EPA POLLUTION
OnbiT
npHMGHeHM^
OT napTHepOB nporpaMMbi Natural  Gas STAR
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CONVERT GAS PNEUMATIC CONTROLS TO INSTRUMENT AIR
nPEOEPASOBAHME  TASOBblX FIHEBMATMHECKHX CMCTEM
ynPABJIEHMfl flJlfl MCnOJlbSOBAHMfl TEXHOJlOrMHECKOrO
BOSflYXA
            cucieivibi, pa6oTaK>mne Ha npupoflHOM rase BbicoKoro flasneHMfl, tunpoKO McnonbsyioTCfl npn ynpasneHnn
             npoueccawin B HecpTanoi/i n rasosoi/i OTpacrmx. TunnnHbiMn npoueccawin flsnaioTCfl perynnposaHne
       , Tewinepaiypbi, yposi-m xnflKocin n noioKa rasa. flocTOflHHbie yieHKM us perynnpytomnx ycipoi/icTB B
coBOKyrmocTM npeflCTasriflioT co6oi/i KpynHei/iium/i MCTOHHMK aMnccnn wieiaHa B rasosoi/i oipacnn, Ha Koiopbii/i exeroflHO
npuxoflHTca 24 winpfl. cpyi.3 (680 MJIH. M3) npn flo6bNe, 16 winpfl. cpyi.3 (453 MJIH. M3) npn nepepa6oTKe n 14 winpfl. cpyi.3
(396 MJ-IH. M3) npn TpaHcnopinpoBKe rasa.

KowinaHMM wioryi nonyHMTb SHaHMTenbHyio aKOHOMMK) cpeflcis v\ CHMxeHne aMnccnn wieiaHa nyieivi nepesofla rasosbix
nHesMaiMHecKnx perynnpyfomnx cucieivi Ha ncnonbsoBaHne onumeHHoro aiMoccpepHoro (TexHonorMHecKoro) sosflyxa. flpn
3TOM npupoflHbii/i ras BbicoKoro flasneHMfl sawiemaeicfl TexHonornHecKUM sosflyxoM, HTO ncKruonaeT aMnccnio wieiana v\
noBbiujaei 6esonacHOCTb. OflnaKO aKOHOMnnecKM acpcpeKTHBHoe npmvieHeHne TaKMX cucieivi BOSMO>KHO nmub Ha ynaciKax c
                 aBTOHOMHbIM 3JieKTpOCHa6>KeHMeM.
flapiHepbi nporpaMMbi Natural Gas STAR coo6maK)T o exeroflnoi/i aKOHOMUM flo 70 000 Tbican Ky6MHecKnx cpyios
(1 982 Tbic. M3) rasa na qqny yciaHOBKy B pesynbiaie npeo6pasoBaHMfl rasosbix nHesMaiMHecKnx perynnpytomnx cucieM
Ha ncnojibsosaHne TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa, HTO B flenexnoM Bbipaxennn cocTasnfleT flo $210 000 B rofl.
aKOHOMMfl Arm Ka>Kfloro ynaciKa sasucm OT MOflenn, TexHunecKoro cocioflHUfl v\ oco6eHHOCTM pa6oHero pe>KMMa
perynfliopoB.
Merofl CHM>KeHMfi norepb rasa1
Sawiena rasa Ha TexHonori/iHecKi/iPi
BO3flyX B nHeBMaTMHeCKMX
cucreiviax (Ha ycraHOBKy)
YcpeflHeHHbiM o6beivi
3KOHOMMM ra33,
TbIC. CfDyT.3 (TbIC. M3)/rOfl
20 000 (0,6)
CpeflHflfl CTOMMOCTb
csKOHOMJieHHoro rasa,
$/rofl1
60000
CpeflHflfl CTOMMOCTb
BbinojiHeni/ifi pa6oT,
$/rofl2
50000
CpeflHuPi nepnofl
OKynaeMOCTM, neT
<1
1 CromviocTb rasa $3/Tbic. cfDyr.3($106/Tbic. M3)
2 CromviocTb ycTanoBKi/i Kowinpeccopa, ocyLUMTena v\ flpyroro flonojiHi/iTenbHoro o6opyflOBaHna
  HacTOflujm/i flOKyMeHT - oflun us OTHeTos cepnn "OnbiT npuMeneHMfl", paspa6oTaHHOi/i EPA B coTpyflHunecTse c
  rasosoi/i OTpacnbK) B paMKax npoeKTOB nporpaMMbi Natural Gas STAR.

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OnucaHne
TexHonoruM
        oipacnb pacnonaraei pa3Hoo6pa3HbiMM cpeflCTBawiM ynpasneHMfl
pa6oioi/i KnanaHos, Koiopbie perynnpyicrr flasneHne, CIOTOK, Tewinepaiypy, n
yposeHb >KMflKOCTM. BojibiuyK) nacib npn6opHoro ocHameHMy n annapaiypbi
Komporm MO>KHO OTHecTM K oflHoi/i MS ipex Kaieropni/i: (1) rmeBMaTMHecKoi/i, (2)
aneKipunecKoi/i nnn (3) MexaHnnecKoi/i. B 6onbiiJMHCTBe cnynaes B rasosoi/i
oipacnn npniviei-mioTCfl rmeBMaTMHecKne ycipoi/icTBa, pa6oTaK>mne Ha npupoflHOM
rase BbicoKoro flasneHMfl, HTO o6ecneHMBaeT Heo6xoflMMbii/i o6teM aHeprnn n
nepeflany ynpaBrmfomnx cumanoB. flHeBMaTMHecKne cucieivibi, nmaewibie
npupoflHbiM rasoM BbicoKoro flasneHMfl, Haxoflfli tunpoKoe npmvieHeHne B rasosoi/i
oipacnu. B nponsBOflCTseHHOM ceKiope, OKOJIO 250 000 rmeBMaTMHecKnx
ycipoi/icTB KOHiponnpyioT n ynpasnaioT noTOKawin rasa n xnflKocin, cocioflHueivi
yposHfl B ocyujmenflx n pasflenmenflx, TewinepaTypoi/i B pereHepaiopax
ocyujmenei/i n flasneHMeivi B ncnapmenflx. Ha 6onbiiJMHCTBe yciaHOBOK no
nepepa6oTKe rasa yxe Mcnonbsyeicfl TexHonornnecKm/i sosflyx, HO na HeKoiopbix
nHesMaiMHecKnx ycipoi/icTBax  npoflorDKaeica npmvieHeHne rasa, fpynnbi
pesepsyapos n HacocHbie ciaHunn, nmafomne flaHHbie yciaHOBKM, ocHaujeHbi
npn6nn3MTenbHO 13 000  rasosbix nHesMaiMHecKnx ycipoi/icTB. B ceKiope
ipaHcnopinpoBKH OT 90 000 flo 130 000 nHesMaiMHecKnx ycipoi/icTB
o6ecneHMBaK)T cpyHKUMOHMposaHne sanopHbix KnanaHos n perynnpyioT rasosbii/i
noioK n flasneHne B KowinpeccopHbix CTaHunax, Tpy6onposoflax n CKnaflCKMX
nowiemeHMflx.  flHeBMaTMHecKne ycipoi/icTBa, perynnpytomne HOTOK n flasneHne
rasa, TaioKe  ncnonbsyioTCfl npn pa6oie cneiHUKOB nponycmbix n
rasopacnpeflenmenbHbix cucieivi, npuHaflnexamnx rasopacnpeflenmenbHbiM
KOMnaHMflM.

Ha pnc.1 npeflCTasneHa nHeBMaiMHecKaa perynnpyiomafl cucieivia, pa6oiaK)mafl
Ha npupoflHOM rase. FlHeBMaTMHecKafl perynnpyiomafl cucieivia COCTOMT us
perynfliopoB ynpasneHMfl n Knananos, Koiopbie pa6oiaK)T na npupoflHOM rase
npn flasneHnn OKOJIO  20-30 cpyHios Ha KBaflpaiHbii/i flioi/iM (137,8 - 206,7 Kfla), n
               ipy6oK, noflaiomnx nmanne na see perynnpyfomne ycipoi/icTBa.
           ras TaioKe Mcnonbsyeicfl B HeKoiopbix "o6cny>KMBaK)mMX
(BcnoMoraienbHbix) ycipoi/icTBax", TaKMX K3K He6onbLune nHeBMaiMHecKne
Hacocbi, ciapiepbi flBuraienfl Kowinpeccopa n sanopHbie BeHinnn. Ha puc. 2
npuseflena ynpomeHHaa cxewia rmeBMaTMHecKoro KOHiypa ynpasneHMfl.
PerynnposaHne yposHfl xnflKocin B cenapaiope ocymecTsnaeTCfl c noMoujbK)
nonnasKa, Koiopbii/i MexaHnnecKM csasaH c peryrmiopoM yposHfl xnflKocin c
BHeujHei/i ciopoHbi Kawiepbi.
                                          Pnc.1: rasoean nHeBMarnHecKan cucreMa
                                                         perynnpoeaHun
                                                                        PC - Perynarop AaeneHMa
                                                                        LLC - PerynHTOp ypoBHa
                                                                        >KMAKOCTM
                                                                                CeTb COeAMHMTejlbHblX
                                                                                  rpy6oK CMcreMbi
                                                                              >    KOHTpOJlbHO-
                                                                                  M3MepHTejlbHblX
                                                                                npn6opoB M ynpaeneHMa
                                                                                 BcnoMorarenbHbie
                                                                                   MeX3HM3Mbl
                                  MCTOHHMK: ICF Consulting

