Community-Scale Air Toxics Ambient
    Monitoring Projects (CSATAM)
            Summary Report
          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        Office of Air Quality, Planning and Standards
             Air Quality Analysis Division
              109 TW Alexander Drive
           Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                   July 2009

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                                    DISCLAIMER
The information presented in this document is intended as a technical resource to those
conducting community-scale monitoring projects. The mention of commercial products, their
source, or their use in connection with material reported herein is not to be construed as actual or
implied endorsement of such products.  This is document and will be updated periodically as
additional final reports are delivered.

 The Environmental Protection Agency welcomes public input on this document at any time.
Comments should be sent to Barbara Driscoll (driscoll.barbara@epa.gov).
                                     FORWARD

In June 2009, Eastern Research Group (ERG) under subcontract to RTI International prepared a
final technical report under Contract No. EP-D-08-047, Work Assignment 1-03. The report was
prepared for Barbara Driscoll of the Air Quality Assessment Division (AQAD) within the Office
of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
The report was written by Regi Ooman and was incorporated into this final report.
                                          11

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                                TABLE OF CONTENTS
      List of Figures	v
      List of Tables	v
      List of Acronyms	vi
      Abstract	viii

1.0    Introduction	1

2.0    Program Background Information	1

      2.1     Proposal Focus	2
             2.1.1     Community-Scale Monitoring	3
             2.1.2     Methods Development/Evaluation	3
             2.1.3     Analysis of Existing Data	4

      2.2     Expected Project Outcomes	5

      2.3     EPA's Use of the Reports	5

      2.4     Scope of this Report	6

3.0    Summary of Awarded Projects	7

4.0    Project Summaries	10

      4.1     First RFA Cycle Project Summaries	10
             4.1.1     Sun Valley, CA (Project Report ID = 1)	10
             4.1.2     Placer County, CA (Project Report ID = 2)	12
             4.1.3     Port of Tampa, FL (Project Report ID = 3)	14
             4.1.4     Allegheny County, PA (Project Report ID = 4)	16
             4.1.5     Paterson, NJ (Project ID = 5)	18
             4.1.6     Milwaukee, WI (Project ID = 6)	21
             4.1.7     Detroit, MI (Project ID = 7)	23
             4.1.8     Chicago, IL (Project ID = 8)	25
             4.1.9     Phoenix, AZ (Project ID = 9)	27
             4.1.10   Denver, CO (Project ID = 10)	29
             4.1.11   Cherokee Heights, OK (Project ID =11)	31
             4.1.12   Portland, OR (Project ID = 12)	32
             4.1.13   Wilmington, DE (Project ID = 13)	34
             4.1.14   Austin-Round Rock, TX (Project ID = 14)	37
             4.1.15   Spokane, WA (Project ID = 15)	38
             4.1.16   Warwick, RI (Project ID = 16)	40

       4.2    Second RFA Cycle Work Plan Summaries	42
             4.2.1     Louisville, KY (Project ID = 17)	42
             4.2.2     Jefferson County,  AL (Project ID = 18)	43
             4.2.3     Nez Perce Tribe, ID (ProjectID= 19)	43
             4.2.4     Albuquerque, NM (Project ID = 20)	43

                                           iii

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
                                                                                Page

             4.2.5    State of Connecticut (Project ID = 21)	44
             4.2.6    Houston, TX (Project ID = 22)	45
             4.2.7    Treasure Valley, ID (Project ID = 23)	45
             4.2.8    Indianapolis, IN (Project ID = 24)	45
             4.2.9    Port of Los Angeles, CA (Project ID = 25)	46
             4.2.10   Reno, NV (Project ID = 26)	46
             4.2.11   State of New Jersey (Project ID = 27)	47
             4.2.12   Secaucus, NJ (Project ID = 28)	47
             4.2.13   Rochester, NY (Project ID = 29)	47
             4.2.14   Tonawanda, NY (Project ID = 30)	48
             4.2.15   San Diego, CA (Project ID = 31)	49
             4.2.16   St. Regis Mohawk Tribe, NY (Project ID = 32)	49
             4.2.17   Burlington, VT (Project ID = 33)	50
             4.2.18   Hopewell, VA (Project ID = 34)	50
             4.2.19   Boulder County, CO (Project ID  = 35)	51

5.0   Key Findings	52

      5.1     Study Pollutant(s)	52

      5.2     Significant Results and Lessons Learned	53

      5.3     Technology Transfer Tools	58

      5.4     Anticipated Outcomes	58

      5.5     Community Involvement	62

      5.6     Project Contacts	64

6.0   Conclusions	65
                                          IV

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                                    LIST OF FIGURES
                                                                                       Page
3-1   Locations of Awarded Community Monitoring Program Grants (RFA Cycles 1 and 2)	9
                                    LIST OF TABLES
                                                                                       Page
3-1    Summary of Awarded Projects	7
3-2    Awards by EPA Region	8

4-1    Key Project Information for Sun Valley, CA	10
4-2    Key Project Information for Placer County, CA	12
4-3    Key Project Information for Port of Tampa, FL	14
4-4    Key Project Information for Allegheny County, PA	16
4-5    Key Project Information for Paterson, NJ	18
4-6    Key Project Information for Milwaukee, WI	21
4-7    Key Project Information for Detroit, MI	23
4-8    Key Project Information for Chicago, IL	26
4-9    Key Project Information for Phoenix, AZ	27
4-10   Key Project Information for Denver, CO	29
4-11   Key Project Information for Cherokee Heights, OK	31
4-12   Key Project Information for Portland, OR	33
4-13   Key Project Information for Wilmington, DE	34
4-14   Key Project Information for Austin-Round Rock, TX	37
4-15   Key Project Information for Spokane, WA	38
4-16   Key Project Information for Warwick, RI	40

5-1   Target Pollutant Types by Awarded Project	52
5-2   Summary of Significant Results and Lessons Learned from the First RFA Cycle	53
5-3   Summary of Technology Transfer Tools	58
5-4   Anticipated Outcomes	59
5-5   Public Outreach Initiatives	62
5-6   Project Leads and Responsible Agency	64

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                                LIST OF ACRONYMS
AAMG
AAQD
ABC
ACHD
ADEQ
AMTIC
APCA
AQMS
ARTS
AWMA
BC
BTEX
CAA
CACOG
CAMR
CAMx
CARB
CARE
CMB
CMU
CNEP
CO
C02
DEC
DPM
DQO
DRC
EC
E-DATAS
EPA
EPD
ERG
FRM
FTIR
GC
GRIC
HAP
HEALTH
IC/ICPMS
ID
JATAP
LAMP
m/s
MATES III
MATES II
MDEQ
MLK
Ambient Air Monitoring Group
Albuquerque Air Quality Division
Ambient Benchmark Concentrations
Alleghany County Health Department
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
Ambient Monitoring Technical Information Center
Air Pollution Control Agency
Air Quality Management Section
Austin-Round Rock Toxics Study
Air and Waste Management Association
black carbon
benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes
Clean Air Act
Capital Area Council of Governments
Clean Air Monitoring Rule
Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions
California Air Resources Board
Community Action for Renewed Environment
chemical mass balance
Carnegie Mellon University
Cherokee Nation Environmental Program
carbon monoxide
carbon dioxide
Department of Conservation
diesel particulate matter
Data Quality Objective
diffusive rate constants
elemental carbon
Enhanced Delaware Air Toxics Assessment Study
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Division
Eastern Research Group
Federal Reference Method
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
gas chromatograph
Gila River Indian Community
hazardous air pollutant
Rhode Island Department of Health
Ion Chromatography/Inductively Coupled Plasma-mass Spectrometry
identifier
Joint Air Toxics Assessment Project
Large Area Monitoring Program
meters per second
Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study III
Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study II
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
Martin Luther King
                                           VI

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NATA
NATTS
NJDEP
NJTPK
NO
NOX
OAQPS
OC
OEHHA
OWBs
OWFs
PAH
PAKS
PASM
PCAQCD
PM
PMo.27
PMj
PM10
PM2.5
PMF
ppb
QAPP
RAIMI
RARE
REL
RFA
RfC
RIDEM
RRAMP
RSMS-3
SO2
SRPMIC
TAG
TSP
UofD
UCAMPP
(ig/m3
UPRR
uv
voc
WDNR
        LIST OF ACRONYMS (Continued)

National-scale Air Toxics Assessment
National Air Toxics Trends Station
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
New Jersey Turnpike
nitric oxide
oxides of nitrogen
Office of Air Quality, Planning, and Standards
organic carbon
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment
outdoor  wood boilers
outdoor  wood furnaces
poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
passive aldehydes and ketones sampler
passive air sampling method
Final County Air Quality Control District
particulate matter
particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 0.27 microns
particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 1 micron
particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns
particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns
positive  matrix factorization
parts per billion
Quality Assurance Project Plan
Regional Air Impact Modeling Initiative
Regional Applied Research Effort
Relative Exposure Limit
Request for Application
reference concentration
Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management
Roseville Railyard Ambient Monitoring Program
Rapid Single-particle Mass Spectrometer
sulfur dioxide
Salt River-Pima Maricopa Indian Community
Technical Advisory Committee
total suspended particulate
University of Delaware
Urban Community Air Toxics Monitoring Project, Paterson, NJ
micrograms per cubic meter
Union Pacific Rail Road
ultraviolet
volatile organic compound(s)
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
                                           vn

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                                           Abstract
       This report presents results from EPA's Community-Scale Air Toxics Ambient Monitoring
(CSATAM) Program—a program designed to help local communities identify and profile air toxics
sources, develop and assess emerging measurement methods, characterize the degree and extent of local
air toxics problems, and track progress of air toxics reduction activities.  Since 2004, grants have been
awarded from this program towards 52 unique projects to benefit local-scale monitoring efforts, of which
35 have sufficiently progressed to be described here.  Geographically, grants have been awarded across
the entire United States, in large, medium, and small communities. Awarded grants fall into one of three
category bins: community-scale monitoring, method development/evaluation, and analysis of existing
data.  Each awarded grant generally runs from 18 to 36 months, but may have been extended due to
project initiation difficulties.  Each awardee has or will submit a final report to EPA at the end of the
project period. Targeted pollutants generally  reflected the National Air Toxics Trends System core
compounds, criteria pollutants, and/or pollutants related to diesel particulate matter.

       Other communities wishing to perform similar activities to the projects described in this report can
benefit greatly by utilizing or modifying the tools developed from these awarded projects for their own
end-use purposes.
                                              Vlll

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1.0    Introduction
       Under Section 103(b)(3) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) is authorized to award grants for research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations, surveys,
and studies related to the causes, effects, extent, prevention and control of air pollution.  Specifically,
local-scale efforts to better characterize the distribution and sources of hazardous air pollutants, as well as
to improved ambient air monitoring methods to achieve characterization and human exposure assessment
goals, may be carried out under Section 103(b)(3) of the CAA.

       In three separate Request For Application (RFA) cycles, EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning
and Standards, Air Quality Assessment Division, Ambient Air Monitoring Group (AAMG) solicited
proposals for grants to assist state and local communities in assessing local air quality. These EPA grants
were designed to identify and profile air toxics sources, develop and assess emerging measurement
methods, characterize the degree and extent of local air toxics problems, and track progress of air toxics
reduction activities.  The first RFA cycle was in 2003-2004 and  16 projects were selected for award from
49 proposals.  The second RFA cycle was in  2005-2006, and 19 projects were selected for award from 58
proposals. The third RFA cycle was in 2007, and of the 60 eligible applications, funding was awarded in
2008 to 17 projects. These projects will soon be initiated, and will be discussed in a later summary
report.

       In these first two cycles, EPA anticipated awarding approximately 15 to 25 grants and
cooperative agreements resulting from each RFA cycle, with funding amounts between $50,000 to
$500,000 total funding per agreement. Although EPA estimated the project period for awards would be
18-36 months, each project was to be completed within a negotiated project performance period. Grants
have been extended on a case-by-case basis if there were difficulties in project initiation.

2.0    Program Background Information
       The community-scale air toxics ambient monitoring program has been developed as a piece of the
overall National Ambient Air Monitoring Strategy (www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/monitor.html).  These
projects supported EPA's efforts to reduce public exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs),
commonly called air toxics, by utilizing data from local-scale ambient air monitoring to advance
mitigation of HAPs which supports EPA's overall goal to improve air quality.

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       The National Ambient Air Monitoring Strategy has provided a basic framework under which air
toxics programs are well integrated. Two dominant principles of the national strategy specifically apply
as follows:
       •   First, monitoring programs must have an appropriate balance between national prescriptive
           measurements (e.g., trends) and more flexibility to address local issues that are not well
           handled through a national design given the diversity of toxics issues across the nation.  The
           balance between the National Air Toxics Trends Station (NATTS) network and the emerging
           community monitoring assessments reflects adherence to this  principle.
       •   Second, the national strategy is directing a movement toward multiple measurements across
           numerous pollutant groups, recognizing the fact that most air pollution issues are well
           integrated from a scientific perspective, and enormous economies of scale are realized from
           integrating program management efforts across pollutant groups.

2.1    Proposal Focus
       EPA was particularly interested in receiving air toxics monitoring related proposals from
communities with the potential for the highest air toxics risk.  While the NATTS program is intended to
gather and assess priority HAP data on a national scale, a primary  objective of the Community
Monitoring Program is to identify and more accurately define the extent of local scale HAP impacts. To
meet this objective, consideration of the National-scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) in planning and
executing the prospective projects is appropriate (www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/natamain/').  NATA is EPA's
ongoing comprehensive evaluation of HAP in the United States. NATA assessments estimate the risk of
cancer and other serious health effects from breathing air toxics. Assessments include estimates of cancer
and non-cancer health effects based on chronic exposure from outdoor sources including assessment of
non-cancer health effects for Diesel Particulate Matter (PM).  NATA was developed as  a tool to  inform
both national and more localized efforts to collect air toxics information, characterize emission and help
prioritize pollutants/geographic areas of interest for more refined data collection.

       Each community project proposal addressed one of the following three project bin categories:
       (a) community-scale monitoring,
       (b) methods development / evaluation, or
       (c) analysis of existing data.

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2.1.1  Community-Scale Monitoring

       This category is intended to assist state and local agencies in assessing the degree and extent to

which air toxics problems impact their respective communities. Successful proposals demonstrate a clear
and compelling need or justification, examples of which may include the following:

       •   Supporting health effects assessments.  The data collected from the National Air Toxics
           Monitoring Program can in some situations provide a valuable database for health scientists
           to investigate the relationship of ambient toxic concentrations and health impacts. In some
           instances, opportunities may arise for health studies to be conducted in conjunction with
           National Air Toxics Monitoring efforts, although direct linkage to an ongoing health study is
           not a precondition for project selection.

       •   Evaluating and improving air quality models that in turn are used for exposure assessments.
           Air quality models are an important tool for exposure assessments. However, they require
           supporting observations to instill confidence in model results, or to direct needed
           improvement in underlying model formulations or related emission inventories.

       •   Baseline Analysis.  Developing a baseline reference frame of air quality concentrations can
           support estimates of community exposure and provide the basis for the longer term measuring
           of progress of a planned emissions strategy program. For example, characterization of base
           concentration levels can impact regulatory standards related to air toxics.

       •   Characterizing Specific Pollutants of Concern. Pollutants that are not ubiquitous, yet may
           present a local or regional scale concern (e.g., characterizing ambient /divalent mercury
           emissions, lead and other toxics near airports).

       •   Developing Profiles.  Delineating local scale HAP concentration gradients that are driven by
           factors such as proximity to,  and influence by, sources and other factors unique to particular
           communities may be  important. While gradient delineation is not a purpose unto itself,  it
           may be an integral part of a larger purpose such as conducting an  exposure assessment,
           source characterization, or assessing the degree to which environmental justice may be a
           relevant issue in the affected community.

       •   Characterizing Specific Emissions  Sources of Concern.  Characterizing near-source
           concentrations from specific sources may be important.  For example, characterizing
           emissions from transportation facilities, refineries, or other industry sectors may be
           important.  In particular, it may be  important to obtain information regarding substantially
           elevated ambient concentrations of toxics relevant to the source being investigated, including
           data on the pollutant profiles or source signatures. Such measurements assist regulators in
           their efforts to assess  the impact of emission reduction measures (e.g., accountability) and to
           characterize risk and its causes  for the most highly impacted populations.


2.1.2  Methods Development / Evaluation

       This category is intended to develop new (or improve existing) methods for measurements (i.e.,

sampling and analysis, continuous monitoring) of select priority HAPs (i.e., those that emerged as

national or regional drivers as a result of the 1999 NATA). Methods development is most critical for

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HAPs that: 1) account for a significant contribution to the national risk, and 2) have an existing method
detection limit higher than the concentrations established for one in a million cancer risk or non-cancer
hazard quotient of one.

        In addition, this category is used to evaluate advanced HAP monitoring technologies that can
potentially operate on a routine basis. The target result of such projects is to ascertain the accuracy and
cost-effectiveness (i.e., practical value) of existing innovative monitors, samplers, or analytical methods.

2.1.3   Analysis of Existing Data
        This category is aimed at state, local, and tribal agencies that have already collected a significant
amount of air toxics monitoring data and need support to interpret results. The objectives of a data
analysis project should be consistent with those listed under Community-scale Monitoring:  supporting
health assessments, evaluating air quality models, or characterizing community exposures.

        EPA intends that grant recipients increase their knowledge of air toxics data analysis, thus
"empowering" themselves to become more proficient with tools and procedures needed to conduct viable
statistical and trends  analysis that meet the needs of the agency. Likewise, EPA intends that, where
possible, the analysis be useful to other state, local, or tribal agencies, and become an integral part of the
EPA's national data analysis trend effort.

        Data analysis projects may quantify multi-year trends in HAP concentrations, statistical
interpretations and relate these changes to trends in local emissions and contributions to potential
transport of these pollutants. Monitoring data can be used as a measure of air program progress and
accountability. Alternately, data analyses may help identify problem emissions sources that remain to be
addressed.  HAP sources can be identified using source apportionment techniques including
meteorological analysis and receptor modeling.

