> Printed on paper that contains at least 30 percent postconsumer fiber.


       Your Comments on This Report Would Be Appreciated
The International Joint Commission (IJC) is responsible for inviting public comment on Air
Quality Agreement Progress Reports and for distributing comments received on request. Written
comments on this report should be sent to one of the following offices on or before February 28,
Secretary, Canadian Section
International Joint Commission
234 Laurier Avenue, West
22nd Floor
Ottawa, Ontario KIP 6K6

Fax: (613) 993-5583
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International Joint Commission
1250 23rd Street, NW, Suite 100
Washington, DC 20440

Fax: (202)736-9015

Section I     Introduction  	1

Section II    Progress and Commitments	2

              Sulfur Dioxide Reductions	2

              Nitrogen Oxides Reductions 	3

              Monitoring of Emissions 	4

              Prevention of Air Quality Deterioration and Visibility Protection 	6

              Notification, Assessment, and Mitigation of Significant Transboundary Air Pollution ....7

Section III   Additional Air Quality Programs	9

              Cooperation on Ground-Level Ozone and Particulate Matter 	9

              Domestic Programs to Address Ozone and Particulate Matter	9

              Other Cooperative Air Quality Efforts	15

Section IV   Scientific Information Exchange 	17

              Emissions Inventories	17

              Acid Deposition Monitoring 	19

              Ground-Level Ozone Monitoring and Mapping	21

              Particulate Matter Monitoring, Data Analysis, and Modeling 	23

              Aquatic Effects Research and Monitoring	26

              Forest Effects 	28

              Effects on Materials 	31

              Health Effects	32

Section V    Conclusion 	33

Appendix    United States-Canada Air Quality Committee	35

 Figure 1.        U.S. SO2 Emissions From 263 Phase I Units 	2
 Figure 2.        Saskatchewan-North Dakota PM Monitoring Network 	8
 Figure 3.        Canada-U.S. SO2 Emissions, 1980-2010 	17
 Figure 4.        Canada-U.S. SO2 Emissions By Sector (1998) 	17
 Figure 5.        Canada-U.S. NOX Emissions By Sector (1998)	18
 Figure 6.        Canada-U.S. NOX Emissions, 1990-2010	18
 Figure 7.        Canada-U.S. VOC Emissions, 1980-2010 	18
 Figure 8.        Canada-U.S. VOC Emissions By Sector (1998) 	19
 Figure 9.        1980-1984 Wet Sulfate Deposition	20
 Figure 10.       1980-1984 Wet Nitrate Deposition 	20
 Figure 11.       1995-1998 Wet Sulfate Deposition	20
 Figure 12.       1995-1998 Wet Nitrate Deposition 	20
 Figure 13.       Ozone Concentrations Over Eastern North America, 1996-1998	21
 Figure 14.       Distribution of 41-  Highest Daily 8h Maximum Ozone (ppb)
                for Regional Sites, 1994-1996 (Median, 5th, 25th, 75th, and 95th Percentiles)	22
 Figure 15.       Variations in the Composition of PM in Two Canadian Cities	24
 Figure 16.       Canadian PM2 5 Monitoring Sites Within 200 Km of U.S. Border 	25
 Figure 17.       Status of PM25 Monitoring Deployment (United  States)	25

                         Acronyms  and Abbreviations
AIRMoN    Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network

AIRS        Aerometric Information Retrieval System

AQC        Air Quality Committee

AQI         Air Quality Index

ARNEWS    Acid Rain National Early Warning System

AURAMS    A Unified Regional Air Quality Modeling System

BAT         best available techniques

BC         British Columbia

CAAA       Clean Air Act Amendments

CAPMoN    Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network

CASTNet    Clean Air Status and Trends Network

GEM        continuous emission monitoring or monitors

CEPA       Canadian Environmental Protection Act

CFS         Canadian Forest Service

CL         critical loads

CO         carbon monoxide

CO2         carbon dioxide

CMAQ      Community Multi-Scale Air Quality Model

CUTA       Canadian Urban Transit Association

E-GRID     Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database

EPA         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

eq          equivalence

FHM        Forest Health Monitoring

FIGCP      Forest Indicators of Global Change Project

FRM        Federal Reference Method

g/bhp-hr     grams per brake horsepower hour

g/mi         grams per mile

IMPROVE    Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments

km           kilometers

kt            kilotonnes

LRTAP       Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Protocol

mm           millimeter

MOU         Memorandum of Understanding

MRP         Materials Research Program

MWe         megawatts electric

NAAQS       National Ambient Air Quality Standards

NADP/NTN  National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network

NAMP       North American Maple Project

NAMS       National Air Monitoring Stations

NAPS         National Air Pollution Surveillance

NARSTO     North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone

NCPTT       National Center for the Preservation of Technology and Training

NEG/ECP    New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers

NERAQC     Northeast Regional Air Quality Committee

NESCAUM   Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management

NH3          ammonia

NMHC       nonmethane hydrocarbons

NO           nitrogen oxide

NOX          nitrogen oxides

NO2          nitrogen dioxide

OTC         Ozone Transport Commission

PAMS         Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations

PM           particulate matter

PM10         particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns

PM2 5         particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 microns

ppb           parts per billion

ppm          parts per million

PSD          Prevention of Significant Deterioration

Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition
Quebec Forest Intensive Monitoring Network
State Implementation Plan
State and Local Air Monitoring Stations
simple mass-balance
sulfur dioxide
special purpose monitors
sport utility vehicle
total reduced sulfur
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service
volatile organic compound
cubic micrometers


                                                                                               Section  I
  This is the fifth Progress Report highlighting the
commitments Canada and the United States made
under the 1991 Air Quality Agreement to address trans-
boundary air pollution. The report details the continued
progress of both governments in addressing acid rain.
The report also focuses on the most recent develop-
ments of both governments in expanding cooperative
efforts to reduce ground-
level ozone and particulate
matter (PM) pollution,
which have significant
impacts  on human health.
The bilateral Canada-U.S.
negotiations held this year
to develop an ozone annex
to the Agreement signal
the importance both gov-
ernments are placing on
this effort.

  In this report, Canada
and the  United States cite
significant emissions
reductions of major pollu-
tants that cause acid rain—
sulfur dioxide (SO2) and
nitrogen oxides (NOX).
Canada's national cap of
3.2 million tonnes for SO2
emissions will become fully
operational in 2000. Currently, Canada's SO2 emissions
are at 2.7 million tonnes, and they are projected to
remain below the cap in the future. As the United States
ended Phase I of the SO2 program and began Phase II
in 2000, Phase I utility units reported SO2 emissions of
4.9 million tons, which was 28 percent below allowable
levels for 1999 and a reduction of more than 50% from
1980 levels. Full implementation in 2010 will result in a
10-million ton reduction of SO2 emissions, which will
be approximately 40% below 1980 levels. Canada
reduced its year 2000 stationary source NOX emissions
by more than 100,000 tonnes below the forecast level of
970,000 tonnes. In the United States, NOX emissions
from power generation are expected to be reduced by
more than 2 million tons below forecast levels. NOX
emissions from all source categories are expected to be 2
million tons below 1980 levels.

                             The report also pro-
                          vides information on
                          progress since 1998 in
                          meeting other key com-
                          mitments in the
                          Agreement. Updates are
                          included on emissions
                          forecasts, acid deposition
                          monitoring, scientific
                          research, and the air
                          quality programs of both

                             In 1997, the Canadian
                          and U.S. environmental
                          ministers signed a Joint
                          Plan of Action for
                          Addressing Transboundary
                          Air Pollution on ground-
                          level ozone and PM, and
                          in 1998 the ministers
                          issued a follow-up Joint
Plan Report. The 2000 Progress Report considers coop-
erative efforts in data analyses, modeling, monitoring,
and information sharing leading to development of an
ozone annex to the Air Quality Agreement and existing
and planned efforts to develop a joint work plan for
transboundary PM.

NOTE: American spelling is used throughout. Future
reports will alternate the use of Canadian and American
spelling. Dollars are in $U.S. unless otherwise indicated.

Section II
      Progress  and   Commitments
         This section focuses on Canadian and U.S. progress in meeting commitments under
         Annex I of the Air Quality Agreement.
      Sulfur Dioxide Reductions
      • Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions reduction in seven
        easternmost provinces to 2.3 million tonnes1 by
      • Maintenance of 2.3 million-tonne annual cap for
        eastern Canada through December 1999-
      • Permanent national cap for SO2 emissions of 3-2 mil-
        lion tonnes by 2000.

        Canada's commitment to reduce acid rain remains a
      priority in air pollution management. In 1998, total
      Canadian SO2 emissions were less than 2.7 million
      tonnes, which is below the national cap of 3-2 million
      tonnes. Emissions in the seven easternmost provinces
      were 1.8 million tonnes below the eastern Canada cap
      of 2.3 million tonnes. Forecasts2 from the 1999 Annual
      Progress Report on the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy
      for Post-2000 indicate that emissions will remain below
      all applicable caps well into the future. Significant
      reductions of SO2 and/or nitrogen oxides (NOX) could
      result from reduction initiatives that come into effect
      after 1998. These initiatives were not included in the
      forecasts. Examples of these initiatives include new SO2
      targets under the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy,
      reductions under Phase 3 of the Federal Smog
      Management Plan and provincial or territorial smog ini-
      tiatives, and Canada-Wide Standards for PM2 5 (PM less
      than or equal to 2.5 microns) and ozone.

        The permanent national cap of 3-2 million tonnes
      per year by 2000 is currently being implemented
      through the Eastern Canadian Acid Rain Program using
      bilateral agreements between each respective province
      and the Federal Government. This program, which will
      be fully implemented in 2000, is being succeeded by the
      Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000. The
strategy's next step, described in Section III, p. 10, tar-
gets sulfur, striving for SO2 emissions reductions that
achieve critical loads (CL)3 for acidity throughout the

•  SO2 emissions reduction of 10 million tons4 from
   1980 levels by 2000, taking into account credits
   ("allowances") earned for reductions from 1995 to
•  Permanent national cap of 8.95 million tons of SO2
   per year for electric utilities by the year 2010.
•  National SO2 emissions cap of 5-6 million tons for
   industrial sources beginning in 1995-

  As the U.S. Acid Rain Program entered Phase II in
January 2000, data showed that SO2 emissions in 1999
were 670,000 tons lower than 1998 levels as sources
prepared to meet their Phase II reduction obligations.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's)
annual review reported SO2 emissions from Phase I
affected units were 4.9 million tons, or 28 percent
below the 1999 allowable emissions level for SO2. In
1999, the total number of participating units was 398.
Of that number, 263 were the highest-emitting units,
and 135 were units electing to participate early.

U.S. SO, Emissions From 263 Phase I  Units
=  8
     9.4  9.3
                        Allocated Emissions
             5.9   5.9
     1980  1985  1990 1995  1996  1997 1998  1999
                                                                                                   Figure I
      'One tonne is equal to 1.1 short tons.
      ^Forecast emissions are interim emissions estimates using 1998 values reported by the provinces and territories. The forecasts are projected with
      growth factors calculated from total provincial changes in emissions found in the National Emissions Inventory and Projections Task Group
      Consensus National Base Case Forecast, 1996.
      'Critical loads are estimates of the maximum pollutant loadings that environmental resources can absorb on a sustained basis without experi-
      encing measurable degradation.
      4One (short) ton is equal to 0.9 tonnes.

  By the end of five years of Phase I implementation,
affected units showed an overall reduction in SO2 emis-
sions of more than 50%  from  1980 levels. In Phase II,
the program expands from 400 fossil-fired electric gen-
erating units in 25 states to more than 2,000 units in 48
states. All major power plants in the contiguous 48
states are now covered by the Acid Rain Program.
Reductions in Phase I were greater than required in
almost every affected state, with major reductions in the
highest-emitting areas (i.e., the Midwest). Sources
achieved 100% compliance with regional emission
reductions in every year of Phase I. Full implementation
of the program in 2010 will achieve a 10-million-ton
reduction of SO2 emissions, about 40% below 1980

  During Phase I, under the SO2 Allowance Trading
Program—the centerpiece of the Acid Rain  Program—
allowance market  activity steadily increased  among all
participants, contributing to the  lower than expected
costs for reducing emissions. Through the SO2
Allowance Trading Program, all affected utility units are
allocated a specific number of emissions allowances,
with one allowance authorizing the emission of one ton
of SO2. Allowances are tradable,  and utilities may buy,
sell, or bank them for future use. On an annual basis, a
source  must hold allowances that equal or exceed its
annual SO2 emissions.

  Industrial SO2 emissions from stationary  sources  that
are not commercial or residential continue to remain
below the 5-6-million-ton cap. These emissions are pro-
jected to remain below the cap for at least the next 10
years. Should emissions from these sources exceed the
cap, EPA is authorized to establish regulations to reduce
emissions to below 5-6 million tons.
Nitrogen Oxides Reductions

•  By 2000, reduce stationary source emissions 100,000
   tonnes below the forecast level of 970,000 tonnes.
•  By 1995, develop further annual national emissions
   reduction requirements from stationary sources to be
   achieved by 2000 and/or 2005-
•  Implement a NOX control program for mobile

   NOX emissions have been reduced by more than
100,000 tonnes below the forecast level of 970,000
tonnes at power plants, major combustion sources, and
metal smelting operations.
  Canada is developing programs to further reduce
NOX emissions. (For additional details, see Section III,
pp. 10-11.) All provinces are currently discussing plans
and progress jointly with the Federal Government to
reduce stationary source emissions of NOX.  For example,
Ontario's Anti-Smog Action Plan sets an air quality goal
to reduce the average number of ozone exceedance
hours by 75% by the year 2015- This translates into a
45% reduction of NOX emissions and volatile organic
compounds (VOCs) in Ontario from 1990 levels. In
June 2000, all federal, provincial, and territorial govern-
ments agreed to a Canada-Wide Standard for ozone of
65 parts per billion (ppb) to be achieved by 2010. Joint
initial actions for reducing NOX and VOC emissions,
necessary to meet the standard for ozone, were agreed
on and will target industry sectors, including pulp and
paper and electric power, that are among the large sta-
tionary source emitters of NOX emissions. (For addi-
tional details, see Section III, p. 9.)

