INDUSTRIAL   STORMWATER
FACT SHEET SERIES
                                        Sector C; Chemical and Allied Products
                                                  Manufacturing and Refining
           U.S. EPA Office of Water
           EPA-833-F-06-018
           December 2006
 What is the NPDES stormwater permitting program for industrial
 activity?
 Activities, such as material handling and storage, equipment maintenance and cleaning, industrial
 processing or other operations that occur at industrial facilities are often exposed to stormwater. The
 runoff from these areas may discharge pollutants directly into nearby waterbodies or indirectly via
 storm sewer systems, thereby degrading water quality.

 In 1990, the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed permitting regulations under the
 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) to control stormwater discharges associated
 with eleven categories of industrial activity. As a result, NPDES permitting authorities, which may be
 either EPA or a state environmental agency, issue stormwater permits to control runoff from these
 industrial facilities.

 What types of industrial facilities are required to obtain permit
 coverage?
 This fact sheet specifically discusses stormwater discharges from chemical and allied products
 manufacturing facilities as described by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Major Group 28.
 Facilities and products in this group fall under the following categories, all of which require coverage
 under an industrial stormwater permit:
    4- Industrial  inorganic chemicals (SIC 2812-2819)
    4- Plastics, synthetics, and resins (SIC 2821-2824)
    4 Medicinal chemicals and botanical products; pharmaceutical preparations in virto and in vivo
      diagnostic substances; biological products, except diagnostic substances (SIC 2833-2836)
    4 Soaps, detergents, cosmetics, and perfumes (SIC 2841-2844)
    4 Paints, varnishes, lacquers, enamels, and allied products (SIC 2851)
    4- Industrial  organic chemicals (SIC 2861-2869)
    4 Agricultural chemicals (SIC 2873-2879)
    4 Miscellaneous chemical products (SIC 2891-2899)
    4 Inks and paints, including china painting enamels, India ink, drawing ink, platinum paints for
      burnt wood or leather work, paints for china painting, artist's paints, and artist's watercolors
      (SIC 3952)
    4 Petroleum refining (SIC 2911)

 What does an industrial stormwater permit require?
 Common requirements for coverage under an industrial stormwater permit include development of a
 written stormwater pollution prevention plan (SWPPP), implementation of control measures, and sub-
 mittal of a request for permit coverage, usually referred to as the Notice of Intent or NOI. The SWPPP

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INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER FACT SHEET SERIES
Sector C; Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and Refining
  is a written assessment of potential sources of pollutants in stormwater runoff and control measures
  that will be implemented at your facility to minimize the discharge of these pollutants in runoff from
  the site. These control measures include site-specific best management practices (BMPs), maintenance
  plans, inspections, employee training, and reporting. The procedures detailed in the SWPPP must be
  implemented by the facility and updated as necessary, with a copy of the SWPPP kept on-site. The in-
  dustrial stormwater permit also requires collection of visual, analytical, and/or compliance monitoring
  data to determine the effectiveness of implemented BMPs. For more information on EPA's industrial
  stormwater permit and  links to State stormwater permits, go to www.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater
  and click on "Industrial  Activity."


  What pollutants are associated with my facilities activities?
  Pollutants conveyed in stormwater discharges from facilities involved with the manufacturing of
  chemical and allied products will vary. There are a number of factors that influence to what extent
  industrial activities and  significant materials can affect water quality.
     4 Geographic location
     4 Topography
     4 Hydrogeology
     4 Extent of impervious surfaces (e.g., concrete or asphalt)
     4 Type of ground cover (e.g., vegetation, crushed stone, or dirt)
     4 Outdoor activities (e.g., material storage, loading/unloading, vehicle maintenance)
     4 Size of the operation
     4 Type, duration, and intensity of precipitation events

  The activities, pollutant sources, and pollutants detailed in Table 1 are commonly found at chemical
  and allied products manufacturing facilities.

