i^J TM S (C) Warner Bn
  The Dial-
  up CHIEF
                    Roadkill on the
                                   Jby /?on Myers, EFIG
   A little more than one year ago the CHIEF bul-
letin board system (BBS) was available only by a
dial-up bulletin board system which had limited ac-
cess to the Internet through TELNET.  Each week
approximately 1250 people accessed the BBS to
obtain about 1800 different files.  Each person was
"online" for about 15 minutes for an estimated total
of 315 hours.  At a long distance rate of $0.15 per
minute, our users paid about $2,800 per week to
Ma and Pa Bell  and their siblings for our informa-
tion.  Our users comprised about 20% of the users
and downloads  for the Technology Transfer Net-
work (TTN) system.  Compared to the other techni-
cal areas of the TTN system, we were tied for sec-
ond most active area behind the Clean Air Act
Amendment (CAAA) BBS.

   To improve the overall system, the TTN staff
began the process to expand the system to allow
access through the Internet. It was recognized that
some technical  hurdles would be encountered.
However, the administrative hurdles were at least
as formidable as the technical hurdles. After a long
education and negotiation process, the administra-
tive staff agreed  to let the TTN staff establish a "re-
search" network with access to the Internet. How-
ever, they required that the TTN system would even-
tually become a  part of the "official" network of file
servers for the Internet.  Some of the stipulations
on when TTN systems would  be  transferred from
the "research" system to the "official" system were
based upon: 1) the identification of methodologies
to provide the equivalent functionality of the TTN
system by the "official" system, and 2) a relatively
high percentage of the accesses being through the
Internet. It was expected that the established crite-
ria for migration would not be reached for about
three to five years and that dial-up service would
continue during this time period.

   During the education and negotiation period, the
TTN  staff obtained the hardware and software
needed  to expand the system to allow access
through the Internet.  Following the approval to ex-
pand the BBS,  connections  were made to the
Internet. The connections were made, first through
a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server, then through
the World Wide Web (WWW) server.  The informa-
tion that was available through the existing dial-up
system,  the TELNET system, the FTP system and
the WWW system were made consistent  by net-
working  all of the separate servers and establish-
ing software that updated the directory files  daily.
The menu files for the BBS were converted into
semi-complete hypertext markup language (HTML)
menu files for the WWW system and master lookup
files for the FTP server.

   Over the last year usage of the TTN system has
grown from the 10,000 downloads per week to about
20,000 per week.  Because of the anonymous na-
ture of FTP and WWW service, the number of us-
ers and the time they spend accessing our files can-
not be determined. However, we have noted a sub-
stantial decrease in the dial-up access to the CHIEF
BBS.  Recently,  the number of  dial-up users of
CHIEF has  averaged 340  users and the average
time online  for these users has decreased to  13
minutes. These dial-up users have obtained an av-
erage of only 450 files per week out of the average
total of 3,800 files per week.

   As a result of the quicker than expected adop-
tion of accessing the TTN BBS by Internet FTP and
WWW service, the TTN BBS is being relocated to
the "official" EPA Internet system under http://
www.epa.gov/.  All of the BBS menu files  are be-
ing converted into a more  acceptable format than
could be achieved with the automatic software con-
version from the  dial-up BBS menu  system files.
Although users have been able to access the CHIEF
BBS files from the "official" EPA system via the EFIG
Home Page (http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/efig),
the files have been linked to and maintained  on
only the TTN system.   Keeping the multitude of
sources  of information (e.g. paper, Fax, CD-ROM,
dial-up BBS, and Internet access) consistent has
always been a challenge. The migration of TTN to
the "official" EPA internet system adds one  more
source of the same information to the pre-existing
forums that have already been difficult to maintain.
                              (cont'd. on p. 3)





