grades 6-8
                                                  a program that radiates good ideas
                                                 XI Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                                 *^      www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                                               6-8 EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS


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Conduct Short Research Projects to Answer a Question (W.6.7; W.7.7; W.8.7)
Engage in a Range of Collaborative Discussions (SL.6.1; SL.7.1; SL.8.1)
Analyze the Main Ideas and Supporting Details Presented in Diverse Media and Formats
(SL.6.2; SL.7.2; SL.8.2)
Present Claims and Findings (SL.6.4; SL.7.4; SL.8.4)
Write Informative/Explanatory Texts (W.6.2; W.7.2; W.8.2)
Write Narratives to Develop Events (W.6.3; W.7.3; W.8.3)
Determine the Meaning of Words and Phrases As They Are Used in an Informational Text
(RI.6.4; RI.7.4; RI.8.4)
Determine Two or More Central Ideas in an Informational Text (RI.6.2; RI.7.2; RI.8.2)
Evaluate the Soundness of Reasoning and Relevance and Sufficiency of Evidence
(RI.6.8; RI.7.8; RI.8.8)
Health Concepts
Influence Factors on Health Behaviors
Health Information and Products
Interpersonal Communication
Decision-making Skills
Goal-setting Skills
Health Enhancing - Behaviors and Risks
Personal, Family, and Community Health


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                                              6-8 EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS


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Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Numbers and Operations
Measurement and Data
Geometry
Demonstrates Competency in a Variety of Motor Skills and Movement Patterns
Demonstrates the Knowledge and Skills to Achieve and Maintain Fitness
Exhibits Responsible Personal and Social Behavior That Respects Self and Others
Humans Are Dependent of Their Environmental Interactions (MS-ESS3-1)
Patterns of Motion of the Sun Can Be Observed, Described, Predicted, and Explained
(MS-ESS1-1)
When Light Shines on an Object, It Is Reflected, Absorbed, or Transmitted Through the
Object(MS-PS4-2)
Substances React Chemically in Characteristic Ways (MS-PS1-2)
Human Activities Alter the Biosphere (MS-ESS3-3)
Engineering, Technology, and Application of Science (MS-ETS1)
Culture
People, Places, and Environment
Individual Development and Identity
Global Connections


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               A Sunny Performance
               Directions
               Use creativity, imagination, and artistic
               abilities to write a song, commercial, public
               service announcement (PSA), skit, or one-act
               play about being sun safe.

               Decide which medium you want to use.
               Brainstorm ideas for your project and
               determine the kind of message you want to
               relay. Ideas may include the following: the
               health effects of overexposure to the sun; sun
               protection methods — like avoiding burning,
               avoiding tanning, using sunscreen with SPF
               30+, wearing protective clothing, and seeking
               shade; the UV Index; places where you need
               to be extra careful; the ozone layer; and the
               seasons. Visit the SunWise website,
               www.epa.gov/sunwise, and discover what
               you can do to protect yourself from the sun's
               harmful UV rays. After you complete your
               project, present or perform your finished
               product for your class. You may even be able to
               make a recording or a video!
Vocabulary Word
Public Service Announcement (PSA)—A brief
announcement distributed by television, radio,
or print media that relays an educational and/or
social message to the general public.

SPF — Sun Protection Factor; a number
indicating how protective a sunscreen is against
UVB rays. An SPF 30+ sunscreen blocks about
97 percent of UVB rays or more.
ip Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                A  Sunny Performance
                Estimated Time
                50-60 minutes

                Supplies
                Information on sun safety (from the Internet,
                 fact sheets in the SunWisdom section, etc.)
                Video camera, computer, pencil and paper, or any other
                 recording device (optional)

                Learning Objective
                The aim of this activity is for students to: 1) learn
                various ways to protect themselves from overexposure
                to the sun's harmful UV rays; and 2) understand
                how the use of specific words and phrases influences
                meaning and helps convey ideas, including the
                use of figurative language, technical meaning,
                and connotation.  By researching ideas for their
                performance, the students will become familiar with
                sun safety messages. Assess group performances to
                determine if students have learned about the steps to
                be sun safe. Have students in the audience evaluate the
                effectiveness of performances by identifying the main
                message of the group and pointing out what language
                the group used that helped convey their message. Use
                the following questions to guide a discussion:

                What was this group's message?

                Were they convincing?