        EPA has funded a series of nationwide Air Toxic Data Analyses (Phase I - V) to characterize
spatial and temporal variability in HAP concentrations (www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/airtox-daw-2007.html). A
primary limitation of these large scale studies is their lack of local information about specific emissions
sources and regulatory  changes. State and local agencies may do air toxics data analyses following
methods similar to the national studies, but with a state-wide, urban or community focus to  allow greater
resolution and the benefit of local agency knowledge.

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2.2     Expected Project Outcomes

        Each project proposal was required to carefully consider and list explicit, project-specific

anticipated outcomes—in particular short- and mid-term outcomes.  Further, explicit links between the

short-, mid-, and long-term outcome(s) should have been considered, developed, and articulated. A final

report was required to be completed within 90 calendar days of the completion of the period of

performance of each study. Awardees were instructed to include the following information in the final

report:

        1.  Project activities over the entire period of funding, describing the  recipient's achievements
           with respect to the stated project purposes and objectives;

        2.  Complete details of all technical aspects of the project, both negative and positive, the
           recipient's findings, conclusions, and results, including the associated quality assurance
           results; and

        3.  A description of the outcomes achieved or will likely occur following the project.


        Recipients were also required to present project results at a national or EPA monitoring

conference or workshop1. Additionally, prior to project initiation, all awardees were to have submitted to

EPA's AAMG project manager a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) that was to be approved by

their applicable EPA Regional office.


2.3     Uses of the Reports

        At the end of each project, EPA also anticipated value-added results for specific purposes.  Such

results include the following:


        1.  Data Products/Outputs. The anticipated outputs for these projects are increased public
           availability of HAP data in a central repository (EPA's Air Quality System Database)8;
           source profiles associated with transportation, refineries, and other industry sectors; improved
           ambient HAP monitoring methods at levels and time intervals useful  to exposure and risk
           assessment professionals; and individual community assessments  of air toxics problems.

        2.  Short-, Mid- and Long-Term Outcomes.  Through these projects EPA anticipates increased
           state and local Air Pollution Control Agency (APCA) ability to characterize the sources and
           local-scale distribution of HAPs, and assess human exposure and risk at a local scale. This
           increased ability facilitates APCA adoption of control measures that will reduce HAP
           emissions and public exposure. Short-term outcomes are expected to occur near the end of
           the grant, while mid- and long-term outcomes are expected to occur well after the grant is
           finished.
 This might also include a webinar type presentation through EPA with a national audience.

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           o   Short-term outcomes can be: 1) problem identification; 2) increased community
               awareness (to include responsible parties/industry); 3) improved measurement
               techniques; and/or 4) validated or improved air quality models.
           o   Mid-term outcomes can be: 1) state or local policy actions(s); 2) responsible
               parties/industry mitigation action(s); 3) wide-scale deployment of a new measurement
               technique; and 4) community action to mitigate HAPs.
           o   Long-term outcomes can be: 1) reduced HAP emissions; 2) reduced ambient HAP
               concentrations; 3) reduced human exposure to HAPs; and 4) reduced adverse health
               effects from HAPs.
2.4    Scope of this Report

       Eastern Research Group (ERG) evaluated the Community Air Toxics Monitoring Projects.

Specifically, ERG reviewed the final reports from the completed community air toxics monitoring

projects and interviewed project leads. In addition, project work plans were reviewed for projects for

which a final report was not submitted. Individual project summaries include the following:
       1) Project description;

       2) Pollutants of interest;

       3) Project purpose;

       4) Results/conclusions;

       5) Actions taken as a result; and

       6) Technology transfer tools developed.


The Conclusions sections of this report documents information that can be learned from these projects,
such as the following:

       •   What were the primary pollutants of concern?

       •   What were the primary sources of concern?

       •   What is the transferability or applicability of outcomes to similar scenarios in different
           locations?

       •   What is the quality of the data generated under the Community Air Toxics Monitoring
           Program?

       •   Were the selected Community Air Toxics Monitoring Program projects successful?

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3.0    Summary of Awarded Projects
       A total of 52 unique projects were awarded in each of the RFA cycles, of which 35 are presented
in Table 3-1. This report will be updated as projects are deemed sufficiently complete to include.  Final
reports and project work plans are posted on EPA's Ambient Monitoring Technical Information Center
(AMTIC) under the Local-Scale Monitoring Projects (www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/local.html').

       Other information in Table 3-1 includes the following: 1) submission of a final report; 2)
presentation at a national or EPA workshop, conference or webinar; 3) project category bin; and 4)
whether the awarded community also received a grant from EPA's Community Action for Renewed
Environment (CARE) program (www.epa.gov/care/index.htm). Of the 35 projects included in this report,
only 16 submitted final reports as of April 2009.  The approximate locations of awarded projects are
presented in Figure 3-1. Locations with a star indicate  RFA cycle 1 awardees, while RFA cycle 2
awardees are denoted with a triangle.  Project Identifiers (IDs) are also labeled accordingly. The majority
of results for this report are drawn from the submitted reports; however, some information can be gleaned
from the work plans of the remaining 19 projects.
                           Table 3-1. Summary of Awarded Projects
Project
ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Site/State
Sun Valley, CA
Placer County, CA
Port of Tampa, FL
Allegheny County, PA
Paterson, NJ
Milwaukee, Wl
Detroit, Ml
Chicago, IL
Phoenix, AZ
Denver, CO
Cherokee Heights, OK
Portland, OR
Wilmington, DE
Austin-Round Rock, TX
Spokane, WA
Warwick, Rl
Louisville, KY
Jefferson County, AL
Nez Perce Tribe, ID
Project Category Bin
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Sample Method Development
Analysis of Existing Data
Community-scale monitoring
Analysis of Existing Data
Method Development/Evaluation
Method Development/Evaluation
Community-scale monitoring
Method Development/Evaluation
Method Development/Evaluation
(Phase 1);
Community-scale monitoring
(Phase 2)
Community-scale monitoring
Method Development/Evaluation
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Method Development/Evaluation
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Analysis of Existing Data
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Final
Report
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Air Toxics
Presentation
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
EPA CARE
Community
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No

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                     Table 3-1. Summary of Awarded Projects (Continued)
Project
ID
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Site/State
Albuquerque, NM
State of Connecticut
Houston, TX
Treasure Valley, ID
Indianapolis, IN
Port of Los Angeles,
CA
Reno, NV
State of New Jersey
NJ Turnpike/
Secaucus, NJ
Rochester, NY
Tonawanda, NY
San Diego, CA
St. Regis Mohawk, NY
Burlington, VT
Hopewell, VA
Boulder, CO
Project Category Bin
Community-scale monitoring
Analysis of Existing Data
Analysis of Existing Data
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Method Development/Evaluation
Method Development/Evaluation
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Community-scale monitoring
Final
Report
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Air Toxics
Presentation
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
EPA CARE
Community
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Other observations include the following:

       •   The majority of the awarded projects (>20) fell in the "Community-Scale Monitoring" bin.

       •   Only eight of the 35 project locales also were identified as EPA CARE communities.
           However, no projects received CARE grants as a supplement to the Community-Scale grants.

       •   All 16 projects with submitted final reports have been presented at either an EPA workshop,
           EPA Conference, and/or an Air and Waste Management Association (AWMA) conference.


       Awarded projects are categorized geographically by EPA Region in Table 3-2. Also included in

this summary is the number of final reports submitted to EPA.
                              Table 3-2. Awards by EPA Region
EPA
Region
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
# Awards
2
7
3
2
5
3
0
3
6
4
# Final Reports
Submitted (November
2008)
0
2
2
1
3
2
0
1
3
2

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                    Figure 3-1.  Locations of Awarded Community Monitoring Program Grants (RFA Cycles 1 and 2)
                  &: RFA Cycle 1      A : RFA Cycle 2
Projects awarded during the first RFA cycle are denoted with a star, while a triangle represents project awarded during the second RFA cycle. For convenience,
Project IDs match those in Table 3-1.

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4.0    Project Summaries
       Project summaries for 35 awarded projects are presented in this section. A QAPP containing data
Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared by each awardee at the beginning of the project. Unless
otherwise stated in the text below, all project DQOs were met.

4.1    First RFA Cycle Project Summaries
       Projects 1 through 16 are summarized from the submitted final reports.  Additionally, Project
Leads for each of the completed projects were interviewed via telephone to fill data gaps for information
not explicitly stated in the final reports. All submitted final projects for the first RFA Cycle are posted at
http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/20032004 CSATAM.html.

4.1.1  Sun Valley, CA (Project Report ID = 1)
       The Air Toxics Study in Sun Valley was conducted by the South Coast Air Quality Management
District (AQMD) with the purpose of monitoring air toxics sub-regionally in Sun Valley to complement
the Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study III (MATES III).  Additional air toxics monitoring was
conducted near population centers surrounded by various industrial sources in the Sun Valley region of
the South Coast Air Basin. Key project information is summarized below.
                     Table 4-1. Key Project Information for Sun Valley, CA
Sites
Fixed sites:
- LA County Fire Station
- Los Angeles County
Unified School District
Maintenance Yard
(LAUSD)
Micro site:
- Fernangeles Elementary
School
-Burbank(MATESIII site)
Mobile sites:
- Stonehurst Avenue
Elementary School
(Stonehurst)
-John H. Frances
Polytechnic HS (Poly
High)
Pollutants
VOCs, Carbonyls,
PM-io, Metals,
Elemental Carbon
(EC), Organic
Carbon (OC),
Hexavalent
Chromium
Purpose
Community-
scale
monitoring
Project Goals
• Identify pollutant "hot spots" within the
Sun Valley region.
• Characterize the seasonal or spatial
trends of air pollutant compounds.
• Determine the impact of air toxic
exposure to Sun Valley residents
residing in the area surrounding the
Bradley landfill and other industrial
sources within the region.
                                             10

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Results of the study are:
           A "hot spot" source of hexavalent chromium was identified (Superior Plating Inc.).
           Measurable levels of hexavalent chromium concentrations were detected immediately
           downwind of the source. The concentration declines steadily short distances away until they
           are similar to background levels found at other monitoring sites.  Superior Plating Inc. is no
           longer in operation.

           With the exception of hexavalent chromium, the toxic air contaminant concentrations were
           determined to be similar across the Sun Valley region with little variance across the region.

           Average concentrations of air contaminants entering Sun Valley on the predominant winds
           were only slightly changed across the Sun Valley.

           The Bradley Landfill had no significant influence on the levels of toxic air contaminants.
                concentrations are indicative of predominant wind patterns within the sub-region of Sun
           Valley.

       •   Variations in the PMi0 concentrations were influenced by the abundance of crustal elements.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   Further validation of the chrome plater as being source of hexavalent chromium will be
           assessed through additional sampling. Specifically, South Coast AQMD is returning to the
           site with the elevated hexavalent chromium readings, during the same time of year as when
           the elevated readings were made, for 2 months to see if levels have in fact been reduced.

       •   Information from this study was used to supplement a larger study MATESIII. Information
           will be used as part of a strategy to reduce emissions and ambient concentrations, and thereby
           reduce public exposures to air toxics.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   If the technology were available and economically feasible, more real-time measurements
           would have been taken

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Outreach Materials:   A number of materials are available on the AQMD website.  These
           include presentation materials, posters, and workshop presentations. Website:
           http : //www . aqmd . go v/pubinfo/webpub s . htm

       •   Enhanced Data Visualization: Interactive Map of the Basin using data from this  study and
           MATES-III to identify the estimated modeled carcinogenic risk from air toxics by geographic
           location.  The map can be found at internet site: http : //www2 . aqmd . gov/webappl/mate siii/
                                               11

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4.1.2   Placer County, CA (Project Report ID = 2)

        The Roseville Railyard Ambient Monitoring Program (RRAMP) is an air monitoring study

designed to characterize the magnitude of diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions emanating from the

Union Pacific Rail Road (UPRR) facility located in Placer County, CA.  The railyard is considered one of

the largest facilities in the western United States, operating year-round, 24 hours per day and servicing

approximately 31,000 locomotives per year. This project was a follow-up study to one conducted from

2000-2003, which found excessive cancer levels and risks for the Roseville community. The results

presented in the final report represent the first two years of a three year study. Upon completion of the

2007 summer field monitoring project and subsequent data analysis, a three-year trends analysis will be

conducted.  Key project information is summarized in Table 4-2.
                     Table 4-2. Key Project Information for Placer County, CA
      Sites
     Pollutants
     Purpose
          Project Goals
 •  Upwind of RR
    (2 sites)

 •  Downwind of
    RR (2 sites)
Black Carbon (BC),
PM2.s,  NOX,
Elemental carbon
(EC), VOCs,
Carbonyls
Emissions Monitoring
and Characterization
Obtain ambient DPM concentrations and
on-site meteorological data during three
successive intensive summer air
monitoring periods
Provide public feedback regarding air
quality conditions
Determine the localized air pollutant/toxic
impacts from the air emissions of the
Union Pacific Railroad facility.
Verify the effectiveness of implemented
measures to reduce toxic air emissions
upon completion of year 3.
Improve the accuracy of future health risk
assessments.
Results of the study are:
           A review of the 2005 sampling period wind data resulted in a modification of 2006 air toxic
           sampling periods for the Federal Reference Method (FRM) filter-based samplers from a 12-
           hour and 24-hour basis to a 7-hour nighttime basis (10:00 PM to 5:00 AM) during which time
           winds generally blow from the upwind monitoring sites to the downwind monitoring site.
           The same pairs of monitoring sites were used.

           A forest fire affected the overall air quality near the monitoring sites which resulted in an
           extension of the 2006 sampling period by 2 weeks.

           Three screening criteria were established to determine the conditions for which upwind
           versus downwind analyses were appropriate: (1) winds need to be from a semi-circular arc
           between 45 degrees (i.e., northeasterly) through 225 degrees (i.e., southwesterly); (2) only
           winds speeds from 0.5 to 4 meters per second (m/s) were used to avoid calm or windy
           conditions; and (3) only overnight hours from 10 PM to 5 AM PST were used.
                                               12

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       •   Variations between baseline site measurements were insignificant for all pollutants monitored
           while large variations were evident between baseline (up-wind) and the downwind sites.  The
           difference between downwind and upwind concentrations represents pollutant concentrations
           solely attributed to UPRR Railyard air emissions.

       •   Air emission concentrations of BC, PM, nitric oxide (NO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO)X were
           significantly higher downwind from the UPRR Railyard.  The downwind sites show a very
           high percentage of NOX as NO,  meaning that these sites are dominated by fresh emissions.

       •   Summer 2006 VOC results showed that only the concentrations of acrolein, acetaldehyde,
           and formaldehyde were higher downwind of the  UPRR Railyard, while acrylonitrile,
           chloroform, and toluene concentrations were higher upwind.  Benzene concentrations were
           similar at both sites, suggesting a regional source.  Upon review, the Technical Advisory
           Committee (TAC) unanimously concluded that these results are not very useful in
           quantifying the impact of the UPRR Railyard emissions on ambient air quality.

       •   Elemental and Organic analysis of ambient particulate samples collected by UC Davis from
           one pair of upwind/downwind sites (2005) indicate that the coarse soil around the UPRR
           Railyard is highly contaminated with petroleum products and three times richer in the most
           toxic components (e.g., benzo{a}pyrene) than exhaust from diesel trucks.  Further, the soil
           contains anthropogenic metals (e.g., zinc and copper) at levels much higher than that of
           standard soils.

       •   Placer County District staff have informed the public of the monitoring project results and the
           status of UPRR's mitigation measures by  (1) participating at quarterly meetings of the City
           Railyard Committee; (2) annual report submissions and presentations to the District's
           Governing Board ; (3) presentations at city and neighborhood association meetings; and (4)
           hosting tours of the RRAMP monitoring sites for community organizations.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   The railyard has voluntarily implemented a "hood project" and reduced idling time for their
           trains.

       •   City planning on developing a "greenbelt" around the railyard.  Also land near the railyard is
           being redeveloped from residential to commercial reducing people's exposure.

       •   Additional monitoring and modeling are being conducted.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   Monitoring would be focused during the hours where the wind direction was upwind and
           downwind of the railyard.

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Project Work Plan: The information contained in the work plan can be implemented in a
           similar location. A unique sampling method was used to distinguish between air pollutant
           emission sources. Based on the predominant wind direction pollution contributions from one
           source was apparently isolated by measuring upwind and downwind of the source.
                                              13

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        •   Public Outreach Initiatives: District staff provide information on the monitoring project and
           the status of UPRR's mitigation measures to the public and City staff in the following ways:
           (1) participation at quarterly meetings of the City Railyard Committee; (2) submittal of an
           annual report plus a presentation to the  District's Governing Board every December; (3)
           presentations at several city and neighborhood association meetings;  and (4) hosting tours of
           the RRAMP monitoring sites  for community organizations.  Public meeting schedules as well
           as publications and presentations can be found on the website:
           http: //www .placer. ca. gov/Departments/Air/railroad .aspx


4.1.3   Port of Tampa, FL (Project Report ID  = 3)

        The Environmental Protection Division (EPD) was awarded a community assessment grant to

conduct additional sampling, analysis and characterization of the HAPs based on  findings of the 1996

NATA, 2001 monitoring study in-house analysis, and local toxic monitoring efforts. The project was

designed to conduct more comprehensive  monitoring and assessment in the Tampa Bay.  Key project

information is  summarized in Table 4-3.
                     Table 4-3. Key Project Information for Port of Tampa, FL
       Sites
     Pollutants
     Purpose
         Project Goals
 Commercial:
 Gandy

 Residential:
 Sydney NATTS

 Rural: Simmons
 Park

 Urban: EPC

 Special Studies:
 Ybor City
Carbonyls, VOCs,
Metals (PM-io), PM10
Black Carbon (BC)
Method
Development/
Evaluation

Health Risk
Assessment
Monitor air toxic emissions using open
path air monitoring systems, CEREX
Ultraviolet (UV), OPSIS DOAS; and a
Fourier Transform Infrared
Spectroscopy (FTIR)
Compare CEREX UV and FTIR
monitoring results to established  fixed
point fixed point FRM monitoring results
Identify temporal and spatial variations
of air toxics
Identify and characterize the air toxics
of greatest potential public health threat
Distinguish between highway and
marine diesel-PM emissions.
Establish baseline concentrations for
future  studies
Perform  sufficient quality assurance and
quality control procedures to validate
the data, define precision and accuracy
of the  data
Results of the study are:

       •   Established a baseline understanding of Port source contributions.