  Regulations have steered on-road engines, which con-
tribute approximately 35% of Canada's total NOX emis-
sions, toward newer, cleaner technology and reduced
emissions. Canadian on-road vehicle emissions stan-
dards are harmonized with those of the United States.
(For additional details, see Section III, pp.  10-11.)

•  By 2000, reduce total annual emissions of NOX by 2
   million tons.
•  Implement stationary source control program for
   electric utility boilers.
•  Implement mobile source control program.

   By the end of 2000, EPA's Acid Rain Program and
the mobile source control program are expected to
reduce stationary and mobile source NOX emissions by
more than 2 million tons below 1980 levels, exceeding
the mandate under the  1990 Clean Air Act
Amendments (CAAA).

   From 1996 to 1999,  NOX emissions from coal-fired
utility boilers were approximately 400,000 tons per year

below projections for what emissions would have been
without the Acid Rain Program. In 1999, actual NOX
emissions were slightly below 1998 levels and decreased
by approximately 424,000 tons (32 percent) compared
to 1980 levels. Beginning in 2000, NOX emissions from
electric utility units are expected to be reduced by an
additional 1.7 million tons each year.

  EPA also has undertaken efforts to reduce NOX emis-
sions under the ground-level ozone provisions of the
CAAA. In September 1998,  EPA finalized a rule to
establish mandatory NOX emission budgets for 22 east-
ern states.5 By 2007, this rule-making is expected to
result in approximately 1 million  tons of additional
NOX emission reductions each summer beyond  those
achieved by acid rain and mobile  source control pro-
grams. In a separate but related rule-making, EPA grant-
ed petitions filed under Section 126 of the CAA,
identifying specific NOX  sources that contribute to
ozone in the petitioning states. As a result, beginning in
2003, a total  of 392 facilities in 12 states must reduce
annual emissions by about 500,000 tons from expected
2007 levels, or about half the emission  reductions under
the 22-state program.

  In other actions,  EPA is working with nine northeast-
ern states to implement a trading program for NOX  in
the Ozone Transport Region. In 1999,  the initial year of
operation, the first eight  participating states reduced
NOX emissions by more than 50% from 1990 levels
(20% below allowable levels) due to the trading pro-

  In December  1999, under continuing implementa-
tion of CAAA requirements  for mobile sources,  EPA
announced more protective tailpipe emissions standards
for  all passenger vehicles, including sport utility vehicles,
vans, and pickup trucks.  Simultaneously, EPA
announced more stringent standards for sulfur in regular
gasoline. The standards will ensure the  effectiveness  of
low-emission control technologies in vehicles and are
the clean-air equivalent of removing 164 million cars
from the road. The  new standards will require passenger
vehicles to be 77% to 95% cleaner than those on the
road today, decreasing gasoline's sulfur content by 90%
to 30 parts per million (ppm).

  In addition, in June 2000, EPA proposed a major
program to significantly reduce emissions from heavy-
duty engines and vehicles. This comprehensive 50-state
control program proposal for heavy-duty engine and
vehicle standards and highway diesel fuel sulfur control
treats the heavy-duty vehicle and its fuel as a single sys-
tem. The proposed rule will cap the sulfur content in
diesel fuel sold to consumers at 15 ppm. Diesel fuel's
sulfur content is currently about 500 ppm. The proposal
for tailpipe emission reductions reduces NOX to 0.2
grams per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp-hr) and
emissions  of PM to .01 g/bhp-hr. (For more informa-
tion on NOX mobile source efforts, see Section III, pp.

Monitoring of  Emissions

        i/'^ilMi- SiH JIL •••jfc^jp':JjltriL' jifril'Ml ^-'^ y['^j|||L& y.iii|SvS..S'S'.;''^^

•  By 1995, estimate emissions of NOX and SO2 from
   new electric utility units and existing electric utility
   units greater than 25 megawatts electric (MWe) using
   a method of comparable effectiveness to Continuous
   Emissions Monitors (CEMs).
•  By 1995, investigate feasibility of using CEMs.
•  Work toward comparably effective methods of emis-
   sion estimation  for SO2 and NOX emissions from
   other major stationary sources.

   An important tool, CEMs provide information that
can improve emissions estimation methodologies.
CEMs also facilitate  automatic emissions monitoring
and reporting, and establish a "common currency" in
emissions  trading regimes.

   Permitting of CEMs is under provincial jurisdiction,
and the type of in situ, extractive, or dilution CEM sys-
tem  used is site-specific to each application. By 1995,
CEM installation in  Canada's utility sector was wide-
spread, with SO2 CEMs  installed in more than 87% of
the coal generation capacity (67 units)  and more than
52% of the oil generation capacity (22 units). With
respect to  NOX CEMs, 72% of the oil generation  capac-
ity (14 units), more than 78% of the gas generation
capacity (10 units), and more than 85% of the coal gen-
eration capacity (43 units) had CEMs installed.

   By 2000, this situation had  not changed significantly
because almost all base-loaded fossil steam plants with
high emission rates had operating CEMs. Few flow
monitors are used, and not all systems have the accuracy
and reliability required for emissions trading purposes.
The fact that Canada has no interprovincial emissions
5EPAs final action was subject to legal challenge by a number of parties. In March 2000, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit issued a
2-to-l ruling in favor of EPA on all major issues associated with the NOX State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The court remanded issues—
including those relating to Wisconsin, Georgia, and Missouri—to EPA. In June 2000, the court ordered SIP revisions addressing requirements
upheld by the Court due by October 30, 2000.

trading regime, however, provides little incentive for
improvement for accuracy and reliability. Monitoring
systems across sectors are designed with less stringency
and more flexibility. For example, exhaust gas volume
and mass emission rates are often determined by estima-
tion from several choices of standard calculation
                   Vancouver Regional District, the data from installed
                   NOX and SO2 CEMs are used in the  emissions
  CEMs have been installed in the nonutility sector to
monitor emissions of either SO2 or NOX in various
jurisdictions across the country. In Quebec, CEMs are
required on acid plants used to control SO2 in the base
metal sector. Acid plants account for approximately
60% of the province's nonutility SO2 emissions. In
Ontario, CEMs for SO2, NOX, and
other pollutants are recommended for
municipal solid waste, biomedical
waste incinerators and base metal
smelters. Other requirements for
CEMs are for pulp and paper recov-
ery boilers  that monitor concentra-
tions of total reduced sulfur (TRS)
and hydrogen sulfide, and wood
waste boilers  to monitor temperature.
Because of recent publication of an
emissions guideline for cement kilns,
several cement plants are installing
CEM systems for emissions measure-
ments and  process control functions.
Most new gas turbine cogeneration
systems have  very low emissions of all
pollutants and are able to accurately
estimate NOX emissions using other
methods, such as predictive monitor-
ing or periodic sampling.

  Ontario's major SO2 emitters (i.e.,
INCO, Falconbridge, and Ontario
Hydro) are required to undertake
annual audits to verify SO2 emis-
sions. Alberta requires CEMs for vari-
ous nonutility sources, including sour
gas  plants6, pulp and paper, petroleum refining, fertiliz-
er, chemical,  oil sands, waste incinerators, and wood
waste nonutility generators. In 1999, Alberta published
new CEM  performance guidelines that will soon be
applicable to  most industrial sources. British Columbia,
through a decentralized provincewide permitting sys-
tem, requires installation and operation of CEMs for
SO2 and NOX on a case-by-case basis. In the Greater
SO2 and NOX

•  By 1995, new electric utility units and existing units
   greater than 25 MWe operate  CEM systems.

   By 1995, all required CEMs were installed by utilities
under the Acid Rain Program. They continue to provide
some of the most accurate and complete data ever col-
lected by EPA. All coal-fired units must use CEMs to
                measure concentrations of SO2 and
                NOX, as well as  volumetric flow, to
                determine hourly mass emissions of
                SO2 and NOX. Those natural  gas and
                oil-fired units that do not use CEMs
                use fuel flow meters and frequent fuel
                sampling and analysis to determine
                mass SO2 emissions for conservative
                emission factors. These units also use
                CEMs with volumetric flow to deter-
                mine NOX mass emissions.

                  Statistics reflect high accuracy and
                availability of all CEMs at Phase I and
                Phase II units. In 1999, relative accura-
                cy  standards were met by 96.2, 94.5,
                and 99-4 percent of the SO2,  NOX, and
                volumetric flow CEMs, respectively. In
                1999, the availability of these data
                exceeded 98 percent. By the end of
                2000, nearly 100 percent of the affect-
                ed  sources will be reporting hourly
                emissions and heat input data electron-
                ically, allowing immediate quality
                assurance analyses by EPA's Emissions
                Tracking System, feedback to  utilities,
                and verification of quarterly data com-
                piled from hourly data on SO2, NOX,
and carbon dioxide  (CO2.)  Quarterly emissions reports
for every affected unit are available to the public on the
Internet at CEMs data provide
the foundation for the SO2 Allowance Trading Program
as well as the NOX Budget Trading Program. These data
are used to  determine compliance with both the SO2
and NOX reduction  programs.
CEM machine.
5Sour gas is raw natural gas with a relatively high concentration of sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide.

Prevention  of Air Quality
Deterioration and Visibility

•  By 1995, develop and implement means (comparable
   to those implemented in the United States) to pre-
   vent air quality deterioration and to ensure visibility
   protection for sources that could cause significant
   transboundary air pollution.
   Canada uses an approach to new sources (e.g.,
addressing major new and existing sources, examining
various reduction measures, and applying similar tech-
nologies) that it considers comparable to the U.S.
approach. Since Canada is a federation, the federal and
provincial/territorial, and some municipal governments
each share in the responsibility of air quality manage-
ment and pollution prevention. The report, Canadian
Mechanisms to Prevent the Deterioration of Air Quality:
An Analysis of Requirements for New Sources of Air
Pollution and Modifications to Existing Sources, provides
an overview of the requirements at each level  of govern-
ment across the country.
   In addition to existing measures, the new Canadian
Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) of September
1999 focuses on pollution prevention as the preferred
approach  to environmental protection. The Canadian
government will use the new act to reduce the impacts
of toxic substances.  Implementation of similar princi-
ples—pollution prevention, continuous improvement,
and keeping clean areas clean—is also part of the
Canada-Wide Standards. The latter principle  recognizes
that polluting "up to a limit" is not acceptable and that
the best strategy to avoid future problems is keeping
clean areas clean. Continuous improvement applies in
areas with ambient levels below the levels of the stan-
dards but still above the levels associated with observable
health effects. Jurisdictions are encouraged to take reme-
dial and preventative actions to reduce emissions from
anthropogenic sources to the extent practicable.

  Federal, provincial, and territorial governments will
work with stakeholders during the next several years to
establish implementation plans and programs for PM2 5
and ozone Canada-Wide Standards that apply pollution
prevention and best management practices. These prac-
tices could include ensuring that new facilities and
activities incorporate the best available, economically
feasible technologies to reduce PM and ozone levels.
They could also include reviewing new activities that
might contribute to PM and ozone level increases.


• Maintain means for preventing significant deteriora-
  tion and protecting visibility as required under the
  CAA for sources that could cause significant  trans-
  boundary air pollution.

  The U.S. Prevention of Significant Deterioration
(PSD) Program has three key goals: (1) protecting pub-
lic health from any adverse effects that might occur—
even at air pollution levels lower than the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS); (2) preserv-
ing, protecting, and enhancing the air quality in Class I
areas such as large national parks  and wilderness areas;
and (3) ensuring that economic growth occurs in har-
mony with the preservation of existing clean air sources.

  The PSD  Program sets maximum air quality degrada-
tion limits to ensure that air quality in many areas of
the  country remains better than levels mandated by the
NAAQS. The program also requires  implementation of
the  best available control technology for all new sources.

  In April 1999, EPA issued the final regional haze reg-
ulations that expand the scope of 1980 visibility rules.
Good visibility day in Great Smokey Mountains. Visual
range is 100 miles.
Bad visibility day at same location. Visual range is 20 miles.
                          Source: National Park Service

The regulations will improve visibility at specially pro-
tected Class I national parks and wilderness areas,
addressing visibility impairment caused  by numerous
sources located over broad regions. The program estab-
lishes the basis from which states can work together to
develop implementation plans designed to achieve "rea-
sonable progress" toward the national visibility goal of
no human-caused impairment in the 156 mandatory
Class I federal areas nationwide.

  States are required to establish goals to improve visi-
bility on the 20% worst days and to allow no degrada-
tion on the 20% best days for each Class I area in the
state. In establishing  any progress goal, states must ana-
lyze the progress rate for the next 10- to 15-year imple-
mentation period that would, if maintained, achieve
natural visibility conditions by 2064. States will need  to
show reasonable progress. In addition to identifying
goals, state plans must include the following: (1) emis-
sions reduction measures to meet these targets in combi-
nation with other state measures; (2) requirements for
Best Available Retrofit Technology on certain large,
existing sources or an alternative emissions trading pro-
gram; and (3) visibility monitoring representative of all
Class I areas.

  State regional haze plans are due in the 2003 to  2008
timeframe. Due  to common precursors  and the regional
nature of the PM and haze problems, the haze rule
includes specific provisions for states working together
in regional planning groups to assess these problems and
develop coordinated, regional emission reduction strate-
gies. One provision allows nine Grand Canyon Visibility
Transport  Commission States (i.e., Arizona, California,
Colorado, Idaho, Nevada,  New Mexico, Oregon, Utah,
and Wyoming) to submit initial plans in 2003 to imple-
ment their past recommendations within the framework
of the national regional haze program. Another provi-
sion allows certain states to develop  coordinated strate-
gies for regional  haze and PM until 2008, contingent
upon future participation in regional planning groups.