                What will you do differently now to  be sun safe?
Directions
Assign groups to collaborate on the production of a
song, commercial, public service announcement (PSA),
skit, or one-act play with a sun safety message. Before
the students begin, have a brief class discussion
about the health effects of overexposure to the sun,
sun protection, the UV Index, places where you need
to be extra careful, the ozone layer, and the seasons.
Also, ask them to think of other PSAs, commercials, or
advertisements that have been particularly effective
(anti-smoking, anti-violence, etc.) and to carefully
consider how their language can help to effectively
convey their message.

First, instruct the groups to choose a presentation
medium and then brainstorm ideas for the message
they would like to relay. The students can visit the
SunWise website, or you can copy fact sheets from the
SunWisdom  section of this Tool Kit. When the students
have finished developing and rehearsing their project,
have them present it to the rest of the class. If the
tools are available, record or make a video of their
performances.
www.epa.gov/sunwise

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SunWise  Show
                  Directions
                  You know the importance of being safe in the
                  sun and the dangers of overexposure to the sun's
                  harmful rays, but some younger children in your
                  local elementary school may not. Help them learn
                  about being SunWise by creating a show.

                  First, make a list of all the important SunWise
                  rules. Using the list, write a simple script for
                  your show.  The script should point out why it's
                  important to be SunWise.

                  Create the  props for your show. You can make
                  puppets out of old socks. A cardboard box or
                  similar item can serve as a stage. Remember
                  your audience is young children, so develop the
                  script accordingly.  Once your script and props
                  are ready, rehearse your show. Perform your
                  production  for a younger class.
                                                                  Questions
                                                                  1  Why is it important to be SunWise?
                                                2  How can children be SunWise?
a program that radiates good ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                SunWise  Show
                (This activity can also be done using PowerPoint.)
                Estimated Time
                2-3 class periods

                Supplies
                Socks
                Glue
                Decorations for puppets, including buttons, beads,
                 and pom-poms for eyes and noses
                Bottle caps and jar lids for making hats, eyes, or ears
                Cardboard box for a stage
                Construction paper to decorate the stage
                Computer with PowerPoint (optional)

                Learning Objective
                This activity will give students an opportunity to play
                the role of SunWise instructor, while at the same time
                encouraging them to brush up on their own sun safety
                knowledge. It will also educate younger children about sun
                safety. Review SunWise concepts with the class before they
                begin work on their production.

                Directions
                Divide the class into groups. Each group will write a script
                for a SunWise show that will be presented to a younger
                class. The script should stress the importance of being safe
                in the sun and how the audience can be SunWise.
Next, if necessary, each group will create props for
its show. Puppets can be made out of socks and other
decorations. Have materials available for students to create
props that are sun safe, like hats with a wide brim and
sunglasses. Stages can be fashioned from cardboard boxes
and decorated with construction paper. Be available to
answer students' questions if you use  a PowerPoint show.

Once the groups have completed scripts and props, they
should rehearse their productions before presenting to a
younger class.

Questions and Answers

1  Why is it important to be SunWise? Being safe in the
   sun means avoiding overexposure to the sun's harmful
   UV rays, which can cause skin cancer and other health
   problems.

2  How can children be SunWise? Being SunWise involves
   wearing a sun-safe hat, broad-spectrum sunscreen with
   a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of 30 or higher, and
   sunglasses; seeking shade whenever possible; and limiting
   time in the midday (10 a.m.-4 p.m.) sun, etc.

Additional Resource
PowerPoint
http: 11 office, microsoft, com/en-us/powerpoint I default, aspx
www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                       ST2OS-
                Sun  Scoop
                Directions
                Use a video camera, computer, pencil and paper, or
                any other recording device to develop a news story.
                Story angles could include: how the sun impacts our
                lives, the health effects of overexposure to the sun,
                what people do to protect themselves from the sun, or
                how the UV Index works.

                First, select a topic for your news story. Then, gather
                the facts (who, what, when, where, why, and how)
                using resources such as the Internet, encyclopedias,
                or your local newspaper. Interview an expert. This
                could be a science teacher, nurse, or local weather
                forecaster. Write a lead and the rest of the story. As a
                guide, answer the three questions below. Be prepared
                to share your news story with your class.
                Talk with the editor of your school or local paper
                about printing the news story. Ask your teacher or
                principal if you can read it over the PA system during
                morning announcements.

                Vocabulary Words
                Story Angle—The topic or approach to a
                news story.

                Who, What, When, Where, Why,  and
                How—Questions that form the basic building blocks
                of any news story.  A story might answer some or all
                of these questions.
Lead—The most important part of the story. The lead
is always the first paragraph, and it answers some
of the Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How
questions.

Questions

1  Who is your expert and why did you select them?
   Prepare a short bio on your expert and include
   their credentials in your news story.

