provide facility-specific ener-
gy and water consumption
and  cost data, and motor
vehicle information. A syn-
opsis of some of the energy
and  water consumption
information is provided in
the table on the right.
   To order the Pollution
Prevention Progress Report in
Compliance with Executive
Order 12856 (EPA202-R-
99-001) or a copy of the
Environmental Protection
Agency Management and
Conservation Program, call
Phil Wirdzek at 202 260-
2094. Also, stay tuned to
the Office of
               Administration's Web site
               as these documents will  be
               added to the site soon. •
     Percentage of Change in EPA Laboratory Energy
  and Water Consumption  From FY95 and FY96 to FY98
  Narragansett, Rl
  Edison, NJ
  Athens, GA
  Gulf Breeze, FL
  Montgomery, AL1
  Ann Arbor, Ml
  Cincinnati, OH
  Ada, OK
  Houston, TX
  Las Vegas, NV
  Richmond, CA
  Manchester, W
  Newport, OR
  Corvallis, OR
Difference in Btu/ft2
 FY95 to FY98 (%)

 Difference in Gallons of
  Water Consumption
   FY96 to FY98 (%)

                                                              1. Did not report consumption in FY97 or FY 98.
                                                              2. Difference in consumption from FY97 to FY98.
Electric Avenue  continued from page 3
and Boston. DOE is working
with utility companies in each
area, which grant the same
services PEPCO provides to
EPA Headquarters. Each utility
has three to ten vehicles to loan
to federal fleets within the utili-
ty's service territory.
   The acquisition of electric
vehicles supports the  man-
date of  EO 12844,Federa/
Use of Alternative Fueled
Vehicles, which  requires fed-
eral agencies to adopt
aggressive plans to exceed
the purchase requirements of
AFVs established by the
Energy Policy Act of 1992.
Both DOE and  GSA are
authorized to assist agencies
with EO 12844 by paying
the incremental costs of
AFVs associated with acqui-
sition and disposal (DOE) or
by providing incentives to
purchase AFVs, such as pri-
ority processing of procure-
ment requests (GSA).
Purchase of the Ford Ranger
would cost between
$30,000 and  $35,000.
   EPA has acquired more
than 1 00 AFVs nationwide,
most of which run on com-
pressed natural gas (CNG).
These vehicles reduce air
pollution and encourage
technological leadership in
an important U.S. industry.
                  For more information on
               the Agency's AFV fleet, con-
               tact Melvin Joppy at EPA
               Headquarters at 202 260-
               6232. Additional informa-
               tion on the national electric
               vehicle leaner program is
               available at  or by calling Jim
               Francfort of DOE at 208
               526-6787. tf

