Climate Ready Estuaries Partners, 2008-2009
                CLIMATE  READY
                          ESTUARI ES

                 Table of Contents
Program Accomplishments	2
Lessons Learned from CRE Partners.                          ..6
CRE Partner Activities 2008-2009..                           . 10
Challenges and Next Steps: Where Is CRE Headed?	16
CRE Partner Web Sites..                                   . 19

This document may be downloaded from the Climate Ready Estuaries Web site at:

Climate Ready Estuaries (CRE) is a partnership
between the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) and the National Estuary Programs
(NEPs)  to build capacity among coastal managers
to improve the resilience of coastal areas to
the impacts of climate change. CRE provides
tools and assistance to help NEPs and coastal
communities in their efforts to:

•  Assess climate change vulnerabilities
•  Develop a better understanding of climate
   change at local and regional levels
•  Engage and educate stakeholders
•  Develop and implement adaptation strategies
•  Share lessons learned with other coastal

This document provides an overview of CRE's
accomplishments to date, including activities being
managed by the NEP Partners, lessons learned
in the adaptation planning process, challenges
encountered, and next steps for the program.
                                               Estuaries and other coastal systems are
                                               particularly vulnerable to many projected
                                               effects of climate change, including erosion
                                               and land loss from rising seas, altered
                                               frequencies and intensities of precipitation, and
                                               more-intense storm events. These effects will
                                               change our coastlines, affecting the people
                                               and species that inhabit them. The likelihood of
                                               impacts  requires that actions be taken now to
                                               help coastal communities adapt.
How can you be "ready" for
climate change?
Climate change will continue to affect
the planet for many years, and the
magnitude and timing of many impacts
are uncertain. While we may not be
able to completely protect ourselves
from these changes, individuals,
communities, and societies can prepare
for what we expect will come our way.
EPA chose the term "Climate Ready
Estuaries" to recognize NEPs, and
eventually other coastal communities,
that have engaged in learning about
climate vulnerabilities, developed
adaptation strategies, and taken
steps to improve resilience. Climate
change will be the underlying context
for most planning, development,
and conservation decisions in these
climate-ready communities. CRE will
bring together communities that are
ready to adapt as the impacts of
climate change continue to occur.

Program Accomplishments
Since its inception in 2008, CRE and its NEP Partners have made significant strides to improve
the "climate readiness" of estuaries and their surrounding communities. Highlights of these
accomplishments are described below.

Adaptation and  Coastal Climate Change Awareness

CRE  has promoted the development and implementation of adaptation plans. Through targeted grants
and technical support, these estuary programs are developing adaptation strategies and plans that are
a first step toward preparing for climate change. CRE has also begun raising awareness of the means
for coastal adaptation to climate change through the Coastal Toolkit, the CRE Web site, publications,
and workshops.

The efforts of CRE staff and Partners have  promoted great interest in climate change adaptation
and estuaries among other federal and state agencies, public and private land managers, NEPs,
and coastal communities outside of the NEPs. CRE has also been showcased at local, national, and
international workshops on coastal protection and response to climate change.

CRE Partner Network

CRE  works with each estuary program to  pursue that NEP's own ecosystem- and community-specific
goals related to climate change adaptation. CRE provided grants and/or direct technical assistance
     CRE Timeline
                CRE is announced
                and issues first
                solicitation for
                pilot partners
                    APNEP&The Nature
                    Conservancy Adaptation
                               EPA selects 6 pilot estuaries:
                               *  Albemarle-Pamlico National
                                 Estuary Program
                               *  Charlotte Harbor Estuary
                               *  Massachusetts Bays Estuary
                               *  Partnership for the Delaware
                               *  Piscataqua Region Estuaries
                               *  San Francisco Estuary Project

      to 11 NEPs in 2008 and 2009, responding
      to their unique needs and  spurring a growing
      number of on-the-ground  accomplishments.
      Further details about these accomplishments can
      be found in the section on CRE Partner Activities

      CRE also provides a network for NEPs to
      communicate and share information, including
      challenges, lessons learned, adaptation
      strategies, and data. In turn, CRE Partners are
      developing region-specific capacity to become
      leaders in climate change  adaptation for
      neighboring coastal communities.