      QMS to Release AP-42

      Volume II, Fifth  Edition
       by Terry Newell, EIG/AMD/OMS

   The Office of Mobile Sources (OMS) is nearing
completion of a new Fifth Edition Compilation of Air
Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume II: Mobile Sources
(AP-42).  The last update to Volume  II was Supple-
ment A (January 1991), which included updates to al-
most all highway vehicle related sections of the docu-
ment and corresponded to the MOBILE4.1 highway
vehicle emission factor model. The new Fifth Edition
will include complete updates to both the highway ve-
hicle and nonroad mobile source sections of the docu-

   Since the last update of AP-42 Volume II,  OMS
has completed and released a new highway vehicle
emission factor model (MOBILESa, 1993), and has also
completed an extensive study and review of emission
factors from nonroad mobile sources (Nonroad Engine
and Vehicle Emission Study, or NEVES), covering nu-
merous equipment types (e.g., lawn and garden, con-
struction, agricultural, mining, etc.). Considerable new
emission factor information  has  been developed for
locomotives as part of EPA's regulatory process es-
tablishing new emission standards for those engines.
In addition, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
has developed a database for aircraft and aircraft en-
gine emissions data; this database is updated periodi-
cally by FAA and the most recent version is available
through the OMS Web site.

   The current schedule provides for an EPA contrac-
tor to provide a new Part II of Volume II (Nonroad Mo-
bile Sources) in May 1997. Part I of Volume II (High-
way Vehicles) is being updated by OMS and another
contractor to correspond to the MOBILESa model, and
is essentially complete.  After the two main sections
are integrated, the new Fifth Edition of AP-42 Volume
II will be made available through a variety of media.
The first place to find this new edition will likely be on
the EPA Web sites; links will  be provided through the
EFIG and OMS  Home Pages (http://www.epa.gov/
omswww/), and an alert to web browsers will be posted
notifying interested parties  of the availability of the
document. While the  new Volume II will not be com-
plete in time to be included in the next CD-ROM re-
lease, plans are to make it available in that format at a
later date.   OMS plans  to have  a limited number of
hard (paper) copies of the new  volume made avail-
able for parties lacking Web access later this year.
  CHIEF BBS (cont'd.)

   Because the  use of the dial-up BBS has
been decreasing  in absolute numbers and the
relative access to files on the CHIEF BBS is
down to about 10-percent, we have tentatively
decided to maintain only one electronic access
site.  We will phase out support of the CHIEF
dial-up BBS site  as of September  1997. We
are aware that this could create a difficult situa-
tion for some people, since some users are not
connected to the Internet.  We would like to hear
from you if  gaining access to the Internet is a
major problem.  Any decision to possibly extend
the cutoff date for telephone access to the
CHIEF BBS will  depend  on the feedback we
receive from users.

   CHIEF files on the current TTN server will
be maintained through the end of September of
this year to allow those without Internet capabil-
ity to continue to  access CHIEF BBS through
the present telephone bulletin board service.
We hope that this will give those without  an
Internet account sufficient time to take the nec-
essary steps to  gain access to the Internet.
Because  the TTN will be moved to a different
server, the address (http://ttnwww.rtpnc.epa.gov)
will also change.   We expect the new address
to be changed to http://www.epa.gov/ttn/, but this
is not definite.  In  the mean time, users can  al-
ways find the CHIEF BBS web page as a link
from  the  EFIG  Home  Page at   http://

   If you do not expect to have Internet access
by October 1997,  please send comments to Ron
Myers via  TTN  e-mail,  Internet  e-mail
(myers.ron@epamail.epa.gov),  fax (919-541-
0684) or mail to: US EPA, EFIG (MD-14), RTP,
NC 27711.  Please include which types of files
you expect to need from the CHIEF BBS.



                   Atew Version of Air CHIEF CD-ROM
                      by Dwight Bailey, Lockheed Martin Contractor

   The Emission Factor Inventory Group (EFIG)
plans to release the new Air CHIEF CD-ROM, ver-
sion  5.0 in  Summer 1997.  Air CHIEF is EFIG's
most comprehensive tool for estimating air emis-
sions for criteria and hazardous air pollutants (HAP)
from selected sources.