                                       GREENING EPA
Chemical Management  at  EPA Labs
        One of EPA's on-
        going goals is to
        ensure  safety and
health in all of the Agency's
laboratories. Achievements in
this area include the develop-
ment of a laboratory opera-
tions manual and related
products that stress proper
chemical management. These
tools provide examples of
pollution prevention activities
such as reducing the use of
certain chemicals,  streamlin-
ing inventory functions,
implementing  best practices,
and enhancing compliance.
In  addition, EPA is  developing
greener chemical process
alternatives, chemical order-
ing systems, and chemical
adoption programs.
   EPA's Safety,  Health, and
Environmental Management
Division (SHEMD) is collabo-
rating with EPA's Green
Chemistry Program to investi-
gate environmentally prefer-
able alternatives to testing
procedures that generate sol-
vent waste.
   A process called Soxhelt
chemistry, in which samples
are distilled in solvents, is the
primary generator of this haz-
ardous waste.In 1 992, a total
of 78,743 kilograms of so -
vent hazardous waste was
produced  in EPA labs by this
   A report, currently  under
review, compiles data
explaining how each chem-
istry test and  process affects
the environment and human
health. The most detrimental
processes identified in the
report will be replaced with
Hard  Hats Off  to  EPA
     This June, EPA's National
     Vehicle Fuel Emissions
     Laboratory (NVFEL)
Office Building in Ann Arbor,
Michigan, won the Engineering
Society of Detroit Construction
and Design Award. The
award recognizes the archi-
tects, engineers, contractors,
and owners of the facility in
areas such as overall design
quality, effective teaming, land
use and environmental con-
siderations, and energy con-
   The building also is the
first EPA-leased facility eligible
for the Energy Star® label.
The Energy Star® program  is
currently verifying the build-
ing's energy performance, the
final step before awarding the
Energy Star® label.
   EPA's commitment to pol-
lution prevention through
improved energy efficiency
was a critica concern during
the construction of the 66,000-
square foot NVFEL office
   Therefore, the building's
HVAC system includes direct
digital controls (DDC) tech-
nologies that minimize the
energy required to maintain
optimum  building airflow.
Although the DDC system
reduces energy consumption,
more environmentally sound
procedures such as micro-
analytical chemistry and solid
phase extraction. Use of
these greener processes will
eliminate 80 to 90 percent of
the solvent wastes currently
   EPA also is focusing on
reducing unnecessary chemi-
cal purchases by instituting a
pharmacy system for ordering
and stocking chemicals. Each
facility tracks its  inventory
through  a bar coding system
maintained in a  database.
When a  chemist needs to
order a  particular chemical,
the procurement department
can first  determine if there is
any of the substance in-
house, perhaps owned by
another  department.
Interdepartmental chemical
the air flow remains consis-
tent with ASHRAE Standard
62-1989 "Ventilation for
Acceptable Indoor Air Quality."
In  addition, heating and cool-
ing in the facility is  provided by
natural gas-fired, high-efficiency
hot water boilers and CFC-
free electric chillers. Variable
frequency motors help mini-
mize the energy requirements
of major fans and  pumps.
   Abundant argon-filled,
"low emissivity" windows and
skylights not only reduce the
amount of solar heat load
that enters the building but
also  reduce the  number of
lights needed. When lights are
required, however, the build-
ing's "uplighting" design pro-
sharing is being used in 50
percent of EPA's labs. It
allows a facility to reduce the
amount of chemicals
purchased and the number of
expiration dates exceeded.
   A related chemical adop-
tion program also operates
throughout many EPA labs,
including Research Triangle
Park in North Carolina and
Central Regional Laboratory
in Chicago, Illinois. After
completing a project,
chemists can take remaining
chemicals to designated, sta-
ble  areas and make  them
available to other chemists.
   For more information on
these projects, contact Jeff
Davidson of SHEMD at
202 260-1 650 or
. m
vides indirect room lighting
from a bright ceiling, which
further reduces the number of
light fixtures required.
Occupancy sensors also are
installed throughout the facili-
ty to turn off the ights in
unoccupied rooms.
   The NVFEL office building
is owned by the First Martin
Corporation of Ann Arbor,
Michigan, and  was designed
by Jickling Lyman Powell
Associates, Inc., of Troy,
   For more information on
EPA's NVFEL office building,
call Dick Lawrence of  EPA
Region 5 OAR  at 734 214-
4243 or Doris  Ellis of FMSD
at 202 260-8038. d