  The new regional haze regulations require ambient
monitoring representative of each  of the Class I areas to
track progress toward the U.S. national  visibility goal.
Required regional haze trend assessments will be based
on changes in visibility expressed in deciviews7. To facili-
tate these assessments, the  aerosol  portion of the
Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual
Environments (IMPROVE) visibility monitoring net-
work is being expanded from 30 to 110 sites during the
year 2000. The expanded network will now represent all
Class I areas where monitoring can be practically imple-
  Implementation of the PM and Ozone NAAQS, in
conjunction with the regional haze program, is expected
to improve visibility in urban as well as  rural areas
nationwide. Other air quality programs  are expected to
reduce emissions and improve visibility  in certain
regions of the country. The Acid Rain Program is
expected to reduce sulfate haze, particularly in the  east-
ern United States, by achieving significant regional
reductions in SO2 emissions. In addition, visibility
impairment in Class I and other areas should improve
because of a number of regulatory activities, including
the NOX State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call, mobile
source emissions and fuel standards, certain air toxics
standards, and the implementation of smoke manage-
ment and wood stove programs to reduce fuel combus-
tion and soot emissions.

Notification, Assessment, and
Mitigation of Significant
Transboundary Air Pollution
•  Each party shall
   notify the other
   concerning a pro-
   posed action,
   activity, or project
   that would be
   likely to cause sig-
   nificant trans-
   boundary air


   Canada and the
United States are
continuing notifica-
tion procedures, ini-
tiated in fall 1994,
to identify possible
new sources and modifications to existing sources of
transboundary air pollution within 100 kilometers
(km)—62 miles—of the border. The countries are also
notifying one another of new sources or modifications
7A measure of visibility that captures the relationship between air pollution and human perception of visibility. When air is free of particles that
cause visibility degradation, the Deciview Haze Index is zero. The higher the deciview level, the poorer the visibility.

of concern beyond the 100-km limit. Canada has noti-
fied the United States of 20 sources, and the United
States has notified Canada of 14 sources. Transboundary
notification information is available on the Internet sites
of both governments at:

   Since the last Progress Report, Canada and the
United States have sustained successful, ongoing consul-
tations on sources of concern. Consultations on the
Boundary Dam power station in Saskatchewan and the
Algoma Steel Plant in Ontario have led to joint air qual-
ity monitoring efforts. A binational consultation group
composed of federal, state, provincial, and Boundary
Dam power station authorities has developed a 5-year
monitoring plan for the area around the power station
on both sides of the border. Beginning in 2000, moni-
toring is designed to  characterize air quality in the area,
with five samplers set up within 60 km of the local
community of Estevan (see Figure 2 below). Forums on
air quality such as the one held in  the summer of 2000
provide information to concerned  citizens and the gen-
eral public about existing efforts and future plans.

  A similar plan, also developed by a joint consultation
group, is being implemented in the area surrounding
the Algoma Steel Plant. Dust fall monitoring sites have
been established in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. Snow
sampling has been  conducted at a  number of sites there,
as well as in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. A PM2 5 moni-
toring network consisting of two monitoring stations is
scheduled to begin in summer 2000. Ongoing consulta-
tions on the Connors Creek Detroit Edison Power Plant
were resolved to  the satisfaction of all parties involved.
Saskatchewan-North Dakota PM Monitoring Network
Saskatchewan-North Dakota public meeting.

The plant, which went back into operation in the sum-
mer of 1999, is now using natural gas instead of coal.
The plant is using CEMs as well.

Assessment and Mitigation

   Canada and the United States have continued to
make progress in assessment and mitigation despite dif-
ferent interpretations of the commitment under the Air
Quality Agreement. In response to the Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission's adoption of the open access
transmission policy and Canada's concerns about possi-
ble increased  transboundary flows of emissions, EPA has
established an electronic database—the Emissions &
Generation Resource Integrated Database (E-GRID).
E-GRID reports publicly available emissions and gener-
ation  data for virtually every power plant and company
that generates electricity in the United States. EPA has
demonstrated the operation of E-GRID  to Canada and
shared emissions monitoring and tracking results. The
second E-GRID provides 1997 data and includes new
information on company, owner type, and fossil-only
emission rates for utilities.

   The next version, E-GRID 2000, scheduled for
release before the end of the year, will include actual
emissions and resource mix data for 1998 and prelimi-
nary data for 1999 for all plants, including nonutility
generators. The data will be configured according to
industry and  power grid structure in 2000 reflecting the
latest  corporate mergers, power plant sales, and grid
reconfigurations. In addition to emission profiles for
SO2, NOX, and CO2, E-GRID 2000 is expected to
report plant-specific emissions and emission rates for
mercury for the first time. A database of power inter-
change between regions of the grid is also under devel-
opment for future versions. (The E-GRID Web site is at
www. epa. gov/acidrain/egrid.)
                                             Figure 2

                    Additional Air Quality  Programs
                    This section focuses on the expanding cooperative efforts and progress Canada and the United States have
                    undertaken on ground-level ozone andparticulate matter. Other air quality efforts undertaken interna-
                    tionally, through provincial-state cooperation, and through public/private partnerships are also reported.
Cooperation  on Ground-Level
Ozone and Particulate Matter


  Since the last Progress Report, Canadian Minister of
the Environment David Anderson and EPA Administra-
tor Carol Browner have supported the April 1999 rec-
ommendation of the Air Quality Committee (AQC) to
proceed with ozone annex negotiations. The first three
negotiating meetings were held February 2000 in
Ottawa, June 2000 in Washington, DC, and August
2000 in Ottawa. Additional meetings are taking place,
with a goal of completing an ozone annex by the end of

  The move to develop an ozone annex was an out-
growth of the initiative on ground-level ozone and par-
ticulate matter (PM)—the Program to Develop a Joint
Plan of Action for Addressing Transboundary Air
Pollution—signed by the environmental heads of both
governments in April 1997- The recommendation to
support negotiation of an ozone annex also was based in
part on a March 1999 report, Ground-Level Ozone:
Occurrence and Transport in Eastern North America,
developed by the AQC Subcommittee on Program
Monitoring and Reporting.

  The report contains modeling and air quality analyses
and features the following conclusions:  (1) long-range
transport of ozone and its precursors significantly influ-
ence the magnitude and persistence of high ozone con-
centration; (2) due to relative amounts of emissions in
each country and the prevailing winds during summer
ozone seasons, more ozone and precursors flow north-
northeast from the United States into Canada than
south-southeast from Canada into the United States; (3)
there are substantial transboundary regional benefits to
controlling NOX emissions both in Canada and the
United States; and (4) there is clear evidence of the
rationale for discussing an effective binational approach
for management of ozone and its precursors in eastern
North America. (The report can be found at:

Particulate Matter
  As an outgrowth of the Joint Plan of Action and the
June 1998 report by the environmental ministers on the
progress of both governments, Canada and the United
States are proceeding with technical analyses to develop
a work  plan for addressing transboundary PM issues.
These analyses include modeling, monitoring, and data
analysis. (For more details on PM work plan develop-
ment and cooperative analyses, see Section IV, pp.

Domestic Programs to Address
Ozone and  Particulate Matter
Federal/Provincial/Territorial Initiatives

  PM and ozone Canada-Wide Standards were finalized
by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the
Environment in June 2000. The standard for PM,
which focuses on the fine fraction PM2 5, is a 30 cubic
micrometers (um3 ) 24-hour average, 98th percentile
ambient measurement annually averaged over 3 consec-
utive years, to be achieved by 2010. Jurisdictions can
continue to apply their existing air quality objectives or
guidelines for PM less than or equal to 10 microns
(PM10). The Canada-Wide Standard for ozone is 65 ppb
8-hour average, 4th highest measurement annually aver-
aged over 3 consecutive years, to be achieved by 2010.

  Accompanying  the standards are a set of joint initial
actions to be  undertaken by all Canadian jurisdictions
and completed in  2005- Federal, provincial, and territo-
rial governments will work together, in consultation
with stakeholders, to identify and develop comprehen-
sive,  national multi-pollutant emissions reduction
strategies. Initially, the strategies target the following
sectors: electric power, pulp and paper, iron and steel,
base  metal  smelting, concrete and asphalt plants, and

lumber and allied wood products. These sectors, based
on current emission inventories, are significant emitters
of the precursor pollutants that cause PM and ozone.
The pollutants are common to most jurisdictions and
affect many communities across Canada.

  The Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000
calls for a number of actions, including new emissions
reduction targets in  Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick,
and Nova Scotia and the pursuit of further SO2 emis-
sions reduction commitments from the United States.
Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia
made a commitment at the Canadian Council of
Ministers of the Environment meeting in November
1999 to announce new targets before the end of 2000.
Ontario has  since announced its target of a 50% reduc-
tion from 1990 levels by 2015- Quebec has committed
to a preliminary target of 40% from 1990 levels  by

Federal Initiatives

  Based  on scientific
recommendations, the
ministers of environ-
ment and health
announced PM10  as
toxic under the new
1999 Canadian
Protection Act

  Under CEPA 1999,
a concrete timeframe
to bring a toxic sub-
stance under effective
control is required.
Key industrial sectors will be required to set  emission
reduction targets and timetables to meet those targets.
The Government of Canada's action on PM10 is  one of
a number of immediate and long-term actions on clean
air. Official notification was published in the Canada
Gazette for a 60-day public comment period.

  To effectively reduce the ambient concentrations of
PM, management strategies must address the pollutants
that are emitted as precursors to PM. In that regard, the
Federal Government announced its intention to  recom-
mend to  the Governor in Council that the principal
precursors to PM (SO2, NOX, VOCs, and ammonia)  be
added to Schedule 1 of CEPA's list of toxic substances.
The announcement launched a 60-day comment period
during which interested parties have the opportunity to
provide the ministers of environment and health with
comments regarding this proposal. These comments will
be considered by the ministers prior to finalizing their
recommendation to the Governor in Council.

  In fall 2000, the Federal Government is releasing
Phase 3 of the Federal Smog Management Plan, contin-
uing the effort begun in 1990 with the Phase 1
NOx/Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Management
Plan and the subsequent 1997 Phase 2 Federal Smog
Management Plan. The Phase 3 Plan provides for initia-
tives to reduce emissions from transportation and petro-
leum fuels as well as stationary sources. The plan also
provides for further scientific research and analysis of
the smog problem, better ambient air monitoring and
reporting, and public education. The plan addresses key
industrial sectors, including electric power, iron and
steel, base metal smelting, pulp and paper, and lumber
and allied wood products.

  The Phase 3 Smog Plan and its initiatives are devel-
oped using multi-stakeholder consultation processes, in
                               cooperation with other
                               interested levels of
                               government. Phase 3
                               initiatives will be
                               implemented in a
                               approach, considering
                               not only ozone and
                               PM, but also initia-
                               tives already underway
                               to address toxics, acid
                               rain, and climate

                                 As a sector, on-road
                               vehicles  are the largest
contributor to NOX and carbon monoxide (CO) emis-
sions in Canada, and the second largest contributor to
VOC emissions.  Given the integrated nature of the
North American market, Canadian motor vehicle emis-
sion standards generally mirror those in the United
States. The current Tier 1 standards establish limits on
hydrocarbons, CO, NOX, and PM emissions. In 1997,
harmonization with the United States was written into
the Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations. The federal emis-
sion standards were previously established under the
Motor Vehicle Safety Act but are now found under
CEPA 1999-

  The CEPA provisions also create new authorities to
set national emission standards for vehicles and engines
used in a variety of off-road applications (e.g., agri-

cultural and construction equipment) and nonroad
applications (e.g., lawn mowers, generators, and chain
saws). Under CEPA, Canada plans to continue aligning
its emission standards for new vehicles and engines with
corresponding U.S. federal programs. Environment
Canada also plans to consult with stakeholders to devel-
op a multi-year agenda for implementing an effective
emission control program for vehicles, engines, and

  Restrictions from mobile sources also will reduce SO2
levels. Beginning in July 2002, through regulations
under CEPA, gasoline's sulfur content must not exceed
an average of 150 parts per million (ppm). This limit is
further restricted to 30 ppm by January 2005- The
reduction in gasoline sulfur levels is expected to reduce
ambient concentrations of SO2 and sulfate particles, as
well as VOC, CO, and NOX emissions from gasoline
vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Sulfur in
diesel regulations, effective since January 1,  1998, limit
the sulfur content of diesel fuel used in on-road vehicles
to a maximum of 500 ppm. Benzene in gasoline regula-
tions, effective since July 1999, limit the content of ben-
zene in gasoline to below 1% by volume.

  To fill the regulatory gap until CEPA 1999 provided
the necessary new authorities, Environment Canada
announced a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)
with members of the Canadian Marine Manufacturers
Association. Under this voluntary MOU, outboard
engines  and personal watercraft sold in Canada will be
designed to comply with U.S. federal emission standards
beginning in the 2001 model year. Environment
Canada also has engaged in dialogue with industry asso-
ciations and engine manufacturers representing the utili-
ty engine and off-road diesel sectors to implement
similar programs.

  Environment Canada is working closely with the
Canadian Urban Transit Association (CUTA),
Bombardier, and other private sector partners to deliver
a major nationwide sustainable transportation cam-
paign. Running in 61 Canadian cities, the campaign is
supported by board advertisements on buses and public
service announcements. The campaign focuses on alter-
natives to single-occupancy vehicles and highlights the
role of public transit in creating cleaner and healthier
Provincial/Regional Emission Reduction Plans


  Ontario has developed an Anti-Smog Action Plan,
which covers a wide variety of sectors, to reduce 1990
NOX and VOC emissions levels 45% by the year 2015-
The action plan has currently identified, planned, or
implemented reduction opportunities. These opportuni-
ties are expected to assist Ontario in achieving up to
80% of the targeted NOX reductions and 60% of the
targeted VOC reductions. Other opportunities and
actions are being identified  by a team of stakeholders
from industry, nongovernmental organizations, ministry
staff, and other levels of government.

  The Ontario government addresses air quality prob-
lems using a mix of regulatory and voluntary tools.  On
January 24, 2000, Ontario announced new actions  to
improve air quality, including a commitment to reduce
the province's SO2 emissions 50% beyond the
Countdown Acid Rain Program cap of 885 kilotonnes
(kt) per year, by 2015- New regulations will cap NOX
and SO2 emissions and will require mandatory emis-
sions monitoring and reporting. These regulations will
first apply to the electricity  sector, then extend to other
industrial  and commercial sectors. In 2001, annual  SO2
and NOX emissions (as nitrogen oxide) from coal and
oil-burning power plants greater than 25 megawatts
electric (MWe) will be limited to 157-5 kt and 36 kt
net—more than 19% and 28% below the levels emitted
in 1990. The province also  announced emissions per-
formance standards for Ontario, as well as U.S.-based
generators wishing to sell to the Ontario market.