      Toolkit and Supporting Resources
      The Coastal Toolkit (www.epa.gov/cre/toolkit.
      html),  launched in August 2008, provides
      useful  resources for estuary and coastal
      program managers and stakeholders who are
      interested in learning about climate change
                          Accomplishments at a Glance
                          •  Enrolled 11 CRE Partners
                          •  Published the Synthesis of
                             Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas
                          •  Published the Coastal Toolkit, an
                             online information resource for
                             estuaries and coastal communities
                          •  Distributed more than $300,000 to
                             the Partners through start-up grants,
                             which have been matched 1:1
                          •  Provided more than $700,000 in
                             direct technical assistance to the
                          •  Completed an adaptation plan with
                             the City of Punta Gorda, Florida
                          •  Currently conducting six
                             vulnerability assessments
                          •  Developed climate change indicators
                             for coastal monitoring plans
                          •  Involved all Partners in public
                             outreach and stakeholder
                             engagement activities
                          •  Held Partner workshop in
                             June 2009
listening sessions
CRE Web site
and Coastal
Toolkit launched
              PREP culvert
              inventory and
kick-off meetings

MBP vulnerability
kick-off meetings

impacts and adaptation. The Toolkit provides information and links to other resources related to
the following areas:

•  Adaptation Planning
•  Coastal Vulnerability and Adaptation Tools
•  Communications and Outreach Materials
•  Monitoring Climate Change in Coastal Areas
•  Smart Growth in the Context of Climate Change
•  Sustainable Financing Options
•  Where to Find Data

CRE has developed several additional resources for the Toolkit, including the following:

•  Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas—Published in print and on the Web, the
   synthesis document brings together information on climate change effects and adaptation in
   coastal areas. It has been highlighted by agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
   Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).
   (www.epa.gov/cre/downloads/CRE_Synthesis_l .09.pdf)
•  Adaptation Planning for the National Estuary Program—This Web-based resource tailored for NEPs
   describes five critical elements of adaptation planning, provides examples of these elements, and
   suggests additional resources. This guide has proven useful to the NEPs, and has potential wide
                  Synthesis of
Coastal Areas
\ J

PDE Climate
Change Working
Group developed

L ^
                                                  Annual NEP

                                                       Planning for the
                                                       National Estuary
                                                       Program Guide

          applicability to a number of other coastal management programs, (www.epa.gov/cre/downloads/
       •  "READY" Newsletter—CRE has published three issues of this electronic newsletter to date. The
          newsletter explains program developments and news from CRE Partners, highlights relevant
          resources, and announces key meetings and workshops.
       •  Program Brochure and Fact Sheet—These materials provide an overview of the CRE program. They
          are available on the CRE Web site and are also distributed at conferences as well as outreach events.

       Targeted Support to NEPs

       In 2008 and 2009, CRE provided its Partners with support to catalyze efforts to identify climate
       change vulnerabilities, explore adaptation strategies, develop adaptation plans, implement selected
       actions by these plans, and share lessons  learned with other coastal managers. The section "CRE
       Partner Activities 2008-2009" presents activities of the 11 NEPs that have received start-up grants
       and/or direct technical assistance.

       •  Start-Up Grant—A start-up grant provides financial and resource assistance to NEPs that have
          committed to a timeline to develop and implement a climate change adaptation strategy for their
          estuary. In many cases, these  efforts build on pre-existing work by the NEP  and its stakeholders.
          Each CRE Partner can use its start-up grant to pursue adaptation solutions that best fit the needs of
          its communities.
2009 Grants and Technical
Assistance Awardees announced:
*  Barnegat Bay National Estuary
*  Casco Bay Estuary Partnership
*  Charlotte Harbor National
   Estuary Program
*  Indian River Lagoon National
   Estuary Program
*  Long Island Sound Study
*  Partnership for the Delaware
*  Tampa Bay Estuary Program
CRE Partner
Workshop held in
Washington, DC
                     CBEP stakeholder
                 3 CHNEP public
                 workshops, using 4
                 innovative public
                 involvement games
                                                          IRLNEP public and
                                                          meetings initiated


         Direct Technical Assistance—Direct technical assistance, first offered in 2009, is individually
         tailored support provided by EPA staff and contractors. Direct technical assistance is available to
         both CRE Partner candidates and current CRE Partners. Examples include:

         •  Climate change vulnerability assessment
         •  Habitat and ecosystem services loss modeling
         •  Climate change indicators and monitoring plan development
         •  Stakeholder engagement and communication
         •  Design of model ordinances
                                                       CRE Partner Workshop
                                                       The first CRE Partner Workshop was held in
                                                       June 2009, in Washington, DC. Attendees
                                                    -| included representatives from  all CRE Partners,
                                                    S3 as well  as EPA regional and program office
                                                    -§ staff. The workshop was an opportunity for
                                                    u 2008 pilot Partners to share their experiences
                                                    "S and discuss lessons learned with 2009
                                                    I Partners. Each NEP representative presented
                                                    °~ their ongoing CRE activities and participated in
      focused discussions and strategy sessions. This report includes  a summary of key lessons learned and
      challenges discussed at that workshop.

      Lessons Learned from  CRE Partners

      The June 2009 CRE Partner Workshop and subsequent conversations with Partners revealed many
      common themes, approaches, and hurdles to NEPs' efforts to  address climate change. The summary
      below presents the major lessons learned from those  experiences.

      Start Small
      One common challenge identified by NEPs was deciding where to start and how to cope with the
      magnitude of work involved in climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation. Several NEPs discovered
      that focusing adaptation efforts on a particular issue or area proved effective. For example, some CRE
      Partners have gained a footing through efforts specifically targeted on one local priority, such as salt
      marshes or storm culverts, or one community within the  larger study area. Starting small gives the programs
      a chance to take on a project that meets time and funding constraints but still yields useful conclusions and

outcomes. Once one issue or strategy proves successful, the Partner can build on that momentum to take
on additional priorities or communities and attract more resources and public support.

Move Forward with the Data You  Have
Place-based data that show recent trends in climate change and its associated impacts can help
bridge the gap between abstract projections of impacts and observed local changes. Unfortunately,
these data often either do not exist or are not available with sufficient resolution. Moreover, there may
be limited resources to analyze and present existing data. The task of integrating—and decoupling—
the effects of climate change with other stressors, such as increasing development pressure in a
watershed, is a common challenge faced by NEPs.

Efforts to obtain and analyze better data should be an element in any strategy. However, limited data
are not necessarily a barrier; in fact, some CRE Partners have benefited from projects developed
with  limited data, including the creation of conservation strategies for threatened habitats to address
expected climate change impacts. Even without complete sea level rise projections and precise
elevation data, some NEPs have begun to protect upland areas to ensure that coastal marshes have
open space to move into as these habitats are inundated by sea level rise.

Involve the Community
Adapting to climate change cannot be accomplished by NEPs alone; it requires ownership and
involvement from coastal and watershed residents and officials. Preparing for increasing and uncertain
change will require significant support from communities, since they have historically managed their own
growth and supported habitat protection, and will  also have to implement climate change adaptation. A
number of NEPs have used innovative approaches to engage stakeholders and the public:

•  Use iconic, popular resources to gain support for broader initiatives. The public may be more
   receptive to campaigns framed in terms of wildlife and landscapes they are emotionally attached
   to. For example, residents of the Delaware Bay  may be more supportive of a campaign to protect
   critical breeding grounds of horseshoe crabs if sea level rise threatens to inundate these habitats.
•  Be ready to benefit from the shift in public opinion that often comes from direct experience of
   coastal disasters (e.g., hurricanes, flooding).  It may be easier to attract support for adaptation
   while the topics of coastal  resilience and adaptation are pressing political issues.
•  Use locally relevant  facts and information when discussing vulnerability. The Casco Bay Estuary
   Partnership found that it had more success in delivering its message when it referred to local
   observations (e.g., ice-out date, the date after which  no ice is present, is now three weeks earlier
   on Sebago Lake than it used to  be).