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flpn noBbiweHMM M.TIM noHMweHMM yposHfl >KMflKOCTM nonnasoK nepewiemaeicfl
ssepx MJ1M BHMS, nepeflasafl MMnynbCbi Ha He6onbLune uronbHaibie KnanaHbi
BHyipn peryrmiopa. flpn STOM ras HanpasnaeTCfl Ha McnonHmenbHbii/i MexannsM
uronbHaioro Knanana, n OTsepcTue nepeKpbisaeTCfl, nn6o flasneHne rasa Ha
               MexaHMSM CHMxaeica. flpn noBbiiueHMM flasneHMfl rasa na
               MexannsM Knanana, Meivi6paHa, coeflMHeHHaa UJTOKOM c
saflBM>KKOi/i Knanana, cwiemaeicfl BHMS, HTO npusoflm  K OIKPHTMIO samyiiJKM n
           ouoKa xnflKocin us cenapaiopa. flpn c6poce flasneHMfl rasa Ha
               MexaHMSM Knanana saflBM>KKa nepeKpbisaeicfl nqq
             npy>KMHbi.
PMC. 2: CxeMa pa6orbi
flBM>KeHMe
BBepx
YpOBeHb ___^^fc ,
>KMAKOCTM '] ^^^— 	 — ""
BHMS
CreHKa
KBMepbl
cenaparopa
ToHKa
ononhi Perynarop ypOBHfl
j >KMAKOCTM
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— H^^^*1
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MexaHM3M - y
KnanaHa. . | | aw^o
riOTOK >KMAKOCTM II 1 ' k 1
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MCTOHHMK: ICF Consulting
               ycipoi/icTBa flsnaioTCfl ocnosHbiM MCTOHHMKOM aMnccnn Meiana
B rasosoi/i npoMbiujneHHOCTM, T. K. npupoflHbii/i rasa, Koiopbii/i Mcnonbsyeicfl flna
MX cpyHKUMOHMposaHMfl, Bbi6pacbiBaeicfl B aiMoccpepy. flpn STOM Meian
Bbiflenaeicfl us Me>KTpy6Hbix coeflMHenm/i, cpeflcis ynpasneHMfl n nio6bix flpyrux
ynaciKOB B npeflenax pacnpeflenmenbHoi/i cucieMbi Tpy6onposoflOB.
OaKTunecKaa CKOpocib yieHKM nnn yposeHb aMnccnn B SHanmenbHoi/i cieneHM
sasucMT OT KOHCipyKUMM ycipoi/JCTBa. Boo6me, peryrmTopbi noflo6Hbix
KOHCipyKum/i MMeioT ciaHflapTHbie, yciaHOBMBLUMecfl o6teMbi yieneK, HesasucuMO
OT MX MapKM. CKOpOCTb 3MMCCMM MSTaHa TaiOKS SaBMCMT OT flaBJieHMfl
noflasaeMoro rasa, Hacioibi McnojibsosaHMfl, cpoKa aKcnnyaiaunn nnn
Mhorne napiHepbi cnmaioT, HTO B nHesMaiMHecKnx cucieMax
BbiroflHO saMeHflib npupoflHbii/i ras Ha c>KaTbii/i sosflyx. McnojibsosaHne
TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa MCKnioHaeT aMnccnio Meiana n nosBormioT nosbicmb
KonnnecTBO npoflasaeMoro rasa. KpoMe Toro, ncKruonaeTCfl ncnojibsosaHne
orneonacHoro Bemecisa n SHanmenbHO Bospaciaei 6esonacHOCTb aKcnnyaiaunn.
nepBMHHbie saipaibi, csasaHMbie c npeo6pasoBaHneM ycipoi/icTB Ha npuMenenne
TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa, BKnionaioT saipaibi Ha ycianoBKy KOMnpeccopa n
cooTBeicTByiomero o6opyflosaHMfl n aKcnnyaiaunonHbie pacxoflbi na
3neKTpocHa6>KeHMe flBuraienfl KOMnpeccopa. CymecTsyiomm/i nHeBMaiMHecKMi/i
noflsoflflmm/i rasosbii/i Tpy6onposofl, npn6opbi ynpasneHMfl n ncnonHmenbHbie
MexaHMSMbi Knanana rasosoi/i nHeBMaiMHecKoi/i cucieMbi Moryi 6biib nosiopHO
ncnojibsosaHbi nocne nepeKruoneHMfl Ha cucieMy TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa.
CucieMa OKaioro TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa noKasana na puc. 3.
o6ecne
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noflsepraeicfl cxarmo, nowiemaeicfl B pesepsyapbi, a saiewi cpMnbipyeicfl M
ocyiuaeTCfl flrm flanbHeMiuero McnonbsosaHMfl. Bosflyx, npeflHasnanenHbiM flrm
BcnoMoraienbHbix ycipoMCTB (nHesMOHacocbi He6onbiuoro paswiepa, ciapiepbi
flBMraierm rasosoro Kowinpeccopa, nHeBMonpn6opbi, o6opyflosaHMe
necKocipyMHOM OHMCTKM) He Tpe6yei ocyiueHMfl. Bee flpyme ysnbi rasosoM
nHeswiocMCTewibi pa6oiaK)T iaK>Ke, K3K M npn noflane o6bNHoro rasa.
PMC. 3: CucTGMa OKaroro TexHonornnecKoro eoaflyxa
PC
C-^ JJXJ—^- rasa 1 	

rinrrynnpHMp €
>KMflKOCTM l>
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Kaiwepa A
cenaparopa
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BO3flyxa
ATMOCCfiepHblM j—^^ |
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KoMnpeccop Peaepeyap
MCTOHHMK: IGF Consulting
YcnoBHbie o6o3HaH6HMa
PC - PerynHTOp AaeneHMa
LLC - Perynarop ypoBHH >KMAKOCTM
flaeneHMe B
CMcreMe 20-
30PSI
(137,8-
206,7 KHa)

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*>
	 +
^
CMCTeiwa rpy6oK
KOHTpOJlbHO-
^ M3MepHTejlbHblX
npn6opoB M
ynpaeneHMa
BosAyx una
^ BcnoMorarenbHbix
M6XaHM3MOB
OcHOBHbiMM KOMnoHeHiaMM npoeKia nepeKnioneHMfl Ha cucieiviy
TexHonornHecKoro sosflyxa flsnaioTCfl Kowinpeccop, MCTOHHMK
BOflooTflenMienb M pesepsyap. HM>Ke npMBOflMTca onMcaHMe Ka>KAoro MS STMX
KOMnoneHTOB c ncmcneHMfliviM OTHOCMienbHO MX yciaHOBKM.

 * KoMnpeccop. Kowinpeccopbi McnonbsyioTCfl flna noflaHM TexHonorMHecKoro
   sosflyxa M Moryi 6biib pasnMHHbix TMHOB M napawieipoB OT poiopHbix,
   BMHTOBbix M ueHTpo6e>KHbix flo MHorociyneHHaTbix nopujHesbix. flapaMeipbi
   Kowinpeccopa sasMcai OT pasiviepa yciaHOBKM, KonMHecisa peryrmiopoB B
   CMCieivie, a TaioKe MX npoeKTHbix o6teMOB yieneK. O6bNHO Kowinpeccop
   pa6oiaeT OT aneKipoflBMraienfl,  KoiopbiM BKruoHaeica M BbiKruonaeTCfl B
   sasMCMMOCTM OT flasjieHMfl B  pesepsyape. flna noBbiweHMfl HaflexHociM
   o6bNHO ycTaHasriMBaeTCfl pesepsHbiM Kowinpeccop.

 * MCTOHHMK nuraHMsq. OcHOBHbiM KowinoHeHTOM CMCieivibi TexHonorMHecKoro
   sosflyxa flBJifleicfl MCTOHHMK nMiaHMfl, Heo6xoflMMbiM flna o6ecneKeHMfl. Bonbiuafl nacib
   KpynHbix ynaciKOB noflKruoneHa K ceiM 3neKTpocHa6>KeHMfl MJIM ocHamena
   aBTOHOMHbiwiM 3HepreTMHecKMMM yciaHOBKawiM. OflHaKO flrm 6onee wienKMX M
   yflaneHHbix ynacTKOB MHorfla  CJIO>KHO nai/iTM naflexnbiM MCTOHHMK
   3neKTpocHa6>KeHMfl. B neKoiopbix cnynaax SKonowiMHecKM acpcpeKTMBHbiwi
   OKasbisaeicfl McnonbsosaHMe Kowinpeccopos na conHeHHbix 6aiapeflx, HTO
   oflHospewieHHO o6ecneKaeTCfl paspa6oiKa wianora6apMTHbix
   Saiapei/i, pa6oTaiomMX Ha npMpoflnowi rase.