  At the same time, the province proposed a "Cap,
Credit, and Trade" emissions reduction trading pro-
gram. A new environmental assessment regulation has
also been announced for Ontario that would specify
environmental assessment requirements for electricity
sector activities. Drive Clean,  initiated in 1999,  is a pro-
gram for inspection and maintenance of passenger vehi-
cles, trucks, and buses to reduce emissions from existing
vehicles. When fully implemented, this program will
eliminate 62,000 tonnes of smog-causing pollutants per
year. The province's gasoline volatility regulation has
been updated and requires gasoline refiners and  blenders
to reduce the smog-causing fumes emitted from
summer-grade gasoline.

  More than 100 air quality standards will have been
reviewed and revised or updated by the end of fiscal year

        1999/2000 to ensure that the environment is protected.
        Ontario also established an interim air quality standard
        for PM10. Currently, the province is developing a PM
        reduction strategy. The ministry also launched the
        Partners in Air Program, a partnership of high schools,
        government, business, and industry. The program will
        include in-class instruction for students on reducing
        smog and monitoring air quality. Provincewide results
        are posted for students on  a Partners in Air Internet
        Web site at

        British  Columbia

           British Columbia (BC) has been the leader in a num-
        ber of clean transportation initiatives. BC is the only
        province to regulate beyond federal tailpipe emission
        standards for new vehicles. After  a review of the relative
        benefits of U.S. Tier 2 and California Low Emission
        Vehicle Standards II standards, BC announced in March
        2000 that it will follow the U.S. Tier 2  standards
        because they will provide the best air quality improve-
        ments. A fuel tax exemption is provided to encourage
        the use of natural gas, propane, and high-level alcohol
        blends to reduce emissions related to smog, fine particle
        formation, and greenhouse gases. A new exemption was
        created for low-level ethanol blends in the 1999 provin-
        cial budget.

           EC's AirCare Program has regulated the emissions of
        existing vehicles since  1992. A number  of improvements
        will take effect when AirCare2 testing begins later in
        2000 or early 2001. BC also began mandatory testing of
        heavy vehicle emissions in  1999-  BC has Canada's only
        program to provide financial incentives to take older
        polluting vehicles off the road. The program was
        relaunched in November 1998 with a wider range of
        incentives. BC has also supported fuel cell commercial-
        ization through the purchase of three Ballard hydrogen
        fuel cell buses, used since fall 1999-

           The Lower Fraser Valley is an international  air shed
        bordered by seacoast and mountains. The Canadian
        portion is shared by the Fraser Valley Regional District
        and the Greater Vancouver Regional District. Both areas
        have management plans aimed at improving air quality
        or preventing further deterioration. (Detailed informa-
        tion  on air quality management efforts in both regions
        can be found at:
Revised Ozone and PM Standards

  In July 1997, EPA established an 8-hour primary
ozone standard to protect against longer exposure peri-
ods that are of concern for both human health and the
environment. The level of the national 8-hour primary
and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone is
an 0.08 ppm daily maximum, 8-hour average, over 3
years. The standards are met when the 3-year average of
the annual  fourth-highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone
concentration is less than or equal to 0.08 ppm.

  The 8-hour ozone standard was subject to legal chal-
lenge. In May 1999,  the U.S.  Court of Appeals for the
DC Circuit remanded the case back to EPA for further
consideration. The court has since agreed to review the

  EPA is taking other actions to protect against the
risks of ozone pollution while litigation continues over
its more protective 8-hour standard. EPA is retaining
the 1-hour  ozone standard where it currently applies
and has reinstated it in areas where it was previously
revoked. These areas will continue monitoring for
ozone, and  some will need to take action to  prevent or
eliminate ozone violations. Once the 8-hour standard
has become fully enforceable and is subject to no further
legal challenge, EPA will take action to evoke the  1-hour
standard in areas where air quality meets that standard.

  Regarding  PM standards, the last review of the stan-
dards concluded that further protection from adverse
health effects is needed. Based on this review, the pri-
mary (health-based) PM standards were revised in July
1997, adding two new PM2 5 standards that offer pro-
tection from fine particles. The new PM2 5 standards
were set at  15 um3 and 65 um3,  respectively, for the
annual and 24-hour standards. The secondary (welfare-
based) PM2 5  standards were made identical to the pri-
mary standards and will be implemented in conjunction
with a revised visibility protection program to address
regional haze in mandatory federal Class I areas. In May
1999, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit
vacated the revised PM10 standards, remanding them
back to EPA for further consideration. The Supreme
Court has since agreed to review the decision in May
2000. EPA is currently reviewing the PM standards,
scheduled for completion by 2002.

   In other efforts, EPA began deployment of a new
monitoring network in early 1999 to assess fine PM
data with respect to the new PM2 5 standards (see
Section IV, p. 24 for more details).

The Ozone Transport Reduction Rule and
Related Actions

   In September 1998, EPA finalized the Ozone
Transport Reduction Rule, known as the NOX State
Implementation Plan (SIP) Call, requiring 22 states8
and the District of Columbia to submit SIPs addressing
the regional transport of ground-level ozone. By
improving air quality and reducing NOX emissions, the
actions directed by these plans will decrease the trans-
port of ozone across state  boundaries in the eastern half
of the  United States. The  rule requires emissions reduc-
tion measures to be in place by May 2004. The final
rule does not mandate which sources must reduce pollu-
tion. States will have the ability to meet the rule's
requirements by reducing emissions from the sources
they choose. Utilities  and  large nonutility point sources,
however, would be one of the most likely sources of
NOX emissions reductions. The final rule  includes a
model NOX Budget Trading Program that will allow
states  to  achieve more than 90% of the required emis-
sions reductions in a highly cost-effective way. This rule
will reduce total summertime NOX emissions in the
affected states and the District of Columbia by about
25% (approximately 1 million tons)  beginning in 2003-
EPA projects that these regional NOX reductions, in
combination with existing local controls, will bring the
vast majority of all new ozone nonattainment areas into
attainment with the 8-hour ozone standard. They also
will help reduce ozone levels in the remaining nonat-
tainment areas east of the Mississippi River.

   In 1997, in a separate but related  action,
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,  New Hampshire,
New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont
filed petitions with EPA under Section 126  of the  Clean
Air Act Amendments (CAAA) to reduce the transport of
ground-level ozone. The petitions  identified 30 states,
plus the  District of Columbia, as containing sources
that significantly contribute to  the regional transport of
ground-level ozone. The petitions  asked EPA to find
that certain utilities and other NOX emissions sources
significantly contribute to these states' ozone problems.9

  In April 1999, EPA issued a final rule determining
that four of the eight petitions could be approved based
solely on technical considerations under the 1-hour
standard. In January 2000, EPA granted these four peti-
tions.10 As a result, 392 facilities will have  to reduce
annual emissions about 510,000 tons from 2007 levels.

Tier 2 Standards for Auto Tailpipe Emissions
and Low Sulfur in Gasoline

  In December 1999, EPA announced  more protective
tailpipe emissions standards for all passenger vehicles,
including sport utility vehicles (SUVs),  minivans, vans,
and pickup trucks. Simultaneously, EPA announced
more stringent standards for sulfur in gasoline, which
will ensure the effectiveness of low-emission control
technologies in vehicles and reduce harmful air pollu-
tion. The implementation of the new tailpipe and sulfur
standards will equate to removing  164 million cars from
the road. These new standards require passenger vehicles
to be 77% to 95% cleaner than those on the road today
and to reduce gasoline's sulfur content by up to 90%.

   The new tailpipe standards are set at an average of
0.07 grams per mile (g/mi) of NOX emissions for all
classes of passenger vehicles, beginning in 2004. This
regulation marks the first time that SUVs and other
light-duty trucks—even the largest passenger vehicles—
are subject to the same national pollution standards as
cars. Vehicles weighing less than 6,000 pounds will be
phased into this standard between  2004 and 2007-
8EPA's final action was subject to legal challenge by a number of parties. In March 2000, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit issued
 a 2-to-l ruling in favor of EPA on all major issues associated with the NOX SIP Call. The court remanded issues—including those relating to
 Wisconsin, Georgia, and Missouri—to EPA. In June 2000, the court ordered SIP revisions addressing requirements upheld by the Court due
 by October 30, 2000.
'All eight petitioning states requested findings under the 1 -hour ozone standard; five also requested findings under the 8-hour standard. For
 each petition, EPA made separate technical determinations for the 1-hour and 8-hour ozone standards.
10EPA denied petitions for the 1 -hour standard filed by Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont because these states no longer
 had areas that were not attaining the 1 -hour standard.

          For the heaviest light-duty trucks, the program pro-
        vides a three-step approach to reducing emissions. First,
        in 2004, vehicles must not exceed 0.6 g/mi—a more
        than 60% reduction from current standards. Second,
        these vehicles are required to achieve an interim stan-
        dard of 0.2  g/mi to be phased in between 2004 and
        2007—an 80% reduction from current standards. In
        the  final step, half of these vehicles will meet the 0.07
        standard by 2008, and the remaining will comply in
        2009- Vehicles weighing between 8,500 and 10,000
        pounds can take advantage of additional flexibility
        during the 2004 to 2008 interim period.

          Beginning in 2004,  the nation's gasoline refiners and
        importers will have the flexibility to manufacture gaso-
        line with a range of sulfur levels, as long as all their pro-
        duction is capped at 300 ppm and their average annual
        corporate sulfur levels are capped at 120 ppm. In 2005,
        the  refinery average will be set at 30 ppm, with a corpo-
        rate average of 90 ppm and a cap of 300 ppm. Both the
        average standards can be met by using credits generated
        by other refiners that reduce sulfur levels early. Finally,
        in 2006, refiners will meet a 30-ppm average sulfur level
        with a maximum cap of 80 ppm. Gasoline produced for
        sale in parts of the western United States will be allowed
        to meet a 150-ppm refinery average and a 300-ppm cap
        through 2006 but will have to meet the 30-ppm
        average/80-ppm cap by 2007-

          Small refiners (i.e., those that have no more than
        1,500 employees and a corporate crude oil capacity of
        no more than 155,000  barrels per day) will be required
        to comply with less stringent interim standards through
        2007, when they must meet the final sulfur standards. If
        necessary, small refiners that demonstrate a severe eco-
        nomic hardship can apply for an additional extension of
        up to two years.

     Proposed Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle
     Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur
     Control Requirements

       In June 2000, EPA proposed a major program to sig-
     nificantly reduce emissions from heavy-duty engines and
     vehicles. This comprehensive 50-state control program
     regulates the heavy-duty vehicle and its fuel as a single
     system. Under the proposal, new emission standards will
     begin to take effect in 2007 and will apply to heavy-
     duty highway engines and vehicles operated on any fuel.
     As proposed, this program will reduce emissions of NOX
     and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC)—key ingredi-
     ents in ground-level ozone—by 2.8 million and
     305,000 tons per year in 2030, respectively. Particulate
     emissions from these vehicles would be reduced by
     110,000 tons per year in 2030.

       The proposed PM emissions standards for new heavy-
     duty engines of 0.01 g/bhp-hr would take effect in the
     2007 model year. Standards for NOX and NMHC are
     0.20 g/bhp-hr and 0.14 g/bhp-hr, respectively. These
     NOX and NMHC standards would be phased in togeth-
     er for diesel engines between 2007 and 2010. Proposed
     standards  for complete heavy-duty vehicles would be
     implemented on the same schedule as  for  engine stan-
     dards. For vehicles between 10,000 and 14,000 pounds,
     the proposed standards are  0.4 g/mi for NOX, 0.02 g/mi
     for PM, and 0.23 g/mi for NMHC. Proposed standards
     for diesel fuel specify that fuel sold to consumers for use
     in highway vehicles have a sulfur content no greater
     than 15 ppm, beginning in June 2006. Current sulfur
     content in fuel  is about 500 ppm.

     State Efforts

     Attainment Demonstrations
       The CAAA requires each state containing an area des-
     ignated nonattainment for ozone to submit an attain-
,:•'•',   ment demonstration plan to meet the ozone standard.
A;   EPA has recently proposed action on attainment
     demonstrations for 10 major urban areas: Atlanta,
     Baltimore, Houston, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago,
(.,    Milwaukee, western Massachusetts, greater Connecticut,
     and Washington, DC. Attainment demonstrations for
     these areas will involve 13 states and the District of

       The CAAA specifies certain measures that  must be
     adopted in nonattainment areas—reasonably available
     control technology on major sources, and vehicle
     inspection and maintenance, for example. However,
     each state can choose the additional measures needed

for attainment. The rule-making action for each plan
provides details of the control measures the plans rely

Northeast Ozone Transport Region
   The CAAA established the Northeast Ozone
Transport Region and the Ozone Transport
Commission (OTC) in recognition of long-standing
regional ozone problems in
the northeastern United
States. The OTC comprises
the governors or their
designees and an air pollu-
tion control official from
Connecticut, Delaware,
Maine, Maryland, New
Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, Vermont,
Virginia, and the District of
Columbia. Administrators
for three northeastern EPA
regions also participate.
   The OTC states decided
on a number of steps to
reduce regional air pollution. For example, they agreed
to significantly reduce NOX emissions throughout the
region from large stationary sources such as power
plants and other large fuel combustion sources using
market-based approaches. This program is expected to
reduce 1990 baseline emissions by 52 percent.

