United States
                Environmental Protection
                 Office of Air Quality
                 Planning and Standards
                 Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                  September 1996
                Control  Technology  Center
 Volume 8 No. 3
                 September 1996
        by Bob Blaszczak,
      CTC/OAQPS Co-Chair

   Now that we're back in print, we'd
like to fill you in on what  you missed
during the year between  printed edi-
tions. This SPECIAL EDITION includes
articles or updates to articles that ap-
peared in the electronic versions of the
CTC  NEWS released  during this one
year  hiatus.  Also, you'll find updates
from the Clearinghouse for Inventories
and Emission Factors (CHIEF), infor-
mation on the new Industrial Combus-
tion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR)
process, and a CTC product ordering
form. Enjoy! See you in the regularfall
edition of the CTC NEWS in November.

 Novocaine for Number Crunchers
         By Bill Vatavuk

   Anyone familiar with the OAQPS
Control Cost Manual (Manual)  knows
that air pollution control costs depend
upon a variety of emission stream, con-
trol device, and financial parameters.
Often this dependency is quite com-
plex.1 Forthat reason, it is cumbersome
and time-consuming—if not downright
painful—to make these sizing and cost-
ing calculations by hand, especially if
costs are needed for a range of input
parameters (e.g., waste gas flowrate).
   To enable the thousands of/Wanua/
    users to make these calculations more
    efficiently,  we developed 20 spread-
    sheet programs,  collectively  named
    "CO$T-AIR," to cover twelve  control
    devices and one category of
    auxiliary     equipment
    (ductwork).  Because the
    spreadsheets allow for the
    escalation of equipment
    costs, they bridge the gap
    between the Manual and
    the VAPCCI (Vatavuk Air
    Pollution Control  Cost In-
    dexes), the latter being
    documented in a recent
    EPA report.2  The COST-
    AIR programs are written in Lotus 1-2-
    3® (version 2.0). Each program outputs
    itemized total capital  investment and
    total annual costs for a given set of input
    parameters. The devices and auxiliary
    equipment for which we wrote spread-
    sheets are listed in the table (See page
    2), alongside the Lotus* file names and
    the Manual chapters that correspond to
       In each of these file names, "TCI"
    denotes"total capital investment/'while
    "WK1" is simply the Lotus* version 2.0
    file extension. Those file names con-
    taining "2"  are second versions of the
    spreadsheets in question. The charac-
    ter "-L" signifies that the spreadsheet is
    for "large" units—i.e., those devices
    whose sizes exceed the upper limits of
    the cost correlations.  As the list indi-
    cates, we  wrote "large" spreadsheets
    for thermal and catalytic incinerators,
    regenerative thermal oxidizers,  flares,
    mechanical collectors,  and wet  im-
    pingement scrubbers.
       Finally, for the refrigeration sys-
    tems, "-C"  and "-P" denote the spread-
    sheets for "custom"  and "packaged"
    units, respectively.
       Most of the programs were based
    on design and cost data and procedures
in the OAQPS Control Cost Manual
(Fourth Edition,  1990) and its supple-
ments.  The exceptions were the pro-
grams for mechanical collectors, ven-
           turi  scrubbers, and wet
           impingement scrubbers.
           Spreadsheets for these
           three  devices  were
           based on  information in
           the  book Estimating
           Costs of  Air Pollution
           Control (ECAPC)5
               Although there are
           significant differences
amongthe various spreadsheets, some
components are common to all.  First,
each spreadsheet consists of six sec-
tions: (1)"Cost Base DateVVAPCCI,"
(2) "Input Parameters," (3) "Design Pa-
rameters," (4) "Capital Costs," (5) "An-
nual  Cost Inputs," and (6) "Annual
Costs". In the first section, the "Cost
Base Date" is the date corresponding to
the equipment costs ("base costs") in
the  Manual or ECAPC.  This date
ranges from third quarter 1986 (fabric
filters) to  second quarter 1993
   Next, the "VAPCCI"  is used by the
spreadsheetto escalate the equipment
costs from the base date to the quarter
and year selected by the user6 Eleven
VAPCCI have been developed, one for
each of the control devices listed
above.7 (The sole exceptions are the
"venturi scrubbers" and "wet impinge-
ment scrubbers"  categories,  which
have been combined into one index:
"wet scrubbers".)  Each spreadsheet is
written so that once the user inputs the
latest VAPCCI available, the total capi-
tal investment cost and capital cost-
dependent annual costs will automati-
cally be escalated.
   The second section, "Input Param-
                (continued page 2)

       (continued from page 1)

eters," contains technical  data that, in
nearly all cases, must be entered by the
user. Because these input parameters
vary so much according to control de-
vice designsand applications, there are
no  "default" values for them.   Input
parameters  include standard stream
parameters (e.g., waste gas volumetric
flowrate) and data specific to a device
(e.g.,  gas absorber  packing  param-
eters). The spreadsheet  needs these
data to compute the design parameters,
the costs, or both.
    The "Design Parameters" section
lists data (such as ESP collecting area)
that are primarily  calculated by the
spreadsheetbased on the input param-
eters.  The "Capital Costs" section dis-
plays the control device total equipment
cost (itemized), the purchased equip-
ment cost, and the  total capital invest-
ment (TCI).  Two values are given for
the total equipment cost. The first cor-
responds to the base date of the  costs
(e.g.,  second quarter 1987);  the  sec-
ond, to the VAPCCI escalation date.
    The fifth section,  "Annual Cost In-
puts,"  lists nearly all of the parameters
needed forthe programto calculatethe
variousannualcosts. Theseincludethe
"operating factor" (the hours per year
the control device operates), operating
and maintenance  labor  rates,  utility
prices, the interest rate, and the control
system life. As with the "Input Param-
eters" section, the user must provide all
of these inputs.  Nevertheless, typical
values forthe parameters  are given in
the Manual chapter covering the device
in question.
    Given in dollars/year,  the "Annual
Costs" are listed in the last section of the
program.  These are itemized accord-
ing to:  (1) direct annual costs (operat-
ing, maintenance, and supervisory la-
bor; maintenance  materials; utilities;
operating materials(e.g.,causticsoda);
replacement  parts;  and waste treat-
ment/disposal),  (2)  indirect annual
costs (overhead; capital recovery; and
taxes,  insurance, and  administrative
charges), and (3) recovery credits (if
  Control Device Type     Manual Chapter
 Lotus® File
Particulate emission
Gaseous emission
Auxiliary equipment
 Electrostatic precipitators         6

 Fabric filters                   5
 Mechanical collectors (cyclones)   None4

 Venturi scrubbers               None4
 Wet impingement scrubbers      None4
 Carbon adsorbers              4
 Catalytic incinerators            3