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3KOHOMMH6CKM6
M  3Kono
Bbiroflbi
                               *  BoAOOTAeJiMTejiM. BoflooTflenmenn v\nv\ ocyujmenn sosflyxa
                                  cociasHoi/i HacibK) KowinpeccopHbix cucieivi, pa6oTaK>mnx Ha
                                  TexHonornHecKOM sosflyxe. Bofla, npucyicTsyiomafl B aiMoccpepHOM sosflyxe,
                                  KOHfleHcupyeicfl, Korfla sosflyx Haxoflmca nofl flasneHneivi, nnn oxna>KflaeTCfl,
                                  M 3TO MOK6T Bbl3B3Tb c6OM B pa6OT6 CMCTeMbl M3-33 nOBpe>KfleHMfl npn6opHb!X
                                  UJMTKOB MJ1M 6noKnpoBKM noflaHM lexHonornHecKoro sosflyxa B cucieiviy ipy6 n
                                  sacopeHMfl OTsepcTMi/i peryrmiopoB. flna Manora6apmHbix cucieivi
                                  aKOHOMnnecKM onpasflaHHbiM OKasanocb npmvieHeHne Meivi6paHHbix
                                  ocyujmenei/i. OHM npeflciaBrmioT co6oi/i MoneKynapHbie cpunbipbi,
                                  nponycKafomne nepes Meivi6paHy wioneKynbi Kucnopofla n asoia n
                                  saflepxuBaiomne wioneKynbi soflbi. TaKne ocyujmenn onenb Hafle>KHbi B
                                  3KcnnyaTai4MM, He nivieioT noflsn>KHbix ysnos, a aneivieHTbi cpunbipa nerKO
                                  saivieHflioTCfl. flpn 6onbujnx o6teiviax aKOHOMnnecKM acpcpeKTHBHO
                                  npuMenenne cyujunbHbix annapaios c BnaronornoTmermMM
                               *  Pesepeyap. Pesepsyap yflepxusaei flociaTOHMbii/i o6teM sosflyxa
                                  HenpepbiBHOi/i noflann era nofl flasneHneivi B nHeBMaTMHecKyio cucieiviy
                                  perynnposaHMfl n MCKntoHaei Heo6xoflmviocTb nocioaHHOi/i pa6oibi
                                  BO3flyiiJHoro Kowinpeccopa. Pesepsyap MOKST sa KopoiKoe speivifl Bbinycimb
                                  6onbiijoi/i o6teM OKaioro sosflyxa, Hanpniviep, flna ciapiepa
                                  nHesMOHacoca, nHesMaiMHecKnx npn6opoB, He napytuaa npouecca
                                  perynnposaHMfl.
            aMnccnn wieiaHa OT nHesMaiMHecKnx ycipoi/icTB nyieivi
               cucieivi ynpasneHna n KOHTponbHO-nsMepmenbHbix npn6opoB
    ncnonbsoBaHne TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa, MOKST npuHecin SHaHmenbHbie
aKOHOMnnecKne n 3KonorMHecKne Bbiroflbi flnfl ra30flo6biBaK)mnx KowinaHm/i,
Koiopbie BKruonaioT cneflyiomee:

 * 3KOHOMMK) fl6He>KHblX CpeflCTB 33 CH6T COKpameHMfl yieHSK T333. flpM U6H3X
   H3 T33 $3 33 TbIC. CpyT.3 ($106/TblC.  M3) 3KOHOMMfl OT CHMXeHMfl yieHSK MOK6T
   COCT3BJ1flTb $360 B TOfl H3 yCTpOMCTBO MJ1M $210 000 M 6onee H3 yK6bi peryrmiopoB n ynyHiueHMe MX
                                 xapaKiepuciMK. flpupoflMbii/i ras, ncnonbsyeivibii/i B rmeBMoaBTOMaTMKe, Hacio
                                 coflepxm arpeccuBHbie npniviecu (laKne, K3K flsyoKMCb yrnepofla n
                                 ceposoflopofl), Koiopbie ywieHbiusioT cpoK cny>K6bi ycipoi/icTB. Bonee Toro, B
                                 npupoflHOM rase wioryi Haxoflmbca OKMcnbi xenesa, sacopfliomne He6onbLune
                                 OTsepciMfl B perynfliopax n BbisbiBaiomne c6on B MX pa6oie, HTO npusoflm K
                                 asapm/iHbiM cmyaunflivi. flpn ncnonbsoBaHnn xopoiuo onumeHHoro n
                                 BbicyweHHoro TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa noBbiujaeicfl acpcpeKTMBHOcib n cpoK
                                              cucieivibi.
                               *  McKTHOHeHne npnivieHeHMfl ropfonero npupoflHoro rasa.
                                  npupoflHoro rasa OKaibiM sosflyxoM SHanmenbHO nosbiiuaeT 6esonacHOCTb
                                  pa6oibi cucieivi nepepa6oiKM, TpaHcnopinposKM n pacnpefleneHna rasa. 3io
                                  oco6eHHO sa>KHO flna MopcKnx yciaHOBOK, rfle BHCOK PUCK sosropaHUfl.
                               * CoKpameHne aMnccnn wieiaHa. Flo oiHeiaivi ynacTHMKOB nporpawiMbi,
                                 exeroflHoe coKpaujeHne aMnccnn wieiaHa cocTasnfleT 70 000 000 cpyi.3
                                 (1 982 179 M3) Ha ynacTOK n sasucm OT KonnnecTBa ycipoi/icTB n THROB
                                 perynflTopoB.

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l~lepeo6opyflOBaHMe nnesMSTMHecKOM CMCTewibi, pa6oTaK>meM Ha npMpoflHOM rase,
na McnonbsosaHMe TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa BOSMO>KHO na scex ynacTKax M
ycTanosKax no nepepa6oTKe
npMpoflHoro rasa. Ana
onpefleneHMfl 6onee              Flpoijecc FIPUHHTMH pemeHUM AJIH
acpcpeKTMBHbix MeTOflOB            nepeo6opyflOBaHMH yen-porters,
nepeocHameHM* CMCTSMH          H^^^m^^t^^^  xa
Tpe6yeTca ~	"	
TeXHMHeCKOfO M 3KOHOMMHeCKOro    ^ • Onpeflenem/ie BOSMOKHOTO Mecia yciaHOBKn
o6ocHOBaHMfl. CneflyromMe         CMCT8M ™xHononiHecKoro Bo3flyxa.
fleMCTBMfl, KOTOpbie                2. OnpeflejieHne pai4MOHanbHbix napaMeipos
conposo>KflaK)TCfl onMcaHMeM       cucreMbi.
KOHKpeTHblX npMMepOB, 33TpaT,      3. OueHKa CTOMMOCTM npoeKTa.
                                4. 3KOHOMM?! F333.
cpopiviynaMM M conyTCTsyiomMMM
cbaKTOpaMM nOMOryT KOMnaHMflM    ^- OneHKa SKOHOMMHSCKOM scJjc^eKTMBHOCTM.
oueHMTb BOSMO>KHOCTM TaKoro       6. PaspaSoTKa njiana MOflepHMsauMM.
nepeocHameHMfl.

3ran 1: OnpeAeneHne eosMOWHoro Mecra ycraHOBKH CMCTGM
TexHonornnecKoro eosAyxa. BonbiiJMHCTBO perynMpyiomMX CMCTSM, p36oT3K>mMX
H3 npMpoflHOM rsse, MO>KHO nepeo6opyflosaTb  Ha McnonbsosaHMe
TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa. Ana cpyHKUMOHMposaHMfl CMCTeMbi noflaHM
TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa neo6xoflMM KOMnpeccop, BOflooTflenMTenM, CMCTeMbi
3neKTpocna6>KeHMfl M flpyroe o6opyflosaHMe. flepsbiM 3TanoM flna ycneujHoro
BbinonHeHMfl npoeKTa nepeo6opyflosaHMfl asnaeTCfl TmaTenbHoe o6cneflosaHMe
ynacTKOB M BbmsneHMe H3M6onee yflaHHbix MSCT flna era aKOHOMMHecKM
acpcpeKTMBHOM pesnMssuMM. B OCHOBHOM, B npouecce npMHflTMfl peiueHMM BO
BHMM3HM6 6epyTCfl TpM mSBHblX CpaKTOpa.