Other Cooperative Air  Quality

United Nations Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution Protocol
   The United Nations Economic Commission for
Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary
Air Pollution Protocol (LRTAP), signed in 1979, was
the first international agreement recognizing environ-
mental and health problems  caused by the flow of air
pollutants across borders and the need for regional solu-
tions. On LRTAP's 20th anniversary in December 1999,
Canada and the United States signed the Protocol to
Abate Acidification, Eutrophication, and Ground-Level
Ozone. The signing of this agreement initiates a new
phase within LRTAP to increase emphasis on imple-
mentation, compliance, review, and extension of existing
  To accommodate the domestic (acid rain) and bilater-
al (acid rain and ozone) agreements in place or currently
underway in both countries, Canada and the United
States will incorporate their emissions reduction com-
mitments for SO2, NOX, and VOCs into the new proto-
col at the time of ratification. This will enable inclusion
of the bilateral initiative to complete negotiations of an
ozone annex to the Air Quality Agreement in 2000.
Emissions reduction commitments in the protocol relate
                          to emission limit values for
                          new and existing station-
                          ary sources and new
                          mobiles sources; applica-
                          tion of best available tech-
                          niques (BAT); and
                          measures to reduce VOC
                          emissions associated with
                          the use of products. There
                          are no Canadian or U.S.
                          commitments related to
                          ammonia. (For more infor-
                          mation on the LRTAP
                          Convention and protocols,
                    '""+F'  lrtaP-)

New England  Governors and Eastern
Canadian Premiers

  The Conference of New England Governors and
Eastern Canadian Premiers  (NEG/ECP) announced res-
olutions containing action plans for acid rain and mer-
cury at its July 1998 annual meeting. In 1999,  the
NEG/ECP Acid Rain Steering Committee called on the
Federal Governments to reduce SO2 emissions  50% and
annual NOX emissions  30% beyond current commit-
ments. State and  provincial  implementation of the
NEG/ECP Acid Rain Action Plan has led to the forma-
tion of focused work groups on forest mapping, surface
water quality, fine particle monitoring, public outreach,
and data exchange. (For details on scientific activities
and NEG/ECP projects, see Section IV, pp. 27 and 28.)

Canada-U.S. Georgia Basin Ecosystem

  In January 2000, Canadian Minister of the
Environment David Anderson and EPA Administrator
Carol Browner signed a British Columbia-Washington
Environmental Cooperation Agreement. This coopera-
tive initiative builds on several years of conservation and
protection work at the  state/provincial/regional levels,
strengthening the governments' partnership in address-

        ing the region's transboundary and global environmental
        challenges. As part of this initiative, Canada and the
        United States will establish a joint Environment
        Canada-EPA work group of senior-level officials to
        develop annual action plans. The plans will share scien-
        tific information on the ecosystem, develop joint
        research initiatives, ensure coordination of environmen-
        tal management initiatives, and jointly consider longer
        term planning issues. Enhanced cooperation on air qual-
        ity issues is expected to be one of the first action items.

        North American Research Strategy for
        Tropospheric Ozone

          The North American Research Strategy for
        Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO) is a public/private
        partnership that includes Canada, the United States,
        and Mexico. It coordinates research on atmospheric
        processes involved in ozone and ozone precursor accu-
        mulation, transformation, and transport in the conti-
        nental troposphere, as well as on fine particles.
        NARSTO's report, An Assessment of Tropospheric Ozone
        Pollution: A North American Perspective,  is expected to  be
        released by fall 2000. The report will address tropos-
pheric ozone and ozone precursor transboundary issues,
emissions, monitoring trends, modeling, and methods
development. Research continues under NARSTO to
determine efficient and effective strategies for local and
regional ozone management across the North American
continent. NARSTO also is preparing a PM science
assessment expected to  be completed by the end of

Northeast Regional Air Quality Committee

  The Northeast Regional Air Quality Committee
(NERAQC), established in response to Prevention of
Significant Deterioration (PSD) and visibility protection
under Annex 1, is focused  on  protected areas in New
England and Atlantic Canada. NERAQC is made up of
federal, state, and provincial representatives. The com-
mittee holds meetings and conferences to exchange
information about  air pollution research, air monitor-
ing, and mitigation efforts that impact parks and pro-
tected areas. (For more information on NERAQC, see
        "Quality assurance and data management guidelines and assistance are available to all NARSTO researchers at the Oak Ridge National
        Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.


                                                                                          Section IV
                       Scientific  Information   Exchange
                        This section focuses on Canadian and U.S. progress under Annex 2 of the Air Quality Agreement to
                        cooperate and to exchange scientific information related to transboundary air quality issues. This
                        cooperation and exchange of data is essential for comparing atmospheric and ecosystem changes related
                        to variations in emissions of pollutants. It is also important for publishing results in common formats.
                        The emissions graphics and acid deposition maps presented in this section are examples of cooperative
                        data sharing.  Throughout the 1990s, cooperative efforts focused primarily on acid rain. In recent
                        years, the two governments have undertaken joint analyses and shared data in the areas of
                        level ozone and fine p articulates.
 Emissions Inventories

   Emissions inventories provide the foundation for air
 quality management programs. They are used to identi-
 fy major sources of air pollution, provide data to input
 into air quality models, and track the progress of control
 strategies. In this section, SO2, NOX, and VOCs are the
 main pollutants addressed. SO2 and NOX emissions are
 the dominant precursors of acidic deposition; NOX and
 VOCs are primary contributors to the  formation of
 ground-level ozone; and all three pollutants contribute
 to PM formation.

   In this section, emissions trends estimates for SO2,
 NOX, and VOCs for both Canada and the United States
 (Figures 3, 6, and 7) are presented reflecting new
 methodologies for determining total estimates and using
 new models and results (e.g., the NONROAD model).
 In addition to the joint emissions trends data, the latest
 available data (1998) on sources of emissions by sector
 are presented in Figures 4, 5, and 8. Canadian emissions
 data are preliminary
Canada-U.S. SO2 Emissions, 1980-2010
                  -Canada	US 	Total          Figure 3

 No data were available in 1980 to estimate emissions from U.S.
 nonroad diesel and gasoline vehicles. For purposes of consis-
 tency, these emissions have been removed from all other years.
Sulfur Dioxide
  Coal and oil combustion, smelting, and a few indus-
trial processes continue to be the principal anthro-
pogenic sources of SO2. Overall, a 39% reduction in
SO2 emissions is projected in Canada and the United
States from 1980 to 2010.

Canada-U.S. SO2 Emissions By Sector
                 Canada - 1998
     Electric Utilities
                                                                                      Industrial Sources
                                                                   United States - 1998
                                                                                 Industrial Sources
                                                                                       Fuel Combustion
                 Electric Utilities
                                                                                              Figure 4

Nitrogen Oxides
  The principal anthropogenic source of NOX emissions
remains the combustion of fuels in stationary and
mobile sources. Motor vehicles, residential and commer-
cial furnaces, industrial and electric utility boilers and
engines, and other equipment contribute to this catego-
ry. U.S. reductions in NOX emissions are attributed to
controls in electric utilities under the Acid Rain

Canada-U.S. NOX Emissions By Sector
                   Canada - 1998
                                    Industrial Sources
                                        Fuel Combustion
Electric Utilities
                United States - 1998
                                 Industrial Sources
                                        Fuel Combustion
                                           Elsctric Utilities
                   Program, the estimated controls associated with EPA's
                   Regional Transport NOX State Implementation Plan
                   (SIP) Call, and the Tier 2 Tailpipe Standard. Overall
                   estimated trends for anthropogenic emissions of NOX in
                   Canada and the United States from 1990 to 2010 are
                   shown below.
                   Canada-U.S. NOX Emissions, 1990-2010
                                                                     1995      2000
                                                                     ••'••Canada -—US
                                       Figure 6

Volatile Organic Compounds

  Anthropogenic emissions of VOCs come from a wide
variety of sources, including mobile sources and indus-
trial processes (e.g., chemical manufacturing and the
production of petroleum products). Emissions in the
United States are expected to decline by the year 2000
and then remain stable through 2010. Overall estimated
trends in anthropogenic VOC emissions for Canada and
the United States from 1980 to 2010 are shown below.
                                                         Canada-U.S.VOC Emissions, 1980-2010
                                                                           990     1995     2000
                                                                            -•-Canada -m-US  -^Total
                                                                                                      Figure 7
                                              Figure 5

Canada-U.S.VOC Emissions By Sector
                   Canada -  1998
                                        Industrial Sources
                                  Fuel Combustion
               United States -  1998
                  Industrial Sources
                              Fuel Combustion
                                             Figure 8

Acid  Deposition  Monitoring

  Acid deposition monitoring is measured both as wet
deposition in the form of rain, snow, and fog, and dry
deposition through analyses of particles and gases.
Canada and the United States have well-established net-
works that measure wet and dry deposition. Both coun-
tries contributed to an integrated data set used for the
maps on  page 20 that show North American deposition
Status and Trends

  Following implementation of Phase I of the Acid
Rain Program, analyses of National Atmospheric Depo-
sition Program/National Trends Network
(NADP/NTN) data for 1995 to 1998 showed a dramat-
ic and unprecedented sulfate deposition reduction of up
to 25% over a large area of the eastern United States.
The greatest reductions were in the northeastern United
States, where many sensitive ecosystems are located.

  In eastern Canada, sulfate concentrations in precipita-
tion did not exhibit the same sudden decrease in 1995
as seen in the United States. While the Canadian con-
centration trends generally moved downward in 1995,
the  decrease appeared as a continuation  of a slow
decline begun several years earlier. The magnitude of the
slow decline between the 1986 to  1989  period and the
1993  to 1996 period ranged from 12%  to 30% at most
Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network
(CAPMoN) sites.

  A 10-year trend  analysis for the 1988 to 1998 period
at 34  eastern U.S. Clean Air Status and  Trends Network
(CASTNet) sites shows significant declines in SO2 and
sulfate concentrations in ambient air. The average SO2
reduction was 38 percent; for sulfate, the reduction was
22 percent. In the early 1990s, ambient SO2 concentra-
tions in the rural eastern United States were highest in
western Pennsylvania and along the Ohio Valley in the
vicinity of Chicago and Gary, Indiana. Large SO2 air
quality improvements can be seen by comparing the
1990  to 1991 period with the 1997 to 1998 period.
The largest decrease in  concentrations are noted in the
vicinity of Chicago and throughout states bordering the
Ohio  Valley (Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Kentucky, and West Virginia). The highest SO2 concen-
trations in the rural parts of the eastern  United States
are  concentrated in southwestern Pennsylvania.

  In eastern Canada, SO2 and sulfate concentrations in
air exhibited similar trends to those in the eastern
United States. At most  CAPMoN sites,  SO2 and sulfate
concentrations decreased from  highs in  the 1988 to
1991  period until 1995, after which they leveled off. As
with the U.S. CASTNet measurements, the sulfate
decline tended to be slower than that of SO2. Highest
SO2 and sulfate concentrations occurred in the south-
ernmost parts of Ontario and Quebec, in close proximi-
ty to the northern areas of the United States that
experienced the highest concentrations.

  Analyses of Atmospheric Integrated Research Moni-
toring Network (AIRMoN) wet and dry deposition sites

 Wet Sulfate and Wet Nitrate Deposition in 1980-1984 and 1995-1998

 Wet depostion before (1980-1984) and after (1995-1998) the implementation of the Phase 1 CAAA con-
 trols can be compared in Figures 9 through 12. Wet sulfate deposition decreased substantially from the
 early 1980s to the post-implementation period. Nitrate wet deposition, on the other hand, showed minor
 changes between these periods. Units are kilograms per hectare per year. These analyses are based on
 measurements of precipitation chemistry from the NADP/NTN and CASTNet in the United States and
 from federal and provincial monitoring networks in Canada. Wet sulfate deposition has been adjusted for
 the sea-salt contribution of sulfate. Contours are not shown in figures 10 and 12 in Ontario and Quebec
 because provincial data were not available; values shown in those provinces are for federal sites only.
 1980-1984 Wet Sulfate Deposition
   1980-1984 Wet Nitrate Deposition
                                   Figure 9
1995-1998 Wet Sulfate Deposition
  !  X"J  /--SBf •   /j?
  I  t>-4_"»i_    --— :•'•
                                      Figure 10
1995-1998 Wet Nitrate Deposition
                                                        /    h
                                        Figure I I
                                       Figure 12

focusing primarily in the Northeast showed sulfate con-
centrations dropping as utility SO2 emissions decreased.
There was a one-to-one change in total sulfur concen-
trations reduced (SO2 and sulfate) to SO2 emissions

  Nitrate concentration in precipitation remains
unchanged when comparing NADP/NTN nitrate data
collected from 1983 to  1984 with data collected from
1995 to 1998. CASTNet data also showed no change in
total nitrate concentrations. The highest nitrate concen-
trations were found in Ohio, Indiana,  and Illinois.

  In eastern Canada, the concentrations of nitrate in
precipitation, as measured by CAPMoN, showed differ-
ent trends depending on the location.  In Ontario, the
majority of sites did not exhibit an obvious trend
throughout the 1980s and up to 1997; in Quebec and
the Atlantic regions, most sites showed increases in the
last few years of the 1980s or the first few years of the
1990s, followed by decreases until early 1997- This
behavior is consistent with the trend in NOX emissions
in eastern North America.
  Wet deposition in Canada is measured by various fed-
eral and provincial/territorial governments.
Environment Canada operates 19 federal sites in
Canada under the auspices of CAPMoN. Three addi-
tional sites will be added in 2000/2001. Provincial wet
deposition monitoring networks, comprising 77 sites,
are operated by the governments of British Columbia,
Alberta, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia,
Newfoundland, and the Northwest Territories. Ontario
closed its monitoring network of approximately 20 sites
in April 2000, leaving only 7 CAPMoN sites operating
in that province.

  Dry deposition is determined at 10 of Environment
Canada's CAPMoN sites using a technique known as
the inferential method (a similar approach is used in the
United States). Two more sites will be added in
2000/2001. No dry deposition measurements are made
by the provinces or territories.

  The United States has three acid deposition monitor-
ing networks: NADP/NTN; AIRMoN, which is part of
NADP; and CASTNet.  NADP/NTN has more than
                                                   200 wet deposition monitoring sites, including 15 collo-
                                                   cated dry deposition sites monitored on a weekly basis.
                                                   Nine AIRMoN sites monitor wet deposition on a daily
                                                   basis, and 15 sites monitor dry deposition on a weekly
                                                   basis. CASTNet has 74 sites monitoring dry deposition
                                                   and rural ozone concentrations.