 Gas absorbers                 9
 Flares                        7

 Refrigeration systems           8

 Regenerative thermal oxidizers    3

 Thermal incinerators (recuperative) 3

 Ductwork                     10


    Obtaining the Spreadsheets
    The CO$T-AIR spreadsheets are
 installed on the OAQPS TTN, where
 there are posted on both the Control
 Technology  Center (CTC) and  the
 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA)
 bulletin board systems.  Because the
 spreadsheets are
 written  in  Lotus®
 (version 2.0),  they
 are in a format that
 is importable to
 later versions of
 Lotus®, as well as
 to such programs
 as  Excel®   and
 Quatro-Pro®.  Ac-
 companying  the
 Introduction  (in
 WordPerfect  5.1),
 which   provides
 background on the
 ing their general
 and specific  fea-
 tures.  Those with
 questions or  com-
                 ments about CO$T-AIR should contact
                 William  M. Vatavuk, at (919)-541-
                 5309 (fax: 919/541-0839).   Readers
                 desiring copies of the OAQPS Control
                 Cost Manual should  phone  the
                 ControlTechnology   Center  at

'FOOTNOTES                                         N
1 Consider, for instance, the sizing and costing procedures for
gas absorbers, presented in Chapter 9 of the/Wanua/.
2  Escalation Indexes for Air Pollution Control Costs (EPA-
452/R-95-006, October1995). Both the report and quarterly
VAPCCI updates are posted on the OAQPS Technology
Transfer Network ("Clean Air Act Amendments" and "Control
Technology Center" bulletin boards).
3 All programs are written in Lotus 1-2-33 (version 2.0).
4 Design and cost procedures and data forthese devices may
be found in the bookEstimating Costs of Air Pollution Control,
by William M. Vatavuk (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Lewis
Publishers, 1990).
5  Vatavuk,  William M., Estimating Costs of Air Pollution
Control.  Boca  Raton,  FL:  CRC  Press/Lewis  Publishers,
6 As of this writing,  the VAPCCI have been updated through
first quarter 1996 (preliminary).
7 The ductwork costs are escalated via a Producer Price Index
published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of
                                                 CTC News page  2

      by Mary Anne Barckhoff
         Lockheed Martin

    In the interest of reducing  paper
waste and cost, the US EPA Emission
Factor and  Inventory Group's (EFIG)
CHIEF Newsletter, once a printed quar-
terly newsletter,  has now gone com-
pletely electronic! The CHIEF Newslet-
ters a primary source for current infor-
mation about new developments in
EPA's emission estimation tools, emis-
sion inventory projects,  and guidance
documents on emission estimation and
inventories.  It also has features on
emission  inventory conferences, EPA/
state  partnership programs, interna-
tional workshops,  and  other current
events. Two CHIEF articles that may be
of interest to CTC Newsletter readers
are  reprinted below.
    Though it is no longer available in
print, the CHIEF Newsletters available
in a  variety of electronic formats, includ-
ing   a list server  that  will  send  the
newsletter articles  to your e-mail  ad-
dress. The latest issue is the Summer
1996 edition.  Here's how to obtain a
    1. Fax CHIEF: Call (919) 541 -5626
or (919) 541-0548 from your fax ma-
chine and follow the voice instructions.
The code numberforthe Summer 1996
edition is 003242.
    2. The OAQPS TTNCH/EF Bulletin
Board (BBS): Modem  access (919)
541-5742. The newsletters are stored
under the NEWS menu item in both
ASCII text format and Adobe   Acro-
bat® format, which requires download-
ing  of the Adobe Acrobat® Reader
(a run-time view program also available
on the BBS  and the  Internet).  The
CHIEF BBS  is also available on the
World Wide Web at
   3. The World Wide Web:
Browse  http://www.epa.gov/oar/
oaqps/efig/chiefnl.html to find the
CHIEF Newsletter in Adobe Acrobat®
   4.  E-mail: To  subscribe to the
CHIEF list server send E-mail to
In your message type subscribe CHIEF
 .  You will
receive articles from the newsletter as
well as announcementsrelevanttothe
functionsof EPA's Emission Factor and
Inventory Group.
   If you have further questions about
EFIG products or projects,  call Info
CHIEF, (919)541-5285.
   AP-42 Supplement B Sections
   The Emission Factor and Inventory
Group (EFIG) now has Compilation of
Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42)
Supplements sections available on the
CHIEF BBS  and Fax CHIEF.  New,
complete Supplement B sections that
are currently  available include:  9.7—
Cotton Ginning; 11.7—Ceramic  Clay
Manufacturing; and  12.20—Electro-
plating. Sections 9.12.1—Malt Bever-
ages and 11.23—Taconite Ore Manu-
facturing are expected to be available in
August.  These sections can be found
under the "Supplement A &  B to 5th
Edition" menu item under the "AP-42"
menu item on the CHIEF BBS.  Also
look  for a new draft section on Wood
Preserving under the  "Draft Sections
Under Review" menu item. If you  have
questions, call Info CHIEF, (919)  541-
5285.                       eg
          by Roy Huntley

   The EFIG staff is continually revis-
ing and updating the Compilation of Air
Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42) and
the  Locating and Estimating (L&E)
document series on air toxics. Below
are some brief descriptions of projects
that are currently  funded.  We always
welcome comments about the value of
our efforts, and we especially welcome
data. Call Info CHIEF, (919) 541-5285
for questions or comments.
Projects currently  underway:
Abrasive Blasting
Arsenic L&E document
Bread Baking
Brick & Related Clay Products
Coke Production
Distilled Liquors
FIRE Update
Grain Elevators
Hot Mix Asphalt
Lead L&E document
Municipal Solid Waste Landfills
Organic Liquid Storage (TANKS)
Paved Roads
Surface Coal Mining
Unpaved Roads

New Starts:
Mercury L&E document
Update Internal Combustion Engines
Update Natural Gas Combustion
Update Boiler NOx (emission factors
   from the Acid Rain Program)
Steel Manufacturing

  by Amanda Agnew, ESD/OAQPS

   The Combustion Group in the Of-
fice of Air Quality Planning and Stan-
dards is taking an alternative approach
for the regulating of industrial-commer-
cial-institutional (ICI)  combustion
sources. Because ICI facility operators
have several options available for gen-
eration of thermal energy and combus-
tion of fuels and non-hazardous waste
streams, an integrated approach for
examining  and regulating ICI  combus-
tion activities seems more  feasible.
This process is called (ICCR). The over-
all goal of the ICCR is to develop  a
unified set of Federal  air emissions
regulations through a highly participa-
tory and coordinated  process that will
result in reducing toxic and criteria air
pollutant emissions.  Also, it is antici-
pated that a coordinated process will
result in more  consistent regulations
with greater environmental benefits at a
lower cost than  piecemeal regulations.
Five categories of ICI combustion
                (continued page 8)
                                               CTC News page  3

                    SMALL   BUSINESS   UPDATE
                             Deborah M. Elmore, Federal SBAP Coordinator, CTC/OAQPS

                                     S B A  P   FORUM
   Welcometo the SBAP Forum. For each issue, we will invite one or more of our State or local Small Business Assistance
Programs to discuss successful and innovative activities that may be of interest to their colleagues across the country.