                                        GREENING EPA
Labs for  the 21st  Century  Conference
      Designers, engineers,
      owners, and operators
      of laboratory buildings
are invited to the
"Laboratories for the 21 st
Century" conference, a
unique opportunity for learn-
ing and  sharing information
on incorporating energy-
efficient  and renewable ener-
gy technologies into
laboratory design and opera-
tion. The conference, spon-
sored by EPA and DOE's
Federal  Energy Management
Program (FEMP), will be held
September 8 to 1 0 in
Cambridge, Massachusetts,
and will  include sessions on
financing efficiency improve-
ments, adopting energy
recovery strategies, retrofitting
laboratories, and defining  the
environmental requirements
of 21 st century laboratories,
among other topics.
   On the first morning, EPA
will announce the develop-
ment of  an important new ini-
tiative called Labs21. The
initiative  will become a volun-
tary program to improve the
energy efficiency of public
and private sector laborato-
ries. Additional details will be
provided at the conference.
   "EPA is committed to
establishing a new environ-
mental standard for reducing
energy consumption in its
laboratories in the next six
years," explained Romulo
Diaz, conference key-note
speaker and  EPA assistant
administrator for
Administration and Resources
Management. "We are eager
to share information about
energy efficiency and pollution
prevention experiences with
private sector and other gov-
ernment labs. We also are
looking forward  to an open
and professional exchange of
ideas and experiences that
can contribute to general
operational improvements in
our nation's laboratories."
   The conference will fea-
ture tutorials on  efficiency
and renewable energy and
presentations on designing,
building, and operating low-
energy laboratory buildings.
Panel discussions, design cri-
tiques,  breakout sessions,
and laboratory tours also are
planned. Participants will
include leading  energy and
design  experts from the
Lawrence Berkeley National
Laboratory, the American
Institute of Architects
Committee on the
Environment, the National
Renewable Energy Laboratory,
EPA, FEMP, and private and
public sector laboratories.
   "Participants will have an
opportunity to meet the spe-
cialists that are shaping the
future of the industry," said
Donald Prowler, one of the
conference planners and
Professor of Architecture at
Princeton University and the
University of Pennsylvania.
"Through this  interaction,
attendees will  leave with
a wealth of new design
ideas and implementation
   Panel  discussions will
include case studies demon-
strating ways in which the
strategies or technologies are
being implemented success-
fully. Breakout sessions will
provide opportunities to
explore specific issues in
greater detail. Throughout
the 3-day conference, the
following topics will be

•  Defining the environmen-
   tal requirements of 21 st
   century laboratories.

•  Designing energy-efficient

•  Benchmarking energy
•  Financing efficiency

•  Evaluating HVAC equip-
   ment and options.

•  Reviewing information
   systems and control

•  Adopting energy recovery

•  Using renewable energy.

•  Improving integrated lab-
   oratory design strategies.

•  Learning how utility
   restructuring affects utility
   options and costs.

•  Incorporating life-cycle
   cost concerns in decision

•  Commissioning and retro-
   fitting laboratories.

   For more information on
the "Laboratories for the 21st
Century" conference, call the
FEMP Workshop Hotline at
703 243-8343. Visit the
conference Web site  at
 for an updated
agenda  and details on
accommodations and regis-
tration. Registration is free for
all EPA employees. Hi
             LABS    FORTHE    2IST   CENTURY

                                      GREENING  EPA
EPA Opens  Fort Meade Science  Center
        While the Army con-
        siders Fort Meade
        an "Installation for
the 21st Century," EPA could
say the same of its new
Environmental Science
Center, located on the
Maryland base. EPA's facility,
which officially opened in
Apr!, incorporates numerous
environmental features as
part of the Agency's overall
commitment to protect
human health and the envi-
ronment. The 140,000-
square-foot facility features
green building technologies
including energy-saving light-
ing, an environmentally
friendly climate control sys-
tem,  natural landscaping,
and the  use of green  building
   The new facility provides
office space for 1 50 people
and consolidates six leased
facilities  into one government-
owned site. The center
includes 70 laboratories  for
chemistry, biology, and micro-
biology and supports soi, air,
and water testing to deter-
mine the presence of pollu-
tants and other contaminants.
The facility also contains a
library, six conference rooms,
and a video conferencing

In designing the Environ-
mental Science Center, EPA
took the opportunity to devel-
op a unique facility with mini-
mal environmental impact.
Some of the environmental
features incorporated into the
facility include:

•  Energy-Efficiency. In keep-
   ing with EPA's Green
   Lights program, the center
   maximizes natural lighting,
   which is augmented by
   energy-efficient electrica
   lighting to reduce pollu-
   tion and save energy.  A
   DDC unit monitors the
   status of mechanical sys-
   tems throughout the build-
   ing to maintain peak
   efficiency. Variable air vol-
   umes for lab spaces mini-
   mize heating and cooling
   costs while maintaining a
   safe working environment.