       •   Comparisons of the fixed point monitors to the Open Path UV monitors were successful. The
           data demonstrated that the open path system was able to quantify ozone and sulfur dioxide for
           site evaluation purposes.
                                                14

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           Unable to distinguish differences between highway PM and marine diesel PM emission
           measurements at port location.

           No statistical difference was found between monitoring sites for ambient level concentrations
           of sulfur dioxide and ozone at the Port of Tampa.

           Comparison of monitoring results to 1996 NATA data. NATA modeling predicted 12
           compounds would exceed health benchmarks in Tampa Bay area. Monitoring found 6
           additional pollutants which exceeded health benchmarks not predicted by NATA.

           The concentration of most metals found in Ybor City from crematory emissions were above
           the EPA non-cancer and cancer health effects guidelines.  Benzene was above EPA cancer
           health effects guidelines.

           Large differences in the detection limits and reporting levels of toxic data from different
           laboratories were found.
Action(s) Taken As A Result:
       •   Able to use results of port study and mobile unit Air "Hound" to measure VOCs at other
           toxics sources. Initiated monitoring program in community near a facility that was
           manufacturing Spas. Were able to monitor for styrene the pollutant of interest for a month in
           the neighborhood. Used the monitoring results to help with permitting new facilities.

       •   Data was used to evaluate a permit from a nearby crematory in Ybor City.

       •   Information from sulfur dioxide and ozone characterization used in long range planning.

       •   There is a better understanding of inter-laboratory comparisons throughout Region 4.

       •   A Region 4 workgroup was established to evaluate and establish minimum detectable limits
           for analytical methods.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   The evaluation of different methods of air toxic monitoring equipment was not as
           intercomparable as anticipated.

       •   There were large differences in the detection limits and reporting levels of toxic data from
           different laboratories.

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Project Work Plan: The results from the CBMP study have been used for subsequent studies
           in Hillsborough County. .

       •   Air Sampling Hardware- CEREX UV and FTIR air monitoring systems
                                              15

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           Public Outreach Initiatives:  To address concerns from the public, a "Mobile Monitoring"
           program has been established that can monitor neighborhoods for specific chemicals of
           concern.
4.1.4  Allegheny County, PA (Project Report ID = 4)

       The Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) in collaboration with Carnegie Mellon
University (CMU) investigated the ambient concentrations, health risks, and sources of hazardous air
toxics for the heavily industrialized county of Allegheny, PA. Key project information is summarized
below.
                   Table 4-4. Key Project Information for Allegheny County, PA
Sites
• Industrial
influenced urban
sites: 2 residential
sites Neville Island

• Mobile influence
urban sites: 2 sites
Downtown
Pittsburgh

• Urban
Background: 1 site
Carnegie Mellon
University.

• Rural: 1 site




Pollutants
Benzene, Toluene
Ethylbenzene,
Xylenes (BTEX)
compounds, PAHs,
VOCs, Aldehydes,
Black Carbon (BC),
diesel PM













Purpose
Health Risk
Assessment


















Project Goals
• Characterize the ambient concentrations
of gas and particulate air toxics.
• Determine seasonal and temporal
variations.
• Predict human exposure and health risks
associated with cancer and non-cancer
using risk assessment modeling.
• Screen potential pollutant pairs mixtures
based on their synergistic/antagonistic
impacts of air toxicity for both cancer and
non-cancer risks.
• Determine sources of air toxics.
• Verify receptor model predictions by
comparing with NATA results.
• Compare predicted air toxics
concentrations and health risk results with
those from other areas of the county.
• Determine the relative importance of
regional transport and local source air
toxic contributions in the county.
Results of the study are:
           Pollutants that exhibited significant spatial variability were: vinyl chloride, chloroethane,
           acrolein, hexane, 1,3-butadiene, carbon disulfide, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, tetrachloroethylene,
           ethylbenzene, methylene chloride, styrene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, hydrogen
           sulfide, and diesel PM.

           Pollutants with concentrations greater than the national 75th percentile and appear to be
           strongly influenced by local emissions sources were: benzene, toluene, propionaldehyde,
           tetrachloroethylene, ethyl benzene, methylene chloride, styrene,  1,4-dichlorobenzene,
           trichloroethylene, and hydrogen sulfide. These results suggest there is a potential air
           emissions problem in southwest PA.

           The major contributors of cancer risks at all monitoring sites were diesel PM, formaldehyde,
           benzene, and carbon tetrachloride. Formaldehyde and carbon tetrachloride were regionally
           distributed, thus limiting the site to site health risk variability. Trichloroethylene and 1,4-
                                               16

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           dichlorobenzene contributed substantial risks at the downtown site. Diesel PM is a large risk
           driver throughout the county but is substantially high downtown.

       •   The Mixture-Interactions model predicted that interactions of acrolein and formaldehyde had
           the greatest potential for respiratory non-cancer effects and formaldehyde and acetaldehyde
           for respiratory cancers.

       •   Predictions made using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling indicated benzene
           emissions from a metallurgical-coke production facility on Neville Island pose the a
           significant health risk to residential sites adjacent to the island.

       •   Comparing baseline concentrations between sites determined that an important local source
           of 1,4-dichlorobenzene and trichloroethylene existed with predicted concentrations 12 and 26
           times higher in downtown Pittsburgh than at other sites.  The source of pollutants has not
           been identified; however, trichloroethene appears to be associated with short-term episodes
           and may be related to a periodic event such as maintenance.

       •   Monitored results were within a factor of 10 to NATA predicted concentrations. The NATA
           model appears to underpredict contributions from industrial sources and overpredict mobile
           contributions.  The worst model performance was for chlorinated  compounds.

       •   Temporal analysis showed the characteristic emissions pattern to be a relatively stable
           background concentration with short periods of higher concentrations indicative of local
           source plume influences. The frequency and magnitude of the plumes exhibited spatial
           variations and appeared to be a function of wind direction.

       •   For carbonyl compounds, significant seasonal variations were found for propionaldehyde and
           formaldehyde. Propionaldehyde concentrations were highest in the fall with the seasonal
           variation being more pronounced at baseline and industrial sites.  Formaldehyde
           concentrations were higher during the summer months.

       •   Benzene, acetone, 1,3-butadiene,  and methyl ethyl ketone had statistically significant
           seasonal variations for at least one measured site. Acetone and methyl ethyl ketone had high
           summertime concentrations while benzene levels were higher during the winter months.


Action(s) Taken As  A Result:

       •   Prioritized air toxics for Alleghany County.  Evaluating data for regulatory consideration.

       •   Reviewing and strengthening anti-idling laws;  and extending diesel retrofits  to port authority
           buses.

       •   Reducing emissions from a large  coke manufacturing facility on Neville Island that had
           begun to take place through a consent decree.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   Would have negotiated a longer project timeline and would have worked more effectively
           with Allegheny County in identifying and setting up monitors in the downtown area.
                                               17

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Technology Transfer Tools:

        •    Statistical/Analytical Tools:  The bootstrap method was used to determine annual average
            concentrations.  The mixture-interactions model used as a screening tool method to analyze
            potential mixture interactions provides an informed basis for prioritizing particular
            interactions effects based on observed co-occurrence data.

        •    Risk Communication: The report compared concentrations with cancer and non-cancer health
            benchmarks, and communicated results


4.1.5   Paterson, NJ (Project ID = 5)

        The overall objective of the Urban Community Air Toxics Monitoring Project, Paterson, NJ

(UCAMPP) was to characterize local air toxics related to different land use patterns  in a highly

industrialized urban community. Key project information is summarized in Table 4-5.
                        Table 4-5. Key Project Information for Paterson, NJ
         Site
    Pollutants
     Purpose
             Project Goals
 •  Background:
    Chester

 •  Urban sites: 3 sites
    in Paterson
VOCs, Carbonyls,
Metals, Hexavalent
Chromium, PM-io
PAHs, EC/OC
Health Risk
Assessment
                                         Method
                                         Development/
                                         Evaluation
• Characterize the spatial resolution and
  concentration gradients of monitored air
  toxics.
• Identify pollutant source signatures.

• Evaluate modeling predictions
  (CALPUFF) of air toxics to monitoring
  results.
• Assess the risk of air pollutants on the
  local community.
• Field test the Passive Aldehydes and
  Ketones Sampler (PAKS) and compare
  results against those taken
  simultaneously with conventional
  sampling method TO-11A.
• Evaluate the hexavalent chromium
  extraction method under development by
  EOSHI.
• Develop tools that the NJ Department of
  Environmental Justice (NJDEP) and the
  local community could use to better
  address exposure and risk issues related
  to air toxics.
• Identify and implement risk reduction
  strategies.	
Results of the study are:

       •   Emissions from traffic, commercial activities, and the operation of industrial facilities
           significantly impact the air quality of Paterson.
                                                18

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       •   Temporal variations were seen for air pollutant levels in Paterson. Concentrations were
           higher during weekdays than weekends relative to the background site.

       •   Hexavalent chromium levels were significantly higher during the summer months, indicating
           the formation of hexavalent chromium through photo-oxidation for all sites.

       •   Higher concentrations were observed in winter than in summer for elemental carbon,
           carbonyls, many elements and most PAHs, indicative of higher combustion-source emissions.
           Meteorological factors such as lower photo-activity, lower mixing height, stagnation, and
           inversion may also contribute.

       •   The CALPUFF model predictions for benzene, and/>-dichlorobenzene were in good
           agreement with monitored values. Predicted toluene concentrations were significantly
           different than monitored results.

       •   Annual average concentrations of acetaldehyde, acrolein, arsenic, benzene, 1,3-butadiene
           carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, hexavalent chromium, formaldehyde, and propylene were
           above NJDEP cancer health benchmark concentrations at all monitoring sites.

       •   Additionally, the annual average concentrations of />-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene,
           ethyl benzene, naphthalene were above the NJDEP cancer health benchmark in Paterson and
           not at the background site. Non cancer health benchmark was exceeded for annual average
           concentrations of chlorine in Paterson and for acrolein in Paterson and the background site.

       •   For acrolein, the noncancer risk was  similar in Paterson and the background site.

       •   The combined cancer risk in Paterson was more than two times that of the background site;
           846 in a million vs. 318  in a million respectively

       •   The PAKS method produced higher background levels than conventional sampling (TO-11A)
           possibly because the PAKS samplers are not air tight.

       •   Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde,  and propionaldehyde concentrations were 4-5 times higher than
           PAKS.

       •   The EOSHI extraction method for hexavalent chromium produced promising results. An
           additional study, the "Development and Optimization of a Sampling and  Analytical Method
           to Measure Hexavalent Chromium in Ambient Air" is being conducted to further improve the
           method. The EOHSI analytical method for hexavalent chromium is being compared to the
           NATTS analytical method in a newly awarded USEPA grant.

       •   The average  concentration for acrolein measured by TO-15 was 2-3 times higher than PAKS,
           suggesting a potential positive artificial formation of acrolein in canister during storage.

       •   The overall concentrations precision was better using the conventional (TO-15) method.


Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   Risk reduction strategies that have been identified/implemented include the following:
                                              19

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           o   Identification of which industrial processes would benefit from a pollution prevention
               audit.
           o   Identification of fleets eligible for retrofits.
           o   Modeling efforts in conjunction with stack tests for grandfathered facility that emits lead.
               The second set of stack test results should be available in early 2009.
           o   Identification of an area to place a lead monitor near three lead emitters
           o   Educated the hospital on the dangers and legal implications of crushing mercury-
               containing light bulbs on site.  They indicated they would not longer crush the bulbs on
               site.
           o   Handout EPA pamphlets about air pollution reduction strategies.
           o   Handout information on  1877-Warn-DEP
           o   Handout information on NJ's anti-idling legislation
           o   Sold some NJDEP anti-idling signs for facilities to hang up in Paterson and at their other
               NJ locations

       •   Using the monitoring equipment for additional sampling of hexavalent chromium with plans
           for additional research/method improvements.

       •   Used information from this project to help design an additional monitoring project.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   A detailed emissions micro-inventory should be completed before selecting analytes and
           monitoring locations. Such an inventory requires site visits.

       •   Site visits provide an excellent opportunity for identifying risk reduction strategies, outreach,
           and education.

       •   Use PM10 samplers & Met station in current Cr6 project

       •   Expand institutional knowledge at NJDEP

       •   Improve techniques for El, site visits, sample tracking, QA/QC etc.

       •   Don't rely on one database to ID all potential sources

       •   Importance of drive through, site visits, e.g., potential lead problem

       •   Importance of weekly monitoring over the course of 1 year (e.g., observed high
           concentrations Cr6 during summer at all sites & observed high concentrations ofp-
           dichlorobenzene and other compounds at site C

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Risk Communication: The report compared concentrations with cancer and noncancer health
           benchmarks, and communicated results
                                               20

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        •   Outreach Initiatives:  A news release was published at the beginning of the study in 2005.
           Multiple presentations and posters communicating the findings from this study have been
           given at local, regional, and national meetings. There is a scientific website at
           http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/paterson/

4.1.6   Milwaukee, Wl (Project ID = 6)

        The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR)  conducted a community scale risk
assessment to assess new modeling techniques and to better address the public's concern and interest in
the safety of the air that is breathed.  Three studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between
benzene concentrations and distances from heavily trafficked roadways. Key project information is
summarized in Table 4-6.
                       Table 4-6. Key Project Information for Milwaukee, Wl
Site
• Study 1:10 sites
North and South
along and parallel
to I-94, south of
Menominee Valley

• Study 2: 9 sites
East and West
along an isolated
section of I-94
between
Milwaukee and
Madison
• Study 3: 6 sites
same as Study 1,
plus 3 more sites
in area
Pollutants
BTEX
compounds















Purpose
Method
development/
Evaluation

Health Risk
Assessment











Project Goals
• Develop in-house analytical methods for
passively sampled canisters and adsorbent
tubes using existing analytical systems.
Test the passive air sampling method (PASM) to
establish comparability to existing active
sampling systems (auto-GC) used by the
Wisconsin DNR.
• Deploy the PASM in a field study and use this
information to optimize designs to support risk
assessment modeling.
• Compare modeled predictions to monitored
results.





Results of the study are:

       •   Benzene concentrations predicted by the model were two orders of magnitude lower than the
           monitored results.

       •   Monitored benzene concentrations exhibited higher temporal variations than spatial
           variations.

       •   Higher benzene concentrations were observed on parallel city roadways west of 1-94 rather
           than at the sites located on 1-94. This suggests that urban traffic routes may have significant
           mobile source emissions, even though these routes have less traffic volume.

       •   Unexplainable differences in the ratios of toluene: benzene concentrations were noted
           between study locations and between  sites with the studies. Rural toluene:benzene ratios
           were reversed, with most benzene concentrations exceeding observed toluene concentrations.
                                               21

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       •   Benzene concentrations at all study sites were higher than the one-in-a million risk
           concentration of 0.128 (ig/m3. The results presented here indicate that that risk above the
           one-in-a-million risk concentration benchmark are present at distances up to 600 meters from
           the heavily trafficked highway.

       •   PASM for short-term sampling and passive adsorbent tubes for longer timed measurements
           were successfully developed.

       •   Although biased low, PASM generated comparable data compared to results obtained using
           conventional auto GC and canister sampling techniques.

       •   Although background concentrations of target pollutants were low using PASM, the values
           must be included when processing the emissions data.

       •   Diffusive Rate Constants (DRC) for the PASM could not be verified. Thus literature DRC
           need to be employed to calculate all ambient concentrations.

       •   The Regional Air Impact Modeling Initiative (RAIMI) was  used to evaluate risk. The
           modeled sharp concentration gradient across the study was inaccurate when compared to
           monitored results. Although a gradient was present, it was not the magnitude or at the
           location estimated by the model.

       •   Contrary to the predicted model, observed maximum concentrations were found at
           monitoring sites away from the interstate.

       •   Monitored benzene concentrations exceeded modeled estimates.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •  Will continue model validations.

       •  Additional study looking at benzene using the same technology.

       •  Develop better tools for roadway characterizations.

       •  Information will be used to develop emission reduction strategies.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   None identified; overall, happy with project

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Statistical Tools: A series of statistical tools were developed that can be transferred to a
           similar study.

       •   Risk Communication: The report compared concentrations with cancer and noncancer health
           benchmarks, and communicated results
                                              22

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       •   Air Sampling Hardware. Housing for passive sampling tubes and sampling canisters were
           developed for roadside air toxics collection.