                                                                              SUCCESS STORY!
                                                                           John A. Bernardo, Coordinator
                                                                                 BAP, Tucson, AZ

                                                                           A wrecking yard was cited for 23
                                                                        violations (NOVs) of several environ-
                                                                        mental codes during  an  inspection.
                                                                        Two  days  later,  staff from  the
                                                                        department's  Business Assistance
                                                                        Program (BAP) spent four hours dis-
                                                                        cussing the  individual violations and
                                                                        suggesting methods  for returning  to
                                                                        compliance with the business owner. A
                                                                        compliance plan was developed by the
                                                                        owner, inspector, and assistance staff.
                                                                           During these discussions, the
                                                                        owner confided to assistance staff that
                                                                        since receiving the NOVs, he had been
                                                                        swamped with phone calls from other
                                                                        wreckingyard owners asking what hap-
                                                                        pened, Would his business be  shut
                                                                        down, and what abouttheir business? It
                                                                        seemed many of the violations  proved
                                                                        to be standard operating procedure for
                                                                        wrecking yards.
                                                                           Upon  learning  about the wide-
                                                                        spread concern, BAP staff planned a
                                                                        half-day seminar forwrecking yard and
                                                                        auto shop owners  concerning appli-
                                                                        cable environmental  regulations and
                                                                        waste  minimization techniques.  The
                                                                        owner cited for the 23 NOVs actively
                                                                        participated in the development of the
                                                                        seminar and served as a  principal
                                                                        speaker.  Though his voice was a bit
                                                                        shaky, he was able to relate his experi-
                                                                        ences with the Agency, including the
                                                                        assistance provided,  and furthered the
                                                                        rapport between the department and
                                                                        the  regulated community in ways no
                                                                        government representative could ever
                                                                        hope to achieve.
                                                                                      Small Business assis-
                                                                                   tance staff would do well to
                                                                                   look for ways of not only
                                                                                   encouraging environmen-
                                                                                   tal compliance forthe indi-
                                                                                   vidual offender, but maxi-
                                                                                   mizing efforts by providing
                                                                                   assistanceto all members.
       PROGRAM (MP2)

         by George Frantz,
 Office of Technical Assistance/SBAP

    The Massachusetts Printers Part-
nership(MP2) is ajoint project involving:
•  Printers, consultants and vendors to
the printing industry
•   Printing Industries of New  England
•  Massachusetts Department of Envi-
ronmental Protection (DEP)
•   OTA's Small Business Assistance
Program (OTA/SBAP)
•   EPA - New England Environmental
Assistance Team (NEEAT).
• Screen and Graphic Imaging Associa-
    The pilot program began last spring
with a series of meetings involving print-
ers and agency personnel,  at which the
group identified  both  environmental
concerns in the printing industry and a
set of environmental criteria which
would indicate that best environmental
management practices were being fol-
    MP2 allows printers to come into
compliance with the newprotocolssim-
ply, inexpensively and in  multi-media
fashion.  It imposes some additional
requirements, both in photo wastewater
discharge  and in  air emissions, which
will assure industry-wide emissions re-
ductions based on pollution prevention
(P2). Program elements follow:
    Aggressive  out-
reach,  including  the
development  of a
"plain language work-
book"  or  printers,
which will detail com-
pliance requirements
to  which printers are
subject and  closely coordinated pro-
gram materials which will lead the indi-
vidual printing plant manager in a step-
by-step self-certification process. OTA
is hosting a series of six half-day work-
shops and clinics at convenient sites
across the state, jointly funded by DEP,
EPA-New England and OTA.
    RegulatoryReform,the Partnership
enrollment, will replace virtually all envi-
ronmental permits typically required of
small  and midsize  printers and a six
month enforcementmoratoriumto allow
Partnershipmembersto come into com-
    Pre and post-program sampling to
determine level of  improved  environ-
mental performance, according to es-
tablished measures of success  and a
carefully  selected statistical  sample.
EPA has placed a high priority on dem-
onstration projects which validate the
concept of improving  environmental
performance by creating incentives for
voluntary compliance. There was resis-
tance  to  the  concept of  beginning a
cooperative program with  inspections,
but this was deemed essential to estab-
lish a baseline. Fifty inspections were
agreed upon and conducted under en-
forcementdiscretion, there would be no
penalty except in  extreme situations.
    Strong public relations efforts, in-
volving key state officials and represen-
tatives of the printing industry, working
with statewide media to tout the pro-
gram and encourage consumers to pa-
tronize printers who display the MP2
            Handy Dry Cleaners
            Special - 5 Shirts
            for One Dollar!
                                                CTC News page  4


        by Deborah Elmore

    In  late September,  the Federal
SBAP announced grant awardstotaling
$1.5 million for 10 model small business
assistanceprojectsin 15 states. These
grants will  be implemented by  state
Small Business Assistance Programs;
states will use these grants to address
air pollution  issues as well as water,
waste, and other  environmental con-
cerns.  The funds will be utilized to
demonstrate effective ways of provid-
ing regulatory assistance tosmall busi-
nesses. The program will  emphasize
(1) pollution  prevention as  an alterna-
tive to traditional governmental "com-
mand  and  control"  techniques;  and
(2)integration with existing  small busi-
ness  assistance  providers, such as
state  pollution prevention  programs,
and university run Small Business De-
velopment Centers(SBDCs) supported
by the U.S. Small Business Administra-
tion (SBA).  These grants are funded
through a section of President Clinton's
Environmental Technology Initiative
(ETI) which  focuses on pollution pre-
vention as a means for reducing  barri-
ers  to  pollution control innovation by
small businesses.  ETI was launched by
President Clinton  in 1993 to spur the
development and use of  innovative
methods  to  protect the environment
and enhance the competitiveness of
the  U.S. environmental technology in-
dustry. The states selected for grants
are  Connecticut, Virginia, Florida, Min-
nesota, Arkansas, Kansas, Utah, and
Nevada, along with two multi-state ef-
forts (Texas/New Mexico/Oklahoma,
and  Washington/Oregon/Alaska/
Idaho). Each state and  multi-state
project will get $150 thousand to be
spentwithinthreeyears. EPAaskedall
states  in the country to apply for the
grants, and the Agency picked the sub-
mittals containing  the most innovative
methods of assisting small business.
States are  required to  match federal
funds by at least 20 percent, either in
dollars or resources.  For further infor-
mation, contact Deborah  Elmore  at
         by Bob Blaszczak