•  Wafer Conservation. The
   building uses low-water
   flush units and maintains
   a separate water supply
   for cooling water.

•  Climate Control. The
   building's temperature is
   controlled by non-ozone-
   depleting coolants and
   heat exchangers.

•  Landscaping.  Native
   plants were planted or
   maintained on the grounds,
   which reduces irrigation
   and pesticide needs.
   During construction,
   efforts were made to save
   as many trees as possible.

•  Materials. The center  was
   constructed with concrete
   containing recycled incin-
   erator residue  (fly ash),
   and recycled asphalt was
   used for parking and
   roadway surfaces. Lab
   cabinetry is made of wood
   from a managed forest,
   which cost less than com-
   parable metal casework.

   In addition to these envi-
ronmenta features, the build-
ing ensures  the safety of
laboratory workers and the
surrounding environment with
seamless floors that resist
spills, overhead gas lines that
eliminate the need for free-
standing gas cylinders, and
special  exhaust systems that
prevent hazardous gases
from mixing.
   All of these green design
elements have come together
to create a facility where  EPA
scientists and other technica
personnel can carry out their
work to protect human health
and the environment in a build-
ing that strives to do the same.
   Building  Stats

  140,000 gross square

  89,000 net square feet
    of usable space

  24 acres of

  $3.2 million to design

  $44.3 million to
   For more information on
the Fort Meade Environmental
Science Center, contact
Robin Danes! of EPA at
410305-2607. d
     Attention  EPA  Facility

        Please fax your quarterly energy and water
     consumption data to Scot Case of Eastern Research
     Group (ERG)  at 703 841-1440 ore-mail it to
     . If you are late submitting con-
     sumption data, Scot or one of his fellow ERGers might
     be calling. If you have any questions  about this
     process or ERG's role,  please call Phil Wirdzek at
     202 260-2094.

                                         GREENING EPA
Events  Calendar
Energy '99
Where: Orlando, Florida
When: August 23 to 25, 1999

This conference will address energy
efficiency, renewable energy, and water
energy issues. It also will include presenta-
tions on  building design, operations, and

Competitive Energy Congress/
National Industrial Efficiency Expo
Where: Boston, Massachusetts
When: August 25 and 26,  1 999
Contact: 770447-5083, Ext. 210 or

This is the largest conference and exposi-
tion devoted  to the radically changing
power and gas industry.  It was developed
to provide industrial users with solutions
that take into account energy cost control,
process optimization, and maintenance.
Laboratories for the 21st Century
Where: Cambridge, Massachusetts
When: Septembers tolO, 1999
Contact: FEMP Workshop Hotline:
703 243-8343 or

EPA and DOE's FEMP will sponsor a 3-
day forum focusing on finding responsible
approaches to cutting energy usage and
using renewable energy sources in labora-
tory design and operation.

18th Annual National Recycling
Where: Cincinnati, Ohio
When: September 26 to 29, 1 999
Contact: 703 683-9025 or

The National Recycling Congress is geared
toward anyone involved in recycling, from
program planning and implementation to
education, technical assistance, and policy.
The '99 WEEC
Where: Atlanta, Georgia
When: October 20 to 22, 1999
Contact: 770 925-9648 or

The World Energy Engineering Congress is
a comprehensive energy conference and
technology expo that covers the latest
developments in energy management,
HVAC efficiency, and building automation.

Leadership Conference: Biomedical
Research and the Environment
Where: Bethesda, Maryland
When: November 1  to 2, 1 999
Contact: 301 571-9790 or

This conference will focus on creating a
national information and education pro-
gram on best practices for an environmen-
tally sound biomedical research enterprise.
   United States
   Environmental Protection Agency
   Washington, DC 20460

   Official Business
   Penalty for Private Use
   ) Printed on paper that contains at least 30 percent postconsumer fiber.