         Talk about impacts rather than causes. In
         general, audiences will still support actions
         that address local concerns: for example,
         "dangerous weather is more frequent," "sea
         level  is rising," or "mangrove habitats have
"Estuaries are ready, people are not/
- Bill Crowell, Albemarle-Pamlico NEP
director, explaining the need to educate
coastal residents and policy makers on
the risks of climate change, the changes
that are already occurring in estuaries,
and the need to address those risks and
changes through adaptation planning.
         moved 30 miles north over the past 40 years." Find a clear impact that people can agree is
         occurring, is supported by the science, and move forward from there.
      •  Develop effective public involvement activities such as listening sessions to learn what community
         members have seen on the ground, gauge their interest in adaptation, and solicit their
         recommendations for responses. Albemarle-Pamlico NEP and Charlotte Harbor NEP, for example,
         have successfully used this extremely effective approach.
      •  Support a local or regional climate change working group consisting of local scientists/academics,
         public officials, planners, and interested members of the public. For example, the Partnership for
         the Delaware  Estuary has formed a climate change working group with three subcommittees to
         address priority issues in the  estuary.

      Coordinate with Government Entities
      A common challenge encountered among CRE Partners is that key stakeholders are often absent from
      the table. In addition, coordinating with municipalities and states can be difficult, as their budget and
      staffing challenges limit the resources available for adaptation planning  in collaboration with NEPs.
      In other situations, coordination  is necessary because multiple organizations may be undertaking
      adaptation planning, each according to its own mission and project goals.

      NEPs that made it a priority to set up or use an existing advisory committee from the beginning of
      their efforts have seen great benefits, including reduced duplication of efforts, enhanced access to
      resources, and increased support for adaptation plan development.

      Any adaptation effort needs to ensure awareness and involvement of the NEP Management
      Conferences, government agencies at all levels (e.g., U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S.
      Geologic Survey (USGS), NOAA, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Army Corps of Engineers (ACE)),
      local planning boards, mayors and governors), and other key stakeholders. Engaging all of these
      parties will help keep them informed and involved in projects and program development and, if
      possible, implementation.

Use No Regrets Strategies and Adaptive Management to Deal with  Uncertainty
While there have been significant advances in the science and scientific consensus on likely climate
change scenarios, the projected effects of climate change still vary. Many NEPs recognize that the
complexity of climate change and the uncertainty in the timing and magnitude of impacts may present
barriers to gaining public support for adaptation planning within their estuary.

In response to this uncertainty, NEPs have used  possible ranges of effects to examine most likely
outcomes and willingness to proceed to protect local  priorities.  For example, NEPs can use a range of
climate change  projections (e.g., precipitation increases of 5, 10, and 15 percent or sea level rise of 1,
3, and 5  feet) to identify actions that lead to beneficial outcomes under all or most predicted futures.

NEPs are also exploring "no regrets" actions as a first step to respond to projected effects. These
strategies—such as adopting rolling  easements, creating new waterfront parkland that serves as a buffer
to built-up areas, and strengthening  building codes in storm surge areas—can provide immediate local
or regional benefits, as well as reduce future impacts under a range of climate change effects.

Furthermore, uncertainties  can serve as an opportunity to employ more adaptive and open planning
approaches that are easier to update in  response to new information and changing events. Time-
intensive  revisions to comprehensive or master plans should be  replaced by more nimble, iterative
approaches for  community planning and decision making. Under this approach, strategies should
incorporate "no regrets" or "low regrets" actions with  an emphasis on monitoring the changing climate
and evaluating the effectiveness of initial adaptation actions. By continuously learning from and
incorporating new information into adaptation plans,  coastal managers can, overtime, make more
informed decisions that reflect a greater understanding of the changing climate and ensure public
support for additional action.

Maintain the Attention of Elected Officials
Many decisions  and issues  rest in the hands of locally elected officials, who may hold term
appointments and are thus compelled to focus on issues of immediate concern to their constituents.
With such turnover and focus on issues in the near term, some NEPs  have had difficulties convincing
elected officials  to act on the long-term issue of climate change adaptation. One possible solution
is a two-fold approach to focus directly on constituents through outreach campaigns and listening
sessions,  while preparing direct and effective information to quickly educate new officials on significant
constituent concerns early in transitions.  CRE Partners  play a crucial role in bringing the general
public's interest  and concern about  this issue to  the attention of policy makers.