                                                   Information and Data Exchange

                                                      EPA and Environment Canada have broadened their
                                                   coordination on comparability issues, sharing of infor-
                                                   mation on quality control,  and data management. An
                                                   EPA workshop held in May 2000 focused on challenges
                                                   facing the operation of dry deposition monitoring net-
                                                   works in both countries. During the next  few years,
                                                   research efforts will be directed at developing better esti-
                                                   mates of dry deposition, emphasizing nitrogen.

                                                    Ozone Concentrations Over Eastern
                                                    North America, 1996-1998
                                                                                              Figure 13
                                                   Ground-Level Ozone
                                                   Monitoring  and Mapping

                                                      Ground-level ozone (the primary constituent of
                                                   smog) continues to be a pervasive pollution problem
                                                   throughout many areas of the United States and south-
                                                   ern Canada. Ozone is not emitted directly into the air,
                                                   but is formed by the reaction of VOCs and NOX in the
                                                   presence of heat and sunlight. Ground-level ozone forms
                                                   readily in the atmosphere, usually during hot summer
                                                   weather. As reported in Section III, p.  9, the Air Quality
                                                   Committee produced a joint transboundary ozone
                                                   report including modeling and air quality analyses.

                                                   Status and Trends
                                                      Figure 13 (above) shows the fourth highest daily max-
                                                   imum 8-hour ozone concentration for the northeastern
                                                   portion of North America, averaged over the years 1996

to 1998. This figure was created for Environment
Canada using the EPA-sponsored Map Generator
Program. The figure incorporates data from 271 ozone
monitoring sites that had at least two years of observa-
tions in the 1996 to 1998 period.

Distribution of 4th Highest Daily 8h Maximum Ozone
(ppb) for Regional Sites, 1994-1996 (Median, 5th, 25th,
75th, and 95th Percentiles)
                                           Figure  14
  Figure 14 shows the distribution of the fourth highest
daily maximum 8-hour ozone concentration at sites in
the Canada-U.S. border region using data for 1994 to
1996. The highest values are recorded at the U.S. sites
and at the southwestern Ontario sites; the lowest values
are recorded at sites in the  Prairies and the Vancouver

Concentrations of combined nitrogen oxide (NO),
nitrogen dioxide (NO2)  and NOX decreased in urban
sites from 1989 to 1996 in Montreal, the Toronto area,
southwestern Ontario, and Vancouver-Lower Fraser
Valley. About half of this change was recorded between
1989  and 1990. In contrast, there has been little or no
detectable change in mean VOC concentrations during
the same period.

Ozone Monitoring

  Both governments have  extensive ground-level ozone
monitoring programs.

  Ambient monitoring of ground-level ozone and NOX
is performed throughout Canada under the National Air
Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network. The  NAPS net-
work is a joint program of the federal and provincial
governments for monitoring and assessing the ambient
air quality at 150 air monitoring stations in 52 urban
centers across Canada. Air quality data for the criteria
pollutants (SO2, carbon monoxide (CO), NO2, ozone,
and PM) and for other pollutants such as particulate
lead, sulfate, and nitrate are collected, validated, and
archived in the NAPS database.

  Data records for ozone and NO2 go back to the early
1980s. Special VOC measurements have been collected
since 1989- Most monitoring of ground-level ozone and
precursors is focused in the country's densely urbanized
regions. In addition, Environment Canada operates
CAPMoN, which is representative of most nonurban
regions of the country.


  The national ambient air quality monitoring pro-
gram—the State and Local Air Monitoring Stations
(SLAMS)  network—is implemented by state  and  local
air pollution control agencies. The SLAMS network
consists of three major categories of monitoring stations:
(1) those that are SLAMS  only; (2) National Air
Monitoring Stations (NAMS); and (3) Photochemical
Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS).  PAMS meas-
ure a variety of criteria and noncriteria pollutants. EPA
also operates CASTNet, which provides ozone levels in
rural areas, as well as dry acidic deposition levels and
trends (see pages 19 and 21).

  Currently, there are 578 SLAMS for ozone, which are
used for SIP support, state/local data, and EPA regional
office oversight. There are  208 NAMS sites for ozone,
which are used for national policy support, national
trends development, measurement of maximum concen-
trations and population exposures, and EPA headquar-
ters oversight. Additionally, the state and local agencies
operate 265 special purpose monitors (SPM)  for ozone.
These are generally used for special state- or local-level
studies and state/local oversight.

  The PAMS  networks measure ozone precursors (i.e.,
approximately 60 volatile hydrocarbons and carbonyl) as
required by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments
(CAAA) to monitor the most severe ozone nonattain-
ment areas. The PAMS requirements were designed to
provide information on the roles of ozone precursors,
pollutant transport, and local meteorology in the
photochemical process, and to assist in information
gathering for proposed ozone control strategies. In
2000, approximately 83 PAMS will be in operation.

Ozone Mapping
Particulate  Matter  Monitoring,
Data Analysis, and  Modeling

  AIRNOW, EPA's real-time air quality program, will
expand into Canada in 2000 to cover the Atlantic
provinces and Quebec. The AIRNOW animated Ozone
Map shows ozone concentrations within categories rang-
ing from "Good" to varying degrees of "Unhealthy."
(For more information, see

  The expansion into eastern Canada is a cooperative
venture involving New England states,  eastern Canadian
provinces, the Northeast States  for Coordinated Air Use
Management (NESCAUM),  EPA, and Environment
Canada. Ontario has  been invited to join the project. In
May 2000, the partners initiated efforts to begin trans-
fer of the real-time ozone data. The resulting map is
expected to be available to the general public in 2000.
The project, in reaching out to  the public, will comple-
ment existing smog advisory programs  and the develop-
ing smog forecasting program. Currently, 32 states
participate in AIRNOW.
Air Quality Index

   In 1999, EPA finalized revisions to the Air Quality
Index (AQI), formerly known as the Pollutant Standards
Index. Significant revisions were made, including: (1)
changes to better reflect the continuum of health risks
associated with increased pollutant concentrations; (2)
the addition of pollutant-specific health and cautionary
statements to inform the public of effective risk reduc-
tion behaviors; (3) an AQI update for use in the media
(i.e., television and newspapers); and (4) specific revi-
sions to add an ozone subindex in terms of 8-hour aver-
age concentrations, as well as a new subindex for fine
PM (PM25). (For more information, see
  Canada and the United States are conducting cooper-
ative analyses and developing a joint work plan for
transboundary inhalable particles as an outgrowth of the
Joint Plan of Action signed in 1997 and the Joint Plan
Report of the environmental ministers in 1998. The
work plan will include both data analysis and atmos-
pheric modeling efforts to quantify the impacts of trans-
boundary PM and precursors transport across the

  The first workshop on ambient data analysis and air
quality modeling activities was held in September 1999-
The workshop participants recommended developing a
3- to 4-year plan, taking advantage of the first genera-
tion of PM models to assess transboundary PM impacts.
The Air Quality Committee supported the recommen-
dation that all available models be used at this stage at
its November 1999 meeting in Washington, DC.

  The plan provides an inventory of transboundary
episodes, data comparability studies, Canadian/U.S.
database infrastructure, source-receptor modeling,
extended episode analysis and reporting, and entering
data into the database.

  In addition, Canadian/U.S. analysis of specific
episodes is already under way in  eastern North America
following two episodes. During February 1998, very
high particle nitrate concentrations were observed, fol-
lowed by increasing particle sulfate concentrations as air
masses began to move at the end of the episode. In the
July 1995 summer episode, particle sulfate dominated
the  mass observations.

  Transboundary impacts model applications will be
made using a combined 1995/1996 Canadian-U.S.
emissions inventory. In addition, applications for the
regional scale modeling system, Models-3/Community
Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) have been initiated
for  the continental  United States and southern Canada,
with a 36-kilometer (km) grid for the 1996 base year.
CMAQ will be applied for PM25 visibility and several
PM species. Preliminary results are expected by the end
of the year.

  There are several different monitoring methods used
within the Canadian and U.S. networks. They operate
on various sampling schedules, from continuous hourly
measurements to 24-hour average measurements taken
once every six days. A major challenge of the ambient
data analysis work is determining how these various
methods can be compared. Another challenge is under-
standing the spatial patterns and historical trends by
merging data from these different methods and

  During 2001, another workshop on modeling and
data analysis will assess progress and products, and
refine joint efforts to complete the transboundary
impact assessment.

Paniculate  Matter Monitoring
  Canada has monitored for PM2 5 and PM10 under the
NAPS program since 1984. Currently, the highest
observed PM2 5  concentrations are  in eastern Canada's
border regions. More than half the PM, especially the
finer fraction PM25, is of secondary origin from atmos-
Variations in the Composition of PM in Two
Canadian Cities
 Abbotsford, British Columbia
K (Non-soil)
 StAndrews, New Brunswick
                   B.C.   Soil
                  7.10% J3^31 % K (Non-soil)
pheric reactions of precursor gases, including SO2, NOx:
VOCs, and ammonia (NH3). This results in PM com-
position varying with season and location, as illustrated
below left for Abbotsford, British Columbia, and St.
Andrews, New Brunswick. The most recent national
summary of Canadian PM air quality and impacts can
be found in the Paniculate Matter,  Science Assessment
Document, 1999, at
bch_pubs/99ehd220-l .htm.


  In the United States, deployment of new monitoring
networks for PM2 5 is supplying additional information
to both the Aerometric Information Retrieval System
(AIRS) and AQI systems. Specific monitoring network
data will include:
• Approximately 300 Federal Reference Method
   (FRM) sites that have complete  data for 1999, and
  about 600  FRM sites with some 1999 data and com-
  plete  2000 data. The network will have 1,089 FRM
  sites installed by December 2000.
• Approximately 200 continuous ambient monitors.
• The initial 15 speciation sites, which had limited data
  available as of April 2000. The completed speciation
  network, expected to total 250 to 300 sites with 54
  sites operating for trends  purposes, will be installed
  by December 2000.
• Eight supersites with useful data in 2001.
• An expansion of the IMPROVE network, expected
  to be complete by December 2000. It will include
   110 sites nationally.
• CASTNetdata.

Paniculate  Matter Modeling
  Understanding the potential for long-range transport
of particles between Canada and the United States
requires insight from both ambient data and predicted
ambient concentrations using regional chemical trans-
port models. These models use the current understand-
ing of chemical transformations and meteorological
influences on particle behavior, plus the best estimates
of primary particle and precursor gas emissions esti-
mates. The governments are working jointly to merge
mobile source emission and modeling files. This com-
mon emission inventory is critical as a foundation to the
joint modeling effort to characterize transboundary
                                           Figure 15

 Canadian PM2S Monitoring Sites Within 200 Km of
 U.S. Border
Status of PM2s Monitoring Deployment (United
                                            Figure 16

   Canadian modeling efforts are directed toward devel-
opment and evaluation of A Unified Regional Air
Quality Modeling System (AURAMS), capable of pre-
dicting multi-pollutant responses to changes in gaseous
and particle emissions. This model, now in its first stage
of development, can predict  size-resolved particle mass
concentrations (including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium,
organic carbon, elemental carbon, crustal material, and
water), sulfate and nitrate deposition, and ozone. This
model is currently being evaluated on an eastern North
America domain, and plans are in place to apply it to
western North America.

  The United States also is proceeding with develop-
ment, testing, and application of the Regional Modeling
System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD). The
application of the REMSAD into a variety of sensitivity
analyses and control strategy simulations continues.
Current applications are for the continental United
States with 36 km grids. Concentration estimates are
being made for PM25, visibility, and several PM species
with a complete 1996 base year (both emissions and
meteorological conditions). In addition, consistent with
recommendations from a scientific peer review, the
model is being updated and documented for  both emis-
sions and air quality. Model performance comparisons
will be conducted with observed data for both the 1996
base year application and the improved model. As dis-
cussed previously as part of a joint effort, progress is
being made in applying the regional scale CMAQ for
the continental United States and southern Canada for
PM, visibility, and acid deposition.
                                            Figure 17
Data Analysis
  A completed general trends analysis using IMPROVE
data for PM25 appears in the 1998 National Ambient
Air Quality Trends Report. Ongoing data analysis activi-
ties with both short- and long-term products are under-
way to spatially and temporally characterize PM2 5.
These activities include but are not limited to: (1) con-
tinual data quality assessment of the monitoring net-
work; (2) investigation of interrelationships between
primary and secondary formed pollutants;  (3) inter-
comparison of pollutants and emission patterns; and (4)
investigation  of uncertainties and limitations in source-
receptor  analysis. The use of data from various databases
and  networks is an issue that is continually addressed.

Paniculate Matter Mapping

   In addition to ozone mapping, EPA is working
toward making real-time PM2 5 data available through
the AIRNOW Web site at Based
on feedback at the annual  Ozone Mapping Workshop,
data are expected to be readily available across the
United States in 2001. Several states will make data
available this year, but the  majority prefer to wait until
they are fully operational with real-time ozone data
before extending their coverage to PM25.

Paniculate Matter Research


  EPA is carrying out a major PM research program
focused on: (1) improving the scientific underpinnings
for setting ambient air standards; and (2) expanding the
scientific and technical tools to implement control
strategies needed to attain the standards. To support
standard setting, research is conducted to improve
understanding of the characteristics of particles to which
people are exposed; to identify and clarify mechanisms
by which particles cause adverse health effects; to under-
stand factors that place some subpopulations  at
increased risk; and to characterize the risks to public
health. Research to support standards implementation is
designed to determine major sources of PM, to develop
methods to measure PM constituents, to develop air
quality models of PM's atmospheric fate and  transport,
and to identify the most cost-effective methods to
reduce or prevent risks  associated with PM exposure.

  During the next sev-
eral years, EPA's PM
research program will
address the immediate
and long-term research
priorities recommended
by the National
Research Council's
Committee on Research
Priorities for Airborne
Particulate Matter.
Specific examples of
ongoing efforts include:
• Conducting atmos-
  pheric sciences
  research such as spe-
  ciated ambient monitoring, emissions characteriza-
  tion, atmospheric chemistry and processes, and
  modeling, under the aegis of NARSTO. (For more
  information on NARSTO, see Section III, p. 16.)
• Carrying out "exposure panel studies" that follow
  small groups of individuals by using intensive person-
  al exposure monitoring and activity diaries.
• Using concentrated ambient particle systems to
  explore animal susceptibility models and to evaluate
  characteristics of particles affecting health in human
  clinical, animal lexicological, and in vitro systems.
•  Reviewing and summarizing exposure and health
   effects work for the next Air Quality Criteria
   Document for PM.
•  Conducting risk management research to evaluate
   options for reducing emissions of both particles and
   gaseous precursors.