   The  Landfill Air Emission Model is
available on the CTC BBS and HOME
PAGE. It provides an automated esti-
mation tool for quantifying  emissions
from municipal waste landfills.   The
model estimates emissions of methane,
carbon  dioxide, nonmethane organic
compounds, and toxic  air pollutants.
Informationon the assumptions used in
the model can be found  in  the  back-
ground information document (NTIS #
PB91-197061) written to  support the
Municipal Landfill New Stationary Per-
formance   Standards    (NSPS),
40CFR60 SubpartWWW, and Guide-
lines for Control of  Existing  Sources,
40CFR60 Subpart Cc, and in the public
docket,  Docket A-88-09.  This article
contains information on the beta release
versions of the Landfill  AirEmissions
Estimation Model for DOS (Version 2.0)
and Microsoft* Windows (Version 1.0).
    The Landfill Air Emissions Model is
regarded as a screening tool to deter-
mine which landfill sites  may require
control forthe Clean Air Act regulations
promulgated in March 1996. The model
can be used with site specific data, or it
can be used with default values which
reflect the expected  maximum  emis-
sions. The rule uses a tiered  approach.
The first tier relies on defaults and later
tiers use field test data to help better
characterize landfill emissions.
    The model  can  also  be used for
estimatingtypical landfill emissionsand
is suggested for use in developing esti-
mates for state inventories.  A second
set of defaults is provided (the AP-42
defaults). The AP-42 default values are
based  on emission factors  from the
EPA's Compilation of Air  Pollutant
Emission Factors, Fifth Edition, AP-42
(EP1995). As of this writing, the AP-42
values have been revised and are avail-
able for  public comment.   The  beta
version  of this  software includes the
revised AP-42 suggested defaults.
Once the AP-42 revisions are published
as final, the defaults in these models will
be revised to reflect any changes. This
is anticipated for laterthis year. Until the
values are considered final, the model
will be referred to as a beta version.
    An IBM-compatible personal com-
puter with at least one floppy diskdrive
and 4 megabytes of memory is recom-
mendedforthis program. The Windows
version requires Windows 3.1 or better.
The DOS version requires DOS 2.0 or
better. All software components of the
models for this beta release are  fully
    The CTC BBS and HOME  PAGE
have versions of the Landfill Air Emis-
sions Estimation Model for DOS  and
Windows. Each model is provided in a
separate self-expanding ZIP  file
(LAND_DOS.EXE for the DOS version
and LAND_WIN.EXE for the Windows
version). Just  download the appropri-
ate version and put it in its own directory.
To extract the files, either double-click
                 (continued page 7)
 Control Technology Center NEWS
    The CTC NEWS is a quarterly publication of
the U.S.EPA's Control Technology Center (CTC).
The CTC is an informal, easy-to-use, no cost,
technical assistance service for all State and local
(S/l) air pollution control agency's and EPA Re-
gional Office staffs. For others, some services may
be on a cost reimbursable basis. The CTC offers
quick access to EPA experts and expertise via the
CTC HOTLIN E and the CTC Bulletin Board, and in-
depth technical support through source specific
Engineering Assistanee Projectsor more generic
Technical Guidance Projects. The CTC is oper-
ated by the Air Pollution Prevention and Control
Division, National Risk Management Research
Laboratory and the InformationTransferand Pro-
gram Integration Division, Office of Air Quality
Planning and  Standards in Research Triangle
Park, North Carolina.
    If you have any air pollution emission or con-
trol questions, orwould like more information about
the CTC and  the types of technical assistance
  Publicationof the CTC NEWS does not signify
thatthe contents necessarily reflectthe views and
policies of the U.S.EPA, nor does the mention of
trade names or commercial products constitute
endorsementor recommendation for use.
                                                 CTC News page  5

         by Jo Ann Kerrick

    The RACT/BACT/LAER Clearing-
house (RBLC) continues to make im-
provements to helpyou work more effi-
ciently. Look for the features described
below on the TIN now. We think you'll
like what you see.
Comprehensive Search for Pollutants
    The Query module  of the  RBLC
information system is frequently used to
search any of the RBLC data bases for
specific  pollutants.   Pollutants are
most often entered with the name of
their chemical formula, for example
"CO" for carbon monoxide. How-
ever, it  has  been  difficult to stan-
dardize names for some of the crite-
ria  pollutants:  NOx, PM/PM10,
SOx, and VOC. For example, par-
ticulate matter may be entered  as
PM, PM10, orTSP.  Because state
and local agencies may use different
terminology in their permits, they
enter their determinations using al-
ternative namesfor some
pollutants. While this flex-
ibility on naming  allows
their own permits, it also
makes it more difficult to find all of
the data base entries for a particular
    The RBLC now has an option to
insure that you find all information re-
lated to  a particular criteria pollutant.
The Query module detects when you
are trying to search for a criteria  pollut-
ant and  asks whether you want to per-
form a comprehensive search.  If you
do, the system searches for all appro-
priate variations of the pollutant  name.
This comprehensive search looks for
the pollutant name you  specified plus
any alternative names. Otherwise, you
can choose to search just for the name
you entered.  The search prompt ap-
pears wheneveryou search for a  pollut-
ant name that equals one of these four
criteria pollutants. The comprehensive
search for pollutants is available with
eitherthe standard or advanced search
Changes in the RBLC Data Fields
    All of the data screens in the RBLC
have been  revised to reflect changes
made to the data base structure at the
facility, process, and  pollutant levels.
At the facility level, the number of dates
tracked  by  the system has been re-
duced from 10 to 4. Infrequently used
dates have been removed, and the four
remainingdateseach use  athree-char-
acterflag to indicate whetherthe date is
an estimate or an actual date. Remov-
ing the extraneous dates simplified the
facility data screen and also freed  up
enough space to display the initial por-
tion of the facility  notes on the same
screen as the otherfacility data. At the
process level,  three new  fields have
been  added for notes specific to the
process or to compliance  verification.
In  addition, the boiler size field has
been  deleted,  and a field  for primary
fuel added.  The changes at the pollut-
ant level may not be immediately visible
because the screen  looks essentially
the same. However, if you've ever tried
to  enter cost information, you'll notice
the difference. The cost fields no longer
include a decimal point, so the system
now has room  to store larger cost val-
ues. The problems several users have
had entering large capital costs should
be resolved with this change.
   While we were working on all the
RBLC modules, we made several mis-
cellaneous updates.  First, BLIS has
been replaced  with RBLC.  Secondly,
we changed the warning screens to
appear in  red  so  that they are more
visible to users.  Last but not least,
determinations are listed  in order of
RBLC ID in the view list in the Query
module.   Previously, facilities were
listed in the order that they were added
to the data base, which meant that all
entries for one state did not necessarily
appear together.