   Version  5.0 of Air CHIEF expands and updates
version 4.0 (July 1995) to incorporate Emission In-
ventory Improvement Program (EIIP)  reports,
hypertext links between EIIP and the Compilation
of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume I  (AP-
42),  and a customized query template for finding
emission factors  in AP-42.  Updates will include
AP-42 Supplements A and B, FIREv. 5.1b, TANKS
v. 3.0 and new Locating and Estimating (L&E) docu-
ments. The L&E series documents present emis-
sion  factors for selected hazardous air pollutants
and  process descriptions of emission processes.
The FIRE database system contains EPA's recom-
mended criteria and HAP emission factors.  TANKS
is a  software program that estimates volatile or-
ganic compounds (VOC) emissions from organic
liquid storage tanks.

   Air CHIEF version 5.0 features the new addi-
tion  of the EIIP documents. These are the "pre-
ferred" methods for collecting data and calculating
emission from point,  area, mobile and biogenic
source categories.  Hypertext links have  been in-
                         corporated into the new version oiAirCHIEF, which
                         connect text from specific information in the EIIP
                         reports to appropriate sections in AP-42, which al-
                         low users to view corresponding emission factors
                         or more detailed process information.  The advan-
                         tage of this feature is that users will have access to
                         additional information about a specific subject just
                         by clicking a button.  The hypertext links reduce the
                         time the user would normally spend searching for
                         additional relevant information.

                            Another helpful new feature of Air CHIEF ver-
                         sion 5.0 is the addition of an emission factor query
                         template.  This feature allows users to search for
                         emission factors in AP-42 by source category. With
                         this query template, the user can obtain emission
                         factors based on queries using Standard Industrial
                         Classification (SIC) numbers, Source Classification
                         Code (SCC),  emission process name, or pollutant
                         name. This flexibility in query syntax offers easier
                         access to emission factors, and reduces search time
                         spent looking for a specific emission factor.

                            These new features in Air CHIEF version 5.0
                         will facilitate easy retrieval of emission factor infor-
                         mation and will allow users to obtain additional rel-
                         evant information in an efficient, intuitive and user-
                         friendly software environment.  For more informa-
                         tion about Air CHIEF Version 5.0,  please  call the
                         Info CHIEF help desk at (919) 541-5285.

  Software & Tools
  Download EFIG
  databases and get
  information about
  other software.
   What's New
   Keeps you up to
   date with news on
   EFIG activities &
   web pages.
  Link directly to the
  old familiar CHIEF
  BBS in web page
 Visit the EFIG  Home Page!
              Emission Factor & Inventory Group
          For questions or help, call the
      Info CHIEF help desk at (919) 541-5285.
Related Sites
Links to EPA,
State Agency,
and many other
web pages.
Links to web
sites containing
emissions data.
Links to EFIG
and other EPA


         Info CHIEFs  Most  Frequently Asked Questions
           Call (919) 541-5285 or E-mail info.chief@epamail.epa.gov
                              if you have questions!
Q: When I try to run Air CHIEF version 4.0 CD-ROM on Windows 95, the documents appear to be
in an unusual font. I looked to see if there were any corrupted fonts installed on my computer, but
could find none. Do you have any other suggestions to fix this problem?                         |
A:  Often, when your computer system does not have certain fonts used by the CD-ROM application,    §
the CD-ROM will substitute a font that is installed on your computer system.  The CD-ROM application
utilizes the WIN.INI system file, which can be found under the Windows directory, to determine which
font to use as a substitution.  To change the font that it "selects"  as a replacement, check the font
substitutions that are listed in the WIN.INI file, and change or add a substitution.  For example, if your
computer is replacing the "CG Times" font with the "Wingdings" font (which is a collection of symbols)
and would prefer to replace it with "Times New Roman" instead, then you should add the statement, "CG
Times=Times New Roman" under "Font Substitutions" in the WIN.INI file.
Q: When will the new version of Air CHIEF be available?