4.1.7  Detroit, Ml (Project ID = 7)
       The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) established two new monitoring
stations to examine the impact of air toxics emissions from mobile and stationary sources on the air
quality in the Del Ray area in Detroit and near the international border crossing at the Ambassador
Bridge. This project, Delray Community Monitoring Project, collected measurements that will be used to
better understand the impact from these sources on ambient air.  Hourly PM2 5, trace CO, BC and EC/OC
measurements were collected. Speciated organic carbon measurements were collected at Newberry
School. This project also investigated the feasibility of using continuous formaldehyde samplers in an
ambient monitoring program.  Key project information is summarized in the table below.
                        Table 4-7. Key Project Information for Detroit, Ml
Site
Newberry
School














Ambassador
Bridge














Pollutants
-Speciated Organic Carbon
-PM2.5
-PM2.5 hourly
-Black Carbon
-Metals (PM2.5 TSP)
-trace CO
-continuous EC/OC









-Black Carbon
-trace CO
-PM2.s
-PM2.5 hourly












Purpose
Sample
analysis






























Project Goals
• Generate actual ambient measurements of
the air quality in the area.
• Develop background levels in an area with
expanding transportation activities.
• Assess impact from delays at the
Ambassador Bridge on air quality in the
area.
• Complement the Detroit Exposure Aerosol
Research Study (DEARS).
• Complement the Canadian bridge crossing
monitoring project.
• Investigate middle and micro variability in
air toxics concentrations.
• Field test continuous formaldehyde
monitors, and trace carbon monoxide
monitors.
• Understand diurnal variations in CO and
formaldehyde and how they relate to other
mobile sources oriented pollutants such as
carbon black, and continuous fine
particulate.
• Generate a database to support source
apportionment estimates of the
contributions from motor vehicle and diesel
exhaust to air quality.
• Identify other possible tracer compounds for
diesel by comparing speciated organic
carbon measurements from Del Ray, an
area heavily impacted by diesel with Allen
Park, a population-oriented mobile source
dominated site, the St. Louis super site and
with the Class 1 Seney Wildlife Refuge
                                             23

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Results of the study are:

       •   The continuous formaldehyde units are not reliable enough for unattended operation in the
           field.  The peristaltic pump requires constant maintenance and is not practical in field
           operations.  It should be replaced with a syringe pump. Additionally, the instruments need a
           better mechanism to precisely regulate flow rates and optimize monitor performance.
           Reliance on the introduction of bubbles into the system to set the flows when bubbles cause
           deterioration in performance is contra indicated;

       •   Most measurements met or exceeded the NATTS data capture goal of 80%.  However,
           vandalism at Newberry reduced data capture for several parameters in 2005. Additionally,
           instrument breakdown and lack of a spare unit limited the capture of EC/OC data at
           Newberry in 2007. The co-located PM2 5 TEOM at FIA serves as the spare for MDEQs
           network;

       •   The nonparametric linear regression was shown to be a valuable tool in the identification of
           potential source emissions on ambient air quality. BC data identified the DIPT area as
           impacting the Newberry site and the Ambassador Bridge  as impacting the FIA/Lafayette site.
           This also  shows that these two new sites are sited properly;

       •   Elevated levels of CO, EC, PM25 and BC were observed during the morning rush hour at
           Newberry School. However, any impact from the evening rush hour was diffuse.
           FIA/Lafayette also experienced elevated levels of CO, BC and PM2 5 during the morning rush
           hour, confirming the  mobile source impacts on these two  stations; and

       •   Concentrations from  mobile source emissions were higher near the Ambassador Bridge than
           at the Newberry site. BC concentrations were increased during the summer months at both
           sites, with higher levels observed during summer 2007 than during summer 2006.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   Continued monitoring at Newberry and FIA sites;

       •   Use of the project's results on the ongoing project "Analysis of Air Toxics Data: Quality
           Assurance Implications, Source Apportionment Uncertainty Analysis and Updated Risk
           Assessment";

       •   Utilization of nonparametric linear regression for "minute" data using a larger data set;

       •   Leverage  of the acquired instrumentation in this grant by  Region 5 EPA's Regional Applied
           Research  Effort (RARE) grant to study the impact from locomotive emissions on ambient air
           quality;

       •   Creation of an upwind site to determine regional EC/OC (at Tecumseh);

       •   Development of a communication strategy to inform the public about the results;

       •   Building the capacity of source apportionment modeling in-house and enhanced statistical
           analysis; and
                                              24

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       •   Improvement of operating techniques and updating SOPs for the EC/OC samplers

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   Several months of speciated organic carbon data were lost when the sampling site was
           vandalized. Security measures have since been installed to prevent the event from
           reoccurring;

       •   Assuming the formaldehyde samplers could be operated in the field was erroneous.  They
           should have been initially deployed the to Filley Street site and not tested until the permeation
           source was  repaired. The instruments need a better mechanism to precisely regulate flow
           rates and optimize monitor performance. Reliance on the introduction of bubbles into the
           system to set the flows when bubbles cause deterioration in performance is contra indicated.
           Additionally, contrary to manufacturer's recommendations, the inlet filters should not be
           reused;


       •   The scrubber and electronics should be housed above all fluid handling systems to minimize
           damage when leaks occur;


       •   Precision of the continuous samplers can be quite poor. However, by performing a step-wise
           optimization routine, precision can be improved. More precise control of factors that impact
           performance need to be added to the instruments.  Once these modifications are made, a
           detailed  SOP describing in detail every nuance of the optimization needs to be written; and

       •   Monthly conference calls with the formaldehyde sampler vendor should have been initiated
           sooner. The vendor should have been notified upon receiving the shipment a list of required
           spare fittings that were missing.

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Statistical Tools: A series of statistical tools were employed to analyze the  round robin
           results. A statistical technique developed by CARB was used for the performance evaluation.
           This tool can be implemented elsewhere. Additionally, nonparametric linear regression was
           used by LADCO to analyze the BC and EC/OC data collected by this project. This technique
           could be transferred to  other areas.

4.1.8  Chicago, IL (Project ID = 8)

       The Large Area Monitoring Program (LAMP) project was designed to test an innovative

diffusion tube (passive sampling) technology for measuring ambient air concentrations  of the BTEX

compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), and to perform a saturation study that would

permit a preliminary characterization of BTEX concentrations throughout the Greater Chicago

Metropolitan area. The project was implemented in two phases: a long-term 12-month study (Phase

One), and a saturation study (Phase Two) of the Chicago metropolitan area. Key project information is

summarized in Table 4-8.
                                              25

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                        Table 4-8. Key Project Information for Chicago, IL
Site
Phase One
• Near Chicago O'Hare
Airport: Schiller Park
• Urban Core:
Chicago-Jardine
• Downwind of Urban
Core: Northbrook


Phase Two
• Phase One sites and
8 additional sites
across metro-
Chicago
• 4 sites South of
Chicago
Pollutants
BTEX
compounds;
VOCs













Purpose
Method
development/
Evaluation






Assess human
exposure





Project Goals
• Determine human exposure to BTEX
with long-term monitoring (one year).
• Provide baseline data to determine the
effectiveness of future reduction
strategies.
• Establish average annual
concentrations.
• Compare the diffusion tube results to
those obtained from VOC canisters and
field gas chromatographs.
• Determine spatial variability.
• Characterize ambient air toxic
concentrations near significant point
sources, Chicago O'Hare Airport and
expressways.
• Identify "hot spots."
Results of the study are:

       •   BTEX concentrations near Chicago O'Hare Airport were 50% higher than those found at
           Northbrook or Chicago-Jardine, which were very similar to each other. The probably cause
           was associated to both expressway/arterial traffic and to  airport traffic.

       •   Significant temporal variations in the BTEX concentrations were determined with the highest
           monthly concentrations being approximately 100% higher than the lowest months. The
           highest concentrations were found in January-February and August-September and the lowest
           were in March-April.

       •   The study results comparing the diffusion tube sampling method and conventional gas
           chromatograph monitoring were inconsistent from the previous findings.  For the LAMP II
           study, the diffusion tubes sampling method generally overpredicted the BETX concentrations
           as measured by the field gas chromatographs. Further study is needed.

       •   Site-to-site variations in air pollutant levels were found during Phase Two sampling.  In
           general, areas near expressways are likely to experience the highest levels of BTEX and the
           urban population areas are markedly higher than background.  Emissions  from Chicago
           O'Hare Airport and the traffic in and around it result in higher BTEX levels than were found
           in urban population areas.

       •   Phase Two found similar results with the three traffic oriented sites being the highest of all 15
           study sites and to be approximately 50% higher than the  urban population sites.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       • Implementation of a second monitoring site at the airport and recommendations to FAA that
         when expansion of the airport occurs that air toxic emissions are included in the Environmental
         Impact Statement.

       • Project design completed for a Phase 3 study
                                              26

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       • The diffusion tubes will be used to collect additional grab samples for benzene evaluation
       • Plan to show  potential reductions in air toxics emissions following shut down of steel mill.
Lesson(s) Learned:
       •   A larger scope during the project using more sites and duplicative analysis would have
           enhanced the number of data points
Technology Transfer Tools:
       •   Air handling equipment: Passive air sampling using diffusion tubes was evaluated against
           conventional canister sampling collection and an on-site continuous gas chromatograph
           BETX analyzer

4.1.9  Phoenix, AZ (Project ID = 9)
       The Joint Air Toxics Assessment Project (JATAP) was a three-year project designed to assess
cancer and noncancer human health risks from air toxics in the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area.
JATAP is a consortium of federal, state, local, and tribal air pollution control officials from EPA Region
9, EPA Office of Air Quality, Planning, and Standards (OAQPS), Arizona Department of Environmental
Quality (ADEQ), Maricopa County Environmental Services Division, Final County Air Quality Control
District (PCAQCD), Intertribal Council of Arizona, Gila River Indian Community (GRIC), Salt River-
Pima Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC), and Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation. Key project
information is summarized in Table 4-9.
                       Table 4-9. Key Project Information for Phoenix, AZ
Site
• Suburban/residential:
Salt River
St. Johns
Queen Valley

• Urban:
NATTS South Phoenix
Greenwood
West Phoenix



Pollutants
VOCs, PAHs,
carbonyls,
metals (PM)









Purpose
Health Risk
Assessment










Project Goals
• Monitor and collect ambient air samples
for pollutant concentration
determination.
• Validate the gaseous air toxics data.
• Characterize the spatial and temporal
variation of the air toxics
concentrations.
• Assess the cancer risks to the Phoenix
community from the ambient air toxics
concentrations.
• Communicate JATAP findings with the
Phoenix community.
                                             27

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Results of the study are:

       •   Sites located closer to the urban core of Phoenix had the highest annual average pollutant
           concentrations, while suburban sites had lower annual average concentrations.

       •   Phoenix urban concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, chloroform,
           benzene, and tetrachloroethylene were above the 75thpercentile national urban scale.

       •   Air toxics annual average concentrations were often higher than the one-in-a-million cancer
           benchmark for: 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and
           tetrachloroethylene.

       •   Carbonyl compound concentrations at one urban site (Greenwood) were higher than those at
           other sites  and were above the national 95th percentile. This suggests that there are
           additional emission sources at a local scale most likely from the nearby mobile sources
           extremely close to the monitor.

       •   Chronic exposure to formaldehyde  levels at one urban site (Greenwood) exceeded non-cancer
           health effect reference concentration.

       •   Modest to good risk assessment model predictions were determined for carbon tetrachloride,
           acetaldehyde, benzene, dichloromethane, and formaldehyde.

       •   JATAP 2005 monitored results were within a factor or two above or below 1999 NATA
           modeled predictions.

       •   At all sites, concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene,
           trichloroethylene, and BTEX were higher in the cooler months than during the warmer
           months.

       •   In 2005, no statistically significant differences in air pollutant levels were observed between
           weekend and weekday time intervals.

       •   Benzene concentrations at the Supersite decreased between 1995 and 2005 by more
           than a factor of three (from 7.7 ug/m3 to near 2 ug/m3). This drop is consistent with
           efforts over the past decade to reduce benzene in gasoline, paint, and other consumer
           products. Formaldehyde concentrations are similar between the two time periods
           while acetaldehyde concentrations in 2005 are significantly lower than a decade ago.

       •   To communicate the project results to the Phoenix community,  JATAP has presented the
           findings at scientific meetings. The presentations are posted on the Internet

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   DEQ helped the tribes with developing an emissions inventory;

       •   Continued discussion about an additional collaborative effort, perhaps  adding additional
           pollutants or extend to other media.
                                              28

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       •   Project helped raise awareness of anti-idling for the school buses and more buses will be
           undergoing diesel retrofits.
       •   Evaluating other sources of emissions on tribal lands such as unpaved roads and agricultural
           burning.
Lesson(s) Learned:
       •   Low to non-detected urban Air Toxic concentrations need to be monitored using more
           sensitive monitoring equipment.
       •   Solicit additional funds for data analyses and risk analysis
Technology Transfer Tools:
       •   Statistical  Tools: A series of statistical tools were developed that can be transferred to a
           similar study.
       •   Risk Communication: The report compared concentrations with cancer and noncancer health
           benchmarks, and communicated results
4.1.10 Denver, CO (Project ID = 10)
        Denver's previous air toxics monitoring campaigns determined that mobile source air toxics and
ozone precursor concentrations were as high as or higher than larger metropolitan areas such as Houston,
TX or Los Angeles, CA. A second campaign found significant spatial distributions in air toxics
concentrations over short distances within the city.  Denver's Community Based Air Toxics Monitoring
project was established to verify the spatial and temporal characteristics of air toxics across a relatively
small geographic area (Denver County). Detailed statistical analyses were performed for all reported
results, predictions, and sampling methods.  Key project information is summarized below.
                       Table 4-10. Key Project Information for Denver, CO
Site
• Residential near
major roadways

• Heavy industrial

• Suburban
light industrial






Pollutants
BTEX(1-hr, 4-hr,
24-hr), carbonyls
(4-hr, 24-hr),
ozone, black
carbon (BC),
carbon monoxide
(CO)






Purpose
Monitoring and
Method
development/
evaluation









Project Goals
• Monitor ambient air to determine the
temporal and spatial variability of
HAPs.
• Establish baseline data for future
emission reduction strategies.
• Evaluate innovative sampling
techniques against conventional
methods.
• Evaluate monitored results to model
predictions.
• Compare the monitored data with
National Air Toxics Assessment and
local AERMOD results for Denver.
                                              29

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                                                              Statistically determine if relationships
                                                              exist between toxics and source
                                                              categories.
                                                              Educate the community on the effects
                                                              that personal habits have on air toxics
                                                              concentrations.
Results of the study are:

       •   BTEX and CO emissions are the dominant air pollutants from mobile sources in Denver, and
           also have similar diurnal patterns with the lowest concentrations found in early afternoon.

       •   Daily (i.e. 24-hr) average concentrations from a single monitoring site were inadequate to
           characterize urban exposures based on the statistically significant spatial and temporal biases
           observed for all pollutants at all sites. The diurnal biases have implications in assessing risks
           based on 24-hr average ambient exposures.

       •   Differences in concentrations were also observed when comparing monitored values by
           season and day of week.

       •   Continuous sampling via Auto-Gas Chromatograph (GC) was determined to be a reliable,
           practical, and feasible means of collecting and analyzing time-resolved data. Short-term
           spikes in BTEX from cultural or sporting events were identified and can influence 24-hr
           average concentrations.

       •   The AERMOD model generally underpredicted ambient air toxic concentrations, however the
           model was able to correctly predict pollutants' spatial distributions. Model-to-monitor ratios
           for toluene and xylenes were lower than for benzene; it appears that toluene and xylenes are
           underestimated in the emissions inventory. DEH suspects it is a result of excess emissions
           from a numerous number of area sources.

       •   The diurnal pattern of CO, BTEX, and BC is different at the heavily industrial site than at the
           residential site near major thoroughfares; the morning peak at the industrial site occurred two
           hours earlier and had a less pronounced evening rush hour.  This is indicative of fleet driving
           patterns and is a reflection of the mixed-use  zoning in the area.

       •   Presentations and resources are available on the Denver Environmental Health Web site and
           numerous Internet sites.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   Made people aware of anti-idling laws in Denver, and schools agreed to follow these laws.

       •   As a result of increased modeling capabilities, the local agency is more confident about being
           prepared when additional roadway expansions occur within Denver.
                                               30

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Lesson(s) Learned:
       •   If not using an EPA contract lab, inter-laboratory sample analyses and Proficiency Tests
           should be performed before, during, and after the project.

       •   Real-time data, while valuable for understanding diurnal variations, produces a large amount
           of data that almost always needs to be reduced. The time required for this was
           underestimated for this project.

       •   Would have delayed the start of the project an additional three months.

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Air Sampling Hardware: An auto-GC was used for continuous sampling.  An aethalometer
           was used to measure BC.

       •   Data Visualization: Maps of predicted vs. monitored concentrations were included for:
           Acetaldehyde, Benzene, Carbon Monoxide, Diesel Particulate Matter, Formaldehyde,
           Toluene, and Xylenes.


4.1.11 Cherokee Heights, OK (Project ID =11)

       The Cherokee Nation Environmental Program (CNEP) conducted ambient air sampling in the

community of Cherokee Heights, OK over an 18-month period, from September 2006 through March

2008, focusing on volatile organic compounds. Key project information is summarized in Table 4-11.


                 Table 4-11. Key Project Information for Cherokee Heights, OK
Site
• Rural: Cherokee
Heights (CNEP)

• Suburban: Tulsa City
(TSOK)

• Urban: Tulsa City
(TOOK) TUOK)

Pollutants
VOCs,
Carbonyls, BTEX







Purpose
Health Risk
Assessment







Project Goals
• Monitor ambient air emissions and
meteorological data in the Cherokee
Heights community.
• Determine the spatial and temporal
characteristics of the air pollutants.
• Integrate the VOC concentrations with
emissions, meteorological and risk
information for subsequent comparison
with the nearby city of Tulsa, OK.
Results of the study are:
           All four sites had significant concentrations of acrolein, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and carbon
           tetrachloride. In addition, tetrachloroethylene and/?-dichlorobenzene were high at the three
           Tulsa sites, while acetonitrile was measured high at TSOK and TUOK.
                                             31

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       •   The highest daily average concentration of acrolein was found at CNEP. TOOK calculated
           the highest daily average concentration of benzene, while TSOK and TUOK calculated the
           highest average daily concentrations of acetonitrile.

       •   Acrolein, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride failed all of their HAP screening values at all
           four sites.

       •   Seasonal average concentrations of acrolein were consistently higher than the intermediate
           health benchmark risk factor for all four sites.

       •   At CNEP, carbon tetrachloride calculated the highest study chronic cancer risk, while
           acrolein exhibited the highest study noncancer risk.