   BROWSE Module Added for
         RBLC Data Base
   A new "Browse"  option, available
from  the  RBLC main  menu, lets you
select from a list of process types and
search the data base for all determina-
tions of that type. You can even search
for a major category of process type to
viewthe complete set of determinations
in all of the subcategories for that pro-
cess category.  For example, searching
for process  type  11.000  will find  all
external combustion  processes  from
11.001 to 11.999.  In Browse, the view
list is sorted by facility  name so that you
can readily find determinations of inter-
est to you.   A  "Jump" option lets you
move quickly to the facility name that
begins with a given letter.
   In addition  to viewing the facilities
on-line, you can mark selected facilities
and download them to your local PC. A
"Mark" option at the facility list lets you
mark or unmark all of the facilities cur-
rently displayed on the screen, or you
can mark/unmark a single facility. The
Browse  module works in much  the
same way as the Browse module for the
regulations data base. Use Browse if
you are just  interested in a particular
process  type and  are uncomfortable
with building search criteria.  Browse
displays a list of process types for you to
choose from and then automatically
builds a query  and searches the data
base.  The Query  module is still avail-
able to search  for other types of infor-
                                                 CTC News page  6

         by Jo Ann Kerrick

    Information  in the RACT/BACT/
LAER  Clearinghouse (RBLC) is up-
dated nearly every month as users sub-
mit new control technology determina-
tionsto the data base. In addition to this
information, the  RBLC support  staff
continues to make changes to keep the
system current.  If you haven't been on
the RBLC BBS lately, check the TIN
now for the updates described below.

New RBLC Data Fields in Standalone
    As  you  may
have noticed, we re-
cently  changed the
RBLC   data base
structure by remov-
ing extraneous dates
atthe facility level and adding newfields
for notes about compliance verification
at the process level.  In  addition, the
cost fields at the pollutant level were
expandedto accommodate larger num-
bers. In September we released a new
version of the RBLC standalone editor
designed to be compatible with these
    The standalone editor is an alterna-
tive to online entry of new control tech-
nology information. You can input new
determinations locally on  your PC and
then transfer the data to the RBLC
system administratorfor inclusion in the
online  data base.  While we were
changing the system to be compatible
with the new data base, we made some
more changes to simplify the editor. We
removed the edit menu and moved its
functionsto the facility list screen. Now
you can make all updates to your deter-
minations, including adding new ones,
from a single screen.  Another new
option at the facility list screen lets you
deleteall of your old determinations and
start with a blankdata base. (You would
use this option after you have sent your
data to  the  RBLC).  We hope these
changes make the system easier and
quickertouse. If you are responsible for
submitting your agency's determina-
tions,  you might  want  to try the
standaloneeditor. All the files you need
and  installation instructions  can be
downloaded from the RBLC BBS.
Ranking Reports Updated
   The RBLC ranking report compares
pollutantemissionsfor a single process
type  and  one  pollutant.  Typically you
perform a search for the target informa-
tion,  and then download your  results
using the ranking report format.  Based
on standard  emission limits for each
applicable determination, the report
presents statistics based on these limits
and then reports them  in rank order
listing from most to least stringent.
   Because the RBLC Ranking report
can be a valuable reference for users
making RACT, BACT, or LAER determi-
nations, the RBLC staff has generated
ranking reports forspecific process type
and pollutant  combinations. The re-
ports are available for downloading to
your  PC  without doing a query.   In
October all of these reports were  up-
dated to reflect the latest information in
the then current RBLC data base. If you
want quick access to ranking informa-
tion, look for these reports in the Down-
load section of the RBLC BBS.
Regulation Data Base Updated
   When it became available  in late
1994, the regulation data  base con-
tained summaries of New Source Per-
formance Standards (NSPS) and Na-
tional Emission Standards for Hazard-
ous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) rules then
in effect.  Subsequently, we expanded
the data  base to  include entries for
Maximum Achievable Control Technol-
ogy (MACT) standards.  As of Novem-
ber 1995, the data base contained 105
rules, with 21 ofthem updated to reflect
rules proposed or promulgated in 1995.
Starting in 1996, we plan to add summa-
ries of Control Technology Guidance
(CTG) documents.  If you need sum-
mary information about current federal
rules, the regulation data base is a good
place to start.
Help  Rearranged  for Process Type
   The RBLC uses numeric codes to
group processes by category, such as
combustion, surface coating,  mineral
processing, etc. In fact, searching for
the appropriate process type code can
be the quickest way to get the control
technology information you need. Per-
forming these searches with the menu-
drivensearchjust became a little easier.
You still choose a major category from
a two-page display of 2-digit process
type codes from 10 to 99.  Now, how-
ever, the system  displays  the list  of
available detail codes in alphabetical
order by the process name, rather than
in numeric order. You can quickly scan
the list for the process you want and find
the appropriate code for it. We hope this
improvement makes the RBLC easier
to use.                       gg

       (continued from page 5)
on the  file name in the Windows File
Manager or type the file name in DOS
and hit  enter.   (NOTE:  All software
componentsfor each version should be
located in the same directory prior to
    For the DOS  MODEL, go to the
directory that contains the expanded
files and type LANDFILL, to execute the
model.   (SPECIAL NOTE: Hercules
graphics card users should executethe
MSHERC.COM program prior to run-
ning the model.   This component is
required to view graphical output with
these cards).
    For the  WINDOWS MODEL, use
the FILE-RUN selections from the File
Manager  menu  to  execute  the
LANDWIN.EXE file to start the model.
(Additional  Note:  This program will
makea modificationtoyourWIN.INI file
to  save setup information  about the
   More details about the design and
use of both the DOS and Windows
versions of the landfill model are pro-
vided in the User's Manual, Landfill Air
Emissions Model.  This manual is also
available on  the CTC BBS and HOME
For questions/problems with the model
contact Susan Thorneloe at:
FAX:(919)541-2382 or (919) 541-7885
NC 27711
                                                CTC News page 7


