United States
     Environmental Protection
National Risk Management Research Laboratory
       Water Supply and Water Resources Division
           Water Quality Management Branch
                                                                 IMPACT STATEMENT
                                                      The National Risk Management Research Laboratory
                                                      (NRMRL)  of  the  U.S.  Environmental  Protection
                                                      Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development
                                                      (ORD)  has  developed  a  holistic water  research
                                                      program  in  order  to identify  engineering  and
                                                      management options for safe  and expanded  use of
                                                      reclaimed water. EPA also hopes to relieve public fears
                                                      and  negative  perceptions   about   the  use  of
Many sections of the country, including parts of Georgia, Florida and California, have been experiencing an increasing
number of drought periods due to climate change. As more parts of the country find themselves in droughts, the need
for an increase in the reuse of reclaimed water or wastewater is becoming more apparent. Reclaimed water can be the
discharge from a wastewater treatment plant, rain water, surface runoff from retention ponds, or industrial wastewater
after sufficient treatment. The states are starting to take notice of this, and over half of the states have put active water
reuse programs into place.

ORD's NRMRL has partially funded this research project in support of its Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research
Program. This project will determine what regions and areas in the U.S. require reclaimed water to meet pressing water
supply, agricultural and ecological needs. Treated wastewater in reclamation can be a useful for meeting water needs in
certain areas of the nation; however, contaminants in wastewater can negatively affect the environment. This project
will work towards determining how the contaminants in wastewater affect the environment. Researchers will evaluate
water reuse potential,  water quality requirements, and engineering controls over contaminant fate and transport in
reuse applications. The effectiveness of water reuse as a tool to manage global climate change, drinking water shortages
and water quality programs will be determined.

This project will assess nationwide water reuse needs using advanced data mining techniques with calculations of water
availability and water demand.  Treatability of emerging contaminants and macronutrients will be evaluated  in
conventional activated sludge process; advanced membrane biological  reactor; and advanced oxidation  units. The
project will also determine and model contaminant fate and transport during beneficial reuse, such as drip and root
irrigation, land application, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), and river bank filtration.
      National Risk Management Research Laboratory
      Water Supply and Water Resources Division

EPA GOAL: Goal #2 - Clean & Safe Water, Objective 2.1.1- Water Safe to Drink
ORD MULTI YEAR PLAN: Drinking Water (DW), Long Term Goal (LTG) - DW-1 Characterize risks associated with DW sources,
distribution, treatment, and use', Water Quality (WQ) LTG - WQ-3 Source Control
Collaborators: EPA Region 6; Washington University; University of Cincinnati
Contractors:  Shaw Environmental

The expected outcomes and impacts of this project  are increased awareness of dynamic requirements for improved
water quality and the  growing demands for safe and reliable water reuse. It is expected that this project will produce
data, models and tools, which will be provided to  stakeholders for the safe-use of reclaimed water. EPA will use these
outputs to educate state and local governments, as well as individual  stakeholders, on the benefits of using reclaimed
water. Ways of collecting wastewater and applications for the use of reclaimed water will be presented. This project also
intends to produce the media necessary to convince stakeholders of the safety of reusing reclaimed water.

Current and  Future outputs include Data and Synthesis Reports, describing the fate and transport of conventional and
emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment process, secondary beneficial reuse, and for alternative water
resources development through indirect potable reuse; EPA Report(s); journal articles; conference proceedings; one
special session on Sustainable Water Usage in 2009 AlChE Annual Conference, Nashville, Tennessee.

Water Resource Adaptation Program: http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/wswrd/wqm/wrap/index.html
Aging Water Infrastructure  Research Program: http://www.epa.gov/awi/

Y. Jeffrey Yang, Principal Investigator - (513) 569-7655 oryangjeff@epa.gov
Steven Doub, Media Relations - (513) 569-7503 ordoub.steven@epa.gov
Michelle Latham, Communications - (513) 569-7601 or latham.michelle@epa.gov
      National Risk Management Research Laboratory
      Water Supply and Water Resources Division
www.epa.gov/nrmrl      EPA/600/F-09/018
                      October 2009