2  What questions will you ask the expert? Justify
   your reasoning regarding how you chose the
   questions.
3  What is the most important part —or lead —of
   your story? Give 3 reasons why you chose that
   particular lead.

4  Of the facts gathered, which ones should be
   included in your story? Construct an  argument to
   support why you chose these facts.

5  Design and create two Public Service
   Announcements (PSAs) to share what you
   learned through this experience.  One PSA
   should be written for adults and the other for
   lower elementary-age children. Be sure to choose
   terminology/vocabulary that is age-specific in both
   situations.
	a..moftheU.S. EnvlronmBntal Protection Agency
 www.epa.gov/sunwlse

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                Sun Scoop
                Estimated Time
                30-60 minutes

                Supplies
                Video camera, computer, pencil and paper, or any other
                 recording device (optional)
                Paper and pencils
                Research materials (encyclopedias, newspapers, or
                 computers)

                Learning Objective
                This activity uses journalism to raise awareness about
                the science and risk of overexposure to the sun's
                harmful UV rays and ways to be sun safe. Assess what
                students have learned by asking them to include the
                following in their story: information about how the sun
                impacts our lives; at least three ways to be sun safe;
                the effects of ignoring these precautionary measures;
                and some background information about the sun and
                UV radiation.

                Directions
                Assign each student, or group of students, a  story
                angle. If possible, arrange for a science teacher, nurse,
                or local weather forecaster to come to your classroom.
                Let the students  interview the "expert."  Have the
                students respond to the questions below as a class and
                then write their stories individually or in groups.
                                                                    rzr~z__£i
Questions and Answers
1  Who is your expert and why did you select them?
   Prepare a short bio on your expert and include their
   credentials in your news story. Students should
   name their expert and summarize their credentials
   in a short bio.
2.  What questions will you ask the expert? Justify
   your reasoning regarding how you chose the
   questions. Students should list 3-5 questions and
   provide justification for their selections.
3  What is the most important part —or lead —of your
   story? Give 3 reasons why you chose that particular
   lead. Students should select one fact as the lead and
   provide 3 reasons for their selection.
4  Of the facts gathered, which ones should be
   included in your story? Construct an argument to
   support why you chose these facts. Students should
   list the other facts they will include in their story
   and construct an argument for their selections.
5  Design and create two Public Service
   Announcements (PSAs) to share what you learned
   through this experience. One PSA should be written
   for adults and the other for lower elementary-
   age children. Be sure to choose terminology/
   vocabulary that is age-specific in both situations.
   Students should construct two age-specific PSAs
   demonstrating what they have learned.
Additional Resources
The National Elementary Schools Press Association
www.nespa.ua.edu
The New York Times Newspaper in Education Program
www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/NIE/
www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                        ST2OS-
                  SunWise Virtual  Vacation
                  Directions
                  People all over the world enjoy the sun in very
                  different ways. Some may enjoy the beach, while
                  others may take hiking trips in the mountains.
                  No matter where you go, it is important to be
                  Sun Wise.

                  Plan a class trip, and make sure you have
                  everything you need to protect yourself from
                  overexposure to the sun's harmful UV rays. Pick
                  a location and use the suggested websites to help
                  answer questions about it. While researching the
                  country, consider how the country's environment
                  influences the behavior of the people who live
                  there. Write a letter to your classmates and tell
                  them about your trip and what you have learned.
                  Be sure to give your classmates tips on how to be
                  Sun Wise. Use the ten questions below as a guide
                  for your letter. Read your letter to the class.

                  Have fun on your trip! The Internet has many
                  "vacation" sites. You'll do some research and
                  discover many things about different people,
                  their countries, and the sun.
Some suggested vacation spots:
Galapagos
www.galapagos. org

Puerto Rico
www.seepuertorico.com
Spain
www.spain.info

India
www.incredibleindia.org

Kenya
www.porini.com/kenya.html

Australia
www. australia. com

Antarctica
www. expeditions, com / destinations / antarctica

Other resources to help you pick a
place to visit:

www.geographia.com

http: 11 kids, nationalgeographic. com
A Partners/^ Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    www.epa.gov/sunwise