        By Joe Steigerwald
          CTC, OAQPS

    The most popular new items in the
CTC BBS' Downloading area are the
NOx Alternative  Control Documents
(ACTs).  In the last fewweeks electronic
copies of 6 of the 9 NOx ACTs have
been  placed on the CTC  BBS.  The
ACTs that are currently available are:
cement; nitric and adipic acid manufac-
turing;  gas turbines;  iron and  steel;
glass manufacturing; and process heat-
ers. One of the remaining three ACTs,
internal combustion engines, should be
availableshortly along with the OAQPS
Control  Cost Manual which provides
comprehensive procedures and data
forsizing and costing control equipment
and is being updated with a
few  remaining minor
changes to incorporate
all the chapters.   The
final two NOx ACT,
                  Nitric Acid ACT
                  Gas Turbine ACT
                  Iron & Steel ACT
                  Glass Mfg. ACT
                  Process Heater ACT
                  Cost Escalation Indices
                  LowConc. VO Report
boilers and in-
dustrial boil-
ers,  may not
be  available
for a month or
two  but they
will  be on  the
CTC  BBS  as
soon  as pos-
sible.  In addi-
tion   to   the
ACTs, copies
of  the  1994
CTC   Annual
Report, a report on
escalation  indices
for air pollution con-
trol  costs,  a revised status list of the
newerCTG and ACT documents, and a
report entitled "Survey of Control Tech-
nologies for Low Concentration Organic
Vapor Gas  Streams"  have also been
placed on the CTC BBS for download-
ing. Seethe man with a complete list of
new files available.
    As a matter of background informa-
tion on the ACTs:  Congress, in  the
Clean Air Act  Amendments of 1990
(CAAA), amended Title I of the Clean
Air Act (CAA) .  A new Subpart 2 was
added to Part D  of Section 103. Section
183© of the new Subpart 2 provides
    [wjithin 3 years after the date of the
enactment of the [CAAA], the Adminis-
trator shall issue technical  documents
which identify alternative controls for all
categories of stationary sources
of...oxides of nitrogen which emit, or
have the potential to emit 25 tons per
year or more of such air pollutant.
    Each source category for which an
ACT has been  issued has been identi-
fied as a stationary source that emits
more than 25  tons of NOx per year.
Each ACT document provides technical
information for  use  by State and local
agencies to develop  and implement
regulatory programs to control NOx
emissions.  The information in an ACT
document is generated from previous
EPA documents,   literature searches
and contacts with industry; engineering
     firms; control equipment ven-
     dors; and federal, state, and local
      regulatory agencies.
       All of the ACT documents as
      well as the other new items on
      the CTC  BBS, are available in a
      variety of  formats.   The CTC
      BBS usually offers  reports in
      WordPerfect    5.x    and
      WordPerfect for Windows  6.1
      formats  as a matter of course.
      We also try to put documents up
      in  ASCII text format when  the
      conversion into ASCII will  not
      cause the loss of important in-
    formation or formatting. In addition,
we have recently been  putting  up
graphic intensive  reports in Envoy  for-
mat. The Envoy format is nice because
it allows any user using Microsoft Win-
dows to view and print the report.   In
addition, for very large reports, the  En-
voy format shrinks the size of the file
    So, sign into the OAQPS Technol-
ogy Transfer Network and log in to the
CTC area and download a  file today!
      (continued from page 3)
sources are scheduled  for regulation
undersection112, and/orsection 129of
the Clean Air Act. The ICCR would also
consider regulations under section 111
for the five  categories.   The  source
categories are as follows:  ICI boilers,
process   heaters,  solid   waste
incinerators,stationary gas turbines,
and stationary internal combustion en-
gines. The Clean Air Act  requires regu-
lations for most of the above categories
to be promulgated by November 2000.
   The ICCR offers considerable ben-
efits to all stakeholders, including envi-
ronmental groups, the regulated com-
munity, and state/local regulatory agen-
cies. For example:
   Opportunity for  stakeholders  to
shape regulatory development and in-
fluence the outcome.
   A wider range  of pollutants and
sources will be addressed in a coordi-
nated fashion.
   More cost-effective and less costly
   The potential for conflicting ordupli-
cative regulations will be avoided.
   Simpler  regulations, Compliance
   Stakeholder resource savings.
   Improved scientific basis for regula-
   The proposed process relies on in-
terested stakeholders to play a key role
in all  phases of regulatory development
through representation or membership
on a Coordinating  Committee  and
Source WorkGroups,formed underthe
auspices of the Federal Advisory Com-
mittee Act.
   The general communication  plan
for this project  is to  keep interested
persons appraised on the status of the
rulemaking and to transfer information
by using EPA's  TTN bbs. The ICCR
board on the TTN has been operational
since June 19, 1996 and will serve this
purpose.  For more information, please
referto the document, "Industrial Com-
bustion Coordinated Rulemaking - Pro-
posed  Organizational Structure and
Process".  It can be  obtained  through
the TTN.
                                                CTC News page  8

                                 CTC RESOURCES ORDER FORM

The CTC provides reports and software resulting from its efforts to government personnel free of charge. (Others may orderthem from the National
Technical InformationService usingthe "PB" numbers shown here.) Below is a list of CTC resources published in the past two years. The CTC is happy to
provide its resources to government personnel. However, because of the large response we anticipate to this list, we ask that you limit your request to the
resourcesfor which you have an immediate need and the quantity to one. To order CTC resources, COMPLETE FORM AND MAIL INFORMATION (on
94  ( )  "Analysis of Atmospheric Deposition Samples from Easton, PA," EPA-600/R-93-057, PB93-181600
95  ()  "Alternative Control Technology Document- Carbon Reactivation Processes," EPA-453/R-92-019, PB93-180826
100 ()  "Air Emissions and Control Technology for Leather Tanning and Finishing Operations," EPA-453/R-93-025, PB94-120219
106 ()  "Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Fluorescent Lamp Crushing," EPA-453/R-94-018, PB94-175932
114 ()  "Evaluation of Emissions from Paving Asphalts," EPA-600/R-94-135, PB95-129110
133 ()  "HAP-PRO Model  User's Manual, Version 2.0,"  EPA-456/B-94-002, PB95-503181  (software and user manual);
        PB95-172987  (manual only)
141 ()  "New Regulation Controlling Air Emissions from Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Tanks,"EPA-453/F-95-001
142 ( )  "New Regulation Controlling Air Emissions from  Solvent Cleaning Machines (Degreasers)," EPA-453/F-94-083
143 ()  "A Guidebook on How to Comply with the Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing NESHAP," EPA-453/B-95-001
144 ( )  "Guidance Document for the Halogenated Solvent Cleaner NESHAP," EPA-453/R-94-081, PB95-216412

66  ( )  "Characterization of Emissions from the Simulated Open-Burning of Non-Metallic Automobile Shredder Residue,"
        EPA-600/R-93-044,  PB93-172914
78  ( )  "Evaluation Costing of NOx Controls for Existing  Utility Boilers in the NESCAUM Region," EPA-453/R-92-010, PB93-142016
102 ()  "Emissions from Burning Cabinet Making Scraps," EPA-600/R-93-213, PB94-130408
105 ()  "Characterization of Air Emissions from Simulated Open Combustion of Fiberglass Materials,"EPA-600/R-93-239,
108 ()  "Pilot-Scale Evaluation of the Potential for Emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Combustion of Tire-Derived Fuel,"
        EPA-600/R-94-070, PB94-169463
138 ( )  "Used Oil Analysis and Waste Oil Furnace Emissions Study," EPA-456/R-95-001, PB95-240412

RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse
104 ( )  "RACT/BACT/LAER: A Compilation of Control Technology Determinations, Volume 1 -Third Supplement to the 1990
        Edition," EPA 453/R-93-037a, PB94-111234
        "RACT/BACT/LAER: A Compilation of Control Technology Determinations, Volume 2-Third Supplement to the 1990
        Edition," EPA 453/R-93-037b, PB94-111572
145 ( )  "RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse Information System (BLIS) User's Manual," EPA-456/B-95-003, PB96-183926
146 ()  "RACT/BACT/LAER: A Compilation of Control Technology Determinations," Fifth Supplement to the 1990 Edition,"
        EPA 456/R-95-005, PB96-178942
148 ()  RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse Flyer, October 1995
150 () "RACT/BACT/LAER: A Compilation of Control Technology Determinations, Sixth Supplement to the  1990 Edition",
VOC - Other Source Categories
75  ( )  "Alternate VOC Control Technique Options for Small Rotogravure and Flexography Facilities"
        EPA-600/R-92-201, PB93-122307
93  ()  "Alternative Control Technology Document for Bakery Oven Emissions," EPA-453/R-92-017,PB93-157618
96  ( )  "Automobile Plant  Spray Booth  Cleaning Emission Reduction Technology Review," EPA-453/R-94-029, PB94-206257
101 ( )  "Initial Assessment of Emissions from Heat Setting Carpet Yarn," EPA-600/R-93-161, PB93-229862
110 ( )  Lithographic Printing ACT
111 ( )  DRAFT Model Rule for Wood Furniture
134 ()  "Survey of Control Technologies for Low Concentration Organic Vapor Gas Streams," EPA-456/R-95-003, PB95-241626
139 ( )  "Beyond VOC  RACT CTG Requirements," EPA-453/R-95-010, PB95-239497

        Complete List of CTC Documents
        "Managing Chemicals Safely, Putting It All Together," EPA-510/K-92-001
        "The Clean Air Act of 1990:  A Guide for Small Businesses," EPA 450/K-92-001
        "OAQPS Cost Control Manual—Supplement 2,  Gas Absorbers" EPA/450/3-90-006b, PB93-138147
        "A Guidebook for Explaining  Environmental Regulations to Small Businesses,"  EPA-453/B-93-023,  PB94-120334
        "Evaluation of the Polyad® With FB Air Purification & Solvent Recovery Process for Styrene Removal," EPA-600/R-93-212,
107 ()  "OAQPS Cost Manual - Supplements, Hoods, Duct Work, Stacks," EPA-450/3-90-006c, PB94-177565

                                                                                              (continued page 10)

                                                    CTC News page 9

112 ()  "Oil Suppression of Particulate Matter at Grain Elevators," EPA-453/R-94-049,
118 () "Evaluation of a Liquid Chemical Scrubber System forStyrene Removal," EPA-600/R-94-211, PB95-167359
137 () SAGE 2.1, "Solvent Alternatives Guide, User's Guide," EPA-600/R-95-049a
140 ()  "Control and Pollution Prevention Option for Ammonia Emissions," EPA-456/R-95-002, PB95-241790
147 ()  "Escalation  Indexes for Air Pollution Control Costs," EPA-452/R-95-006

Global Greenhouse Gases Technology Transfer Center
80  ()  "Development of an Empirical Model of Methane Emissions From Landfills," EPA-600/R-92-037, PB92-152875
82  () "Landfill Gas Energy Utilization: Technology Options and Case Studies," EPA-600/R-92-116, PB92-203116
84  ()  "List of Papers and Reports for EPA's Research  Program on Air Emissions from Landfills and Other Waste Management
       Processes," updated 11/94
86  ()  "Landfill Gas Recovery/Utilization - Options and Economics," EPA-600/A-92-170, PB92-217066
88  ()  "Emissions  and Mitigation at Landfills and Other Waste Management Facilities," EPA-600/R-92-116 (also
      EPA-600/R-94-008), PB94-132180
120 ( )  "The Coprocessing of Fossil Fuels and Biomass for CO2 Emission Reduction in the Transportation Sector," 1993,
      EPA-600/A-93-109, PB93-194165
121 ()  "Methane Emissions from Industrial Sources," 1993, EPA-600/A-94-089, PB94-174760
123 ()  "Landfill Gas Utilization -Technical and Non-Technical Considerations," March 1994, EPA-600/A-94-139, PB94-189651
124 ()  "Estimate of Methane Emissions from Coal Mines," 1993, EPA-600/J-93-249, PB93-212553
125 ()  "Landfill Gas and Its Influence on Global Climate Change," October 1993, EPA-600/A-93-240, PB94-113784
126 ()  "Methane Emissions from Landfills and Open Dumps," EPA-230/R-93-010
127 ()  "Methane Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Disposal," EPA-230/R-93-010
128 () "Biomass Gasification  Pilot Plant Study; Final Report," EPA-600/R-93-170, PB94-114766
129 () "Demonstration of Fuel Cells to Recover Energy from Landfill Gas Phase I Final Report: Conceptual Study,"
      EPA-600/R-92-007, PB92-137520
130 ()  "Proceedings: The 1992 Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Research Symposium," EPA-600/R-94-008,
131 () "Estimate of Methane Emissions from U.S. Landfills," EPA-600/R-94-166, PB94-213519
132 () "Estimate of Methane Emissions from U.S. Natural Gas Operations," March 1994
135 () "Landfill Gas Utilization-Database of North American Projects," EPA-600/A-94-064, PB94-162773
136 ()  "Technological Considerations for Planning the Global Carbon Future," EPA-600/A-93-182, PB93-222008


                                                                                              Put First Class
                                                                                                Mail Stamp
                                     U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                     RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NC 27711
                                                  CTC News page 10