      CRE  Partner Activities 2008-2009
      The following section provides brief highlights of the activities that CRE Partners have undertaken
      using the start-up grants and direct technical assistance provided by CRE. While all CRE Partners are
      working to develop an adaptation  plan, each program is  involved in specific activities to progress
      toward this goal. Please  note that this section describes just a few of the ongoing activities among the
      11  Partners. For more detailed information on CRE Partner activities, please visit the CRE Web site

      Communication  and  Outreach—Public
      Albemarle-Pamlico National Estuary Program partnered with the Albemarle-Pamlico Conservation
      and Communities Collaborative to host a series of seven  public listening sessions throughout the
                                                     estuary region. Residents from a variety of
                                                     backgrounds attended these sessions to voice
                                                     their concerns about the combined impacts of
                                                     sea  level rise and population growth, and to
                                                     discuss potential solutions. The estuary program
                                                     plans to continue improving public outreach and
                                                     education efforts to respond to the community's
                                                     evolving needs.

                                                     Barnegat Bay National Estuary Program is
      gauging public interest in—and soliciting input on—climate change impacts and adaptation through
      a series of facilitated  listening sessions, planned for the Spring of 2010. To seek further dialogue on
      this topic,  a technical workshop on climate change adaptation, "Preparing Your Communities in the
      Face  of a  Changing Climate: Starting the Dialogue," will  be held. The workshop will bring together
      coastal decision makers, resource  managers, and the science community to exchange  information
      and views regarding the impacts of climate change
      on the Barnegat Bay  estuary and to set the stage
      for future regional discussions that  will advance
      the development of a climate change adaptation
      strategy. Ultimately, these products will enable
      BBNEP to produce a  climate change adaptation
      plan sensitive to regional vulnerabilities and
      including input from affected constituencies.

Communication and Outreach—Stakeholders/Policy Makers
APNEP is also engaging directly with policy makers. The program is working with the Nicholas Institute
for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University to interview local and state elected officials. The
interviews will gauge officials' understanding of climate change issues and the actions they are taking
to address challenges. Findings will  be used to develop a needs analysis and underpin a climate
change and adaptation communication strategy for local policy makers.

During the summer of 2009, BBNEP established a Climate Change Work Group under its existing
Science and Technical Advisory Committee to provide critical technical support and peer review
for all BBNEP's climate change adaptation activities. With guidance from the work group, BBNEP
will conduct a  needs assessment to  identify gaps in data, potential challenges in adaptation, and
opportunities to tie BBNEP's work in with existing county and state level hazard  mitigation planning.
The Work Group will also guide the technical conference in February 2010. In addition, two municipal
level case studies will  be carried out to develop local adaptation strategies and decision making tools.

                                                 Casco Bay Estuary Partnership is developing
                                                 a comprehensive approach to sharing
                                               I information with local leaders to encourage
                                               = effective planning for climate change. CBEP is
                                               §> conducting a series of surveys and focus groups
                                              !  ; to better understand specific information  needs
                                                ; and potential barriers to incorporating climate-
                                                j related information into current decisions. After
                                                 identifying those needs and barriers, CBEP
will prepare an outreach plan detailing cost-effective,  locally relevant means of communicating with
target audiences. Ultimately,  CBEP will develop outreach materials and templates to implement its plan.
CBEP's efforts will develop capacity that enables local decision makers to incorporate climate change
considerations  into all aspects of land use planning.
Tampa Bay Estuary Program is developing a
Gulf Coast Community Handbook with specific
recommendations, best management practices,
and options for incorporating resilience into habitat
restoration  and protection strategies for coastal
communities throughout the Gulf of Mexico.
The handbook will complement a larger effort

      by TBEP and the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program to build and test locally developed and
      implemented restoration and protection efforts with resilience built in. Ultimately, the handbook will
      assist communities throughout the Gulf Coast in using the best available science and information
      when thinking about climate change in the context of habitat protection and restoration.

                                                     Vulnerability Assessments
                                                     Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program
                                                     and its  host agency, the Southwest Florida
                                                     Regional Planning Council, are conducting a
                                                     climate change vulnerability assessment for
                                                     southwest Florida, including the CHNEP study
                                                     area. The vulnerability assessment incorporates
                                                     Sea Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes
                                                     (SLOSH) modeling to assess storm surge and
      improve land use decisions, infrastructure investment, and conservation management.