A: The new Air CHIEF version 5.0 is currently under development. The new version will include El IP
documents,  Supplements A and B sections of AP-42, new L&E documents and updated versions of
FIRE and TANKS. We expect the new version of Air CHIEF to be available for distribution in Fall 1997.

Q: Where can I get the EPA document, Protocol for Equipment Leak Emission Estimates (Docu-
ment number, EPA-453/R-95-017)?

A: The Protocol for Equipment Leak document can be downloaded from the CHIEF BBS web page,
which can be found via the EFIG Home Page at http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/efig/, using the "CHIEF
BBS/TTN" link.  The Protocol for Equipment Leak document can be found under the "Q&A's/ Policies/
Recommendations" menu which is under the "AP-42/EF Guidance"  menu on the CHIEF BBS web page.
The document is in both WordPerfect® and Adobe Acrobat® formats. You can also get an abbreviated
version of it from the Fax CHIEF, by calling (919) 541-5626 or (919) 541-0548 from your fax machine
and listening to the recorded voice instructions. When prompted, use document number 3502 to re-
quest the Protocol for Equipment Leak document.

Q: I have been using sections from the Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42) to
obtain emission factors.  However, I have questions about how these emission factors are ob-
tained. Is there any way to get the test methodologies that were used to determine the emission

A: EFIG maintains Background Documents for all AP-42 sections which contain literature reviews, test
methodologies and other references.  Most of these are available for download from the EFIG Home
Page under the "CHIEF BBS/TTN" link. Go the "AP-42/EF Guidance" menu item, then select the "Back-
ground Documents" from the "AP-42" menu. Many people have found the information that they need in    -a
these Background Documents, without having to play "phone tag" with the AP-42 section Project Officer.    (5'
The availability of the background document on the CHIEF BBS web page depends on how old the AP-    _>.
42 section is. If you are unable to locate the Background Document that you need, or if you still have    co
questions about the data, call Info CHIEF to find out which  EPA Project Officer is responsible for that    "^
particular AP-42 section.

     PM2.5  -  Emission Factor

        Improvement Needs
             by Tom Pace, EFIG

   The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has
proposed to revise the National Ambient Air Quality
Standard (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) to ad-
dress health effects from fine particles (PM2.5).  A fi-
nal determination on the NAAQS revision is expected
in July 1997. A decision by the Agency to revise the
PM  NAAQS would necessitate significant improve-
ments to the PM2.5 emission factors. With very lim-
ited resources, the Emission Factor and Inventory
Group (EFIG)  has made adjustments to the current
PM-10 emission factors to enable a preliminary inven-
tory of PM2.5 to be developed. This current version of
the  National Particulate Inventory (NPI) is adequate
for preliminary planning, but clearly must be improved
before detailed planning is  attempted.  The NPI cur-
rently overestimates the fugitive dust component  of

   EFIG has reviewed county level emission estimates
in the NPI to determine priorities for revising the fac-
tors and emission estimates. An objective ranking
scheme was used to evaluate the  various emission
estimation techniques, including the estimation factors
and activity parameters that are used within the fac-
tors. Several source categories that scored low in this
ranking comprise a substantial part of the inventory.
These categories include construction, paved roads,
unpaved roads, agricultural wind erosion and agricul-
tural tilling and harvesting.  This same analysis also
indicated a weakness in the emission estimation tech-
niques for ammonia (fertilizer application and  animal
husbandry). Ammonia is an important precursor that
is involved in the formation of sulfates and nitrites—
two important types of secondary PM2.5 particles.
Another general subject area that will be investigated
is the emission of gases that  can condense in the at-
mosphere to form particles. Combustion sources are
a principal source of condensibles.