  Table 1.  Common Activities, Pollutants Sources, and Associated Pollutants at Chemical and Allied
  Products Manufacturing and Refining Facilities
Activity
Material Handling
and Storage
Vehicle Fueling and
Maintenance
Pollutant Source
Equipment storage
Storage of materials in tanks, either below or above ground
Storage of cylinders used to contain industrial gases
Storage of empty or full drums
Material handling and warehousing
Loading/unl
Bagging of materials/products
Blending and mixing of chemicals

Crushing, milling, shredding, granulation, and grinding of materials
Distribution of products
Vehicle fueling
Vehicle maintenance
Pollutant
Pollutant dependant
upon those at particular
facility
TSS, IDS, oil and grease,
gasoline, diesel, acid,
coolant
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INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER FACT SHEET SERIES
Sector C; Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and Refining
  Table 1. Common Activities, Pollutants Sources, and Associated Pollutants at Chemical and Allied
  Products Manufacturing and Refining Facilities (continued)
Activity
Waste Treatment,
Disposal, and
Cleanup
Manufacturing
Process Components
Miscellaneous
Activities
Pollutant Source

Waste dumpster or compactor
Hazardous waste temporary storage or operation of RCRA treatment,
storage, or disposal facility
Landfills or temporary
Wastewater treatment
Thermal oxidation

Steam boile
Hot oil system for cooling/heat exchange
Use of machinery to process materials
Plant yard and areas of past industrial activity
Access roads and rail
Pollutant
Pollutant dependant
upon those at particular
facility
Pollutant dependant
upon those at particular
facility
TSS
  What BMPs can be used to minimize contact between stormwater
  and potential pollutants at my facility?
  A variety of BMP options may be applicable to eliminate or minimize the presence of pollutants
  in stormwater discharges from chemical and allied product manufacturing facilities. You will likely
  need to implement a combination or suite of BMPs to address stormwater runoff at your facility.
  Your first consideration should be for pollution prevention BMPs, which are designed to prevent
  or minimize pollutants from entering stormwater runoff and/or reduce the volume of stormwater
  requiring management. Prevention BMPs can include regular cleanup, collection and  containment of
  debris in storage areas, and other housekeeping practices, spill control, and employee training. It may
  also be necessary to implement treatment BMPs, which are engineered structures intended to treat
  stormwater runoff and/or mitigate the effects of increased stormwater runoff peak rate, volume, and
  velocity. Treatment BMPs are generally more expensive to  install and maintain and include oil-water
  separators, wet ponds, and  proprietary filter devices.

  BMPs must be selected and  implemented to address the following:

  Good Housekeeping Practices
  Good housekeeping is a practical, cost-effective way to maintain a clean and orderly facility to
  prevent potential pollution  sources from coming  into contact with stormwater. It includes establishing
  protocols to reduce the possibility of mishandling materials or equipment and training employees
  in good housekeeping techniques. Common areas where good housekeeping practices should be
  followed include trash containers and adjacent areas, material storage areas, vehicle and equipment
  maintenance  areas, and loading docks. Good housekeeping practices must include a schedule for
  regular pickup and disposal of garbage and waste materials and routine inspections of drums, tanks,
  and containers for leaks and structural conditions. Practices also include containing and covering
  garbage, waste materials, and debris.  Involving employees in routine monitoring of housekeeping
  practices has proven to be an effective means of ensuring the continued implementation of these
  measures.

  Minimizing Exposure
  Where feasible, minimizing  exposure of potential pollutant sources to precipitation is an important
  control option. Minimizing exposure prevents pollutants, including debris, from coming into contact
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INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER  FACT SHEET SERIES
Sector C; Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and Refining
  with precipitation and can reduce the need for BMPs to treat contaminated stormwater runoff. It can
  also prevent debris from being picked up by stormwater and carried into drains and surface waters.
  Examples of BMPs for exposure minimization include covering materials or activities with temporary
  structures (e.g., tarps) when wet weather is expected or moving materials or activities to existing
  or new permanent structures (e.g., buildings, silos, sheds). Even the simple practice of keeping a
  dumpster lid closed can be a very effective pollution prevention measure.

  Erosion and Sediment Control
  BMPs must be selected and implemented to limit erosion on areas of your site that, due to
  topography, activities, soils,  cover, materials, or other factors are likely to experience erosion. Erosion
  control BMPs such as seeding, mulching, and sodding prevent soil from becoming dislodged and
  should  be considered first. Sediment control BMPs such as silt fences, sediment ponds, and stabilized
  entrances trap sediment after it has eroded. Sediment  control  BMPs should be used to back-up
  erosion control BMPs.