 * Pacnono>KeHMe ynacTKa. PacnonoxeHMe ynacTKa MOXST OKasaTb
   SHaHMTenbHoe snMflHMe Ha Bbi6op o6opyflosaHMfl M CTOMMOCTb ycTanosKM
   CMCT6M TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa. HanpMMep, nepexofl na TaKyio CMCTeMy
   Heuenecoo6paseH Ha fleueHTpanMsosaHHOM ynacTKe, Korfla pesepsyapbi
   HaxoflflTca Ha snaHMTenbHOM paccTOflHMM Me>Kfly co6oM. CMCTSMB
   TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa naM6onee noflxoflMT flna npMMeneHMfl Ha MOPCKMX
   nnaTcpopMax M 6eperosbix npoMbicnax,  rfle aneMeHTbi
   CMCTSMbl CKOHUeHTpMpOBaHbl H3 OTHOCMTenbHO He6onbUJOM
 * KojiMHecTBO nneBMaTMHecKnx ycraHOBOK. Mewi 6onbiue
   perynfliopoB nepeo6opyflosaHO na TexHonornnecKm/i Bosflyx, ISM Bbiiue
   noieHunan coKpameHna aMnccnn n nosbiiueHMfl aKOHOwinn flna KowinaHnn.
   flepeo6opyflOBaHMe npn6opos Ha npuMenenne TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa
   Han6onee acpcpeKTHBHO npn nposefleHnn KpynHOMaciiJTa6Hbix M3MeHeHMi/i Ha
   npoMbicne.
 * flocTynnocTb 3HeprocHa6>KeHM5q. TaK K3K cpyHKUMOHUposaHne OCHOBHOM
         cucieivi TexHOJiomHecKoro sosflyxa ocHosano na pa6oie Kowinpeccopa c
                 npusoflOM, sosHMKaei Heo6xoflmviocTb B ncioHHUKe
   6ecnepe6oi/iHoi/i noflann aneKipoaneprnM. Mnorne ynaciKM nivieioT co6cTB6HHbie
   renepupyfomne ycianoBKH, HO na wianbix n oiflanennbix ynaciKax MX HST. Arm
   HMX ncnojibsosaHne cucieivi TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa ciaHOBmcfl
   HepeHTa6enbHbiM ns-sa BbicoKoi/i CTOMMOCTM aneicrpoaiHeprMM. Bonee Toro, flna
   ynacTKOB, MMeiomMX reHepMpyiomMe ycTaHOBKM, Heo6xoflMMO npoMssecTM
          M y6eflMTbCfl B flOCTaTOHHOCTM Bblpa6OTKM 3JieKTpO3HeprMM flJIfl
               pa6oTbi CMCTewibi, TaK K3K saTpsTbi Ha MOflepHMsauMK)
   reneparapa wioryT OKasaTbca CJIMLUKOM BHCOKMIVIM. Ha OTflaneHHbix npowibicnax
   cneflyeT paccwioTpeTb sosivioxHOCTb McnonbsosaHMfl conHeHHOM aneprMM MJIM
   reHepMposaHMe aneKTpoaHeprMM B MMKpoTyp6MHax.

-------
            MSTOfl:

B nHeBMaiMHecKOi/i cucTeivie
ncnojibsyeica 1/3 eosflyxa
flna TexHOJiornnecKnx
u,enei/\, 2/3 - flna paSoibi
BcnoMoraienbHoro
oSopyqoBam/ia.
                        3ran 2: OnpeAeneHne paijMOHajibHbix napaMerpoe cucreMbi. flocne Bbi6opa
                        wiecTa BbinoriHeHMfl npoeicra sa>KHO onpeflenmb paunoHanbHbie lexHunecKne
                        napawieipbi cucieivibi TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa. Heo6xoflmviafl MoujHOCTb
                        cucieivibi HanpflMyio onpeflermeTCfl KonnHeciBOM OKaioro sosflyxa,
                        noTpe6nfleivioro oflHospeivieHHO nHeBMaiMHecKHMH perynfliopaiviM n
                                         o6opyqoBaHneivi.
                                                                                    M6TOfl:

                                                                             B MMH. eosflyxa Ha
                                                                       KOHiyp ynpaBJiem/ia
 * Tpe6oeaHM5q no TexHonornnecKOMy
   eosAyxy. O6teM TexHonorMHecKoro soaflyxa,
   Heo6xoflMMbii/i flnfl nHesMaiMHecKnx cucieivi
   ynpasneHMfl, aKBMBaneHieH o6teiviy rasa,
   ncnonbsyeivioro flna pa6oibi cymecisyiomei/i
   annapaiypbi, OTperynnposaHHOi/i Ha noiepn sosflyxa BO speivifl npouecca
   cyiiJKM. TeKymm/i o6teM noTpe6nfleivioro rasa MO>KHO onpeflenmb nyieivi
   npaivioro CHMTbisaHMfl noKasaHMi/i cneiHUKa (ecnn CHSTHMK yciaHOBneH). flpn
   OTcyicTBMM cneiHUKOB MO>KHO BocnojibsosaTbCfl flaHHbiMM npaKTMHecKoro
   wieiofla, ycTaHasnuBaiomero pacxofl oflHoro cpyi.3 B MMH.  (0,02 M3/MMH.)
   TexHonornHecKoro sosflyxa na KOHiyp saMKHyioi/i cucieivibi ynpasneHMfl
                perynaiop ynpasneHMfl n perynnpyiomm/i Knanan).
nepBOHaHanbHbii/i pacnei Tpe6yeivioro o6teivia
TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa flonxeH
              c yneTOM noiepb B npouecce
      i. O6bNHO Meivi6paHHbie cpmibipbi
ocyujmenei/i sosflyxa noTpe6naK)T 17 npoueHios
noflasaeivioro sosflyxa. B pesynbiaie oueHOHHbii/i
o6teM noTpe6neHMfl TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa cociaBJ-meT 83 npoueHia OT
o6mero noflasaeivioro o6teivia OKaioro sosflyxa. flna cpyHKUMOHMposaHUfl
BnaronornoTMTenfl He  Tpe6yeicfl Bosflyx, n OH ne ny>KflaeTCfl B perynnposKe.
                                                                                    M6TOfl:

                                                                       17% noflaBaeivioro sosflyxa
                                                                       nomoLuaeica MeM6paHOi/i
                                                                       ocyujmena
 * noTpe6neHne eosAyxa BcnoMorayenbHbiM o6opyAoeaHMeM.
   sosflyx Moxei ncnojibsosaTbCfl flna pa6oibi BcnoMoraienbHoro o6opyflosaHMfl,
           ciapiep flBuraienfl, nacocbi c nneBMaTMHecKUM npusoflOM,
                  MHCipyivieHTbi (nneBMaTMHecKm/i rae
-------
PMC. 4: PacneT napaMerpoe KOMnpeccopa npn nepeocHaujeHMM rasoebix
                ycrpoMCTB Ha ncnojib30BaHne TexHonornnecKoro
flano:
               co cpeflHMM o6teMOM raso,qo6bNM,
                       ycTpoMCTsaMM, rnMKonesbiM
       KowinpeccopoM, 35 KOHiypaiviM ynpasneHMfl npn cpeflHeM o6teivie
       noTpe6neHMfl rasa BcnoMoraienbHbiM o6opyqoBaHMeM 10 cpyi.VMMH.
       (0,28 M3/MMH.) fl.ra o6ecneHeHMfl pa6oibi nHesMaiMHecKnx Hacocos
       sanycKa flBuraienfl KOMnpeccopa.
A

lau

las

Uas

L
       = O6mni/i o6teM OKaioro rasa

       = noTpe6neHne TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa

       = floflana TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa

       = floflana sosflyxa flna BcnoMoraienbHoro o6opyflosaHMfl

       = KoHiypbi ynpasneHMfl
                    wieiofl: 1 cpyi.3/MMH. (0,02 M3/MMH.)/KOHTyp ynpasneHna
           pacneia cucieivibi TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa.

                    wieiofl: 17% sosflyxa nornomaeicfl Meivi6paHHbiMM
                    wieiofl: B nHeBMaiMHecKoi/i cucieivie Mcnonbsyeicfl 1/3
       sosflyxa flnfl TexHonornnecKnx u,ene\/\, 2/3 - Ana pa6oibi
       BcnoMoraienbHoro
       Pacner: A = Heo6xoAMMasq MoujHocrb BO3AyuJHoro KOMnpeccopa.
A

lau

las

Uas
       = lAs +UAs

       = Lx (1 cpyi.3/MMH. (0,02 M3/MMH)/KOHTyp ynpasneHMfl)

       = IAu/(100% - ro sosflyxa, npoxoflamero nepes ocyujmenb)

       = lAu x (ncnojibsosaHne Hacin sosflyxa BcnoMoraienbHoro
       o6opyflosaHMfl) / (ncnonbsoBaHne Hacin TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa)

       =(35 x 1)/(100%-17%)+(35 x 1) x (2/3)/(1/3)=112 cpyi.3/MMH. (3,17 MS/MMH.)
3jan 3: OueHKa CTOMMOCTM npoexra. OcHOBHbie pacxoflbi no yciaHOBKe n
aKcnnyaiauuM cucieivi TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa BKJiKHaioT pacxoflbi Ha
yciaHOBKy KOMnpeccopa, ocyujmenei/i, pesepsyapos n aneKipoaHeprnio.
OaKTunecKaa cioniviocTb yciaHOBKM HanpaiviyK) sasucm OT napawieipoB
ycipoi/icTB, MX pacnonoxeHMfl n flpyrux oco6eHHOciei/i ynaciKa. CioniviocTb
Tunosoro nepeocHameHna rasosbix nHesMaiMHecKnx cucieivi ynpasneHMfl Ha
ncnojibsosaHne OKaioro TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa npn6nn3MTenbHO
$35 000 - $60 000.
    O146HKM CTOMMOCTM KOHKpeTHOCO npO6KT3 H6O6xOflMMO OnpefleJIMTb 33TpaTbl
na KOMnpeccop, ocyiiJMTenM, pesepsyap M aneicrpoaHeprMK). BonbiiJMHCTBO
nocTasmMKOB npeflocTasnaeT pacneT CTOMMOCTM o6opyqoBaHMfl M
no ycnosMflM ycTanosKM (BKruonafl pasMep KOMnpeccopa, MoujnocTb
o6teMbi 3HepronoTpe6neHMfl M BMecTMMOCTb pesepsyapos). KoMnaHMM MoryT
McnonbsosaTb cneflyiomMe flannbie no ocHOBHbiM KOMnneKTyiomMM ysnaM CMCTSM
    pacneTa noriHOM CTOMMOCTM ycTaHOBKM CMCTeMbi TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa.