       •   The highest toxicity-weighted emissions for cancer-causing pollutants in Mayes County were
           arsenic, hexavalent chromium, and benzene.  In Tulsa County, the highest toxicity-weighted
           emissions for a cancer-causing pollutants were benzene,  1,3-butadiene, and lead.

       •   Acrolein had the highest toxicity-weighted emissions among the non-cancer pollutants for all
           four sites.

       •   Toxicity-weighted emissions analysis prioritized metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and
           manganese are toxic pollutants affecting the Cherokee Heights area.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   Additional monitoring for metals was initiated at the end of this project and in order to
           respond to public concerns about industry in the area.

       •   Additional monitoring to prepare for the upcoming lead NAAQS

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   Would have requested additional funds and negotiated a longer project timeline.

Technology Transfer Tools

       •   Risk Communication: The report compared concentrations with cancer and noncancer health
           benchmarks, and communicated results


4.1.12 Portland, OR (Project ID = 12)

       The Oregon Air Toxics Program established a systematic risk-based process for identifying and

reducing public health problems caused by air toxics in communities throughout the state. The program's

primary approach was to identify toxic air contaminants of concern in an urban area, determine their

sources, and develop strategies that will reduce exposure to the Portland community. Key project

information is summarized below.
                                               32

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                      Table 4-12. Key Project Information for Portland, OR
Site
• Inner City

• High residential &
industrial

• Residential

• Central business
district

• Suburban residential


Pollutants
Carbonyls,
VOCs,
PAHs,
metals (PM-io),
black carbon (BC),
hexavalent
chromium






Purpose
Monitoring
Modeling











Project Goals
• Measure ambient air toxics
concentrations.
• Characterize pollutant concentration
variations across the urban airshed and
in predicted problem areas.
• Provide 2005 ambient air toxic data for
modeling by EPA (ASEN) and ODEQ
(CALPUFF, PATA).
• Field test a continuous Pneumatic
Focusing Gas Chromatograph (PFGC).
• Estimate Black Carbon emissions from
woodstoves using a continuous
aethelometer.
Results of the study are:

       •   Monitoring results indicated that mobile sources are the primary source of air toxics in the
           Portland airshed and the concentrations are homogeneous.

       •   Ambient air VOC concentrations for some compounds of concern could not be accurately
           measured since they were below the maximum detection limit for all sites.

       •   The monitored annual averages compared to Oregon's established Ambient Benchmark
           Concentrations (ABC) showed that concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and acetaldehyde
           were above the ABC at all sites. Benzene and PAH annual averages are suspected to be
           above the ABC.

       •   Higher concentrations of manganese and nickel were found at one site that is in the vicinity
           of a foundry and other metal working facilities.

       •   The presence of hexavalent chromium was found at the NW Portland site.  The  source is
           unknown since there are no chromium electroplaters in the vicinity.

       •   Many of the core VOC concentrations measured using the PFGC were below the maximum
           detection limit for this instrument. The PFGC was only at the North Portland site.

       •   Contamination of some of the VOC canister sampling hardware invalidated over 25% of
           Benzene concentration results.

       •   PAH annual average values are questionable because quality controls (holding times and
           surrogate recoveries) were not always within acceptable limits.

       •   At the time of the report, continuous aethelometer results were not available.


Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   Looking at all phases of air toxics through additional monitoring and emission inventory.
                                              33

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       •   Benzene content in gasoline was reduced.

       •   Local advisory committee was tasked with reducing emissions in the Portland area within 10
           years.
Lesson(s) Learned:
       •   Sampling contamination from a faulty collection process resulted in 75% of the benzene
           results being invalid and caused delays in determining annual averages.  In the future there
           will be scrutiny of analysis results within a shorter period as an improvement to the QC/QA
           procedures.

       •   Some issues with ODEQ laboratory were identified which should be corrected in their new
           facility.
Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Air Sampling Hardware: Oregon DEQ field tested a Pneumatic Focusing Gas Chromatograph
           for continuous speciated VOC analysis at one location.

       •   Data Visualization: Previous air quality maps were developed under PATA to give
           community members a much better picture of concentration levels and gradients across the
           city.


4.1.13 Wilmington, DE (Project ID = 13)

       The Delaware Air Quality Management Section (AQMS) was awarded additional funding for an

ambient air monitoring study in Wilmington, Delaware as a means of enhancing previously collected data

in 2003. The enhanced Delaware Air Toxics Assessment Study (E-DATAS) was conducted through

collaborative partnerships with University of Delaware (U of D) and Duke University (Duke) research

teams. The study focused on two monitoring strategies: fixed stationary and mobile. The fixed

monitoring site was pre-existing from DATA 2003 to have slightly elevated ambient air toxins compared

to the other fixed sites. For E-DATAS, a mobile unit was included for real-time measurements within the

Wilmington area. Key project information is summarized in Table 4-13.
                     Table 4-13. Key Project Information for Wilmington, DE
Site
• Mobile Unit
Pollutants
Hexavalent
chromium, trivalent
chromium,
formaldehyde,
ozone, PM
(aerosol) 12 nm to
Purpose
Methods
development/
evaluation
Community
assessment
Project Goals
• Mobile Unit: Characterize industry
within 10 mile radius of MLK to ID
industrial sources of ambient aerosols.
• MLK site: Characterize the seasonal
ambient variability of ambient aerosols
(50nm-770nm) using a Rapid Single-
                                             34

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 •  MLK Site
                       270 nm
PM (aerosol) 50nm
-770 nm,
 Metals, CO,
 NOX
                                       particle Mass Spectrometer (RSMS-3)
                                       developed by the University of DE.
                                   •   Utilize and integrate the federal- and
                                       state-run ambient measurements
performed at MLK into EDATAS.
Develop long-term partnerships with the
research community to provide data
and to ensure the public's
understanding of Delaware's air quality.
Results of the study are:
       •   In broad estimates, the Wilmington aerosol is characterized as follows:
           o   Secondary aerosol of regional origin constitutes about 38%
           o   Secondary aerosol of local origin constitutes about 27%
           o   Biomass burning contributes about 14% of PMi.

The following results were observed for the Martin Luther King (MLK) site:

       •   Wood and biomass burning impact the air quality at the MLK site.

       •   Multiple local industrial combustion processes to the east and southwest contribute to the
           MLK site signature.

       •   The MLK site is impacted by diesel vehicle exhaust by emissions from a nearby DART bus
           depot, and possibly from industrial plant combustion when the wind direction is eastward.

       •   The MLK site measurements have signatures  from stack emissions where aliphatic amines
           have been added during the scrubbing process used to remove SO2 from the effluent.

       •   Particle composition signatures associated with emissions from the Delaware City Refinery,
           CitiSteel, and the Delmarva Edgemoor Power Plant were detected in the ambient air sampled
           at the MLK site. Bag sampling at the CitiSteel site confirmed this source signature and
           association.

       •   Ambient aerosol particulates with local industrial emissions have characteristic concentration
           increases in the early morning, late evening, or both.

       •   Signatures from particles thought to be emitted from large ships were measured at the MLK
           site. Wind dependence (110ฐ) indicates that the Port of Wilmington is a possible source for
           the  MLK site ambient measurements.

The following results were observed for the Mobile site:

       •   Aerosol number concentration, hexavalent chromium, and PM0 2? varied significantly by
           location.

       •   Formaldehyde and ozone concentrations exhibited lower variability than aerosol
           concentrations.
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           Only formaldehyde concentrations followed seasonal trends: highest during the spring and
           summer and lowest in the winter.

           Comparisons of the mobile data to the federal/state-run network at the MLK site indicated
           that CO and NOX concentrations measured at MLK do not correlate well with the mobile
           results for formaldehyde, PM0 27, or hexavalent chromium.

           Both formaldehyde and PM0 2? are well correlated with the MLK measures for PMi0 and
           PM2 5, which suggests that PM0 2? and formaldehyde are influenced by long-range sources.

           Formaldehyde and PM0 2? show a positive correlation with temperature, suggesting the
           photochemical activity.
Action(s) Taken As A Result:
       •   Additional funding was received to develop internal capabilities for measuring near real-time
           VOC measurements in the Wilmington

       •   There is potential for expansion of the DE branch's expertise to support other agencies in
           Region 3 with project planning or a workbook.

       •   Reduction in the public's exposure to air toxics is anticipated through better strategic
           planning and monitoring.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   If funding were available DE Air Surveillance Branch would use the Public Affairs
           Department to continue the outreach associated with this project.

       •   It may have been a good idea to negotiate a longer project period with EPA.

       •   Potential proprietary issues have arisen in the sampling technology that if known ahead of
           time, may have  resulted in a different partnership

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Statistical Tools: A series of statistical tools were developed that can be transferred to a
           similar study.

       •   Risk Communication: The report compared concentrations with cancer and noncancer health
           benchmarks, and communicated results.

       •   Air-Monitoring Equipment: The instruments for chromium and formaldehyde measurements
           were specifically developed for this study. Ambient aerosols were characterized using a real
           time single particle mass spectrometer developed by the University of DE.
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4.1.14 Austin-Round Rock, TX (Project ID = 14)

       The Austin-Round Rock Toxics Study (ARTS) is an exploratory study of air toxics levels in the
Austin-Round Rock area.  The EPA grant awarded to the Capital Area Council of Governments
(CACOG) provided for the acquisition of field sampling equipment to outfit five air toxics sampling sites
and to operate the sampling equipment for one year. Key project information is summarized in
Table 4-14.
                 Table 4-14. Key Project Information for Austin-Round Rock, TX
Site
• Residential
• Urban
• South of Urban
Center
Pollutants
VOCs,
Carbonyls,
PM-io metals,
Hexavalent
chromium

Purpose
Health Risk
Assessment


Project Goals
• Identify any ambient air toxics that
might pose a significant health risk.
• Assess cancer and non-cancer health
risks of the ambient air toxics.
• Establish a baseline for measurements.
• Compare monitored results to model
(NATA) predictions.
• Compare the study's results to that of
similar sized cities.
Results of the study are:

       •   Acrolein concentrations were significantly higher compared with most other U.S. cities.  The
           source of the pollutant is unknown.  Acrolein concentration levels were above the noncancer
           reference concentration (RfC) and exceeded the RfC by more than 100 times at every
           monitoring site.

       •   Low between-site variability for carbon tetrachloride, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde
           suggested that the sources were either uniformly distributed or that the measured levels are
           highly impacted by background concentrations.

       •   BTEX Compounds exhibited two-fold variability between monitoring sites.

       •   Except for the high acrolein concentrations, ARTS core air toxics levels were approximately
           equal to or less than those cited for other U.S. cities.

       •   Poor agreement was found between monitored and NATA modeled predictions for acrolein,
           trichloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium.

       •   Monitored-to-modeled concentrations of VOCs and carbonyls were in better agreement than
           those estimated for trace metal estimates.

       •   NATA total excess cancer risk estimates were in good agreement with the total excess risk
           estimates derived from ARTS measurements.

       •   HAPS displaying the highest cancer risk were carbon tetrachloride and benzene followed by
           1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde.
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       •   The ARTS measurement results were in good agreement with 1999 NATA based on air
           pollutant identification, air toxic concentration estimates, and total risk estimates.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   There will be a follow-on project using TCEQ funds to develop a methodology for acrolein
           sampling.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   If CAPCOG knew that the study was going to be only 1-year, they would have contracted out
           more of the work to ensure sampling, analysis, and data analysis errors and scope would be
           limited.

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Statistical Tools: A series of statistical tools were developed that can be transferred to a
           similar study.

       •   Risk Communication:  The report compared concentrations with  cancer and noncancer
           health benchmarks, and communicated results.
4.1.15 Spokane, WA (Project ID = 15)

       In 2005, the community monitoring project was undertaken by Washington State University and
the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research to provide airborne toxic measurements to characterize
exposure levels, better understand temporal and spatial trends, and provide measurement data for air
quality model evaluation. Key project information is summarized in Table 4-15.
                      Table 4-15. Key Project Information for Spokane, WA
Site
• Urban Industrial
• Mixed Purpose
• Residential
• Mobile Unit
Pollutants
VOCs, carbonyls,
metals (PM-io)
Purpose
Health Risk
Assessment
Project Goals
• Provide data to characterize human
exposure levels to air toxics.
• Investigate temporal and spatial trends
of the air toxics.
• Provide measurement data for air
quality model AIRPACT.
• Compare monitored results to modeled
predictions.
• Examine source-receptor relationships.
• Assess exposure risk using EPA's
HAPEM model.
Results of the study are:

       •   The average annual concentrations or core air toxics were similar to those reported in other
           U.S. cities.
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       •   For VOCs, source-receptor relationship statistics indicated a common source for benzene and
           1,3-butadiene at all sites.  A similar relationship was found for acetaldehyde and
           formaldehyde.

       •   For metals, source-receptor relationship statistics indicated a common source for arsenic,
           cadmium, and lead.  A similar relationship was found between chromium and nickel at one
           site.

       •   There is approximately a 50:50 mix of crustal and combustion sources in Spokane's
           particulate matter.

       •   Several pollutant "hot spots" were identified. Auto repair shops were sources for high
           concentrations of acetone and xylenes. A large source of styrene was recorded in the vicinity
           of Spokane's Industrial Park east of the city.

       •   Screening tests  for cancer/non-cancer factors determined all core air toxics with the exception
           of chloroform, beryllium, and lead exceeded screening values.

       •   Modeled (FIAPEM5) exposures using air quality data from each site determined benzene,
           1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, acetaldehyde,
           formaldehyde, arsenic, chromium, and manganese exceeded the health screening value in
           Spokane neighborhoods.

       •   The air quality model AIRPACT overpredicts benzene and carbonyl concentrations as
           compared to measured values.  For benzene, difference indicated a problem with the model's
           benzene emission inventories. For the carbonyl concentrations, the reason was thought to be
           unrealistically low boundary/initial conditions employed for acetaldehyde and formaldehyde
           in the model.

       •   Most air toxics  exhibited elevated levels in the wintertime and lower ambient concentrations
           during the summer months with the following exceptions.  Summertime concentrations were
           larger for the carbonyls due to more favorable  secondary formation during this period of the
           year.  Tetrachloroethylene exhibited sporadic peaks throughout the year while the other
           chlorinated species (carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene) remained low in
           all seasons.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   Monitoring data used to verify the effectiveness of previously implemented woodstoves
           program.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   Would have negotiated a longer project timeline

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Statistical Tools: A series of statistical tools were developed that can be  transferred to a
           similar study.
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       •   Risk Communication: The report compared concentrations with cancer and non-cancer health
           benchmarks, and communicated results.

       •   Air Sampling Hardware: A mobile unit equipped with a Proton Reaction Transfer Mass
           Spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to locate emission sources of benzene, acetaldehyde,
           several low molecular weight oxygenated solvents and certain BTEX (toluene, xylenes, etc)
           species.


4.1.16 Warwick, Rl (Project ID = 16)

       In 2004, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (RI DEM), Office of Air

Resources, implemented a project to study air quality in neighborhoods abutting TF Green Airport, a

medium hub airport located in Warwick, Rhode Island. RI DEM formed an advisory group that met

throughout the planning, implementation, and data reduction stages of the study.  The advisory group

consisted of appointees from the Warwick Mayor's office, the Warwick City Council, the Concerned

Airport Neighborhoods group, representatives from the US EPA, Rhode Island Department of Health

(HEALTH) Air Pollution Laboratory, and RI DEM.  The study was designed to address local concerns of

Warwick residents and the Warwick City government about the impact of airport operations on local air

quality. This concern was heightened by plans for an extension of the main runway and by an analysis of

cancer incidence data that showed elevated lung cancer rates in several census tracts that  are frequently

downwind of the Airport.  Key project information is summarized in Table 4-16.
                       Table 4-16. Key Project Information for Warwick, RI
         Site
    Pollutants
    Purpose
         Project Goals
 TF Green Airport
 (5 sites)
VOCs,
carbonyls,
black carbon (BC),
PM2.5
Health Risk
Assessment
Measure air toxics concentrations in and
around airport to determine exposure
levels.
Determine spatial variability in
neighborhoods.
Compare results to other in state sites.
Evaluate cancer/non-cancer risks and
compare to HEALTH'S cancer incidence
statistics.
Evaluate airport emissions impact on
ambient air pollution.
Establish baseline concentrations that
can be used to evaluate future air quality
impacts of planned changes in airport
operations.
Field test an Open Path Optical System
near the  airport.	
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Results of the study are:

       •   Maximum concentrations observed were substantially lower than the corresponding acute
           health benchmarks. Monitored results were also compared to 1999 NATA results.

       •   Yearly average VOC and carbonyl concentrations were substantially lower than the
           corresponding chronic non-cancer health benchmarks.

       •   At all monitoring sites, concentrations of formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, benzene,
           chloroform, acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene were above the corresponding cancer health
           benchmark of a risk greater than the one in one million. Tetrachloroethylene was also above
           the benchmark at two of the Warwick sites.

       •   The source for high concentrations of formaldehyde could not be identified.  Benzene and
           1,3-butadiene sources were associated with motor vehicle emissions, and the apparent sources
           for tetrachloroethylene were dry cleaning facilities. Chloroform and carbon tetrachloride
           were considered background pollutants.

       •   Elevated BC concentrations were influenced by meteorology and airport activity emissions,
           specifically from aircrafts.

       •   PM2 5 levels tend to have a large regional component and to be less clearly influenced by
           local sources than BC levels. Wind direction did not show a significant influence of airport
           operations on ambient levels.

       •   Inconclusive evidence was found to support the theory that elevated pollutant levels were
           caused by sea breezes in coastal areas of Warwick.

Action(s) Taken As A Result:

       •   One law was modified, such that the airport is required to conduct  long-term monitoring of
           certain pollutants. Monitoring began in 2008, and will continue until enough data can be
           collected to ascertain minimal air toxics exposure impacts from the airport.

       •   There are plans to extend  the runway at the airport, and the data collected in this study are
           referenced during the public comment period.

       •   The results of this study, in conjunction with other factors, led to the impetus of phasing out
           diesel-powered ground support equipment (GSE) used by the airport.