   The EFIG is currently evaluating the emission esti-
mation techniques for each  of these categories to de-
termine specific  tasks that  should be undertaken  to
substantially improve the emission estimates. Improve-
ments must be achieved within the next 2-3 years so
they can be used by states to revise the NPI PM2.5 for
use in State Implementation Plans (SIP). Supplemen-
tal funding has been requested so that the necessary
improvements  can be made in a timely manner.
     National Nonroad Air

     Emissions SIP Model

      Under Development
       by Greg Janssen, SAG/AMD/OMS

   The Office of Mobile Sources (OMS) is cur-
rently developing a 486 PC-based nonroad equip-
ment and vehicle air emissions inventory model
called NONROAD.  NONROAD will be able to cal-
culate emissions in  tons per year, month, and day
(summer, winter, average weekday and week-
end day during  a  month  or year) down to the
county level for criteria pollutants (exhaust and
evaporative HC,  CO, NOx, PM-10,  PM-2.5, and
SOx). The beta version of the model will calcu-
late emission for recreational, lawn and garden,
construction, light commercial, industrial, logging,
agricultural, airport ground service, and recre-
ational and commercial marine equipment. Along
with the model, OMS will provide a detailed user's
guide, as well as a programmer's guide. Although
it is not part of the development effort at this time,
OMS hopes to also provide a user-friendly inter-
face for the model.

   OMS staff from the Nonroad Modeling Team
gave a presentation about the  capabilities being
built into NONROAD at the MOBILE6 workshop
that was held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, March 19-
20, 1997.  A file containing the slides from this
presentation can be found  in the Nonroad Vehicle
and Engine Emission Modeling section (http://
www.epa.gov/omswww/nonroad.htm) of the OMS
web  page under  the heading, "Directory of
Nonroad Engine Emission Modeling Files."  Ad-
ditional presentations concerning NONROAD are
being planned. OMS currently plans to begin the
process of having the model peer reviewed in the
fall of 1997, followed by the release of the beta
version for user testing  and review in the spring
of 1998. The release of the final version of the
model is tentatively set for the summer of 1998.

   OMS encourages comments and questions
from  those in industry, state and local air agen-
cies, and regional  organizations who may use
NONROAD and/or have  expertise  in nonroad
emissions modeling. OMS will also need volun-
teers to test and review the beta version of the
model and provide  comments. Send comments
and  questions  via  electronic   mail  to


                          Work Begins on MOBILES
                            by David Brzezinski, EIG/AMD/OMS

   MOBILESa, the current release of the highway vehicle emission factor model, was issued in March 1993.
It has been used by state agencies and other parties to develop emission inventories and emission reduc-
tion plans required as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) process for nonattainment areas. The
1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require EPA to evaluate and update the MOBILE model periodically and
the Office of Mobile Sources (OMS) has begun the process of updating the model. The release date for the
new version of the MOBILE  model (MOBILE6) is tentatively set for Summer 1998. A schedule and state-
ment regarding the need for a new version of the mobile source emission factor model are posted under the
"OMS Models & Utilities" section  of the  OMS Bulletin Board  System (BBS) on the Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards (OAQPS) Tecnology Transfer Network (TTN). These are also posted on the Motor
Vehicle Emission Modeling Software section of the EPA OMS Web page (http://www.epa.gov/omswww).

   As part of the process,  a workshop was held in Ann Arbor,  Michigan,  March 19-20,  1997 to inform
stakeholders and other interested parties about OMS plans for updating the MOBILE model. The workshop
included brief descriptions of the  aspects of the model which are planned to be updated, and the data
sources and analysis methods which OMS proposes to use. A complete set of the proposals prepared for
the workshop are available on the TTN and the Web page. OMS is accepting comments from all  interested
parties on these proposals through May 1997. Another workshop is planned for Fall 1997 in Ann Arbor to
discuss the results of the proposed analyses.

   In addtion to the updating of the emission estimates in the model, OMS plans to make significant changes
to the user interface, the input and output formats, and to make the model  and its output more consistent
with transportation models used  to estimate emissions from highway vehicles on specific roadway types.  In
these areas, it is important for OMS to receive comments from users in state and other government agencies
who will be using the model  for  both SIP-related analyses and  conformity determinations.


          State/Local/EPA Emission  Inventory  Workshop
                                 by Steve Bromberg, EFIG

      A workshop for state, local, and EPA representatives who are involved with preparing emission
   inventories is scheduled for July 15-17. The meeting will be held at the Omni Europa Hotel in Durham,
   NC.  Preliminary information describing  hotel arrangements and agenda topics is in the mail to all
   potential participants.