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Resources to learn about the weather at your
vacation spot and SunWise practices:
www.weather.com
www.intellicast.com
www.weatherbase.com
www.epa.gov /sunwise/kids /kids _actionsteps.html
Questions
1  How did you protect your skin
   and eyes while on your vacation?
5  What kind of outdoor activities do they like?
6  What is the climate like? What is the
   country's/state's environment?
7  How do the local people stay cool/warm?
2  What did you pack for your trip?
3  What did you do on your trip?
4  What do people in the country (or state) that
   you visited do for recreation? Where do they
   vacation?
                                                 8  What kinds of clothes do people wear?
                                                 9  What type of houses do people live in?
                                                 10 How do people protect their skin and eyes?
                                                 11 How does the country's environment influence
                                                    the behavior of the people who live there?
                                                                                                     8

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                       ST2OS-
                SunWise  Virtual Vacation
                 Estimated Time
                 45 minutes

                 Learning Objectives
                 This activity gives students the opportunity to learn
                 about different cultures, develop Internet research
                 skills, and think about their interaction with the
                 sun during recreational activities. Students should
                 also understand that humans are dependent on their
                 environmental interactions—both living and nonliving.
                 This research may alert them to the risks associated
                 with vacation activities in the sun. Assess what they
                 have learned about these risks by making sure they
                 include sun safety tips for their classmates in the letter
                 they compose.

                 Directions
                 Divide the students into small groups suitable for your
                 classroom size and setup. Discuss possible "vacation"
                 spots they would like to visit. Have each group pick a
                 location and use the suggested websites  to research
                 the answers to the questions. You may want to develop
                 a list of possible sites and make sure there are no
                 duplicate locations. Students will compose a letter
                 to their classmates that includes the answers to the
                 questions. The groups will then share their letter with
                 the class.
Some suggested vacation spots:
Galapagos
www.galapagos. org
Spain
www.spain.info

Puerto Rico
www. seepuertorico. com

India
www.incredibleindia.org

Kenya
www.porini.com/kenya.html

Australia
www.australia.com

Antarctica
www.expeditions.com/destinations/antarctica

Other resources to help you pick a place to visit:
www.geographia.com
http:/ /kids.nationalgeographic.com

 Physical Education and Social Studies Variation:
 After choosing your vacation location, have students try or demonstrate
 the native sports and activities of that country. This activity can be
 coordinated with social studies lessons or an all-school cultural event.
 Try bocce ball, petanque, speedaway, rugby, badminton, croquet, or
 soccer, or make up your own versions of rugby, lacrosse, and games that
 will be new to participants and age appropriate. You can even dress in
 the country's native clothing or discuss how citizens in these countries
 protect their skin. This event might also be used as an outreach vehicle
 to include parents or community members who have experience with
 activities native to other countries.
www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                       ST2OS-
                Resources to learn about the weather at your
                vacation spot and SunWise practices:
                www.weather.com
                www. intellicast.com
                www. weatherbase.com
                www.epa.gov/sunw ise/kids/kids _actionsteps.html

                Students should answer the following questions in their
                letter to the class.

                Questions and  Answers
                Answers to questions 2-9 should reflect students'
                research on their location.

                1  How did you  protect your skin and eyes while on
                   your vacation? Do not burn, avoid tanning, use
                   sunscreen, cover up and wear sunglasses, seek
                   shade, and check the UV Index.
                2  What did you pack for your trip?

                3  What did you do on your trip?

                4  What do people in the country/state that you visited
                   do for recreation? Where do they vacation?

                5  What kinds of outdoor activities do they like?

                6  What is the climate like? What is the
                   country's/state's environment?
7  How do the local people stay cool/warm?

8  What kinds of clothes do people wear?

9  What types of houses do people live in?

10 How do people protect their skin and eyes? Answers
   should reflect students' research on their location
   and include prevention action steps such as avoiding
   burning, avoiding tanning, using sunscreen,
   covering up and wearing sunglasses, seeking shade,
   and checking the  UV Index.

11 How does the country's environment influence the
   behavior of the people who live there?
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                              10

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                  Sun  Mythology
                  Directions
                  Read the sun myth "Odhinn, One-Eyed Warrior"
                  for inspiration, and then write your own original
                  sun myth. Be creative. Your sun myth may focus
                  on a fictitious or actual cultural group or figure.
                  "Odhinn, One-Eyed Warrior"1
                  Odhinn is a Norse sun god. Odhinn is also
                  known as Woden. The Germanic word "wuten"
                  means "to rage."

                  Befitting a lord of the sun, Odhinn is often
                  depicted dressed as a warrior. His armor is
                  forged in the sacred metal of solar deities. He
                  wears a chest-plate of pure gold. On his head is a
                  golden-horned helmet. His weapon is the golden
                  spear forged magically by dwarfs, and he rides
                  an eight-legged horse across the sky.