       •   Department of Health is conducting a health assessment.

       •   Additional PAH was  conducted by the airport, and formaldehyde concentrations were more
           closely scrutinized to identify potential emission sources.

Lesson(s) Learned:

       •   The Cerex Open-Path Optical System failed to produce any reliable data. The system was
           costly to maintain and the associated software was problematic.  After seven months of
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           attempts to collect the data, this portion of the study was terminated. In retrospect, a different
           open-path optical system should have been purchased.

       •   Add an additional site east of the airport (no site was placed in this region)

       •   Communicate results/progress to the community in a different fashion, maybe even by a
           different agency

Technology Transfer Tools:

       •   Risk Communication: The report compared concentrations with cancer and noncancer health
           benchmarks, and communicated results.

       •   Statistical Tools: A series of statistical tools were developed that can be transferred to a
           similar study.

       •   Air Sampling Hardware An open path Optical system was purchased.

       •   Public Outreach Initiatives: RI DEM formed an advisory group that met throughout the
           planning, implementation and data reduction stages of the study and that assisted with
           presentations of the data to the public.  The advisory group consisted of appointees from the
           Warwick Mayor's office, the Warwick City Council, the Concerned Airport Neighborhoods
           group and representatives from the US EPA, HEALTH and RI DEM.


4.2    Second RFA  Cycle Work Plan Summaries

       The summaries for Projects 17-35 were prepared using information gleaned from the submitted

Work Plans. No interviews were conducted for Projects 17-35. All submitted work plans for the second

RFA Cycle are posted at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/20052006_CSATAM.html#awards.


4.2.1  Louisville, KY (Project  ID = 17)

       Previous monitoring studies identified 1,3-butadiene above the cancer and noncancer risk levels.
The suspected primary point source is American Synthetic Rubber Co.  (-50-60%). Other industry

(-10%) and mobile sources (-20-30%) are  the other source contributors. A final report has not been

submitted to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following project goals were identified in the submitted

work plan:

       •   Assess the risk of collected monitoring data (Fall 2001- present) to identify spatial/temporal
           trends.

       •   Investigate the rise in 1,3-butadiene. Concentrations by establishing four fenceline monitors
           around the rubber plant. Monitoring would include other air toxics/PM metals.

       •   Assess new monitoring analytical devices.

       •   Develop model to monitor relationship.
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       •   Analyze and correlate speciated PM2 5 results previously collected.

4.2.2  Jefferson County, AL (Project ID = 18)
       Two sites were proposed to collect ambient monitoring data.  Samples are to be sent to a third
party laboratory for analysis. A final report has not been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009.
However, the following project goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Establish new monitoring program to assess the air quality in the Birmingham, AL area based
           on EPA-approved methods.
       •   Implement experimental roving monitoring component -continuous monitoring automated
           FTIR.
       •   Develop local air toxics emissions inventory.
       •   Modeling with UNMIX and PMF.
       •   Integrate existing air toxics data with collected data.

4.2.3  Nez Perce Tribe, ID (Project ID = 19)
       Previous studies found that the Lewiston-Clarkston area had 12% more total cancers than
expected relative to overall Idaho averages 1990. High chloroform concentrations were recorded during
these studies.  The focus of this community grant award was to measure sources in and around a paper
mill at five monitoring sites. Pollutants measured included VOCs, carbonyls, and PM metals. A final
report has not been submitted to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following project goals were
identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Quantify of a broad suite of air toxics species in the vicinity of a pulp and paper mill facility.
       •   Evaluate of the relative contributions of Potlatch emissions to the ambient levels of air toxics
           in the valley by species.
       •   Evaluate spatial patterns of air toxics concentrations.
       •   Modeling-dispersion.

4.2.4  Albuquerque,  NM (Project  ID  = 20)
       Pilot and NATA studies indicated the Albuquerque area population had high cancer risk from
benzene (12%) according to EPA's Prioritized Chronic Dose-Response values for screening risk
assessment. Specific source categories of concern for this study were in industrial, commercial, and
warehousing regions. VOCs, PAHs, carbonyls, PM metals, Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), CO, and NOX were to
                                              43

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be measured at three sites. A final report has not been submitted to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the
following project goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Develop HAP monitoring network.
       •   Measure ambient concentrations of HAP within specific community settings / geographic and
           demographic regions.
       •   Assess spatial variations in HAP concentrations.
       •   Quantify relative HAP contributions from local sources and long range transport.
       •   Determine the impact of meteorological conditions on diurnal, daily, and seasonal time
           scales.
       •   Assess adverse health impacts from exposure using risk assessment models.
       •   Create infrastructure within the Albuquerque Air Quality Division (AAQD) for future air
           toxics assessments.

4.2.5  State of Connecticut (Project ID = 21)
       Wood smoke contributes 38% of the PM2 5 emissions in Connecticut.  As fuel prices have risen,
so have the sales of woodstoves and outdoor wood furnaces (OWFs). OWFs are unregulated (i.e., no
EPA certification) and are routinely being installed as primary residential heat sources on a year-round
basis. This two-year project was intended to assess wood smoke contributions to PM2 5 in Connecticut
and to conduct monitoring and testing to characterize the emissions for an emerging source known as
OWFs, outdoor wood boilers (OWBs), or hydronic heaters. Information obtained in this project
regarding OWF testing will be valuable, not only to Connecticut, but also to other state and local
agencies, as well as the U S EPA in assessing the impacts of OWFs to air quality and public health.
Sampling was to occur at one core site and five satellite sites.

       A final report has not been submitted to EPA, as of June 2009.  However, the following project
goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Monitor wood smoke to better characterize the contribution of wood smoke to ambient PM2 5.,
           o   Characterize the impact of wood burning on PM2 5 concentrations.
           o  Assess the contribution of wood smoke to PM2 5 during wintertime inversion events.
           o  Assess emission inventory estimates.
           o  Evaluate modeling results with monitoring data.
           o  Determine control and reduction strategies to address non-attainment status.
           o  Build upon new techniques that quantify PM2 5 concentrations from wood smoke on a
              real-time basis.
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       •   Monitor Outdoor Wood furnaces
           o   Characterize the emissions from OWFs, a metric that we currently do not possess.
           o   Assess the contribution of OWFs to ambient PM2 5 levels.
           o   Assess local impacts from these units.
           o   Identify appropriate monitoring/testing techniques for OWFs.
           o   Develop a testing protocol for field tests of these units.
           o   Identify control and reduction strategies.

4.2.6  Houston,  TX (Project ID = 22)
       Among Houston's 45 monitoring sites, one site was chosen for this study because of high 1,3-
butadiene concentrations.  The focus of this study was to measure air toxics in the Houston Ship Channel
using a mobile laboratory. A final report has not been submitted to EPA, as of June 2009.  However, the
following project goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Purchase a mobile lab to identify hot spots and replace canisters.
       •   Measure VOC on site, especially 1,3-butadiene; measure low concentrations of VOC.

4.2.7  Treasure Valley, ID (Project ID = 23)
       Grant funding was received to place six monitoring sites in the Treasure Valley airshed, which
includes Ada and Canyon  Counties in Idaho. Ada County, ID is in the 90th percentile for toxic cancer
risk, and also experiences  high ozone concentrations. Additionally, carbonyls and benzene have exceeded
predicted values. The results of this data will be used for comparison with studies from Seattle, WA,
Spokane, WA, and Portland, OR. A final report has not been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009.
However, the following project goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Perform health risk assessment.
       •   Use monitor data to support SMOKE/CMAQ, CALPUFF.
       •   Prepare risk reduction and NESHAP residual risk assessment.
       •   Assess reduction strategies by comparing to baseline measures.
       •   Assess spatial and temporal variability for entire airshed.

4.2.8  Indianapolis, IN (Project ID = 24)
       This study focused on point source emissions of chromium and arsenic in the Indianapolis, IN
area, which is a heavily industrialized region with high asthma and lung cancer.  Pollutants to be
measured include VOCs, metals, carbonyls, and hexavalent chromium. A final report has not been
                                              45

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submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following project goals were identified in the
submitted work plan:
       •   Conduct air toxics monitoring.
       •   Collect additional emissions information from other sources to enhance inventories.
       •   Conduct HAP model to monitoring.
       •   Evaluate potential health impacts using RAIMI.
       •   Assess exposure and characterize health risks from HAP.

4.2.9  Port of Los Angeles, CA (Project ID = 25)
       The focus of this study was to monitor poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) species from
diesel emissions occurring at the Port of Los Angeles.  PAHs are by-products of organic matter
combustion. Four primary sites collected for PAHs and carbon black using an aethelometer.  A final
report has not been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following project goals
were identified in the  submitted work plan:
       •   Enhance Port-wide ambient air quality monitoring to include PAHs using real time PAH
           analyzers.
       •   Characterize emission sources and identify potential ambient air quality impacts from diesel
           exhaust particulates while conducting Port operations.

4.2.10 Reno, NV (Project ID = 26)
       This study focused on atmospheric mercury  speciation in urban and rural settings.  Currently
regulations are being applied for coal-fired utility mercury emissions, yet there is no system in place to
effectively assess their impact locally and regionally and no means of assessing effectiveness of
regulations. A minimum of two sites were to be situated to measure SOX, NOX, ozone, and mercury. A
final report has not been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the  following project
goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Develop a passive sampling system to collect and characterize total atmospheric mercury and
           reactive gaseous mercury (dry deposition).
       •   Develop ambient monitoring methods that can be applied to characterizing/quantifying
           atmospheric mercury speciation.
       •   Critically assess the sampler's potential.
       •   Compare samplers to in house analytical results from same sources.
                                              46

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4.2.11 State of New Jersey (Project ID = 27)
       This study focused on the development and optimization of a sampling and analytical method to
measure hexavalent chromium in ambient air. A final report has not been submitted for this to EPA, as of
June 2009.  However, the following project goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Develop a reliable sensitive sampling and analytical method for hexavalent chromium
           measurement by optimizing Ion Chromatography/Inductively Coupled Plasma-mass
           Spectrometry (IC/ICPMS) for chromium analysis lower than 0.083 ng/m3.
       •   Characterize sampling and analytical artifacts.
       •   Characterize the effect of environmental conditions on hexavalent chromium stability during
           sampling.
       •   Evaluate under real world conditions.
       •   Determine total and water soluble hexavalent chromium.

4.2.12 Secaucus, NJ (Project ID = 28)
       This study focused on characterizing emissions from the New Jersey Turnpike  (NJTPK).  The last
characterization to occur at this site was in 2002, and the traffic has since increased substantially.  A total
of three monitoring sites were to be deployed measuring PM2 5, PAHs, and trace metals. A final report
has not been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following project goals were
identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Determine ambient concentration gradients of PM2 5, associated PAH, trace metals from
           NJTPK vehicle emissions.
       •   Determine temporal and spatial profiles.
       •   Determine the relationships between particle-size and concentration of toxic trace elements.
       •   Establish relationships among toxic air pollutants derived at NJTPK.

4.2.13 Rochester, NY (Project ID = 29)
       The focus of this study was to develop a baseline understanding of mercury concentrations
occurring in New York.  High levels of mercury have been observed  in the Northeast U.S., primarily in
lakes and rivers. There is also a need to comply with the Clean Air Monitoring Rule (CAMR), which
requires electric utilities to meet initial mercury emission caps. In New York, sources have switched to
sub-bituminous coal that contains higher percentage of elemental mercury than anthracite coal.  Two
monitoring  sites were deployed to measure speciated mercury. A final report has not been submitted for
                                             47

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this to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following project goals were identified in the submitted work
plan:
       •   Track mercury reduction strategies for two source categories (waster combustors, coal fired
           electric utilities) in urban NY State.  Rochester, NYC.  Compare results to nationwide rural
           network.
       •   Measure elemental, oxidized species and report as ratio; most studies have been rural, not
           urban.  Take baseline urban measures.
       •   Compare speciated mercury concentration to ozone, SOX, and speciated PM2 5 to evaluate
           effects of atmospheric reactions and decay rates versus expected.

4.2.14 Tonawanda, NY (Project ID = 30)
       Tonawanda is an industrialized, urban community located just north of Buffalo.  It is divided by
major interstate highways and has industrial clusters of some of New York's largest point and area
sources, including a coke production facility,  several petroleum terminals, chemical bulk storage
terminals, co-generation and electric generation facilities, and facilities manufacturing tires, specialty
chemicals and pesticides, cellulose sponge, and DuPont Corianฎ (solid surfaces) and Tedlarฎ (polyvinyl
fluoride) products.   The New York State Department of Conservation (DEC) had  been collaborating for
at least two years with two citizens groups concerned with the effects of toxic air emissions and odors in
the area, and the potential risk associated with exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Prior
sampling activities in 2004 showed high benzene concentrations. A subsequent study identified
Tonawanda Coke Corporation as the primary source of benzene. A 2005 DEC study concluded there was
no acute benzene health risk, but there  was a need to assess chronic benzene risk. VOCs (including the
BTEX compounds), carbonyls, and PM fine (PM2.5) were measured at four sites, and meteorology was
monitored at 1 site. The air quality monitoring study was designed to generate data that can be used to
evaluate air quality models and other risk assessment tools. Some of these tools have been used to predict
community exposure and characterize the potential risk associated with exposures to hazardous air
pollutants (HAPs) and fine particulate matter in the ambient air.  A final report has not been submitted to
EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following main project goals were identified in the QAPP:
       •   Generate a point, area and mobile source emission estimates for monitored HAPs in the
           Tonawanda area.
       •   Conduct ambient air monitoring of selected HAPs and fine particulate  matter for one  year to
           determine the overall air quality.
       •   Compare the ambient air monitoring results to modeled predictions (Residual Risk
           assessment for coke ovens, 1996  NATA, 1999 NATA, and RAIMI).
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       •   Assess the relative contributions of various air pollution sources to the measured
           concentrations.
       •   Prepare a final report to summarize the data and explain the results of the various data
           analyses that were conducted.
       •   Present the ongoing and final results of the study to the community at public meetings to be
           held in the Tonawanda area.

4.2.15 San Diego, CA (Project ID = 31)
       Limited air toxics monitoring have occurred in the San Diego Air Pollution Control District.
Three sites were deployed in the District to measure VOCs, metals, carbonyls, hexavalent chromium, and
elemental/organic carbon. A final report has not been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009.
However, the following project goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Supplement ongoing monitoring activities with capital improvements in order to measure
           industrial and mobile source related impacts at three additional sites.
       •   Hire a contractor to evaluate emission inventory for study against ambient toxics data for
           inconsistencies.
       •   Have contactor evaluate success of ISC3 model to monitored results.
       •   Collect ambient air toxics data from regions lacking health risk assessments and compare to
           existing risk assessments for Chula Vista and El Cahon.

4.2.16 St. Regis Mohawk Tribe, NY  (Project ID = 32)
       The St. Regis-Mohawk tribe is located near Massena, NY along the U.S./Canadian border.
Concerns have arisen regarding air toxic exposure—primarily for benzene—from two industrialized
sources (an aluminum processing plant and a foundry) that may be impacting nearby residents in the
Akwesasne community. VOCs, including the BTEX compounds,  were measured. A final report has not
been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following project goals were identified in
the submitted work plan:
       •   Assess impacts of BTEX and other air toxics on Akwesasne Community.
       •   Support health assessments.
       •   Evaluate air quality models.
       •   Develop baseline references for air toxics concentrations.
       •   Characterize non-ubiquitous air pollutants.
       •   Delineate local scale HAP concentration gradients.
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4.2.17 Burlington, VT (Project ID = 33)
        A community assessment grant was awarded to evaluate high predicted inhalation exposure
values of benzene in Burlington, VT, some of which are highest in the U.S. As such, there is a need to
evaluate and validate these predicted values.  Sampling of VOCs, including the BTEX compounds, were
planned at eight sites in Burlington, VT and four sites in nearby Manchester, NH.  A final report has not
been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009. However, the following project goals were identified in
the submitted work plan:
        •   Evaluate and improve the  air-quality model that has been implemented for Burlington, VT.
        •   Obtain more spatially and temporally resolved air toxics monitoring data for Burlington, VT
           and Manchester, NH.
        •   Identify source signatures of major stationary and mobile emissions sources.
        •   Determine baseline concentration gradients to better assess actual population exposures.
        •   Identify and facilitate appropriate risk and source reduction strategies.
        •   Provide information that can be applied for air toxics characterization  and risk reduction
           strategies in other similar communities.
        •   Evaluate, refine, and improve the air dispersion model to better assess long-term exposure to
           benzene and other similarly emitted toxic compounds in the greater Burlington area.
        •   Obtain information necessary to allow transfer of the refined modeling tool for use in other,
           similar urban communities.

4.2.18 Hopewell, VA (Project ID  = 34)
        NATA 1999 model results predicted high cancer risks for the Hopewell, VA area. In this study,
three monitoring sites sampled for VOCs, carbonyls, trace metals, hexavalent chromium, carbon black,
and PMio. A final report has not been submitted for this to EPA, as of June 2009.  However, the
following project goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
        •   Establish baseline ambient air exposures for HAPS and help to identify "hotspots."
        •   Assist in development of residual risk standards.
        •   Characterize main poll by determining spatial concentration patterns.
        •   Assess the validity of NATA findings.
        •   Evaluate background PM diesel using black carbon data (Aethelometer).
                                              50

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4.2.19 Boulder County, CO (Project ID = 35)
       NATA1996 and NATA1999 data presented air toxic risk from acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
In 2003, a short-term study focused on VOCs (including the BTEX compounds) and carbonyls. Early
morning (6am-9am) concentrations of BTEX and other hydrocarbons were the same or higher in rural
areas as n the city of Denver. However, afternoon hydrocarbon concentrations were three times higher in
rural areas than Denver. A 2004 Denver study showed that modeled results under-predicted
formaldehyde by a factor of three.