      The Partnership for the Delaware Estuary
      is conducting vulnerability assessments and
      develop adaptation plans for three case study
      resources: drinking water, tidal wetlands, and
      shellfish. The assessments will consider how
      these resources may be affected by increases in
      temperature, salinity, precipitation, heat waves,
      and storms. PDF has also created a team to
      estimate the value of losses in natural  capital
      from climate change and determine how these
      losses  might be reversed or improved  through
      restoration. Through the three case studies, the team plans to demonstrate how ecosystem services
      valuation can  be used in adaptation planning.
                                                     The Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership
                                                     launched a project to identify road culverts in
                                                     the Oyster River watershed that are vulnerable
                                                     to increasingly severe storms and hydrological
                                                     modifications related to development in the
                                                     watershed. PREP began the assessment by
                                                     completing a comprehensive inventory of

significant culverts in collaboration with the town of Durham and the Strafford Regional Planning
Commission. A key finding that PREP plans to convey to decision makers is that all future precipitation
projections for the area point toward additional strain on the existing culverts. PREP plans to
communicate these findings to decision makers and the public by using maps to show each culvert's
ability to handle projected precipitation events. Project findings will be used to inform decisions about
culvert maintenance and upgrade options.
                                                  Massachusetts Bays Program is conducting
                                                  a climate change vulnerability assessment in
                                                  partnership with EPA's Global  Change Research
                                                  Program. The assessment concentrates primarily
                                        .	^ J  on the sensitivity of salt marsh ecosystems to
                                                  projected impacts of climate change. The MBP
                                            H 1>  will share its enhanced understanding  of salt
                                            • |  marsh vulnerability and related management
                                                  implications with partners at the community,
state, regional, and federal levels. This ecosystem-focused study will complement work being  done
by the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management's StormSmart Coasts Program, which
addresses the impacts of climate  change on infrastructure and coastal property.

San Francisco Estuary Partnership has also
assessed climate change vulnerability in partnership
with EPA's Global Change  Research Program. As
with the MBP project, SFEP's assessment focuses on
the sensitivity of salt marsh  ecosystems to projected
climate change effects. SFEP and the San Francisco
Bay Conservation and Development Commission
have brought together Bay Area scientists
and resource managers to discuss  ecosystem
vulnerability and to share ongoing  research. This helps policy makers and scientists consider how changes
in climate drivers such as temperature, precipitation and storms may affect salt marsh ecosystems.

Development of Adaptation Plans
While all CRE Partners are working to develop adaptation plans, several efforts are highlighted here.

In  December 2008, the City Council of Punta Gorda, Florida, voted unanimously to partner with
CHNEP's 2009 pilot adaptation  planning effort. This initiative has greatly benefited from the

                                                                                 support of the
                                                                                 citizens of Punta
                                                                                 Gorda,  including
                                                                                 a grassroots
                                                                                 volunteer group
                                                                                 that helped rebuild
                                                                                 the city after the
      devastation of Hurricane Charley. Adaptation planning included three successful public workshops.
      These workshops built upon a pre-meeting survey and include interactive exercises to engage the
      public in helping to consider and prioritize
      vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies. CHNEP
      has already provided the city with resources such
      as diagrams showing alternative adaptation
      strategies to help pursue grants. The plan was
      approved by the City Council in November 2009.
      Thus, CHNEP is the first Partner to have an
      approved adaptation plan.

                                                Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program
                                                is working with the  City of Satellite Beach,  Florida, to
                                                include goals and policies addressing sea  level rise
                                                in the city's Comprehensive  Growth Management
                                             .8 Plan. By proactively preparing for sea level rise and
                                             J~ communicating key lessons  learned, the city can
                                             ^ reduce its vulnerability, protect the Indian River Lagoon
                                             J ecosystem, and help neighboring communities and
                                             £ other NEPs prepare effectively for sea level rise impacts.
      The project has three components: assessment, policy development, and public outreach.
      The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, a partner of the Long Island Sound Study,
      has joined forces with ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability to prepare a coastal adaptation
      plan for the town of Groton, Connecticut. Preparing  a coastal adaptation plan for this northeastern
      municipality will serve as a model for other local and regional initiatives. The main focus of this effort
      will  be facilitating workshops to engage representatives from federal, state, and municipal  governments
      to explore their roles in adaptation efforts and define strategies for maximum benefit.  To this end, LISS
      and ICLEI are convening three workshops to 1) orient appropriate stakeholders to adaptation planning

and regional climate change impacts, 2) identify
vulnerabilities and appropriate adaptation efforts,
and 3) create a plan for implementation. The final
product of this work will be a local climate change
adaptation plan, to be presented to local officials
and to serve as a model for other communities
beyond Connecticut.