          Lyndon S. Cox
   Senior Environmental Employee

    There are two types of condensers:
the surface type and the contact type.
The Control  Cost Manual (CCM) and
HAP-PRO (type 1) calculate only the
surface type. HAP-PRO defines a type
                 TABLE 1:  Input Data Key
   Data                      Symbol
   Inlet Stream Flow Rate        Qin
   Inlet Stream Temperature     Tn
   VOC Inlet Volume Fraction    yvocin
   VOC Removal Efficiency      c
   Antoine Equation Constants   A, B, C
   Heat of Condensation (VOC)   AHvoc
   Heat Capacity of VOC        Cpvoc
   Specific Heat of Coolant      C 'coo|
   Heat Capacity of Air          Cpair
   Molar flow rate             M
2 unit as one in which the area of the
heat exchanger is defined, not calcu-
    In a  contact condenser  (not ad-
dressed in either CCM or HAP-PRO) a
refrigeration unit chills volatile organic
compounds (VOCs),  similar to those
being removed.  Chilled VOCs are
sprayed into  the emission stream to
condense the vapors. Again, the CCM
and HAP-PRO do not address this type
of condenser.
    The CCM and  HAP-PRO do ad-
dress the surface type of condenser,
also known as the shell-and-tube type.
This type of condenser has the emis-
sion stream directed into a shell. Within
the shell, there are tubes which are
maintained at a low enough tempera-
ture to reduce the vapor pressure of the
VOCs.  Condensation of VOC vapor
reduces the concentration. The emis-
sion stream is then exhausted. Part of
the design  data is the level of VOC
which is acceptable in the exhaust.
  The refrigeration system must be ca-
pableof handling the heat load given up
by the VOCs as heat of condensation.
And, if there is too much moisture in the
air, the ice on the tubes can impairheat
transfer, and the condenser will have a
lower control efficiencythan calculated.
Therefore, in emission streams that are
known to have a high moisture content,
a precooler is necessary. The precooler
operates at about 35°F  to condense
most of the water.
    The input data for the design of this
refrigeration unit is in Table 1.  HAP-
PRO erroneously calls for the specific
heat of the coolant to  be in Btu/hr-ff-°F;
it should be in Btu/lb-°F.    However,
                    as long as the
                    correct numeri-
                    cal  value  is
                    given,  it will
                    compute prop-
                     The air is con-
                    sidered to be
                    which is true at
                    these tempera-
                    tures.   Since
                    the partial pres-
                    sure   of  the
VOC can be raised by either compres-
sion or  cooling, it is a  given  in the
calculations that the  condenser oper-
ates at atmospheric pressure.  We must
calculatethe temperature at which con-
densation occurs.
    First we use the  equation:
              Y	 (1-n)
scfm (77°F, 1 atm)
dimensionless ratio
percent as decimal
   - 76°
HAP-PRO uses the less obvious, but
equivalent, calculation:
          (1-O.rRE)   *HAPe*1 a6
    RE = Removal Efficiency
    HAPe = HAP concentration in the
emission stream, ppm
    This assumes that at the outlet the
gas stream is  at equilibrium with the
VOC condensate.
    In the CCM, this leads to the equa-
tion :Tcon = (B -C)
    Now we know the temperatures we
must obtain. The heat load is then equal
                                    to-  H,   =AH  + AH   +AH
                                         load   con    uncon   noncon
                                    AHcon =enthalpy change of condensed VOC
                                     AH" = M    [AH +C   (T -T  )1
                                       con    voc,conL   voc   p,voc^  in con'J
                                    M     =M   -M
                                      voc,con   voc,in   voc out
                                    A H uncon=erthaty charge of incondensed VOC

                                       uncon    voc,out  p,voc* in  con'

                                    AHnoncon=  [(60Q|n/392)-Mvoc in]Cp ,air(Tin-Tcon)

                                    HAP-PRO computes the  number of
                                    moles  in the inlet stream:
                                         HAP  =
    Then the  number of moles in the
outlet stream:  HAPom = HAPem*[i-(RE)]
    Then the number of moles con-
densed iS:    HAPcon= HAPem"HAPom
    Then HAP-PRO computesthe heat
load just as the CCM does it, but errone-
ously uses the C air instead of the C voc
in computation of the enthalpy change
in the uncondensed VOC. This minor
error was not previously discovered
because it is negligible.
    Next, the CCM addresses the heat
exchanger or  condenser.  The Chemi-
cal Engineers Handbook gives values
of 20 to 60 Btu/hr-ft2-°F for examples of
brine cooled tubes condensing VOC.
The  CCM uses a  conservative heat
transferestimateofU = 20Btu/hr-ft2-°F.
HAP-PRO  uses  this as the  default
value, but allows  other values to be
    The coolant is brine, which must be
chilled to about 15 °F belowthe conden-
sation temperature.  The temperature
of the brine will rise to 25 °F above the
condensationtemperaturein a properly
sized counterflow heat  exchanger.
These values must be used  in the fol-
lowing equations.
    The condenser then  becomes de-
fined by:
    Acon=H,oad/U AT|m
The coolant flow rate is given by:
     cool" load  p,cool^  cool,out" cool,in'
And the refrigeration capacity is defined
    R =  H|oad/12,000  tons

    The flaws that have been detected
will be corrected.
                                                 CTC News page 11

                                              CTC ASSISTANCE                                                           ]
  No cost assistance to staff of State and Local agencies, EPA Regional Offices, and others on air pollution control technology issues.

  CTC HOTLINE: CALL (919) 541 -0800 to access E PA expert staff for consultations, references to pertinent literature, or access to E PA technical data and
  analyses. No question is too simple!

  CTC FAX: You can send a request for any CTC service listed here by FAX. Our Fax numbers are: (919) 541-0242 or (919) 541-0361.

  CTC BBS: Call (919) 541 -5742 for up to 14400 baud modem to access the CTC Bulletin Board. Set communications parameters to 8 data bits, N parity, and
  1 stop bit, and use a terminal emulation of VT100 orVT/ANS I. You may leave HOTLIN E requests, order documents, suggest projects, and download documents
  and  software.  The BBS is part of the OAQPS Technology Transfer Network (TTN). In addition, the  TTN may be accessed via the Internet at
  'ttnwww.rtpnc.epa.gov'orthrough the EPA Home Page on the World Wide Web. The TTN also has an FTP site fordownloading files at 'ttnftp.rtpnc.epa.gov'.

  connectioninformation),orthe CTC HOTLINE or FAX. The FSBAP provides supportto State Small Business Assistance Programs.

  US-MEXICO INFORMATION CENTERON AIR POLLUTION (C\C&-Centrodelnformacionsobre Contamination deAir$: Call the CICA Information

  US Border.

  INTERNET/WORLD-WIDE WEB ACCESS: Send E-Mail to'blaszczak.bob@epamail.epa.gov'. In addition, you may access our services thro ugh the following
      For FSBAP-'http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/sbap.html
      For CICA-'http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/cica/CICA/

  RACT/BACT/LAER CLEARINGHOUSE (RBLC): The RBLC data base is available on the OAQPS TTN BBS (see CTC BBS forconnection information). The

  emission standards and control techniques guidelines.

  ENGINEERING ASSISTANCE PROJECTS: If you need in-depth assistance concerning a specific control technology or pollution prevention problem, contact
  the CTC. EPA staff and contractors are available for short-term projects such as review of proposed or existing control or prevention measures. Projects are
  subjectto CTC Steering Committee approval.

  TECHNICAL GUIDANCE PROJECTS: The CTC may also respond to a number of similar requests on issues of national or regional interest by undertak-
  ing broad, long-term projects. The result may be a control technology document, PC software, seminar, or workshop.

  ITTCGGG informationon greenhouse gas emissions, prevention, mitigation, and control strategies.

I MAIL: Address conventional mail inquiries to: CTC (MD-12), U.S. EPA, RTP, NC 27711.                                                      ;
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
ResearchTrianglePark, NC 27711
Official Business
Penalty For Private Use,

An Equal Opportunity Employer
                                                                                                        Postageand Fees Paid
                                                                                                        Permit No. G-35
                                                          CTC News page 12