       Five sites measuring VOCs, carbonyl compounds, and ozone were proposed for this current
project.  A final report was submitted to EPA in May 2009, and will be included in the next update of this
report.. However, the following project goals were identified in the submitted work plan:
       •   Supplement previous studies that show high concentrations of acetaldehyde and
           formaldehyde.
       •   Evaluate spatial/ temporal variations at the urban/mountain interface.
       •   Evaluate and improve air quality exposure models.
       •   Compare monitor to model results.
       •   Evaluate health effects data.
       •   Develop a baseline reference for long term studies.
                                             51

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5.0    Key Findings
       After reviewing and interviewing the Project Leads for the 16 completed projects and reviewing
the 19 submitted work plans, some key findings were observed.

5.1    Study Pollutant(s)
       Concerns about ambient exposure to "known" or "suspected" air toxics were the primary drivers
in most of the awarded projects. As such, many of the awardees sampled for common suites of
pollutants. Table 5-1 presents a summary of the pollutant types measured and/or studied. Of the 35
unique projects, 26 focused on speciated VOCs, such as the BTEX compounds.  Carbonyl compounds
and metals were also targeted in numerous studies (21 and 18, respectively). Among projects, the
Paterson, NJ Study targeted the most pollutant types (eight). Most projects targeted four to six pollutant
types. Data that have been submitted to EPA's Air Quality Subsystem (AQS) are also denoted in
Table 5-1.

                      Table 5-1. Target Pollutant Types by Awarded Project








Project
ID

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16








Site/State

Sun Valley, CA
Placer County, CA
Port of Tampa, FL
Allegheny County, PA
Paterson, NJ
Milwaukee, Wl
Detroit, Ml
Chicago, IL
Phoenix, AZ
Denver, CO
Cherokee Heights, OK
Portland, OR
Wilmington, DE
Austin-Round Rock, TX
Spokane, WA
Warwick, Rl






X
LJJ
OC/BT
>
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X







^™
1
03
o
X
X
X
X
X

X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X








I
Q_



X
X



X


X









in
Q.

5
Q_
5
Q_
X
X
X
X
X

X





X


X








in
ฃ

O
X



X

X














c
o
A
fft
o
o
03
00

X
X
X


X


X

X



X

E
D
E
Q
.c
O
c
0)
exaval
1
X



X






X
X
X










CM
O
8
w
























X
0
•z.

X










X











O
O






X


X


X











zone
O









X






CO
O

o
^
I
E
Si
D
tn
03
•s
Q
N
N
N
N
N
N
P
N
N
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
N = No data uploaded into AQS
P = Partial data upload into AQS
Y = All data uploaded into AQS
[] = Project not completed
                                             52

-------
Table 5-1. Target Pollutant "H
Project
ID
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Site/State
Louisville, KY
Jefferson County, AL
Nez Perce Tribe, ID
Albuquerque, NM
State of Connecticut
Houston, TX
Treasure Valley, ID
Indianapolis, IN
Port of Los Angeles, CA
Reno, NV
State of New Jersey
NJ Turnpike/Secaucus.NJ
Rochester, NY
Tonawanda, NY
San Diego, CA
St. Regis Mohawk, NY
Burlington, VT
Hopewell, VA
Boulder County, CO

VOC/BTEX
X

X
X

X

X





X
X
X
X
X
X
26
Carbonyl


X
X



X





X
X


X
X
21
/pes by Awarded Project (Continued)
I



X




X


X





X

8
PM/PMio/PM2.5
X



X






X
X
X



X

14
(0
m
•5
X

X
X



X

X

X
X

X


X

18
Elemental Carbon














X




4
Organic Carbon














X




4
Black Carbon








X








X

9
Hexavalent Chromium







X


X



X


X

9
0
V)
0
V)



X








X






2
X
O
-z.



X















3
0
O



X















4
Ozone












X





X
3
Data Submitted to AQS?













Y





8
N = No data uploaded into AQS
P = Partial data upload into AQS
Y = All data uploaded into AQS
[] = Project not completed
5.2     Significant Results and Lessons Learned

        This section incorporates some of the significant results of each project along with some "lessons

learned" that may be beneficial for current and future awardees.  These "Significant Results and Lessons

Learned" are presented in Table 5-2.

     Table 5-2. Summary of Significant Results and Lessons Learned from the First RFA Cycle
 Project
    ID
Site/State
                               Significant Results and Lesson Learned
           Sun Valley, CA
               Significant Results:
               • The "hot spot" source of hexavalent chromium was a plating facility that is no
                 longer in operation.  Monitoring was successful in determining that to be the
                 only local source for hexavalent chromium.
               • PM-io concentrations followed predominant wind patterns and variations in
                 PM-io were influenced by the abundance of crustal elements.
                                                53

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   Table 5-2. Summary of Significant Results and Lessons Learned from the First RFA Cycle
                                            (Continued)
Project
  ID
Site/State
                                 Significant Results and Lesson Learned
                              Lesson Learned:
                              • If the technology were available and economically feasible, more real-time
                                measurements would be taken.
          Placer County, CA
                Significant Results:
                Summer 2006 VOC results showed that only the concentrations of acrolein,
                acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde were higher downwind of the UPRR Railyard,
                while acrylonitrile, chloroform, and toluene concentrations were higher upwind.
                Benzene concentrations were similar at both sites, suggesting a regional source.
                Upon review, the Technical Advisory Committee (TAG) unanimously concluded
                that these results are not very useful in quantifying the impact of the UPRR
                Railyard emissions on ambient air quality.
                Elemental and Organic analysis of ambient particulate samples collected by UC
                Davis from one pair of upwind/downwind sites (2005) indicate that the coarse soil
                around the UPRR Railyard is highly contaminated with petroleum products and
                three times richer in the most toxic components (e.g., benzo{a}pyrene) than
                exhaust from diesel trucks. Further, the soil contains anthropogenic metals (e.g.,
                zinc and copper) at levels much higher than that of standard soils.

                Lesson Learned:
                • Monitoring would be focused during the hours where the wind direction was
                  upwind and downwind of the railyard.	
          Port of Tampa, FL
                Significant Results:
                •  Comparisons of the fixed point monitors to the Open Path UV monitors were
                   successful.  The data demonstrated that the open path system was able to
                   quantify ozone and sulfur dioxide for site evaluation purposes.

                Lessons Learned
                • The evaluation of different methods (CEREX UV and FTIR) of air toxic
                  monitoring equipment was not as intercomparable as anticipated.
                • There were large differences in the detection limits and reporting  levels of
                  toxic data from different laboratories.  A Region 4 workgroup has  been
                  established to evaluate and establish minimum detectable limits for analytical
                  methods.
          Allegheny County,
          PA
                Significant Results:
                • Pollutants with concentrations greater than the national 75th percentile and
                  appear to be strongly influenced by local emissions sources were: benzene,
                  toluene, propionaldehyde, tetrachloroethylene, ethyl benzene, methylene
                  chloride, styrene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, and hydrogen
                  sulfide. These results suggest there is a potential air emissions problem in
                  southwest PA.
                • The major contributors of cancer risks at all monitoring sites were diesel PM,
                  formaldehyde, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride.  Formaldehyde and carbon
                  tetrachloride were regionally distributed, thus limiting the site to site health risk
                  variability. Trichloroethylene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene contributed substantial
                  risks at the downtown site.  Diesel PM is a large risk driver throughout the
                  county but is substantially high downtown.
                • Monitored results were within a factor of 10 to NATA predicted concentrations.
                  The NATA model appears to underpredict contributions from industrial
                  sources and overpredict mobile contributions. The worst model performance
                  was for chlorinated compounds

                Lesson Learned:
                • Would have negotiated  a longer project timeline and would have worked more
                  effectively with Allegheny County in identifying and setting  up monitors in the
                  downtown area.
                                                 54

-------
   Table 5-2. Summary of Significant Results and Lessons Learned from the First RFA Cycle
                                            (Continued)
Project
  ID
Site/State
                                Significant Results and Lesson Learned
          Paterson, NJ
                Significant Results:
                • The EOSHI extraction method for hexavalent chromium produced promising
                  results. An additional study, the "Development and Optimization of a
                  Sampling and Analytical Method to Measure Hexavalent Chromium in
                  Ambient Air" is being conducted to further improve the method. The EOHSI
                  analytical method for hexavalent chromium is being compared to the NATTS
                  analytical method in a newly awarded USEPA grant.
                • Higher concentrations for elemental carbon, carbonyls, many elements and
                  most PAHs were observed in the winter due to probably higher combustion-
                  source emissions.  Hexavalent chromium levels were higher in the summer
                  probably due to photo-oxidation from all sites.

                Lessons Learned:
                • A detailed micro-scale emissions inventory  should be completed before
                  selecting  analytes and monitoring locations.
                • A detailed emissions inventory requires site visits. Site visits provide an
                  excellent opportunity for identifying risk reduction strategies, outreach, and
                  education
          Milwaukee, Wl
                Significant Results:
                • Benzene concentrations predicted by the RAIMI model were two orders of
                  magnitude lower than the monitored results
                • PASM for short-term sampling and passive adsorbent tubes for longer timed
                  measurements were successfully developed.

                Lessons Learned:
                  None identified
          Detroit, Ml
                Significant Results:
                • OC levels were elevated during daylight hours during the summer months
                  indicating a strong influence of secondary OC at the site.

                Lessons Learned:
                • Enhanced security measures at the school sampling site would have
                  prevented the loss of several months of speciated organic carbon data
                  because of vandalism. Security measures have since been installed to
                  prevent the event from re-occurring
                • The feasibility of using continuous formaldehyde samplers was found to be
                  problematic in several ways. Two examples are: 1) Assuming the
                  formaldehyde samplers could be operated in the field was erroneous. They
                  should have been initially deployed the to Filley Street site and not tested until
                  the permeation source was repaired; and 2) Monthly conference calls with the
                  formaldehyde sampler vendor should have been initiated sooner. The vendor
                  should have been notified upon receiving the shipment a list of required spare
                  fittings that were missing	
          Chicago, IL
                Significant Results:
                • BTEX concentrations near Chicago O'Hare Airport were 50% higher than
                  those found at Northbrook or Chicago-Jardine sites probably due to
                  expressway traffic and airport traffic.
                • Study results for comparing diffusion tube sampling method and conventional
                  gas chromatograph monitoring yielded inconsistent results - additional study
                  is needed.

                Lesson Learned:
                • A larger scope during the project using more sites and duplicative analysis
                  would have enhanced the number of data points.	
                                                 55

-------
   Table 5-2. Summary of Significant Results and Lessons Learned from the First RFA Cycle
                                            (Continued)
Project
  ID
    Site/State
                                     Significant Results and Lesson Learned
          Phoenix, AZ
                    Significant Results:
                    • Air toxics of concern were found to be : 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde,
                      formaldehyde, chloroform, benzene, and tetrachloroethylene.

                    Lessons Learned:
                    • Low to non-detected urban air toxic concentrations need to be measured
                      using more sensitive monitoring equipment.
                    • Solicit additional funds for data analyses and risk analysis.	
  10
Denver, CO
Significant Results:
• EPA monitoring siting guidelines for minimum distance requirements are not
  always applicable for community monitoring programs and should be relaxed
  in order to understand a particular source grouping.
• EPA and the Federal Highway Administration should partner to include mobile
  source hot spot assessments as part of the community based air toxics
  monitoring program.
• Continuous sampling via Auto-Gas Chromatograph (GC) was determined to
  be reliable,  practical and feasible means of collecting  and analyzing time-
  resolved data.

Lessons Learned:
  None identified
  11
Cherokee Heights,
OK
Significant Results:
• All four sites had significant concentrations of acrolein, benzene, 1,3-
  butadiene, and carbon tetrachloride. In addition, tetracholoroethylene and p-
  dichlorobenzene were found at three Tulsa sites and acetonitrile at two Tulsa
  sites.
• To accurately determine the suspect concentrations of acetaldehyde found in
  the ambient air sampling canisters near the Cherokee Heights site, additional
  carbonyl monitoring following Compendium Method TO-11A is recommended.

Lesson Learned:
• Would have requested additional funds and negotiated a longer project
  timeline.
  12
Portland, OR
Significant Results:
• The monitored annual averages compared to Oregon's established Ambient
  Benchmark Concentrations (ABC) showed that concentrations of arsenic,
  cadmium, and acetaldehyde were above the ABC at all sites.
• Ambient air VOC concentrations for some compounds of concern could not be
  accurately measures since they were below the maximum detection limit for
  all sites.

Lessons Learned:
• Sampling  contamination from a faulty collection  process resulted in 75% of
  benzene results to be invalid and caused delays in determining annual
  averages. In the future there will be scrutiny of analysis results within a
  shorter period as an improvement to the QC/QA procedures.
• A better data analysis plan was needed.	
                                                 56

-------
   Table 5-2. Summary of Significant Results and Lessons Learned from the First RFA Cycle
                                            (Continued)
Project
  ID
    Site/State
                                     Significant Results and Lesson Learned
  13
Wilmington, DE
Significant Results:
• Wilmington aerosol is characterized as follow;
   - Secondary aerosol of regional origin constitutes about 38% of PM
   - Secondary aerosol of local origin constitutes about 27% of PM
  - Biomass burning contributes about 14% of PM
• Was able to determine some sources based on measured pollutant signatures

Lessons Learned:
• DE Air Surveillance Branch would use the Public Affairs Department for
  community outreach.
• Would have negotiated a longer project timeline.
• If the potential proprietary issues for sampling technology were known in
  advance, a different partnership would have been sought.	
  14
Austin-Round
Rock, TX
Significant Results:
• NATA modeled air emissions were compared to Austin-Round Rock Toxics
  Study (ARTS) measurements.  Compounds for which the modeled-monitored
  agreements were comparatively poor include acrolein, trichloroethylene,
  arsenic and cadmium. Model to monitored results for VOC and carbonyl core
  compounds were found to be in better agreement than those of trace metal
  estimates
• Good agreement was found between NATA total excess cancer risk estimates
  and the  same estimates derived from ARTS measurements.

Lesson Learned:
• If CAPCOG knew that the study was going to be  only 1-year, they would have
  contracted  out more of the work to ensure sampling, analysis, and data
  analysis errors and scope would be limited.	
  15
Spokane, WA
Significant Results:
• Benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene,
  trichloroethylene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, arsenic, chromium and
  manganese exceeded the health screening value in Spokane neighborhoods
• Several pollutant "hot spots' were identified.  Auto repair shops were sources
  for high concentrations of acetone and xylenes. A large source of styrene
  was recorded in the vicinity of Spokane's Industrial Park east of the city.

Lesson Learned:
• Would have negotiated a longer project timeline.	
  16
Warwick, Rl
Significant Results:
• At all monitoring sites, concentration of formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride,
  benzene, chloroform, acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiend were above the cancer
  health benchmark of 1 in a million risk. Tetrachloroethylene was above the
  benchmark at two sites in Warwick.

Lessons Learned:
• The Cerex Open-Path Optical System failed to produce any reliable data.  The
  system was costly to maintain and the associated software was problematic.
  After seven months of attempts to collect the data, this portion of the study
  was terminated.  In retrospect, a different open-path optical system should
  have been purchased.
• In comparison to NATA99, monitored concentrations of benzene, 1,3-
  butadiene, toluene, xylenes were approximately one-half of the predicted
  concentrations. Monitored concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and
  chloroform were close to twice as high as those predicted.
• Add an additional site east of the airport (no site was placed in this region).
• Communicate  results/progress to the community in a different fashion,  maybe
  even by a different agency.	
                                                 57

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5.3    Technology Transfer Tools
       A value-added benefit to the community toxics grants program is the availability of technology
transfer tools that can be used in other communities.  For example, other communities with significant
railyard activity may benefit on data analysis tools and products developed from the Placer County
Roseville Railyard study (Project ID = 2). Table 5-3 presents available technology transfer tools for the
16 projects with final reports.  All of the submitted projects have Work Plans and Statistical tools that
may be used in similar studies. Note that "Public Outreach Initiatives" was a tool in only seven of the  16
submitted reports.
                       Table 5-3. Summary of Technology Transfer Tools
Project
ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Site/State
Sun Valley, CA
Placer County, CA
Port of Tampa, FL
Allegheny County, PA
Paterson, NJ
Milwaukee, Wl
Detroit, Ml
Chicago, IL
Phoenix, AZ
Denver, CO
Cherokee Heights, OK
Portland, OR
Wilmington, DE
Austin-Round Rock, TX
Spokane, WA
Warwick, Rl
Overall Total =
.ฃ
0
ง c
*ฃ
0) Q.
'o1
ฃ
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
16
Risk
Communication
X

X
X
X
X


X

X

X
X
X
X
11
Statistical Tools
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
15
Air Sampling
Hardware


X

X
X
X
X

X

X
X

X
X
10
Public Outreach
Initiatives
X

X

X



X


X
X


X
7
5.4    Anticipated Outcomes
       As discussed in Section 2.3, EPA is interested in how each of these awarded projects provided
positive short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term outcomes. Short-term outcomes typically occur
near the end or at the end of the project, while intermediate-term outcomes are realized six to eight
months after completion of a project. Long-term outcomes can be realized a year or two after the project
is completed.