Climate Change  Indicators and Monitoring
Building on a region-wide vulnerability assessment and an adaptation plan developed over the
past year for the City of Punta Gorda, Florida, CHNEP's primary objective is to develop a set of
climate change indicators relevant to coastal resources and a climate change  monitoring plan. In
concert with similar work  already underway by the Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council
and informed by CHNEP's Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan, these products
will help federal, state,  regional, and local  agencies plan for future climate change impacts to
coastal resources and communities. The project's main goals are to 1) identify potential climate
change indicators;  2) assess, select, and  prioritize indicators; and 3) develop a draft climate change
monitoring plan based  on the indicators.

LISS and partners are developing a bi-state sentinel monitoring strategy to monitor and predict climate
change impacts in Long Island Sound. This includes researching and cataloguing the drivers, predicted
indicators, and responses  from climate change applicable to this estuary. Focus topics will include
what monitoring is occurring, what new monitoring and synthesis is necessary, and what prioritization
of indicators will make for an effective overarching monitoring strategy. The LISS work team will use
current research, including lessons learned from  assessing climate change monitoring in other coastal
systems. Finally, the work team will facilitate communication between state-level work groups to reach
consensus on an adaptive monitoring strategy for the entire estuary. This strategic plan, which  is the
output of this grant award, will lay the groundwork for a Sound-wide climate change monitoring
program on both a pilot and a comprehensive basis.

Model Ordinances
Recognizing that most land use decisions are made at the local  level, and that it will be increasingly
important to factor climate change into these decisions, CHNEP is developing model ordinances for
use by counties and municipalities in land use planning. These ordinances will serve as a template on
which local planners can build when directing land use and infrastructure  decisions  in the future.

     Challenges and Next Steps: Where Is ORE Headed?

     Based on guidance from the CRE Partners and other coastal managers on challenges they have faced
     in developing and implementing adaptation strategies, CRE plans to explore options to respond to the
     challenges presented below.

     The Need for Direct Assistance Initiatives
     Challenge: Some CRE Partners have requested technical teams to assist them with adaptation and
     related work.  For example, mapping, modeling, monitoring, and economic data are often very hard to
     find, fund, or translate for local circumstances.

     Nexf Steps:  Expand Place-Based Support
     •   Provide additional CRE support to NEPs for development of an adaptation strategy, or direct
         technical assistance to test tools and other innovative ideas to promote coastal climate change
     •   Explore the feasibility of short-term technical field teams to assist coastal communities.

     Interpreting Climate Change Information and the Need for Resources
     Challenge: Some CRE Partners have mentioned the difficulty of keeping up with the enormous
     amount of climate change information and scientific research on coastal impacts. Similarly, promoting
     adaptation efforts and pursuing funding opportunities can be complex tasks. Partners also mentioned
     the need for adaptation-planning templates and model ordinances, which could be met through
     technical transfer from other communities and institutions. Finally, there is no ongoing forum to
     facilitate communication and coordination among Partners, or a way for them to tap into broader
     networks of information.

     Nexf Steps:  Enhance Coastal Toolkit
     •   Create graphics for use  in presentations by coastal partners. Graphics would explain vulnerabilities
         to climate change faced by coasts, and highlight solutions others have employed.
     •   Develop a broad-based needs assessment methodology.
     •   Provide examples of local and international communities that exemplify coastal resilience, including
         model  ordinances, assessment and adaptation techniques,  and other innovative approaches.
     •   Assemble  a series of fact sheets and case studies to highlight lessons learned and  allow for the
         transfer of techniques and approaches that worked in one NEP to other interested  partners.
     •   Create a portion of the Web site dedicated to information on funding opportunities.