                  As a warrior lord, Odhinn is served by the
                  Valkyries, warrior maids who participate in
                  every Earthly battle and determine its outcome.
                  Odhinn is also the inspiration behind the famed
                  berserkers, warriors crazed with the fury of the
                  battle.
The sun god has one eye. It is said that he gave
the other eye for the gift of magic mead, a drink
of poetic inspiration and knowledge. Odhinn
plucked his eye from its socket and dropped it
into the well of Mimir so he could drink from the
magic waters and gain infinite wisdom.

The great inspiration of the enchanted well had
a powerful effect on the warrior. He became
known as a great healer and as the god of
poetry. Still, he retained his position as the sun
god, and in his battle fury, he was known as the
One-Eyed Warrior.

To start writing your own sun myth, answer
the following questions:

1  During what period of time does your
   sun myth take place?

2.  Where does your sun myth take place?

3  In your sun myth, who are the main
   character (s)?

4  What powers does your  main character(s) have?

5  What effect or change has your characters)
   made?
                                                                   1 Adapted from the book Sun Lore: Folktales and Sagas
                                                                    from Around the World, by Gwydion O'Hara
A Partners/^ Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                        11

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                Sun Mythology
                Estimated Time
                30-45 minutes

                Supplies
                Sun myth texts listed below or others you discover
                on your own.

                Krupp, Dr. E.G. Beyond the Blue Horizon: Myths and
                Legends of the Sun. Moon. Stars, and Planets. 1992.

                McDermott, Gerald. Arrow to the Sun: A Pueblo Indian
                Tale. 1974.

                O'Hara, Gwydion. Sun Lore: Folktales and Sagas from
                Around the World. 1997.

                St Rain, Tedd. Ed. Sun Lore of All Ages: A Survey
                of Solar Mythology. Folklore. Customs. Worship.
                Festivals, and Superstition. 1999.

                Luomala, Katharine. Oceanic. American Indian and
                African Myths of the Snaring Sun. 1988.

                www.windows, ucar.edu

                Learning Objective
                The students will learn that people from all over the
                world have different stories about the sun. Before
                reading the story, ask students what they know about
                the sun; for example, its location in our galaxy; its life
                as a star; and its importance to the ecosystem of our
                planet. Write  their ideas on the board.
After reading the story, assess what students have
learned by comparing their own knowledge about the
sun with that of other ancient cultures (the Norse,
for example).

Directions
Use the example myth on the Student Page or
other sun myth texts as a catalyst for a classroom
discussion about the many cultures that have myths
and folklore associated with the sun. Read one or
two sun myths aloud or make photocopies of additional
texts for silent reading.

Instruct your students to write their own sun myth. To
get them started, have them answer the questions listed
after the reading. Encourage students to use descriptive
and colorful language. Their myths should focus either
on a fictitious or actual cultural group or figure.

Once your students complete their assignment, have
volunteers read their myths aloud to their classmates.
After sharing a number of original sun myths, engage
students in a discussion about the importance of the sun
as a powerful energy supply and a source of life on Earth.
Discussion
Why do so many cultures, past and present, revere the
sun? Possible answers include: In ancient times, people
were afraid of the sun because they did not understand
its motion across the sky; the sun is a producer of crops,
and as such, they consider the sun a generous god;
scientists study the sun as an example of a medium-
sized Class III star that is merely one of 200-300 billion
in this galaxy alone, but sustains all life on Earth.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                             12

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                 Sunsational  Scientists
                 in History
                 Directions
                 Research and write short paragraphs about
                 these topics and historic people:

                 Ptolemy
                 Geocentrism
                 Heliocentrism
                 Nicolas Copernicus
                 Galileo Galilei

                 Find a correlation between the topics and people.
                 Discuss your findings with the class to piece the
                 history together.

                 Draw a picture or write a short story about how
                 you believe the world would be different if we
                 still thought the sun revolved around the Earth.
Questions

1  Pretend you are Ptolemy, Copernicus, or
   Galileo and write a journal entry about
   your beliefs, how people are treating you,
   and what you think the world will be like
   in the future.

2  What if scientists had not discovered the
   adverse effects of overexposure to UV rays?
   What do you think would be different about
   how we plan our trips to the beach and other
   outdoor activities? Would sunscreen have
   been invented? Would people always burn
   when outside?
a program that radiates good Ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                    13

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                Sunsational Scientists
                in  History
                Estimated Time
                30-45 minutes

                Supplies
                Access to the school library and/or the Internet

                Learning Objective
                Through this investigation, the students will learn
                about the scientists and societal beliefs that contributed
                to the information we now know about the sun. Use the
                questions to assess correlations the students have made
                from their research.