       Significant short-term outcomes included: increased programmatic knowledge and staff
capabilities concerning air toxics; evaluation of new sampling equipment; and identification of local
                                              58

-------
sources of air toxics. Significant intermediate-term outcomes included: evaluation of permits/sources of
interest using collected data; implementation of control devices or process changes at local emission
sources; increased awareness of anti-idling measures; additional monitoring; and verify/enhance modeling
activities. Significant long-term outcomes included expected reductions in emissions, ambient
concentrations, and public exposure to risk for certain pollutants (e.g., benzene, diesel PM, coke oven
emissions). Table 5-4 presents outcomes identified by the Project Leads during the interview process.
                                Table 5-4. Anticipated Outcomes
Outcome Type
Anticipated Outcomes
Sun Valley, CA (Project ID = 1)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Knowledge of activities occurring at landfill, such as increased dump truck traffic.
• Identified a chrome plater as a potential hot spot.
• The chrome plater moved out the area, but not necessarily because of this study.
• Further validation of chrome plater influence on local air quality. AQMD plans to return to
the site with the elevated hexavalent chromium readings, during the same time of year as
when the elevated readings were made. The duration of this study will be for two months
to see if levels have in fact been reduced.
• This study was used to supplement a larger study called MATES-III. Information
obtained from this project will be used as part of a strategy to reduce emissions and
ambient concentrations, thereby reducing public exposure to air toxics.
Placer County, CA (Project ID = 2)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• First time an assessment was performed at a railyard.
• Found differences between upwind and downwind concentrations.
• The railyard has voluntarily implemented a "hood project" and reduced idling time.
• The city is hoping to develop a "greenbelt" around the railyard. Also, land near the
railyard is being redeveloped from residential to commercial, which will reduce exposure
to people.
• Due to the "hood project" and reduced idling times, PCAPCD expects to see reductions
in emissions, particularly from diesel PM. Public exposure to air toxics is anticipated to
be reduced.
Port of Tampa, FL (Project ID = 3)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Establishing a baseline understanding of Port source contributions.
• Some identification of localized sources
• Data were used to evaluate a permit from a nearby crematory in Ybor City.
• No anticipated long-term outcomes were identified.
Allegheny County, PA (Project ID = 4)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Prioritized air toxics for Allegheny County. Also identified some hot spot areas on Neville
Island.
• The ACHD is looking into the data more closely for regulatory consideration. Other
things being evaluated include reviewing and strengthening anti-idling laws, as well as
extending diesel retrofits to port authority buses. The data have also been used as a
supplement in the county's efforts to reduce emissions from a large coke manufacturing
facility on Neville Island that had begun to take place through a consent decree.
• Air toxics, particularly benzene, coke oven emissions, and diesel PM, are expected to
decrease in Allegheny County through the coordinated efforts in the coke manufacturing
facility cleanup/upgrade and in the diesel retrofits. These reductions in emissions should
lead to reductions in concentrations and public health risk and exposure.
                                               59

-------
Table 5-4. Anticipated Outcomes (Continued)
Outcome Type
Anticipated Outcomes
Paterson, NJ (Project ID = 5)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Increased institutional knowledge of emission sources through site visits, QA/QC of
monitoring and data analysis, and sampling.
• Able to field test the PAKS technology during the study.
• Elevated levels of p-dichlorobenzene were observed.
• Distributed pamphlets targeting certain industries; provided awareness for anti-idling
effects; conducted additional site visits.
• Reduction in emissions is anticipated through anti-idling education. The anticipated
long-term outcome will be reduced diesel PM concentrations and subsequent exposure
and health risk.
Milwaukee, Wl (Project ID = 6)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Development of a new tool for air monitoring.
• Observed unexpected uniform concentrations of benzene, as opposed to degradation.
• Data used to evaluate and validate modeling.
• Knowledge gained will be used for emission reduction strategies.
Detroit, Ml (Project ID = 7)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Built capacity with two Trace CO samplers and one EC/OC.
• Increased knowledge of sources contributing to residual PM2 .5 non attainment area.
• Continuous formaldehyde sampler software was evaluated.
• Estimation of the proportion of secondary/ primary organic carbon at Newberry and other
sites by leveraging other data sets.
• Communication strategy to local community is being created.
• Source apportionment activities to better understand spatial and temporal impacts.
• Estimate primary and secondary organic carbon at Newberry School.
• More emission controls could be required when Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal
(DIPT) is built.
• Possible inclusion of PM2 .5 and toxics in environmental impact statements for projects
similar to Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal DIPT and / or DRIC.
• Possible creation of emission controls for organic carbon emitted in areas upwind from
the Detroit area.
• Possible improvement of the continuous formaldehyde sampler design, field deployment
and acquisition of ambient hourly formaldehyde concentrations.
• Detroit attains the PM2.5 NAAQS.
Chicago, IL (Project ID = 8)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Able to establish a baseline of air toxic concentrations. Can be supplemented with an
earlier data set to develop an urban profile for Chicago.
• A risk screening tool was developed.
• Found elevated concentrations around the airport.
• Illinois EPA negotiated with the Chicago Department of Aviation, the FAA, and the
Airport Authority to add an air toxics monitoring site when expansion occurs.
Additionally, Illinois EPA recommended that when O'Hare Airport expands, that the
Environmental Impact Statement consider increases in air toxic emissions.
• A significant emitter of air toxics (steel mill) has shut down in the Chicago area recently,
and the monitoring data will be used to show the potential reduction in concentration and
translated risk exposure.
Phoenix, AZ (Project ID = 9)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Found that carbon tetrachloride and 1 ,3-butadiene concentrations were elevated.
Elevated concentrations of some pollutants were found near a school in conjunction with
idling of the school buses during pick-up time.
• This project, as well as other information, helped raised awareness of anti-idling for the
school buses. Also, more school buses are undergoing diesel retrofit. Other emission
sources in tribal lands are being examined as a result of this study, such as PM
contributions from unpaved roads and agricultural burning.
• DEQ continues to perform modeling.
• Project data, as well as other information, will help with strategy development to reduce
emissions.
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Table 5-4. Anticipated Outcomes (Continued)
Outcome Type
Anticipated Outcomes
Denver, CO (Project ID = 10)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Identified potential shortfalls in the local emission inventory.
• Able to validate modeling hot spots areas with monitoring data.
• Through this monitoring effort, the air toxics profile has improved when compared to
monitoring data from a past study.
• Made people aware of anti-idling laws in Denver.
• The schools agreed to follow the anti-idling laws.
• There are plans for the Denver area for roadway expansions. Because of the increase in
the confidence of modeling capabilities from this study, the local agency has more
confidence when roadway expansions occur.
• Emissions from idling school buses should decrease as the anti-idling law is more strictly
adhered. Thus, it is anticipated that diesel PM concentrations and public exposure and
health risk should decrease accordingly.
Cherokee Heights, OK (Project ID = 11)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Established baseline concentrations for air toxics. Also, increased monitoring
capabilities for the air organization, with a goal of sharing information and data with other
tribes.
• Measured elevated concentrations, but found them similar to the Tulsa area.
• The monitoring data were presented at a community meeting for citizens concerned
about a nearby coal-fired power plant.
• Additional monitoring for metals began at the end of this project.
• None identified
Portland, OR (Project ID = 12)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Increased understanding of the PFGC and aethelometer equipment.
• Identified the transportation sector as an important source. Also identified localized
sources contributing to air toxics risk.
• Used the monitoring data to validate NATA results. Also used the data for trends
comparisons to a similar study performed in 1999.
• Identified the metal foundry as a localized source of hexavalent chromium.
• The benzene content in gasoline was reduced.
• Additional modeling to be performed by Oregon DEQ.
• As a result of this study, the local advisory committee was tasked with reducing
emissions in the Portland area within 10 years.
Wilmington, DE (Project ID = 13)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Increased confidence in modeling exercises that are being performed as part of the air
toxics strategic planning of the DE Air Quality Management.
• Enhanced team building of skills of the DE Air Quality Management Staff.
• A better understanding of the suite of sources that are impacting the air quality around
the Wilmington monitoring site resulted in collection of emission signatures at different
sources, such as for biomass burning and steel mills. These signatures can be used
when comparing to ambient concentrations.
• DE has released data summaries requested by concerned citizens about a nearby power
plant.
• Reduction in the public's exposure to air toxics is anticipated through better strategic
planning and modeling.
Austin-Round Rock, TX (Project ID = 14)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Monitoring showed that concentrations in Austin were similar to other urban areas.
• Acrolein concentrations were elevated; however, the high concentrations appeared to be
due to the sampling method.
• Able to share monitoring equipment with a local university.
• None identified
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                         Table 5-4. Anticipated Outcomes (Continued)
Outcome Type
Anticipated Outcomes
Spokane, WA (Project ID = 15)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• First look at air toxics in the Spokane area; able to establish baseline of concentrations.
• Through the monitoring, pollutants of interest were identified.
• The monitoring data were used to verify the effectiveness of previously implemented
woodstoves program. Data were also used to compare to modeling results.
• The data were also used by Northwest Airquest for modeling activities.
• None identified.
Warwick, Rl (Project ID = 16)
Short-term
Intermediate-term
Long-term
• Increased knowledge of toxics exposure at the airport.
• One law was modified, such that the airport is required to conduct long-term monitoring
of certain pollutants. Monitoring began in 2008, and will continue until enough data can
be collected to ascertain minimal air toxics exposure impacts from the airport.
• There are plans to extend the runway at the airport, and the data collected in this study
are referenced during the public comment period.
• The results of this study, in conjunction with other factors, led to the impetus of phasing
out diesel-powered ground support equipment (GSE) used by the airport.
• Phasing-out of diesel powered GSEs.
• Development of an airport black carbon emissions model using collected data.
5.5    Community Involvement
       A key component to each of the awarded projects is the involvement of the local community. In
most projects, community involvement was a key component prior to the initiation of the award or in the
early planning stages.  Involvement ranged from lodging complaints to being involved in the advisory
committees.  Many awardees held public workshops near the end of the project to communicate results.
Table 5-5 presents public outreach initiatives taken by each of the awardees. Future grant awardees can
review and implement these initiatives, where appropriate.
                             Table 5-5. Public Outreach Initiatives
Project ID
1
2
3
4
Site/State
Sun Valley, CA
Placer County, CA
Port of Tampa, FL
Allegheny County,
PA
Public Outreach Initiatives
• Established a working group consisting of concerned citizens, clergy,
community organizers, and elected officials.
• Discussed project during one of AQMD town hall meetings.
• In 2000, a neighborhood group called Placer County APCD (PCAPCD)
expressed concern about potential impacts from a nearby railyard. PCAPCD
contacted ARB for help. ARB performed a health assessment, and presented
results in a workshop to the community.
• Community leaders and PCAPCD staff were involved in meetings.
• Public workshops were held after the project to present the data.
• The project developed through concerns raised by communities surrounding
Neville Island, which is a highly industrialized location. Allegheny County met
with various stakeholders, including community advisory panels and
community groups prior to the project. At the end of the project, findings were
presented to community groups.
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Table 5-5. Public Outreach Initiatives (Continued)
Project ID
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Site/State
Paterson, NJ
Milwaukee, Wl
Detroit, Ml
Chicago, IL
Phoenix, AZ
Denver, CO
Cherokee Heights,
OK
Portland, OR
Wilmington, DE
Austin-Round
Rock, TX
Spokane, WA
Warwick, Rl
Public Outreach Initiatives
• Reached out to numerous local groups, including: New Jersey Clean Air
Council, public school districts, school board, school nurses, the Paterson
Environmental Revitalization Committee, ACORN, a Hispanic Center, a local
health clinic, and a radio personality.
• A Student Interactive Module (high school level) was also developed and used
by some students.
• Although there was limited amount of community involvement, the Department
of Health was part of the steering committee.
• Citizens of the community helped to get funding for this project after they
expressed concern about the impact that the Detroit Intermodal Freight
Terminal (DIPT) was having on the air quality. They wrote letters of support
for the project.
• Extensive data analysis/modeling and communication with the local groups
were outside of the scope of work for this initial grant, due to the budget
limitations.
• Another CAMP grant that was awarded using FY'06 grant funds includes an
updated assessment of risk and communicates findings to the community.
• The local community was not involved prior to or during the project.
Interested community groups were contacted after the report was finalized.
• At the outset, tribal representatives were part of the project team. The Institute
for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) was also brought in to help
disseminate information.
• Met regularly with the community prior to the award. When project was final,
e-mail was sent to interested stakeholders about reviewing information.
• Involved the tribe via the Health Department.
• Worked with EPA Region 6 on sharing the data.
• Data were shared with elected officials.
• Community helped with siting of monitors.
• Public hearings were held to inform the public.
• The Portland American Lung Association were also involved. The agency met
with neighborhood groups and participated in meetings with residences.
• Five community outreach campaigns were held to discuss the results of the
ambient monitoring. The forum for each of the community meetings consisted
of sessions focusing on each subject matter area, culminating with an All-
Hands meeting at the end.
• Newspaper, mailings, and television advertisements publicized the meetings
to the public.
• Discussed in the Annual Monitoring Network review, and as an agenda item
during the open workshop that was held as part of the commenting period of
the annual monitoring network review.
• Wrote for a section in its Annual Air Quality Report regarding the details and
findings of this project on two occasions.
• Central Texas Clean Air Force was contacted.
• Contacted local governments for involvement.
• Local Lung Association and neighborhood groups were contacted.
• Advisory committee formed with representatives from the community.
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5.6    Project Contacts
       Project contacts and responsible agency are presented in Table 5-6.

                      Table 5-6. Project Leads and Responsible Agency
Project
ID
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
Site/State
Sun Valley, CA
Placer County, CA
Port of Tampa, FL
Allegheny County, PA
Paterson, NJ
Milwaukee, Wl
Detroit, Ml
Chicago, IL
Phoenix, AZ
Denver, CO
Cherokee Heights, OK
Portland, OR
Wilmington, DE
Austin-Round Rock, TX
Spokane, WA
Warwick, Rl
Louisville, KY
Jefferson County, AL
Nez Perce Tribe, ID
Albuquerque, NM
State of Connecticut
Houston, TX
Treasure Valley, ID
Indianapolis, IN
Port of Los Angeles, CA
Reno, NV
State of New Jersey
New Jersey Turnpike/
Secaucus, NJ
Rochester, NY
Tonawanda, NY
San Diego, CA
St. Regis Mohawk, NY
Burlington, VT
Hopewell, VA
Boulder, CO
Project Contact
Rudy Eden
Yushuo Chang
Thomas Tamanini
Darrel Stern
Linda Bonano
Mark Allen
MaryAnn Heindorf
Terry Sweitzer
Steven Peplau
Gregg Thomas
Ryan Callison
Jeff Smith
Joseph Martini
Bill Gill
John Williamson
Barbara Morin
Art Williams
Sam Bell
Julie Simpson
V. Louis Jaramillo
Peter Babich
Wei-Yeong Wang
Michael DuBois
Brian Wolff
Paul Johansen
Coleen Cripps
Linda Bonano
Francisco Artigas
Dirk Felton
Tom Gentile
Mahmood Hossain
Kenneth Jock
Heidi Hales
James Dinh
Michael Hannigan
Responsible Agency
South Coast Air Quality Management District
Placer County Air Pollution Control District
Hillsborough County Environmental Protection Division
Allegheny County Health Department
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
Wisconsin Division of Natural Resources
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
City and County of Denver Department of Health
Cherokee Nation Environmental Program
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality
Delaware Department of Natural Resources and
Environmental Control
Capitol Area Council Of Government
Washington Department of Ecology
Rhode Island Department of Environmental
Management
Louisville-Jefferson County Metro Air Pollution Control
District
Jefferson County Department of Health
Nez Perce Tribe Environmental Restoration and Waste
Management Program
City of Albuquerque Environmental Health Department
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Houston Department of Health and Human Services
Idaho Department of Environmental Quality
Indiana Department of Environmental Management
City of LA Harbor Dept. of Environmental Management
Nevada Department of Environmental Protection
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
Meadowlands Environmental Research Institute
NY State Department of Environmental Conservation
NY State Department of Environmental Conservation
San Diego Air Pollution Control District
St. Regis-Mohawk Tribe Environmental Division
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
University of Colorado
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6.0    Conclusions

       Community-Scale Monitoring Grants were awarded by EPA for 52 unique projects since 2004.
In the first RFA cycle, 16 projects were selected for award from 49 proposals, while in the second RFA
cycle, 19 projects were selected for award from 58 proposals.  EPA recently awarded 17 projects during
the third RFA cycle out of 60 eligible applications in 2008.


       This report summarizes key elements of 16 completed projects awarded from the first RFA cycle
by reviewing the final reports and conducting telephone follow-ups to fill in any information gaps.
Project Work Plans for the  19 projects awarded from the second RFA cycle were also reviewed.
Information from the projects awarded from the third RFA cycle will be described in a later summary
report. The following questions were used to guide this report:
       •   What were the primary pollutants of concern for these awards? The primary targets were
           specific pollutants that exceeded NATA 1999 cancer and/or noncancer risks (e.g., benzene,
           formaldehyde, hexavalent chromium). In total, of the 35 unique projects, 26 focused on
           speciated VOCs (e.g., benzene).  Carbonyl compounds and metals were also targeted in
           numerous studies (21 and 18, respectively).

       •   What were the primary emissions sources of concern for these awards?  Sources of concern
           varied from large industrial sources, such as a pulp and paper mill, to nonroad activities
           occurring in a railyard. There was a large focus on sources affecting nearby population areas.
           EPA's NATA results were used as a viable screening tool by many state-, local, and tribal-
           agencies to help communities identify potential sources of risk.

       •   What is the transferability or applicability of outcomes to similar scenarios in different
           locations? Many of the completed projects developed technology transfer tools that can be
           used in other communities. All of the submitted projects have Work Plans and Statistical
           tools that may be used in similar studies.  Technology transfer tool groups include:  Submitted
           Work Plan, Risk Communication, Statistical Tools, Air Sampling Hardware, and Public
           Outreach Initiatives.

       •   What is the quality of the data generated under the Community Air Toxics Monitoring
           Program?  Each of the completed projects developed QAPPs approved by EPA. The QAPPs
           contained Data Quality Objectives (precision, completeness, etc.) that were met by all the
           grantees, with very few exceptions.

       •   Were the selected Community Air Toxics Monitoring Projects successful?  One measure of
           success is to review the stated project goals and compare them with the corresponding results.
           However, this type of analysis could be performed on only projects for which a final report
           has been submitted.  To this end, of the 16 final reports reviewed, over 95% of the stated
           project goals were met. Additionally, a number of studies presented results above and
           beyond their stated goals.  By these metrics, the sixteen Community Air Toxics Monitoring
           Projects that submitted final reports were successful. Conclusions on the success of the
           remaining 19 projects will be made in a later report.
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