-------
* CTOMMOCTb KOMnpeccopa. O6bNHO Ha npowibicne ycTaHasnuBaioT
  Kowinpeccopa (pa6oHm/i n pesepsHbii/i) flrm nosbiiueHMfl HaflexHocin n
  o6ecneHeHMfl HenpepbiBHOi/i flo6bNM rasa BO speivm TexHunecKoro
  o6cny>KMBaHMfl MJIM KanmanbHoro pewioHia oflHoro us HMX. MoujHocib
  Ka>Kfloro Kowinpeccopa flon>KHa 6biib flociaioHHOi/i flrm npoMSBOflcisa scero
  Heo6xoflMMoro no npoeicry o6teivia sosflyxa (T. e. TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa n
  sosflyxa BcnoMoraienbHoro o6opyflosaHMfl). Ha puc. 5 npusefleHbi ueHbi n
  oueHKa aKcnnyaiaunoHHbix saipai Ana wianbix, cpeflHux n 6onbLunx
  KOMnpeccopoB. Sawieimvi, HTO KanmanbHbii/i pewioHT BUHTOsoro KOMnpeccopa
  H6O6xOflMMO npOBOflMTb K3>Kflbie 5-6 J16T. TaKOM peMOHT o6bNHO
  saMeny ocHOBHbix naciei/i c npn6nn3MTenbHoi/i cionMocibK) $3 000  n
  TpyflosaipaiaMM $500, a TaioKe npeflnonaraei Bosspai $500 sa
  KOMnpeccopa, 6biBUJne B
PMC. 5: CTOMMOCTb BO3AyuJHoro KOMnpeccopa
Pa60HMM
paawiep


Manbii/i
CpeflHMi/i
Bonbujoi/i
oe-beM
BO3flyxa
#yr.3
(M3)/MMH.
30 (0,85)
125 (3,5)
350(10)
Tun
KOMnpec-
copa

nopujHesoi/i
Typ6nHHbii/i
Typ6nHHbii/i
MOLM-
HOCTb,
n.c

10
30
75
CTOMMOCTb
o6opyflO-
eaHMF), $

25001
12500
22000
fofloeoe
o6cny-
>KMBaHne,
$/rofl
300
600
600
CpOK
3Kcnnya-
T314MM,
J16T
1
5-62
5-62
^KnioHaeT cionMOCTb KOMnpeccopa n pesepsyapa.
2BoccTaHOBneHne KOMnpeccopa BKruonaeT saMeny ocHOBHbix Haciei/i c
npn6nn3MTenbHoi/i cioMMOCTbio $3 000 n TpyflosaipaiaMM $500, a TaioKe
Bosspai $500 sa HaciM KOMnpeccops, 6biBUJne B aKcnnyaiaunn.
*  Pesepeyap. CucieMa noflann OKaioro sosflyxa BKruonaeT pesepsyap, B
   KOTOPOM noflflepxusaeicfl nocioaHHoe flasneHne sosflyxa npn pa6oie n
   OTKruoneHMM KOMnpeccopa. Ms onbiia npaKTunecKoro npuMeneHMfl ussecTHO,
   HTO Ha 1 rannoH eMKOcin pesepsyapa npuxoflmca 1 cpyi.3/MMH. (0,028 M3/MMH)
   OKaioro sosflyxa. Ha puc. 6 npuseflena CTOMMOCTb o6opyflosaHMfl flna
   pesepsyapos Manbix, cpeflHux n 6onbujnx pasMepos. Pesepsyapbi o6bNHO He
   ipe6yK)T saipai Ha aKcnnyaiaunK) n TexHMHecKoe o6cny>KMBaHMe.
PMC. 6: CTOMMOCTb pesepeyapa
Pa60HMM
pasMep
Manbii/i1
CpeflHMi/i
Bonbujoi/i
O6-b6M B03Ayxa,
rannoHbi (MS)
80 (0,3)
400(1,5)
1 000 (3,8)
CTOMMOCTb o6opyAoeaHMfi,
$
500
1 500
3000
1Manbie nopujnesbie KOMnpeccopbi MomnocibK) 10 n.c. n Menee o6bNHO
nociaBJiflioTCfl c npoMexyionHbiM pesepsyapoM.

-------
                                  * CTOMMOCTb ocywMTe/ifi sospyxa. TaK KBK TexHonorMHecKMM sosflyx
                                         oneHb cyxMM BO Ms6e>KaHMe sacopeHMfl M sosHMKHOseHMfl KopposMM,
                                            sosflyx o6bNHO nponycKaioT nepes ocyujmenb. Han6onee WMpoKO
                                    McnonbsyioTCfl ocyujmenn wianbix M cpeflHMX paswiepos c
                                    M6M6paHOM. Ha KpynHbix nHesMaiMHecKnx cucieiviax MO>KHO
                                    MHoroMeivi6paHHbie ocyujmenn nnn 6onee aKOHOMMHHbie ocyujmenn c
                                    BnaronornoTMTenbHbiM cnoewi us OKCMfla anioMMHMfl. Meivi6paHHbie cpunbipbi
                                    yqarmioT MacnflHbii/i TywiaH n isepflbie HaciMUbi. OHM He nivieioT noflsn>KHbix
                                    ysnos n noaioiviy OTnunaioTCfl HMSKMMM aKcnnyaTaunoHHbiMM saipaiaiviM.  Ha
                                    puc. 7 npeflCTasneHbi uenbi n aKcnnyaiaunoHHbie saipaibi Ana ocyujmenei/i
                                    pasnuHHbix pasiviepoB. Ocyujmenb npasunbHO noflo6paHHoro pasiviepa
                                    o6ecneHMBaeT noflroioBKy Heo6xoflmvioro KonnnecTBa rasa flna noflann B
                                    cucieiviy TexHonornHecKoro sosflyxa.
PMC. 7: CronMOCTb ocyiiJMTensq eosAyxa
Pa6OHMM
paaMep
Manbii/i
CpeflHMi/i
Bonbiijoi/i
oe-beM
Boaflyxa,
4>yT.3/MMH.
(M3/MMH.)
30 (0,85)
601 (1,7)
350(10)
Tun ocyujMTenji
Meivi6paHa
Meivi6paHa
OKCMfl aniOMMHMfl
CTOMMOCTb
o6opyfloeaHMa, $
1 500
4500
10000
3KcnjiyaTaL|MOH-
Hbie aajpajbi,
$/rofl
500
2000
3000
1Han6onbium/i pasiviep Meivi6paHbi; HeoxoflMMO McnonbsosaTb HecKonbKO
yciaHOBOK 6onbiuero o6teivia.
                                  Ha ocHose McnojibsosaHMfl npusefleHHOi/i Bbiiue MHCpopiviauMM MO>KHO paccnmaTb
                                  nojiHyio CTOMMOCTb ycTaHOBKM o6opyflosaHMfl no npoeicry. Ha puc. 8 npeflCTasneH
                                  noflo6Hbii/i pacneT Ha ocnose panee paccMaTpusaeivioro npniviepa ynacTKa co
                                          o6teMOM flo6bNM rasa, na KOTOPOM noTpe6HOCTb B TexHonornHecKOM
PMC. 8: PacneT CTOMMOCTM MOHTa>Ka
flano:





Kowinpeccop (2)
Pesepsyap (2 He6onbujnx)
Meivi6paHHbii/i ocyiiJMTenb
KoacpcpnuneHT MOHTaxa
= $25 000 (PMC. 5)
= $1 000 (PMC. 6)
= $4 500 (PMC. 7)
= 1,5




PaCH6T nOJIHOM CTOMMOCTM MOHT3>Ka





PacneT noriHoi/i CTOMMOCTM
MOHTaxa


O6mafl CTOMMOCTb


= \-\ena KOMnpeccopa + l\ena
pesepsyapa + l\ena ocyujMTena
= $25 000 + $1 000 + $4
= $30 500
= \-\ena o6opyqoBaHMfl x
MOHTaxa
= $30500x1,5
= $45 750
500