  Management of Runoff
  Your SWPPP must contain a  narrative evaluation of the appropriateness of stormwater management
  practices that divert, infiltrate, reuse, or otherwise manage stormwater runoff so as to reduce the
  discharge of pollutants. Appropriate measures are highly site-specific, but may include, among others,
  vegetative swales, collection and reuse of stormwater,  inlet controls, snow management, infiltration
  devices, and wet retention measures.

  A combination of preventive and treatment BMPs will  yield the most effective stormwater
  management for minimizing the offsite discharge of pollutants via stormwater runoff. Though not
  specifically outlined in this fact sheet,  BMPs must also address preventive maintenance records or
  logbooks, regular facility inspections, spill prevention and response, and employee training.

  All BMPs require regular maintenance to function as intended. Some management measures have
  simple maintenance requirements, others are quite involved. You must regularly inspect all BMPs to
  ensure they are operating properly, including during runoff events. As soon as a problem is found,
  action to resolve it should be initiated immediately.

  Implement BMPs, such as those listed below in Table 2  for the control of pollutants at chemical and
  allied products manufacturing facilities, to minimize and prevent the discharge of pollutants in
  stormwater.  Identifying weaknesses in current facility practices will aid the permittee in determining
  appropriate  BMPs that will achieve a reduction in pollutant  loadings. BMPs listed in Table 2 are
  broadly applicable to chemical and allied product manufacturing facilities; however, this is not
  a complete list and you are recommended to consult with regulatory agencies or a stormwater
  engineer/consultant to identify appropriate BMPs for your facility.

  Table 2. BMPS for Potential Pollutant Sources at Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and
  Refining Facilities
   Pollutant Source
BMPs
   Material handling    Q Cover handling and storage areas with roofs, covers, or other appropriate forms of protection.
   and storage
                    Q Confine storage to designated and labeled areas outside of drainage pathways and away from
                       surface waters.

                    FJ Divert stormwater around storage areas with vegetated swales, and/or berms.

                    FJ Store materials on concrete pads to allow for cleanup of spills or leaks.

                    FJ Provide secondary containment for storage tanks and drum storage.