   (For more information on EPA's research program,
see the international inventory of PM research activities

Aquatic  Effects Research and

Cooperative Regional Trends Assessment

   In 1999, Canadian and U.S. researchers12 analyzed
whether emissions reductions have led to chemical
recovery of surface waters in  five North American
regions: Maine/Atlantic Canada, Vermont/Quebec,
southern/central Ontario, Adirondacks/Catskills, and
midwestern North America. The analysis examined
regional trends in surface water chemistry between 1980
                           and 1995- Results generally
                           confirmed those reported
                           in the 1998 Progress

                            Trends in surface water
                           sulfate concentrations pro-
                           vided the strongest evi-
                           dence for regional
                           responses to decreasing sul-
                           fate deposition. Lake and
                           stream sulfate  concentra-
                           tions decreased in all North
                           American regions, with
                           downward trends stronger
                           in the 1990s than in the
1980s. Regional declines in lake and stream nitrate con-
centrations were rarer, smaller in magnitude, and likely
confounded by climatic effects and effects of insect
infestations. Researchers expected to see recovery (either
decreasing acidity or increasing alkalinity) in all areas
with strong regional sulfate declines. Recovery was
observed, however, only in the Vermont/Quebec region
in the 1990s. Southern/central Ontario, the Adirondack
and Catskill Mountains, and midwestern North
America demonstrated either an absence of regional
increases in alkalinity or continued acidification. Lack of
12Stoddard, J.L., et al. "Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe." Nature, Volume 401, October 7,

recovery in the Canadian and U.S. regions is primarily
attributed to strong regional declines in base cation13
concentrations. These declines exceeded decreases in sul-
fate concentrations. Another potential factor is the
increasing role of nitrogen in acid-sensitive regions as
sulfate levels decline.  Evidence points to base cation
declines being caused by high rates of acidic deposition,
which in the past, have leached enough cations from
sensitive soils to severely deplete cation pools.

  As described in Section III, the New England
Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers (NEG/ECP)
Acid Rain Action Plan also provides a forum for
exchange of scientific information related to aquatic
effects monitoring. The Action Plan resulted in prepara-
tion of two  state-of-the-art reviews. One review by the
NEG/ECP Water Quality Monitoring Workgroup in
2000, Is Nitrogen Deposition a Serious Issue?, addresses
the issue of nitrogen.  The other is a 2000 report, Model
Estimations of the Effects ofSO2 Emission Reductions on
Regional Aquatic Chemistry and Biology in Eastern North
America, issued by Environment Canada's National
Water Research  Institute. A review of the  biological
damages caused by acid deposition is planned for
2000/2001. Also,  regional lake and river monitoring
sites in four New England states and four Canadian
provinces will be used to jointly assess temporal trends
in water chemistry.

   Monitoring lakes near major SO2 sources at Rouyn-
Noranda, Quebec,  and Sudbury,  Ontario, complements
the regional trends  analyses. Emissions from the smelter
at Rouyn-Noranda have declined by more than 70%
since the early 1980s. This reduction, added to those
achieved in Ontario and in the United States, explain
the 40% to 50% sulfate decrease in surrounding lakes.
Like the regional results, however, reduction of lake
acidity has been less successful. There was a significant
increase in pH  (mean 0.5 unit) in clear water lakes
south of the smelter between 1991 and 1996, but the
pH of colored lakes remained low. Alkalinity remained
stable or decreased slightly, while base cations and alu-
minum decreased significantly. Finally, despite no
change in atmospheric deposition or land use, there was
a twofold increase in nitrate concentrations in lakes
within 50 km of Rouyn-Noranda.14

  Lakes  near the smelters at Sudbury show the strongest
evidence of acidification recovery. Of 38 monitored
lakes, 35 exhibit increasing alkalinity. The consistency of
recovery response in Sudbury lakes is probably due to
local emission reductions being very large (about 90%
overall)  and the fact that a large proportion of the
reduction occurred  in the 1970s. Hence, Sudbury lakes
have had a longer time to adjust to lower acid input
than the regional or Rouyn-Noranda lakes.  Local
smelters' influence on lake water sulfate and acidity
extends out approximately 45 km. Beyond this radius,
lake chemistry and trends are indistinguishable from
those more than 200 km away. Unlike Rouyn-Noranda,
there  are few nitrate trends in Sudbury area lakes.15

  Acid deposition has had a major destructive impact in
many of Canada's lakes  and rivers. Salmon spawning
rivers in  southern Nova Scotia continue to acidify, and
there  is no evidence of salmon recovery.16 Nova Scotia is
the most heavily impacted Canadian province in terms
of the proportion offish habitat damaged by acid rain.
The Southern Upland is the main area impacted.
Naturally reproducing salmon are no longer present in
many of the 65 rivers that have their source in the
Southern Upland, and they are reduced in all other area
rivers. The principal factors responsible are acid  toxicity
due to acid deposition,  and low marine survival.
Because of acid deposition, salmon reproduction is no
longer possible in several rivers and impeded to varying
degrees in most others.  Chemistry data from six
Southern Upland rivers show a sulfate decline between
1982 and 1996. This decline did not result in a decrease
in acidity, however. Instead, pH declined from 1992 to
1996. In addition to calls for further reductions in acid
deposition, liming has been used as a management tool
to protect remaining salmon stocks.
"Positively charged ions, such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium, that increase the pH of water when released to solution through
 mineral weathering and ion exchange reactions.
14Dupont, J. 1997. Projet Noranda Phase III—Effets des reductions de SO2 sur la qualite de 1'eau des lacs de 1'ouest quebecois. Ministere de
 I'Environnement et de lat Faune du Quebec, Direction de la qualite des cours d'eau, rapport no. Pa-53/1, Envirodoq no. EN 980066.
15Keller,W., et al. 2000. Sulphate and nitrate in Sudbury lakes: Trends and status. Cooperative Freshwater Ecology Unit, Laurentian University,
 Sudbury, Ontario.
"Department of Fisheries and Oceans. 2000. The Effects of Acid Rain on Atlantic Salmon of the Southern Upland of Nova Scotia. DFO
 Maritimes Regional Habitat Status Report 2000/2E.

   In 1999, the Hubbard Brook Research Foundation
convened a 10-member scientific work group to assess
Patterns and Effects of Acidic Deposition in the
Northeastern U.S.17 The study utilized recent literature
and other studies in addition to model calculations to
synthesize current scientific knowledge about the extent
and effects of acidic deposition in the northeastern
United States. The study focused particularly on SO2. It
found that, despite SO2 control measures under the
1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) and the 1990 CAAA, acidic
deposition is still high and adversely affecting lakes and
streams. Recovery of surface water acidity has been
delayed due to effects of long-term deposition inputs on
the leaching of nutrient cations such as calcium from
forest soils.

   The report shows that decreasing atmospheric deposi-
tion of sulfur during the last few  decades has coincided
with some decrease in the acidity of New England lakes.
But little change is evident in lakes and streams of the
Adirondack and Catskill regions of New York. Surveys
show that 41% of lakes  greater than 2.5  acres in size in
the Adirondack region and 15% of lakes in New
England are either acidic year round or susceptible to
acidic conditions for short periods associated with high
flow. Surface water acidification affects fish populations
by decreasing size, number, and diversity.

   The study also includes computer model calculations
estimating that acid-sensitive surface waters, like those
in New Hampshire's Hubbard Brook Experimental
Forest, will not recover significantly under acidic deposi-
tion reductions anticipated from the 1990 CAAA. The
study's modeling projections indicate that additional
emissions reductions are necessary to accelerate the
recovery of forested watersheds.
Forest Effects

   Exposure of forest ecosystems to air pollutants—and
the effects these pollutants and other stressors might
have on susceptible forest resources—is  a major forest
health issue.
   Both countries are cooperating to assess impacts of air
pollution and acid  deposition on forest ecosystems. A
forest mapping initiative included in the Acid Rain
Action Plan adopted by NEG/ECP builds on recent
research  in North America. The research shows acid
deposition resulted in both acidification  and depletion
of nutrient cations  (e.g., calcium, magnesium) essential
for tree growth in relatively poor soils. This  forest map-
ping initiative will  assist scientists in assessing risks that
acid deposition poses to forest ecosystems in New
England and eastern Canadian  provinces.
   Forest research scientists from the Quebec Ministry of
Natural Resources documented losses of calcium, mag-
nesium, and potassium from forest soils at their inten-
sive monitoring site at Foret Duchesnay near Quebec
City. During the study, the watershed lost 2.5% of the
available calcium pool per year and 3% of the available
magnesium pool. If calcium depletion continues at this
rate, the site will be calcium-deficient in 4 to 5 decades.
Lake sediment analysis indicates base cations losses since
the 1920s. Liming the site during a 4-year period has
resulted in strong positive tree growth  response.

   In addition, CL for forest soil acidification of the
Quebec Forest Intensive Monitoring Network—known
as RESEF—were calculated using the simple mass-bal-
ance (SMB)  approach. The CL calculations indicated
that 18 of the 31 RESEF plots received atmospheric
"Driscoll, C.T., et al. Acidic deposition in the Northeastern U.S.: Sources and inputs, ecosystem effects, and management strategies.
 Bioscience, in review.
18Houle, D., R. Paquin, C. Camire, R. Ouimet, and L. Duchesne. 1997. Response of the Lake Clair Watershed (Duchesnay, Quebec) to
 changes in precipitation chemistry (1988-1994). Can. J. For. Res. 27.
"Moore, J.D., C. Camire, and R. Ouimet. 2000. Effects of liming on the nutrition, vigor, and growth of sugar maple at the Duchesnay forest
 station, Quebec, Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 30.
20Ouimet, R., L.  Duchesne, D. Houle, and P.A. Arp. 2000. Critical loads of atmospheric S and N deposition and current exceedances for
 northern temperate and boreal forests in Quebec. Water Air Soil Pollut. (accepted).
21McLaughlin, D. 1998. A decade of forest tree monitoring in Canada: Evidence of air pollution effects. Environ. Rev. 6.
22Arp, P. A., T. Oja, and M. Marsh.  1996. Calculating critical S and N current exceedances for upland forests in southern Ontario, Canada.
 Can. J. For. Res. 26.

acidic inputs in excess of their CL (55% and 61% of the
hardwood and coniferous plots, respectively). The range
of CL exceedance varied from 60 to 470 equivalence
(eq) per hectare per year for the hardwood stands, and
from 10 to 590 eq per hectare per year for the conifer-
ous stands. The stands with CL exceedance were mainly
located in western and central Quebec.

   Stand growth associated with exceedance class of acid-
ity was determined using
RESEF plots and selected
permanent forest survey
plots that had similar site
characteristics and for which
longer growth records were
available. A significant nega-
tive correlation was found
between forest growth rates
and exceedance of critical
soil acidification for both
the northern hardwood  and
boreal conifer sites.
Specifically, plots with
exceedances had a growth
reduction of about 30%
from 1972 to 1990 (plots
with no exceedance of soil
acidification served as con-
trols). While this correlation
is not necessarily causal, it is
consistent with the notion
that increased losses of soil
base cations due to growing
soil acidification lead to
deteriorating forest health.
These results correspond to
growth-exceedance trend
studies reported for Ontario that suggest northern hard-
wood stand growth has  declined by 0.66 to 0.96 cubic
meters per hectare per year since the mid-1960s and
that forest decline  has been greatest on poorly  buffered
soils. The results also agree with the tree decline versus
CL exceedance evaluation for southern Ontario. On  the
average, forest decline rates were about 30% to 40%
higher for forest stands with estimated exceedances of
300 to 500 eq per hectare per year than for forest stands
with no exceedance.

   In a broader context,  from preliminary analyses based
on data from Acid Rain National Early Warning System
plots (ARNEWS), CL are consistently exceeded in
southern and central Ontario and portions of the
Maritimes. Preliminary  analyses indicate that annual
productivity losses of 10% are associated with areas of
highest CL exceedance.

  In 1998, the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) initiated
the Forest Indicators of Global Change Project
(FIGCP). Its objectives are to: develop new early-warn-
ing indicators of forest conditions; investigate interac-
tions among air pollution, climate change, and forest
productivity; and establish an array of permanent
                      research/monitoring plots for
                      detailed studies of nutrient/car-
                      bon cycling in eastern Canada.
                      The gradient, or study area,
                      stretches 1,800 km and encom-
                      passes the highest levels of acidic
                      deposition in  Canada. The area
                      includes ecosystems receiving
                      among  the highest incidences of
                      ground-level ozone in Canada.
                      There is a variation of 2° to 7°
                      Celsius of mean annual tempera-
                      ture and a 700 to  1,500 millime-
                      ter (mm) variation of mean
                      annual  precipitation across the
                      gradient. The temperature and
                      precipitation gradients will yield
                      insight  into the climate's role in
                      influencing other stressors on
                      forest ecosystems.

                        In  1999, the CFS decided to
                      focus on case  studies  and longer
                      term  research  and monitoring
                      linked to specific issues and poli-
                      cy direction. The ARNEWS and
                      North American Maple Project
                      (NAMP) plot networks were
affected.  Plots within these networks, but not support-
ing current investigations such as the Global Change
Gradient, would be archived.

  Currently,  26 sites from Turkey Lakes, Ontario,  to
Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, supporting
either adult sugar maple  or adult conifers (white pine  in
the west, red  spruce in the east), are selected for FIGCP.
Eighteen were a subset of ARNEWS, and four were a
subset  of NAMP. Three sites were added to fill geo-
graphical gaps. The sugar maple series (17 sites) and the
conifer series (15 sites) were  chosen to be as  ecologically
analogous as possible given the geographic extent.