KoacpcpMUMeHT


10

-------
sosflyxe cocTasrmeT 42 cpyT.3/MMH. (1,18 M3/MMH.), a MaKCMManbnaa noTpe6nocTb
sosflyxa fl.rm BcnoMoraienbHbix CMCTBM pasna 70 cpyT.3/MMH. (2 M3/MMH.) (nonnaa
noTpe6nocTb B c>KaTOM sosflyxe cocTasnaeT 112 cpyi.VMMH. (3,17 M3/MMH.)). flpn
oueHKe CTOMMOCTM MOHiaxa o6opyflosaHMfl B rasosoM oipacnn npuHflio cnmaTb,
HTO Tpyflosaipaibi Ha yciaHOBKy cooTBeicTByioT CTOMMOCTM o6opyflosaHMfl (T. e.
CTOMMOCTb o6opyflOB3HMfl npM MOHT3>Ke yflBaMBaeTCfl). TaKOM BapM3HT nOflXOflMT
Arm KpynHora6apMTHbix CMCTSM TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa c ocyiuKOM
BnaronornoTMTeneM, HO flna He6onbiiJMX nepeflBM>KHbix CMCTSM,  MOHTMpyewibix na
pawie, npM pacneTe noriHOM CTOMMOCTM MOHTaxa cneflyeT npMMeHflTb
             1,5 (TpyqosaTpaTbi cocTasaT nonosMHy CTOMMOCTM o6opyflosaHMfl).
               K 33TpaT3M H3 nepeOCH3meHM6 H606xOflMMO yKafl paccMOTpeHMe npMMepa, MO>KHO npeflnono>KMTb, HTO
               7,5 ueHTOB/KBTH, a B pa6oTe npM  noriHOM HarpysKe
     KOMnpeccop, SKcnnyaTMpyeMbiM Ha nonosMHy pa6oKfloro TMna npM6opos M no
Ka>KflOMy BMfly onepauMM. STM flSHHbie cneflyeT yBenMHMTb Ha 25% flrm Ka>KAoro
ycTpoMCTsa, naxoflflmeroca B 3KcnnyaTauMM 5-10 neT 6es KanMTanbHoro peMOHTa,
M Ha 50% flrm npM6opos, 3KcnnyaTMpyeMbix 6onee  10 neT 6es KanMTanbHoro
peMOHTa,  Ana yneTa pocTa o6teMOB yTeneK B pesynbTaTe Msnoca o6opyflosaHMfl.
flna noBbiweHMfl TOHHOCTM MO>KHO TaioKe ycTanosMTb CHBTHMK, npM ycnosMM
nposefleHMfl MOHMTOpMHra B TeneHMe flnMTenbnoro speMeHM M
                                                                       11

-------
                                  nc-KasaHMi/i scero BcnoMoraienbHoro o6opyqoBaHMfl, pa6oTaiomero Ha rase (T. e.
                                  Hacocos, ciapiepoB flBuraienei/i, npusoflHbix MexaHMSMOB n sanopHbix KnanaHos).
                                  B oiHeie EPA "BapnaHTbi coKpameHna 3MHccnn wieiaHa us
                                  ycipoi/icTB B rasc-Boi/i npoMbiiuneHHOCTM" cepnn "Onbii npmvieHeHMfl"
                                  nepeneHb wiapoK, MOflenei/i n flaHHbix rasonoTpe6neHMfl fl.rm tunpoKoro cneicrpa
                                                 ycipoi/icTB, Mcnonbsyeivibix B Hacioamee speivifl. Tawi xe
                                             MHCpopiviauMfl o npoMSBOflmenflx n flam-ibie cpaKinnecKnx M3MepeHMi/i,
                                  nposefleHHbix Tawi, rfle 310 6bino BOSMO>KHO (CM. flpunoKeHne K oiHeiy). Ana
                                  ynpomeHMfl pacneioB aKOHOMUM rasa B flaHHOM aHannse MO>KHO BocnonbsosaTbCfl
                                  paccMoipeHHbiM Bbiiue npaKTunecKUM MeioflOM. 3KOHOMMfl rasa Ha ynaciKe co
                                  cpeflHMM o6teMOM flo6bNM, npusefleHHaa Ha puc. 4, paccHmana npn ywiepeHHbix
                                  o6teiviax yieneK 35 cpyi.3/MMH. (0,99 M3/MMH.) flna 35 nHesMaiMHecKnx
                                  perynfliopoB, c yneToivi nepnoflUHecKoro McnojibsosaHMfl rasa flna ciapiepa
                                           Kowinpeccopa n He6onbujnx nHesMaiMHecKnx Hacocos,
                                                  xnMnnecKne Bemecisa (sawieimvi, HTO nepeo6opyflosaHMe
                                         yciaHOBOK flaei npaiviyK) aKOHOMMK) rasa OT MCKnioHeHUfl aMnccnn).
                                             ras He Mcnonbsyeicfl B nneBMaiMHecKnx MHCipyivieHTax nnn B
                                  o6opyflosaHMM necKocipyi/iHoi/i OHMCTKM  n MX pa6oia OT flononHmenbHO
                                  ncflasaeivioro OKaioro sosflyxa He cnnxaei aMnccnK) Meiana. flpeflnonarafl, HTO
                                          eweroflHbii/i HOTOK rasa 10 cpyT.3/MMH. (0,28 M3/MMH.) ne 6yflei
                                                perynnpyiommviM ycipoi/icTBaMM, aKOHOMna rasa cocTasm
                                  45 cpyT.3/MMH. (1,27 M3/MMH.). Ha puc. 10 noKasaHO, HTO aKOHOMna cooTBeTCTByei
                                  23 652 Tbic. cpyi.3 (669,7 M3) rasa B rofl npn era roflosoi/i CTOMMOCTM $71 000.
PMC. 10: PacneT SKOHOMMM rasa
flano

noTpe6neHne rasa B
TexHonornnecKnx uermx
flpoHne ycipoi/icTBa -
noTpe6menn rasa
= 35 Cpyi.3/MMH. (0,99 M3/MMH.)
= 10 Cpyi.3/MMH. (0,28 M3/MMH.)
PaCH6T CTOMMOCTM C3KOHOMfieHHOrO T33a

O6teM 3KOHOMMM
npupoflHoro rasa
EweroflHbii/i o6teM
3KOHOMMM rasa
ExeroflHaa ciomviocTb
caKOHOMneHHoro rasa
= TexHonornnecKoe ncnonbsoBaHne +
McnonbsoBaHne flna flpyrux uenei/i
= 35 Cpyi.3/MMH. (0,99 M3/MMH.) +
10 Cpyi.3/MMH. (0,28 M3/MMH.)
= 45 CpyT.3/MMH. (1,27 M3/MMH.)
= 45 cpyi.3/MMH. (1,27 M3/MMH) x 525 600
MMH./rofl /1 000
= 23 652 Tbic. cpyi.Vrofl (669,7 M3/rofl)
= c-6-beivi x $37 Tbic. cpyi.3 ($106/Tbic. M3)
= 23 652 Tbic. cpyi.Vrcfl (669,7 M3/rofl) x $37
TbIC. CpyT.3($106/TblC. M3)
= $71 000/rcfl
                                  3Tan 5: OueHKa axoHOMMHecxoM scJicJieKTMBHOCTM.
                                  acpcpeKTMBHOCTb saivieHbi npupoflHoro rasa Ha TexHonornnecKm/i sosflyx B
                                  nneBMaTMHecKoi/i perynnpyiomei/i cucTeivie MOKBT 6biTb ouenena Ha ocnose
                                  npaivioro anannsa saTpaT v\ pesynbTaTos.
12

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Ha puc. 11 npuBOflmcfl npniviep aHannsa saipai n pesynbraioB flrm ynaciKa co
cpeflHMM o6teMOM flo6bNM rasa. flsuxeHne fleHe>KHbix cpeflcis B leneHne 5 nei
npeflCTasneHO c yHeioM ncxoflHbix flam-ibix Ha puc. 8 n 9 (noKasaHO B CKo6Kax) n
npn6bmn, paccnmaHHOi/i Ha puc. 10. ExeroflHbie saipaibi na TexHMHecKoe
o6cny>KMBaHMe Kowinpeccopa  n ocyiumenei/i sosflyxa Bsaibi us puc. 5 n 7.
TaioKe saipaibi Ha KanmanbHbii/i pewioHT Kowinpeccopa nepes 5 nei no
puc. 5. Muciaa  npusefleHHaa  cioniviocTb (NPV) pasna npn6bmn sa BbNeioivi
saipai B TeneHne nain nei, npn exeroflHoi/i ciasKe flucKOHTHposaHMfl
            . BHyipeHHflfl Hopwia peHTa6enbHoc™ oipaxaei ciasKy
               ,  npn Koiopoi/i NPV pasha Hynio.
Pnc.11: 3KOHOMMH6CKMM aHann3 nepeocHaLMGHMsq Ha CMCTeiwy
TexHonornnecKoro eosAyxa

ClOMMOCTb yCTaHOBKM,
$
ClOMMOCTb 3KCnn. M
iex. o6cn., $
ClOMMOCTb
KanpewioHia, $
O6mafl CTOMMOCTb, $
3KOHOMMfl rasa, $
FoflOBoe flsuxeHne
fl6He>KHblX CpeflCTB, $
CoBOKynHbii/i npmoK
fl6He>KHblX CpeflCTB, $
0 rofl
(45 750)
0
0
(45 750)
0
(45 750)
(45 750)
1 rofl