                Directions
                Take your class to the library to do research on the
                astronomical history of the sun.

                Students will research and write short paragraphs
                about these topics and historic people:
                Ptolemy
                Geocentrism
                Heliocentrism
                Nicolas Copernicus
                Galileo Galilei

                Students should be able to see the correlation between
                the topics and the people. Discuss the findings with
                the class and piece the history together. What is the
                correlation?
Ptolemy, believed to have lived between AD 100-170,
was a famous astronomer and mathematician, even
though most of his theories were later proven incorrect.
His theories formed the foundation for future astronomers
and mathematicians. His theories dominated the
scientific field until the 16th century. He considered
the Earth as the center of the universe (geocentrism).

Nicolas Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who lived
between 1473-1543. Before his time, people believed
in the Ptolemaic (named after the Greek astronomer
Ptolemy) model of the solar system. This model
showed that the Earth was the center of the universe,
but it did not work well enough to predict the
positions of the planets. In 1543, Copernicus started
a scientific revolution when he published a theory
called heliocentrism, which stated that all the planets,
including Earth, revolved around the sun.

Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer and physicist
who lived between 1564-1642. He challenged ancient
beliefs that heavenly bodies, like stars and planets,
were divine and therefore perfect. In 1609, Galileo
became the first person to use a telescope to look at the
universe. He discovered sunspots, craters, and peaks in
Earth's moon. After  his great discoveries, he published
a book about sunspots and discussed Ptolemaic and
Copernican theories.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                            14

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Questions and Answers

   Pretend you are Ptolemy, Copernicus, or Galileo and
   write a journal entry about your beliefs, how people
   are treating you, and what you think the world
   will be like in the future. Students should correctly
   describe the beliefs of their chosen astronomer
   and the persecution that astronomer underwent.
   Students should come up with creative ideas of what
   the world will be like in the future.

   What if scientists didn't discover the adverse effects
   of overexposure to the sun's UV rays?  What do you
   think would be different about how we plan our
   trips to the  beach and other outdoor activities?
   Would sunscreen have been invented? Would
   people always burn when outside? Possible answers
   include: People would not consider the harmful
   impacts of overexposure  to the sun's UV rays when
   they plan trips  to the beach; sunscreen may never
   have been invented, since people would not know
   that they need to protect themselves from the sun;
   people may  burn frequently when they are outside.
                                                                       Additional Resource
                                                                       www.windows.ucar.edu
                                                                       Enter site, click People, then click Renaissance.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                               15

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                 The Sun  Shines
                 Around the World
                 Directions
                 Use encyclopedias, periodicals, the Internet, or
                 books to research your assigned country and
                 answer the questions below. Be prepared to
                 share your findings with your classmates.

                 Questions

                 1  What is the name of the country you
                    researched?
4  In what types of houses do the people of this
   country live? Of what are the houses made?
   How do the houses help the people of this
   country protect themselves from the sun?
5  What kinds of clothes do the people of this
   country wear?
6  Describe a few customs that people in this
   country have that protect them from the sun.
                 2  On what continent is the country?
                 3  What countries or physical features border
                    the country?
                                                                7 What are at least three differences between
                                                                  your state and the country you researched?
                                                                8  Summarize how the environment of the
                                                                   country influences the behavior of the people
                                                                   who live there.
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                  17

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               The Sun Shines
               Around  the World
               Estimated Time
               20—45 minutes

               Supplies
               Map of the world (for display)
               Research materials (encyclopedias, travel or geography
                 magazines, or computers)

               Learning Objective
               This activity will teach students about a variety of
               ways people all over the world protect themselves
               from overexposure to the sun's harmful UV rays.
               Students will understand how a country's environment
               influences the behavior of the people who live there.
               After completing the activity, students should be able
               to describe different ways individuals from the country
               researched practice sun safety.

               Directions
               Assign a student or pair of students to research a
               country. Instruct the  students to use the questions
               below as a guide.
Questions and Answers
Answers should match the country researched.

1  What is the name of the country you researched?

2  On what continent is the country?

3  What countries or physical features border the
   country? Student should name bordering countries,
   bodies of water, etc.

4  In what types of houses do the people of this
   country live? Of what are the houses made? How do
   the houses help the people of this country protect
   themselves from the sun?