  Within this gradient, plot monitoring continues,
using ARNEWS protocols. During 1999, leaf surface
studies were initiated on  selected plots; passive ozone

monitors were deployed and monitored across the gradi-
ent. Several university and provincial government agen-
cies have joined as partners in FIGCP, which will
evaluate several candidate plots for inclusion in Nova
Scotia and Prince Edward Island from 2000 to 2001.

  Preliminary analysis of cumulative ozone levels, meas-
ured by passive ozone monitors within this gradient's
plots, suggest that modeled levels extrapolated from
urban-centered continuous ozone monitors consistently
have underestimated actual ozone levels occurring with-
in the gradient. During three separate time periods of
accumulated ozone measurements from May to August
1999, the onsite passive ozone monitors recorded higher
actual ozone levels when  compared with the most cur-
rent modeled values for the gradient area.  Generally,
cumulative totals were between 30 and 40 ppb.

  The Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM) is a
joint effort among the U.S. Department of Agriculture
Forest Service  (USFS), the National Association of State
Foresters, and  universities to address forest health and
sustainability. FHM has collected data on forest health
since 1991  and had expanded to include 36 states as of
2000. FHM uses ground plots and surveys, aerial sketch
mapping, and  satellite imagery to evaluate the status and
changes of stressors and indicators of forest ecosystem
conditions  throughout the United States. The program
evaluates stressors such as land use and forest fragmenta-
tion, air pollution, drought, storms, insects and
pathogens,  alteration of historic fire cycles, and non-
indigenous invasive species.23

Current Forest Conditions

  The biological condition of U.S.  forests was recently
evaluated, and three major geographical areas of concern
were identified: the North (i.e., the  Northeast, Great
Lakes States, and mid-Atlantic); the Rocky Mountains
(i.e., western Wyoming and  northern Idaho); and the
Pacific Coast (i.e., eastern Oregon and Washington  and
parts of California). The factors that raised concerns in
these areas  were the fragmentation and land use of
forests, native and invasive insects and pathogens,
altered fire regimes, air pollution, relatively high deterio-
ration of tree crowns, and invasive plant species. In the
North, the 1998 status of dieback of tree crowns was at
the highest level for hardwood trees in 2% of the area
and 16% of the area for softwood trees. There was a
greater than 2% per year increase in dieback found in
2% of the area's softwoods and 3% of its hardwoods.
Hardwood transparency was at the highest level in 8%
of the area; softwood  transparency was at the highest
level in 19% of the area.  In this same general area,
annual increases of greater than 2% were found in 19%
of the area's hardwoods and 8% of its softwoods. In the
South, 1998 crown condition estimates indicated only a
very small percentage of forest had relatively high
dieback or transparency values.24 Overall, FHM found
mortality ratios greater than 0.625 in 22% of forests in
the North. No forest areas in the  South were affected.

Sulfate and Nitrate Deposition

   Since the last Progress  Report,  FHM evaluated the
deposition of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, total nitro-
gen, and precipitation pH in all forests in the contigu-
ous 48 states from 1979 from 1995- Wet deposition of
these  substances were analyzed from 1979 to 1995 for
all states from the NADP/NTN and CAPMoN pro-
grams. The analysis estimated that relatively high sulfate
deposition covered 46.2% of forest area in the North
and 20.9% of forest area in the South. Relatively high
nitrate deposition was estimated to cover 39-7% of for-
est area in the North and 0.7% of forest area in the
South. Similarly, relatively high annual ammonium dep-
osition was estimated to cover 62.1% of forests in the
North, 19-8% of forests in the South, and 0.8% of
forests in the Rocky Mountains. Annual total nitrogen
deposition was  relatively high in 42.1% of forests in the
North and 1.5% of forests in the  South. The annual
deposition of the most acidic precipitation (4.2 to 4.5
pH) covered 61% of the  North and 20.4% of the
South. Most forested areas in both the North (85%)
and South (90.7%) received precipitation with an annu-
al  average pH of less than 4.8.

Ground-Based Ozone Forest Effects

   FHM has developed an ozone  monitoring plot system
throughout much of the Northeast, the Great  Lake
23Stolte, et al. 2000. FHM National Technical Report 2000 (1991-1998). In preparation. USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station.
 General Technical Documents.
MStolte, K.W., et al. 2000. FHM-RPA Summary Report 2000. Forest Health. In review. USDA Forest Service, RPA 2000 Report.
25A mortality ratio of 0.6 means that for every 1.0 cubic meter of wood produced in growth, 0.6 cubic meters are lost to mortality.

states, the mid-Atlantic, the South, and some parts of
the West. Analysis of ozone air pollution from 1993  to
1996 indicated that much of the eastern and parts of
the western United States were exposed to relatively
high ozone. The analysis used a range ofW126 (index)
values grouped into different classes to reflect the sus-
pected sensitivity of tree species to ozone exposures.26
Level 1  exposures affect only the most
sensitive tree species, such as black
cherry. According to study results,
54% of the North and
16.6% of the South
endured Level 1 exposures.
Level 1  exposures also were
found in the Rocky
Mountain region and the
Pacific Coast, but it is
unclear whether tree species
in drier climates are sensitive
to these relatively low levels.
Level 2 exposures are believed
to affect slightly more tolerant
tree species such as green and
white ash, tulip poplar, and
white pine, as well as the more
sensitive Level 1 species. Level
2 exposures were estimated to
occur in 44.3% of the North
and 83-3% of the South. Level
2 exposures also were found in
the Rocky Mountain and Pacific
Coast regions, but it is unclear
whether the western  tree
species are sensitive to
these exposure levels. Level
3 exposures are believed to
affect even more tolerant tree
species such as loblolly pine, white and red Oak,
American beech, and Virginia pine, as well as Level 1
and 2 species. Level 3 exposures are estimated to occur
in only 0.1% of the South, 1.8% of the Rocky
Mountains, and 10.5% of the Pacific Coast, mostly in
the mountainous areas of southern and central
California. Level 4 exposures are believed to affect all
eastern  tree species susceptible to Levels 1 to 3, as well
as western tree species such as ponderosa pine, Jeffrey
pine, and black oak.  Level 4 exposures were found only
in 1.6% of the Pacific Coast region, affecting the moun-
tainous forests of southern California.
Effects on Materials

  Canada and the United States continue research on
the extent and nature of SO2 and NOX deposition
effects on buildings and materials.
  Through federal research support, the U.S. National
Center for the Preservation of Technology and Training
(NCPTT) and the Canadian Conservation Institute will
conduct studies  on using lasers for conservation of cul-
    tural materials and on the potential benefits of laser
        technology in general. This research will rely on
          use of the newly established NCPTT-spon-
          sored Laser Research Facility at the Los
         Angeles County Museum of Art in Los
         Angeles. From projects generated by this col-
       laboration, NCPTT researchers plan to investi-
      gate the interaction of air pollutants with
    laser-cleaned stone surfaces.
    U.S. efforts to understand air pollutant effects on
  materials and cultural resources continue through
  NCPTT's Materials Research Program (MRP) in
  Natchitoches, Louisiana. The evolution of soiling pat-
 terns on limestone buildings is the focus of a research
group at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. The group's hypothesis is that soiling
results from two competing processes: the deposition of
pollution to the stone and the dissolution and washing
of stone surfaces by rain. Studies also are being conduct-
ed on changes in soiling patterns at the Cathedral of
Learning Building at the University of Pittsburgh. The
studies are based on examination of archival photo-
graphs, analysis of soiling on architectural features,
measurement of air pollutant concentrations and depo-
sition, and computer modeling of rain impingement.

  Another NCPTT-funded project studies interactions
between air pollutants and biofilms on historic lime-
stone. Although it is known that air pollutants have
serious detrimental effects on limestone buildings and
monuments, the mechanisms of deterioration  are poorly
understood. A Harvard University team is heading a
study looking at the role of microorganisms in lime-
"Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere (SAME). 1996. The Southern Appalachian Assessment Atmospheric Technical Report. Report
 3 of 5. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Region.

stone degradation in the presence of air pollutants. At
the July 1999 International Biodeterioration
Symposium in Washington, DC, the Harvard team
reported that the population of sulfur-utilizing bacteria
is three times higher on stones in polluted areas than on
stones in clean environments. Similarly, the number of
hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms is approximate-
ly twice as high in polluted areas.  Using electron
microscopy studies, the team demonstrated that pollu-
tants stimulate penetration of microflora into limestone.
Currently, the team is examining the production of acid
by these microorganisms and their ability to release cal-
cium from the limestone.

Health Effects

  The effect of SO2, NOX, and PM on human health,
particularly the human heart and lungs, is being
researched through various efforts and studies.
  Investigators from EPA's Pulmonary Toxicology
Branch are continuing ongoing work with investigators
from Health Canada in Ottawa to study the hematolog-
ical and cardiopulmonary effects of urban particles in
cardiac-compromised rats. Joint efforts are taking place
to measure the various biological endpoints examined
in this study. The investigators plan to study rats
over a wide age range and in various stages of
health and disease.
elderly, and people with respiratory disorders such as
asthma are particularly susceptible  to health effects
caused by PM10.
  The effect is even more accute with smaller PM
particles. Health effects include breathing and respirato-
ry symptoms, irritation, inflammation and damage to
the lungs, and premature death. PM is not limited to
urban areas. Exposure to PM10 in Canada is demon-
strated to be widespread, and it remains  a problem in
every region of Canada throughout the year.

   PM is also an effective delivery mechanism for other
toxic air pollutants, which attach themselves to airborne
PM. These toxics are then delivered into the lungs
where they can be absorbed into the blood and tissue.
  In 1999, Environment Canada and Health Canada
published the PM science assessment document (see
www.hc-sc.gc. ca/ehp/ehd/catalogue/bch_pubs/
99ehd220-l.htm). The science assessment adds to the
numerous studies that are providing the scientific basis
for action on PM by governments. Although concentra-
tions of PM10 have long been associated with adverse
health effects, recent studies show that these particles are
responsible for premature deaths from lung and heart
disease-related causes and that the population is being
affected at current concentrations across the country.
Scientists now believe that there is no apparent "thresh-
old," or safe level for exposure to PM10. Children, the
                            The United States has
                          concentrated much of its
                          health effects and risk man-
                          agement work on PM,
                          both exclusively and in
                          combination with other
                          pollutants. As discussed ear-
                          lier (see p. 26), this program
          I          ,     has been coordinated
                          among a number  of differ-
                        ent groups and has  focused on
             priorities identified by a National
            Academy of Sciences committee. Recent
            EPA research on PM toxicity has provided
            critical insight into how factors such as
            particle size and  chemical nature might
          cause adverse health effects in humans. EPA
also conducted research with  the University of North
Carolina on the health effects of PM on sensitive groups
(elderly persons in Baltimore, Maryland). The research
yielded insights into heart and lung functioning

                                                                                            Section V
  Canada and the United States have not only success-
fully reduced emissions of SO2 and NOX—the major
contributors of acid rain—but also surpassed current
reduction requirements. Acid rain was the initial focus
of cooperative transboundary efforts under the Air
Quality Agreement. With significant progress, both gov-
ernments continue to cooperatively pursue efforts to
address acid rain.

  During the last few years, the two governments
expanded their commitments to cooperatively address
transboundary air issues to include ground-level ozone
and PM. This was an outgrowth of the April 1997 sign-
ing of an agreement by the Canadian and U.S.  environ-
mental ministers to  develop a Joint Plan of Action for
Addressing Transboundary Air Pollution. Since the last
Air Quality Committee Progress Report in 1998, the
governments have made significant headway. Canada
and the United States held bilateral negotiations this
year to develop an ozone annex to the Air Quality
Agreement, addressing their common concerns about
ground-level  ozone's transboundary impacts. At the
same time, both governments are undertaking new
cooperative efforts in PM modeling, monitoring, and
data analyses to assess transboundary PM impacts and
support development of a joint work plan to address

  Following  a successful decade of working together to
reduce acid deposition, Canada and the United States
are pursuing  a new era of cooperation on additional
transboundary air issues.


                                           United  States-Canada
                                       Air  Quality Committee
United States
Barry Stemshorn
Assistant Deputy Minister
Environmental Protection Service
Environment Canada

Marc-Denis Everell
Meteorological Services Canada
Environment Canada

Randy Angle
Air Issues & Monitoring
Alberta Environmental Protection

Creighton Brisco
Resource Management and Environmental Protection
Nova Scotia Environment

Raynald Brulotte
Service de la Qualite de 1'Atmosphere
Ministere de 1'Environment

Walter Chan
Air Policy and Climate Change Branch
Ontario Ministry of Environment

Jean Cooper
Energy Policy Branch
Natural Resources Canada

David Egar
Air Pollution Prevention Directorate
Environmental Protection Service
Environment Canada

Frank Ruddock
U.S. Transboundary Relations
Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Brooks Yeager
Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Environment and
Department of State

Abraham Haspel
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economics and
 Environmental Policy
Department of Energy

Charles Ries
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for European
Department of State

Mary Burg
Program Manager
Air Quality Programs
State of Washington Department of Ecology

Bruce Hicks
Air Resources Laboratory
National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration

Bruce Polkowsky
Air Resources Division
National Park Service

Stephen Rothblatt
Air and Radiation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5

John Seitz
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

United States Committee Members

Paul Stolpman
Office of Atmospheric Programs
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Richard Valentinetti
Air Pollution Control Division
State of Vermont Agency of Natural Resources
Subcommittee on
Program  Monitoring
and  Reporting


Steve Hart
Transboundary Air Issues Branch
Environmental Protection Service
Environment Canada

Brian McLean
Director, Clean Air Markets Division
Office of Atmospheric Programs
Environmental Protection Agency
Subcommittee  on
Scientific Cooperation

Ann McMillan
Director, Policy and International Affairs Division
Meteorological Services
Environment Canada
Lawrence J. Folinsbee
Chief, Environmental Media Assessment Branch
National Center for Environmental Assessment
Environmental Protection Agency

  To  Obtain Additional  Information. Please Contact:
In Canada

Transboundary Air Issues Branch
Environment Canada
351 St. Joseph Boulevard
11 th Floor, Place Vincent Massey
Hull, Quebec KIA OH3
In the United States

Clean Air Markets Division
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Mail Code 6204]
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW.
Washington, DC 20460