                    FJ If containment structures have drains, ensure that the drains have valves, and that valves
                       are maintained in the closed position. Institute protocols for checking/testing stormwater in
                       containment areas prior to discharge.
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INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER  FACT SHEET SERIES
Sector C; Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and Refining
  Table 2.  BMPS for Potential Pollutant Sources at Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and
  Refining Facilities (continued)
   Pollutant Source
BMPs
   Material handling
   and storage
   (continued)
FJ  Use double-walled tanks.
FJ  Locate storage areas away from high traffic areas and surface waters.
FJ  Inspect storage tanks and piping systems (pipes, pumps, flanges, couplings, hoses, and valves)
   for failures or leaks and perform preventive maintenance.
Q  Maintain an  inventory of fluids to identify leakage.
Q  Provide fluid level indicators.
Q  Properly dispose of chemicals that are no longer in use.
Q  Store and handle reactive, ignitable, or flammable liquids in compliance with applicable local
   fire codes, local zoning codes, and the National Electric Code.
Q  Provide drip  pads/pans where chemicals are transferred from one container to another to
   allow for recycling of spills and leaks.
FJ  Develop and implement spill plans or spill prevention, containment, and countermeasure
   (SPCC) plans, if required for your facility.
Portable containers/drums
FJ  Develop and implement spill plans or spill prevention, containment, and countermeasure
   (SPCC) plans, if required for your facility.
Q  Store drums  indoors  when possible.
Q  Store drums, including empty or used drums, in secondary containment with a roof or cover
   (including temporary cover such as a tarp that prevents contact with precipitation).
Q  Provide secondary containment, such as dikes or portable containers, with a height sufficient
   to contain a  spill (the greater of 10 percent of the total enclosed tank volume or 110 percent
   of the volume contained in the largest tank).
FJ  Clearly label  drum with its contents.
FJ  Train employees in spill prevention and control and proper materials management.
FJ  Empty containment units with manually operated pumps or ejectors.
                           If facility drainage is not engineered as listed above, equip the final discharge point of all
                           facility sewers to prevent discharge in the event of an uncontrolled spill.
   Loading/unloading
   areas
FJ  Confine loading/unloading activities to designated areas outside drainage pathways and away
   from surface waters.
FJ  Inspect containers for leaks or damage prior to loading/unloading.
FJ  Avoid loading/unloading materials in the rain or provide cover or other protection for loading
   docks.
Q  Provide diversion berms, dikes or grassed swales around the perimeter of the area to
   limit run-on.
Q  Cover loading and unloading areas and perform these activities on an impervious pad to
   enable easy collection of spilled  materials.
FJ  Slope the impervious concrete floor or pad to collect spills and leaks and convey them to
   proper containment and treatment.
FJ  Provide overhangs or door skirts to enclose trailer ends at truck loading/unloading docks.
FJ  For rail transfer, a drip pan shall  be installed within the  rails to collect spillage from the tank.
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INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER  FACT SHEET SERIES
Sector C; Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and Refining
  Table 2. BMPS for Potential Pollutant Sources at Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and
  Refining Facilities (continued)
   Pollutant Source
BMPs
   Loading/unloading
   areas (continued)
FJ  Where liquid or powdered materials are transferred in bulk from truck or rail cars:
   - Hose connection points at storage containers to be inside containment areas.
   - Drip pans used in areas which are not in containment area where spillage may occur.
Q  Enclose material handling systems.
Q  Cover materials entering and leaving areas.
Q  Regularly sweep area to minimize debris on the ground.
Q  Provide dust control if necessary. When controlling dust, sweep and/or apply water or
   materials that will  not impact surface or ground water.
Q  Develop and implement spill prevention, containment, and countermeasure (SPCC) plans.
Q  Train employees in spill prevention, control, cleanup and proper materials management
   techniques.
   Manufacturing
   Process Components
Q  Use curbing, dikes and gutters to contain and collect spills.
Q  Keep spill cleanup materials readily available.
Q  Clean up spills and leaks immediately.
Q  Use dry cleanup methods where appropriate. Sweep up absorbents as soon as spilled
   substances have been absorbed.
FJ  Develop and implement spill prevention, containment, and countermeasure (SPCC) plans.
FJ  Train employees in spill prevention, control, and cleanup.
   Vehicle maintenance
Good Housekeeping
FJ  Eliminate floor drains that are connected to the storm or sanitary sewer; if necessary, install a
   sump that is pumped regularly. Collected wastes should be properly treated or disposed of by
   a licensed waste hauler.
Q  Use drip pans, drain boards, and drying racks to direct drips back into a fluid holding tank for
   reuse.
Q  Drain all parts of fluids prior to disposal. Oil filters can be crushed and recycled.
FJ  Promptly transfer used fluids to the proper container; do not leave full drip pans or other open
   containers around the shop.  Empty and clean drip pans and containers.
FJ  Dispose of greasy rags, oil filters, air filters, batteries, spent coolant, and degreasers in
   compliance with RCRA regulations.
FJ  Store batteries and other significant materials inside.
FJ  Label and track the recycling of waste material (e.g., used oil, spent solvents, batteries).
FJ  Maintain an organized inventory of materials.