5  What kinds of clothes do the people of this country
   wear?

6  Describe a few customs that people in this country
   have that protect them from the sun.

7  What are at least three differences between your
   state  and the country you researched?

8  Summarize how the environment of the country
   influences the behavior of the people who live there.

Additional Resource
www.geographia.com
Geographia offers  a variety of information on housing,
clothing,  and customs of countries throughout the
world.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                         18

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                  Why  Does Winter Make
                  Some  People SAD?
                  Vocabulary Words
                  Lethargy—The quality or state of being
                  lazy, sluggish, or indifferent.

                  Melatonin—A chemical produced in the pineal
                  gland of the brain that tells the body when it is
                  nighttime and makes us feel tired.

                  Pineal gland—The specific area of the brain
                  that produces melatonin.

                  Serotonin—A chemical in the brain that
                  regulates our moods (like happiness, anger, and
                  aggression).

                  Directions
                  Read the information provided describing
                  Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and answer
                  the questions.
                  What is SAD?
                  Overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from
                  the sun can damage skin and eyes and cause
                  skin cancer. But despite these and other harmful
                  effects, the sun is necessary for life to survive
                  on Earth. Too little sunlight can contribute
                  to Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Human
beings and animals react to changing seasons
with changes in mood and behavior. Most people
find they eat and sleep slightly more in winter
and dislike the dark mornings and short days.
At night, the pineal gland in our brain produces
melatonin to make us sleepy, and when morning
comes the sunlight triggers the pineal gland to
stop producing melatonin so  we can wake up.
During the winter months there is less light and
we produce more melatonin,  which can make
many people feel more tired than they would in
the spring, summer, and fall. Although no one is
sure exactly why too much melatonin can make
us feel sad, it may be caused by lowering another
chemical in the brain called serotonin. In many
people, feelings of depression are caused by too
little serotonin in the brain.

For some people, symptoms are severe enough to
affect their ability to lead normal lives. These people
may be suffering from SAD, also known as winter
depression. People with SAD may have trouble with
sleeping, overeating, depression, lethargy, as well as
other physical and mental problems.
Whom does  SAD affect?
Across the world, the incidence of SAD increases
with distance from the equator, where the nights
get very long during the winter (except in areas
where there is a lot of snow on the ground, which
helps to reflect sunlight and  keep our melatonin
a program that radiates good ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                      19

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               levels down). People with SAD have symptoms
               from around September until April, and the
               symptoms are worse during the darkest months.
               Both children and adults can suffer from SAD,
               and it usually affects more women than men.

               How can SAD be treated?
               SAD can be treated with daily exposure to
               bright light. Making sure to spend some time
               outside each day can help people to feel better.
               Some people with SAD also use a special
               machine, called a "light box," which they shine
               on themselves in order to keep their melatonin
               levels down. These machines produce visible
               light, and do not emit harmful UV rays. The
               light produced by a light box is about as bright
               as a spring morning on a clear day. As little as
               15 to 30 minutes of light box therapy  helps some
               people to feel better.

               Questions

               1  Pretend you are a doctor. List three questions
                  you would ask your patients to determine if
                  they have SAD.
2  Consider the symptoms of SAD. Can you
   make an educated guess about the causes of
   SAD? List three possible causes of SAD.
3  If you noticed that one of your friends was
   frequently tired and grumpy during your
   winter vacation, what would you recommend
   he or she do?
4  Make a list of the risks and benefits of
   exposure to the sun.
.. .,a.-moftnaU.S. Environmental Protection Agamy
www.epa.gov/sunwlse
                                                                                                                     20

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                Why  Does  Winter  Make
                Some  People SAD?
                Estimated Time
                30 — 45 minutes

                Learning Objective
                This activity will help students understand the science
                of the sun and its good effects on people. Students
                will read a short selection about Seasonal Affective
                Disorder (SAD). They will propose a cause for SAD
                after "diagnosing" the problem. Review their answers to
                question number four to assess if they understand the
                risks and benefits of exposure to the sun.

                Directions
                After instructing students to read the information
                provided describing SAD, ask them to answer
                the questions. If they have trouble answering the
                questions, help them by sharing some of the additional
                information provided. Discuss the cause and treatment
                of SAD with the class.
                What is SAD?
                Overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the
                sun can damage skin and eyes and cause skin cancer.
                But despite  these and other harmful effects, the sun
                is necessary for life to survive on Earth. Too little
                sunlight can also contribute to Seasonal Affective
                Disorder (SAD). Human beings and animals react to
                changing seasons with changes in mood and behavior.
Most people find they eat and sleep slightly more
in winter and dislike the dark mornings and short
days. At night, the pineal gland in our brain produces
melatonin to make us sleepy, and when morning
comes the sunlight triggers the pineal gland to stop
producing melatonin so we can wake up. During the
winter months there is less light and we produce more
melatonin, which can make many people feel more
tired than they would in the spring, summer, and
fall. Although no one is sure exactly why too much
melatonin can make us feel sad, it may be caused
by lowering another chemical in the brain called
serotonin. In many people, feelings of depression are
caused by too little serotonin in the brain.