      The inventory community will be faced with many changes in the next several years. Some of the
   issues to be addressed include: new information needs regarding particulate matter, new methods
   for submitting inventory data to EPA, new initiatives in emission factor development, and  the major
                             effort associated with the 1996 Periodic Emission Inventory. The work-
                                      shop will be interactive—participants will  be encouraged to
                                           join in discussions associated with the various topics.
                                                       If you are responsible for inventory
                                                    preparation, please mark your calender
                                                    and make plans to attend this very impor-
                                                    tant meeting.  Please call Pam Phillips,
                                                    (919) 541-5575, Sally Dombrowski, (919)
                                                    541-0875, or Steve Bromberg, (919) 541-
                                                    1000 to receive a meeting package.


               BMP Undertakes Revamping of SCCs
                                  by Ron Ryan, EFIG

     A subcommittee of the El IP's Data Management Committee has been formed to evaluate a
  potential major revamping of the  Source Classification Codes (SCC) used in air emissions
  inventories.  SCCs are used to prepare and summarize annual emissions data, and they also
  provide the necessary links to the chemical speciation and temporal allocation tables which
  allow modeling inventories to be prepared. For point sources,  SCCs are currently made up of
  eight digits divided into four groupings (x-xx-xxx-xx). At the full 8-digit level an SCC identifies
  an individual type of emission process,  specific enough to usually have a unique emission
  factor for one or several pollutants. The 6 and 3-digit levels identify successively larger groups
  of related source types, and are useful for the presentation of aggregated emission  summaries.
  A somewhat analogous set of 10 digit codes exist for area sources.

     Due to the expansion of emission inventories to cover a wider scope of both pollutants and
  source types, and to the demand to codify an increasing variety of information  about a source
  within the SCC, both the point and area source classification systems have lost much of their
  original organization and have not always provided a good answer for the new  demands. The
  Emission Inventory Coding System (EICS) subcommittee will be identifying the types of infor-
  mation that are necessary to an emission  inventory and that should be standardized or grouped
  by a code. The subcommittee will  also be identifying the level in an emission inventory system
  where each type of coded information should reside. Thus, the detailed information embedded
  in some of the current codes which provides information about the entire facility or emitting
  equipment—rather than process-level information—could become a separate code specified
  at a  different level in the emissions inventory.  The EICS subcommittee is not restricted to
  addressing just the process-level  (SCC)  data coding needs, and  is therefore identifying data
  coding needs at the facility, device, and emissions levels as well.

     The subcommittee has held four telephone conference calls as of  mid-April.  Calls  are
  scheduled for every other Monday from 1 to 3 PM  EOT Dennis Goodenow of CARB and Ron
  Ryan of US EPA  co-chair the subcommittee, which consists of almost 30 members represent-
  ing state and local agencies,  industry, EPA, Environment Canada, consortiums and consult-
  ants familiar with current inventory  data systems. Additional participation as either a core group
  member or as a reviewer is welcomed. Please contact Ron Ryan at (919) 541-4330 for further
  information or to obtain  the schedule and agendas for  upcoming meetings.
 Emission Factor & Inventory Group
The CHIEF Newsletter
  Volume VIII, No. 2
     Spring 1997
   The CHIEF Newsletter is produced quarterly by the Emission Factor and
Inventory Group; Emissions, Monitoring, and Analysis Division; of EPA's
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.  Its purpose is to enhance
communication within the emission factor and inventory community by pro-
viding new and useful information and by allowing for the exchange of in-
formation between and among its readers.  Comments on the Newsletter
and articles for inclusion in it are welcome and should be directed to Emis-
sion Factor and Inventory Group (MD-14), US EPA, Research Triangle Park,
NC 27711; telephone (919) 541-5285.
   The contents of The CHIEF Newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views
and policies of the Agency, neither does the mention of trade names or
commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.