Nexf Steps: Communication Forum among NEPs/CRE
•  Provide a broadly accessible and user-friendly means to exchange ideas, knowledge, resources, and
   technical expertise. This will likely take the form of an interactive online web forum moderated by CRE
   staff where documents can be posted and discussion groups can be formed and supported.
•  Facilitate communications among the NEPs and CRE Partners through newsletters, listservs,
   workshops, and outreach materials.

Nexf Steps: Data for Assessment and Monitoring
•  Coordinate with the NEPs to develop a consistent approach for monitoring climate change,
   perhaps in cooperation with NOAA, USGS, and other agencies. An initial step  could include
   developing  a white  paper on how a consistent set of indicators shared by all the NEPs could be
   used to track climate change trends in  coastal areas.
•  Facilitate the sharing of data sources, sets, and/or methodologies; this effort could involve a wide
   set of other agencies and organizations.

Nexf Steps: Workshops
•  Convene a  "mini-workshop," as part of the annual  NEP meeting in February 2010 or as a separate
   event, as a forum for NEPs to discuss the state of knowledge on climate change  impacts in various
   NEP estuaries. Opportunities for coalition-building  and technology transfer could also be a part of
   this discussion.
•  Hold another CRE Partner Workshop in 2010, possibly with  an expanded scope to include other
   NEPs  and the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS), related to monitoring for key
   climate change parameters.

Federal Collaboration
Challenge: Many of the CRE Partners have identified challenges in working with federal agencies.
Some feel that CRE, as an EPA initiative, may have greater leverage in dealing with these issues at
the national level.  CRE has started to engage in collaboration with NOAA, and will likely expand
this effort to include USGS, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), DOT, ACE, FWS, and
others.  CRE plans  to work with Partners to expand on their successful agency insights and contacts,
and share this information with other partners. Coordinating with other federal agencies could ensure
that those agencies' efforts and policies support adaptation planning as much as possible, and do not
hinder effective coastal adaptation activities.

     Nexf Steps: Improve Interagency Coordination
     •  Develop and implement a strategy for marketing CRE/NEP principles and approaches to other
        agencies and help get the CRE Partners plugged into other agency initiatives.
     •  Participate in federal interagency interest groups to exchange ideas, tools, and resources, including
        with NOAA, USGS, DOT, and FEMA.
     •  Explore holding a joint NEP/NERRS climate adaptation workshop.

     Public Awareness/Outreach
     Challenge: CRE Partners recognize that effective adaptation will require the interest and support of
     all levels of stakeholders and government. CRE could identify opportunities and tools for improving
     understanding of coastal adaptation to climate change. This could include tools that expand public
     awareness and foster public buy-in about the risks of climate change and benefits of adaptive actions.

     Nexf Steps: Develop Communication Resources
     •  Develop outreach materials or templates, including graphic materials, white papers, and
        information products, for CRE Partners to use to expand public awareness on climate change and
        coastal  adaptation.
     •  Provide technical assistance to Partners in developing outreach and communication strategies and
        materials appropriate for their audiences.
                 CLIMATE  READY
                              ESTUARI  ES

CRE Partner Web Sites
Albemarle-Pamlico National Estuary Program    www.apnep.org
Barnegat Bay National Estuary Program        www.bbep.org
Casco Bay Estuary Partnership                www.cascobay.usm.maine.edu
Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program     www.chnep.org
Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program   www.sjrwmd.com/itsyourlagoon/index.html
Long Island Sound Study                     www.longislandsoundstudy.net
Massachusetts Bays Program                  www.massbays.org
Partnership for the Delaware Estuary           www.delawareestuary.org
Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership        www.prep.unh.edu
San Francisco Estuary Partnership              sfep.abag.ca.gov
Tampa  Bay Estuary Program                  www.tbep.org
For more information on CRE,  please visit our Web site: www.epa.gov/cre
Program contacts:
Jeremy Martinich                               John Wilson
martinich.jeremy@epa.gov                      wilson.john@epa.gov
Climate Change Division                        Oceans and Coastal Protection Division
EPA Office of Air and Radiation                  EPA Office of Water
(202)343-9871                                (202)566-1158

For inquiries from the media, please visitwww.epa.gov/newsroom/contact-us.htm

  fice of Air and Radiation
Office of Water
EPA 4'30-R-09-027
December 200.9
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