(13 140)1
(3 200)2
0
(16340)
71 OOO4
54660
8910
2rofl

(13 140)
(3 200)
0
(16340)
71 000
54660
63570
3 rofl

(13 140)
(3 200)
0
(16340)
71 000
54660
118230
4 rofl

(13 140)
(3 200)
0
(16 340)
71 000
54660
172890
riepnoA OKynaeMOCTM
IRR
NPV5
5rofl

(13 140)
(3 200)
(4 800)3
(21 140)
71 000
49860
222 750
10
177%
$158454
13neKTpo3Heprnfl npn u,ene 7,5 ueHTOB/KBiH
23aipaTbi Ha Texo6cny>KMBaHMe BKruonaioT $1 200 na pa6oiy Kowinpeccopa n
$2 000 na saivieny Meivi6paHbi ocyujmenfl sosflyxa
3KanmanbHbii/i pewioHT KOMnpeccopa $3 000 npn 10% roflosoi/i MHCpnaunfl.
"CioniviocTb rasa = $3/Tbic. cpyi.3 ($106 Tbic. M3)
5HncTafl npusefleHHaa ciomviocTb (NPV) ocHosaHa Ha ciasKe flucKOHTHposaHMfl
10% B Tenenne 5 nei.
3Tan 6: Paspa6oTKa nnana MOAepHMsaijMM. flocne nposeflennfl TexHunecKoro n
aKOHOMnnecKoro o6ocHosaHMfl npoeKia nepexofla Ha cucieiviy TexHonornnecKoro
sosflyxa cneflyei paspa6oiaTb CMCieiviHbii/i nnan MOflepnusaunM. 8101 nnan
      BKruonaTb yciaHOBKy rasosoro cneiHUKa B JIMHMM rasocHa6>KeHMfl, pacnei
           Komypos ynpasneHMfl, o6ecneHeHne 6ecnepe6oi/iHoi/i noflann
                na pa6oibi KOMnpeccopa n sawieny ciapbix, MSHOiueHHbix
perynfliopoB ynpasneHMfl c BbicoKMMM yieHKaiviM. Bee saivieHbi
nponsBOflMTb oflHospeivieHHO flnfl CHMxeHMfl ipyqosaipaT n npocioes.
TaioKe MO>KHO npeflycMoipeib napannenbHbie flei/iciBUfl no yciaHOBKe npn6opos c
                                                                       13

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                                 HMSKOM cieneHbK) yieneK n nepexofl Ha cucieiviy TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa.
                                 3KOHOMMfl OT npuMeneHMfl cucieivibi TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa n OT ycianoBKH
                                 rmeBMaTMHecKnx npn6opos c HMSKOM cienenbio yieneK, coKpamaiomnx aiviMccmo
                                 Meiana, oflnnaKOBa. flpn IOKMX 6bi o6cTOflTenbCTBax HM npoxoflnna saiviena
                                 nneBMaTMHecKnx ycipoi/icTB, nanpniviep, nepexqq c MexannHecKoi/i Ha
                                 aneKipoHHyio cucieiviy ynpasneHMfl, cymecTBytomne nHeBMaiMHecKne ycipoi/icTBa
                                 flon>KHbi saivieHflTbCfl Ha ocHOBe eflMHbix 3KOHOMMHecKMX noKasaienei/i,
                                 o6cy>KfleHMe Koiopbix npusoflmcfl B ynoMflHyioM panee oiHeie EPA "BapnaHTbi
                                 coKpaujeHMfl 3MMCCMM MeiaHa MS HHeBMaTMHecKnx ycipoi/icTB B rasosoi/i
                                 npoMbiiuneHHOCTM" cepnn "OnbiT
     OnbiT
     napmepoB
HeKoiopbie napiHepbi nporpawiMbi EPA Natural Gas Star OTMenaioT B CBOMX
oiHeiax, HTO nepeocHameHne rasosbix nHesMaiMHecKnx cucieivi ynpasneHMfl Ha
ncnonbsoBaHne TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa flBnaeicfl eflMHCTsenHbiM MCTOHHMKOM
coKpameHMfl 3MMCCMM MeiaHa n nonyneHMfl SHaHmenbHoi/i aKOHOMUM flenexMbix
cpeflciB. Ha puc. 12 npusefleHbi Han6onee noKasaienbHbie flocinxeHUfl
HeKoiopbix napiHepos nporpawiMbi Natural Gas STAR, o Koiopbix OHM coo6mnnn
B CBOMX oiHeiax.
PMC 12: OnbiT napTHepoe nporpaMMbi
FlapiHep
npor-
paMMbl
Gas STAR
Unocal

Texaco3

Chevron3
Exxon/
Mobil4


Shell

Marathon
OnucaHne npoeKia


ycTaHOBi/iJin cucieMy OKaina
Boaflyxa na npoMbicne Fresh Water
Bayou, Southern Vermillion Parish,
LUTar JlynanaHa.
YcTaHOBUJiM cucreMy OKarna
Boaflyxa flna ynpaaneHna nnes-
MaTMHeCKMMM yCTpOMCTBaMM H3 10
npoMbicnax HS fore LUTSTS JlynanaHa
nepeo6opyflOBanM flsa nnes-
MaiMHecKnx perynaropa na
McnojibaoBanne TexHonornHecKoro
Boaflyxa M ycraHOBUJiM HOBbie.
YCTaHOBUJlM CMCTeMbl
TexHonornHecKoro Boaflyxa na rpex
BcnoMorarenbHbix nepeflBM>KHbix
ycranoBKax n oflun qeHTpanbHbiPi
peaepsyapHbiPi napK B Postle na
cenaparope ymeKucnoTbi.
nepeo6opyflOBanM 4 300 KnananoB,
yCTaHOBJieHHblX H3 MOpCKMX
nnarcpopMax, na McnojibaoBanne
TexHonornHecKoro Boaflyxa.
Ha npoMbicnax New Mexico
ycraHOBUJiM 15 CI/ICTCM
TexHonornHecKoro Boaflyxa
CTOM-
MOCTb
npoeKia,
$

60000

40000
173000
332
rofla


55000


Her
flSHHblX
Her
flaHHblX
FoflOBoe
coKpaiMenne
3MMCCMM TbIC.
dpyj.3 (M3)/rofl

69350
(1 964)

23000
(651)
31 700
(897)


19163
(543)


532 800
(15000)
120-38000
(3,4 - 1 000)
Ha npOMbicen
roflOBaa
3KOHOMMH,
$/rofl1

208 050

69000
95100


57489


1 598 400
360-
114000
flepnofl
OKynaeMOC-
TM, M6C.2

<4

7
11


12


Her flaHHbix
Her flaHHbix
1Croi/iMOCTb rasa = $3/Tbic. cpyr.3 ($106/Tbic. M3)
2PaCM6T OCHOB3H H3 CTOMMOCTM I/I o6b6IVI3X 3KOHOMMM T333, npeflOCTSBJieHHblX napTHBpaMM
nporpawiMbi.
3flaHHbie flna OTHera 6bmn co6panbi flo o6befli/iHeHi/ia KOMnani/iPi Chevron M Texaco B 2001 rofly.
4flaHHbie flna OTHera 6bmn co6panbi flo o6befli/i Henna KOMnannPi Exxon/Mobil B 1999 rofly.
14

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flpyrne
TexHonoruM
         nacib onbiia napiHepos nporpawiMbi no saMene rasosbix
               ycipoi/icTB n npn6opos ynpasneHMfl Ha
peryrmiopbi ocHosaHa Ha BHeflpennn cucieivi OKaioro TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa.
HeKoiopbie flononHmenbHbie sapnaHTbi no saivieHe rasosbix nHesMaiMHecKnx
ycipoi/icTB, npeflnpuHflibie  napmepaMM, npusefleHbi Huxe.