FJ  Eliminate or reduce the number and amount of hazardous materials and waste by substituting
   nonhazardous or less hazardous materials.
Q  Clean up leaks, drips, and other spills without using large amounts of water. Use absorbents
   for dry cleanup whenever possible.
Q  Prohibit the practice of hosing down an area where the practice would result in the discharge
   of pollutants to a stormwater system.
FJ  Clean without using liquid cleaners whenever possible.
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INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER  FACT SHEET SERIES
Sector C; Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and Refining
  Table 2. BMPS for Potential Pollutant Sources at Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and
  Refining Facilities (continued)
   Pollutant Source
BMPs
   Vehicle maintenance
   (continued)
Good Housekeeping (continued)
Q  Do all cleaning at a centralized station so the solvents stay in one area.
Q  If parts are dipped in liquid, remove them slowly to avoid spills.
Q  Do not pour liquid waste into floor drains, sinks, outdoor storm drain inlets, or other storm
   drains or sewer connections.
Minimizing Exposure
FJ  Perform all cleaning operations indoors or under covering when possible. Conduct the
   cleaning operations in an area with a concrete floor with no floor drainage other than to
   sanitary sewers or treatment facilities.
FJ  If operations are uncovered, perform them on concrete pad that is impervious and contained.
Q  Park vehicles and equipment indoors or under a roof whenever possible and maintain proper
   control of oil leaks/spills.
Q  Check vehicles closely for leaks and  use pans to collect fluid when leaks occur.
Management of Runoff
Q  Use berms, curbs, grassed swales, or other diversion measures to ensure that stormwater
   runoff from other parts of the facility does not flow over the maintenance area.
Q  Collect the stormwater runoff from the cleaning area and provide treatment or recycling.
   Discharge vehicle wash or rinse water to the sanitary sewer (if allowed by sewer authority),
   wastewater treatment, a land application site, or recycle on-site. DO NOT discharge
   washwater to a storm drain or to surface water.
Inspections and Training
Q  Inspect the maintenance area regularly to ensure BMPs are implemented and maintained.
Q  Train employees on waste control disposal procedures.
   Vehicle and
   equipment fueling
FJ  Conduct fueling operations (including the transfer of fuel from tank trucks) on an impervious
   or contained pad and under a roof or canopy where possible. Covering should extend beyond
   spill containment pad to prevent rain from entering.
Q  When fueling in an uncovered area, conduct fueling operations on a concrete pad (asphalt is
   not chemically resistant to the fuels being handled).
Q  Use drip pans where leaks or spills of fuel can occur and where making and breaking hose
   connections.
FJ  Use fueling hoses with check valves to prevent hose drainage after filling.
FJ  Keep spill cleanup materials readily available.
FJ  Clean up spills and leaks immediately.
FJ  Use dry cleanup methods for fuel area rather than hosing down the fuel area. Sweep up
   absorbents as soon as spilled substances have been absorbed.
FJ  Do not "top off" fuel tanks.
FJ  Minimize/eliminate run-on into fueling areas with diversion dikes,  berms, curbing, surface
   grading or other equivalent measures.
Q  Collect stormwater runoff and provide treatment or recycling.
Q  Provide curbing or posts around fuel pumps to prevent collisions from vehicles.
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INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER FACT SHEET SERIES
Sector C; Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and Refining
  Table 2. BMPS for Potential Pollutant Sources at Chemical and Allied Products Manufacturing and
  Refining Facilities (continued)
Pollutant Source
Vehicle and
equipment fueling
(continued)
BMPs
FJ Regularly inspect and perform preventive maintenance on
potential leaks before they occur.
Q Inspect the fueling area for leaks and spills.
Q Train personnel on vehicle fueling BM
fuel storage tanks to detect
  What if activities and materials at my facility are not exposed to
  precipitation?
  The industrial stormwater program requires permit coverage for a number of specified types of
  industrial activities. However, when a facility is able to prevent the exposure of ALL relevant activities
  and materials to precipitation, it may be eligible to claim no exposure and qualify for a waiver from
  permit coverage.

  If you are regulated under the industrial permitting program, you must either obtain permit coverage
  or submit a no exposure certification form, if available. Check with your permitting authority for
  additional information as not every permitting authority program provides no exposure exemptions.

  Where do I get more information?
  For additional information on the industrial stormwater program see
  www.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/msgp.

  A list of names and telephone numbers for each EPA Region or state NPDES permitting authority can
  be found at www.epa.gov/npdes/stormwatercontacts.

  References
  Information contained in this Fact Sheet was compiled from EPA's past and current Multi-Sector
  General Permits and from the following sources:

     4 City of Phoenix, Street Transportation Department, Storm Water Management Section. 2004.
       Prevent Stormwater Contamination Best Management Practices Section C - Chemical and Allied
       Products Manufacturing. SIC Codes 2812-99, 3952.
       http://phoenix.gov/STREETS/chemprod.pdf

     4 U.S. EPA. Office of Science and Technology. 1999. Preliminary Data Summary of Urban
       Stormwater Best Management Practices. EPA-821-R-99-012
       www.epa.gov/OST/stormwater/

     4 U.S. EPA, Office of Wastewater Management. NPDES Stormwater Multi-Sector General Permit
       for Industrial Activities (MSGP).
       www.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/msgp
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