 * WMAKMM asoT. B cucieiviax, pa6oTaK>mnx Ha WMflKOM asoie, peryrmTop,
             KOMnpeccop n ocyujmenb saivieHflioTCfl unnnHflpoM,
          asoi. Perynfliop flasnennfl o6ecneKfleHMe
   pacujupeHHoro asoia B  cucieiviy mvinynbCHbix ipy6oK perynaiopoB npn
   Tpe6yeMOM flasneHnn. Bannonbi c XMflKMM asoioivi nepnoflnnecKM
   saivieHflioTCfl. Ycipoi/icTBa, pa6oTaK)mne na >KMflKOM asoie, ipe6yK)T
   KpnoreHHoro o6opyflosaHMfl, Koiopoe mvieei flociaioHHO BbicoKyio ciomviocTb
   n cno>KHO B o6cny>KMBaHMM. Cucieivibi xnflKoro asoia c 6onbiumviM
                               * MexaHMHecKoe ynpaeneHne n cucreMa KOHTponbHO-M3MepnTenbHbix
                                 npn6opoe. Annapaiypa MexaHnnecKoro ynpasneHMfl n KOHiponbHO-
                                 MSMepmenbHbie npn6opbi nivieioT flnmenbHyK) Mciopmo npmvieHeHMfl B
                                 Hecpierasosoi/i oipacnu. O6bNHO MX yciaHOBKa o6ycnoBneHa OTcyicTBueivi
                                                n aneKipoHHbix KOMnoHeHTOB. OHM mvieioT npociyKi
                                             n He ipe6yK)T ncTOHHMKa nuiaHMfl. floflo6Hoe o6opyflosaHMe
                                 pa6oiaeT c ncnonbsoBaHneivi npyxnn, pbinaros, fluacpparivi, npoionnbix
                                 Kananos n wiaxosuKOB pynnoi/i noflann. OflHaKO OHO mvieei orpaHMHennoe
                                 npuMenenne, csasaHHoe c Heo6xoflmviocTbK) Kann6poBKM, HMSKOM
                                 HyBCTBmenbHOCTbK), cpyHKUMOHMpoBaHneivi TonbKO B ciaunoHapHbix pexmviax
                                 n B03MO>KHbiM sannnaHneivi aneivieHTOB.
                               * 3neKrpnHecKne n 3JieKTponHeBMaTMHecKne ycTpoiicTBa. B pesynbiaie
                                 cosepujeHCTBOBaHMfl TexHonorm/i n pasnuHHbix MOflepHnsaum/i pacujupaeTCfl
                                 ncnojibsosaHne aneKipoHHbix KOHTponbHO-nsMepmenbHbix npn6opoB.
                                 flpemviymecTBa flam-ibix ycipoi/icTB saKnionaioTCfl B TOM, HTO OHM ne ipe6yK)T
                                             KOMnpeccopHoro o6opyflosaHMfl n flna MX pa6oibi Mcnonbsyeicfl
                                                npn HanpaxeHnn B cein 120 B. flpyroe MX npemviymeciBO
                                 ocHosaHO Ha 6onbiuei/i 6e3onacHoc™ npuMenennfl  no cpasHeHMK) c
                                 ycTpoi/icTBaMM, ncnonbsyiommviM socnnaivieHfleMbii/i npupoflHbii/i ras nnn
                                 >KMflKMi/i asoi. MX HeflociaTKaiviM flBrmioTCfl Heo6xoflmviocTb B nocioflHHOM
                                 MCTOHHMKe nUTaHMfl M BblCOK3fl CTOMMOCTb.
     npusefleHHbie sapnaHTbi nivieioT HeflociaiKM, cucieivibi,
sosflyx BMecTO rasa, Haxoflfli tunpoKoe npmvieHeHne B KanecTse
rasosbiM nHeBMaiMHecKUM perynaiopaM. Ba>KHO OTMeimb, HTO Hafle>KHbii/i
MCTOHHMK noflaHM cyxoro OKaioro sosflyxa B MaciiJTa6ax nponsBOflCTBeHHbix
ynaciKOB o6xoflmcfl floporo, xoia OH 6onee aKOHOMMHen, neivi npupoflHbii/i ras.
rioaioiviy cipaiernfl oflHospeivieHHOi/i ycianoBKH perynaiopoB c HMSKMMM
n nepexofl Ha cucieivibi TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa (CM. OTHST "BapnaHTbi
coKpamennfl 3MMCCMM MsiaHa us nneBMaiMHecKnx ycipoi/icTB B rasosoi/i
npoMbiiuneHHOCTM" cepnn "Onbii npuMeneHMfl") sanaciyK) OKasbisaeicfl
3KOHOMMHeCKM 3CpCpeKTMBHOI/i. l~lOflo6Hbie flei/JCTBMfl n
CHMSMTb noTpe6neHne TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa, Heo6xoflMMyK)
KOMnpeccopa n o6teM noTpe6neHMfl aneKipoaHeprnn B
ynaciKa.
                                                                                              pa6oibi
                                                                                                     15

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    OnbiT
flapiHepbi nporpawiMbi Natural Gas STAR coo6maK)T o npuMeneHnn cneflyiomero
onbiia:

 * YciaHOBKa cucieivi TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa nosBormei nosbicmb
   peHTa6enbHOCTb n CHUsmb aMMCcmo wieiaHa.

 * Cucieivibi TexHonornHecKoro sosflyxa ysennHMBaioT flnmenbHOCTb pa6oKHbie MCTOHHMKM
                                                   , Hacio Heo6xoflmvio nponssoflmb oueHKy BOSMO>KHOCTM
                                                   anbTepHaiMBHbix MCTOHHMKOB. flpn BOSMO>KHOCTM
                                                   sosflyiuHbix KowinpeccopoB, pa6oTaK)mnx Ha connenHbix
                                     Saiapeax, flocTuraeicfl aKOHOMnnecKm/i n aKonornnecKm/i acpcpeKT, no
                                     cpaBHennK) c BapnaHiaiviM noflann floporoi/i aneKipoanepruM Ha oiflaneHHbie
                                     ynaciKM. flpyrmvi peHTa6enbHbiM sapnaHTOM flBnaeicfl nponssoflCTBO
                                     aneKipoaHepruM Ha wieciax B MMKpoTyp6nHax, pa6oTaK)mnx na npupoflHOM
                                     rase.

                                  * OflHospeivieHHafl ycianoBKa peryrmiopoB c HMSKMMM yieHKawin n nepexofl Ha
                                     cucieiviy TexHonornHecKoro sosflyxa Hacio flBnaeTca aKOHOMnnecKM
                                     3CpCpeKTMBHblMM.

                                  * BOSMOKHO McnojibsosaHne cymecisyiomei/i cucieivibi ipy6, Koiopbie flon>KHbi
                                          npeflsapmenbHO onumeHbi flna flanbHei/iiijero
                                  * BosflyujHbie Kowinpeccopbi poiaunoHHoro inna o6bNHO nivieioT Macrmnyio
                                     civiasKy, Koiopaa flon>KHa npoxoflmb nepes cpunbip B uenax noflflepxaHna
                                     ncnpasHoi/i pa6oibi Meivi6paHHbix ocyujmenei/i n ysennHeHMfl cpoKa MX
                                     ripnivieHeHMe TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa MCKnioHaeT onacHocib, CBflsaHHyio c
                                     ncnonbsoBaHneivi socnnaivieHfleMoro npupoflHoro rasa B nHesMaiMHecKnx
                                     ycipoi/icTBax.

                                     Cucieivibi, pa6oTaK)mne Ha asoie, wioryi npmvieHflTbCfl B Kanecise
                                     anbTepnaTMBbi cucieiviaM TexHonorMHecKoro sosflyxa B oco6bix cnynaflx, HO
                                              floporocTOflmmviM n onacHbiMM BBMfly nannHMfl c>KM>KeHHoro rasa.
                                     Heo6xoflmvio BKnionaTb flannbie no coKpamenmo 3MHccnn Meiana OT
                                     nepeo6opyflosaHMfl rasosbix nHesMaiMHecKnx ycipoi/icTB Ha noTpe6neHne
                                     TexHonornnecKoro sosflyxa B exeroflHbie oineTbi no nporpaivnvie Natural Gas
                                     STAR.
    JlnTepaiypa
Adams, Mark. Pneumatic Instrument Bleed Reduction Strategy and Practical Appli-
cation, Fisher Controls International, Inc., 1995.

Beitler, C.M., Reif, D.L., Reuter, C.O. and James M. Evans. Control Devices Moni-
toring for Glycol Dehydrator Condensers: Testing and Modeling Approaches, Radi-
an International LLC, Gas Research Institute, SPE 37879, 1997.

Cober, Bill. C&B Sales and Services, Inc. Personal contact.

Fisher, Kevin S., Reuter, Curtis, Lyon, Mel and Jorge Gamez. Glycol Dehydrator
Emission Control Improved, Radian Corp., Public Service Co. of Colorado Denver,
Gas Research Institute.
16

-------
Frederick, James. Spirit Energy 76. Personal contact.

Games, J.P., Reuter, C.O. and C.M. Beitler, Field Testing Results for the R-BTEX
Process for Controlling Glycol Dehydrator Emissions, Gas Research Institute,
Radian Corporation, SPE 29742, 1995.

Gunning, Paul M. U.S. EPA Natural Gas STAR Program. Personal contact.

Gupta, Arun, Ansari, R. Rai and A.K. Sah. Reduction of Glycol Loss From Gas
Dehydration Unit At Offshore Platform in Bombay Offshore: A Case Study,
N.A.K.R. IOGPT, ONGC, India, SPPE 36225, 1996.

Reid, Laurance, S. Predicting the Capabilities of Glycol Dehydrators, SPE-AIME,
Laurance Reid Associates.

Scalfana, David B., Case History Reducing Methane Emissions From High Bleed
Pneumatic Controllers Offshore, Chevron U.S.A. Production Co. SPE 37927, 1997.

Schievelbein, V.H., Hydrocarbon Recovery from  Glycol Reboiler Vapor With Glycol-
Cooled Condenser, Texaco, Inc. SPE 25949, 1993.

Schievelbein, Vernon H. Reducing Methane Emissions from Glycol Dehydrators,
Texaco EPTD, SPE 37929,  1997.

Soules, J.R. and P.V. Tran. Solar-Powered Air Compressor: An Economical and
Ecological Power Source for Remote Locations,  Otis Engineering
                                                                         17

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&EPA
    United States
    Environmental Protection Agency
    Air and Radiation (6202J)
    1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
    Washington, DC 20460

    EPA-430-B-04-003
    Oeepanb 2004 r.

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