For some people, symptoms are severe enough to affect
their ability to lead normal lives. These people may be
suffering from SAD,  also known as winter depression.
People with SAD may have trouble with sleeping,
overeating, depression, lethargy, as well as other
physical and mental problems.
Whom does SAD affect?
Across the world, the incidence of SAD increases with
distance from the equator, where the nights get very
long during the winter (except in areas where there
is a lot of snow on the ground, which helps to reflect
sunlight and keep our melatonin levels down). People
with SAD have symptoms from around September until
April, and the symptoms are worse during the darkest
months. Both children and adults can suffer from SAD,
and it usually affects more women than men.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                         21

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                How can SAD be treated?
                SAD can be treated with daily exposure to bright light.
                Making sure to spend some time outside each day can
                help people to feel better. Some people with SAD also
                use  a special machine, called a "light box," which they
                shine on themselves in order to keep their melatonin
                levels down. These machines produce visible light,
                and do not emit harmful UV rays. The light produced
                is about as bright as a spring morning on a clear day.
                As little as 15 to 30 minutes of light box therapy helps
                some people to feel better.

                Questions and Answers
                1   Pretend you are a doctor. List three questions you
                    would ask your patients to determine if they have
                    SAD. Possible answers: 1) Do you find you sleep more
                    in the winter? 2) During the winter, do you have
                    many mood swings? 3) Do you eat more during the
                    winter months?

                2  Consider the symptoms of SAD. Can you make an
                    educated guess about the causes  of SAD? List three
                    possible causes of SAD. Possible answers: lack of
                    sunlight, decreased levels of serotonin,  increased
                    levels of melatonin.
3  If you noticed that one of your friends was
   frequently tired and grumpy during your winter
   vacation, what would you recommend he or she do?
   Possible answers before group discussion include: get
   more rest, get more exercise, or spend more time with
   friends  and family. Possible answers after group
   discussion include: spend time outside on sunny
   days, visit a sunny place, sit in front of a light box.

4  Make a list of the risks and benefits of exposure
   to the sun. Risks include: skin cancer, cataracts,
   premature aging of the skin, and suppression of
   the immune system. Benefits include: alleviation of
   depression caused by SAD, and vitamin D synthesis.

Additional Resources
www. mayoclinic. org / diseases-conditions I seasonal-
affective-disorder /basics/definition / CON-20021047
Information about SAD  from Mayo Clinic.

http: 11kidshealth.org/ teen /your_mind/feeling_sad/
sad. html (Nemour Foundation)
Nemours is one of the largest nonprofit organizations
devoted to children's health. Their website is written
in a question and answer format using non-clinical
language. The site provides fundamental information
about SAD.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                               22

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               Sun-safe  Beach Party
               Directions
               Pretend that the class is at the beach and set
               up the gym the way you would at the beach.
               Start an indoor volleyball game, throw the UV
               Frisbee®, play a game with an inflatable beach
               ball, or gather some friends for a game of hackey
               sack. Set up face painting using zinc oxide cream.

               After the "beach party,"  your teacher will divide
               students into two groups. One group will take
               the position that people  with dark tans look
               more attractive than people without tans. The
               other group will take the position that people
               who use sunscreen, hats, and clothing to  protect
               themselves from the sun are more attractive
               and wise. With your group, develop arguments
               to support your position and prepare a short
               presentation for the class.

               Vocabulary Words
               Melanoma — Dark-pigmented malignant moles
               or tumors.

               Malignant — Inclined to cause harm; very
               dangerous  or harmful.
Questions
1 Dermatologists believe there is a link between
   childhood sunburns and malignant melanoma
   later in life. What can you do differently to
   prevent this from happening?
2 What does SPF stand for, and how does
   it affect you and what you do when you
   are outdoors?
3 What does UV stand for, and how does
   it affect you?
4  Sunscreen with SPF 30+ helps protect you
   from harmful UVB radiation. Prepare a short
   written statement to share with a younger
   child to explain what this means.
	a. .mat the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                  23

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                Sun-safe  Beach  Party
                Estimated Time
                30-45 minutes

                Supplies
                UV Frisbee®
                Inflatable beach ball
                Hacky sack
                Zinc oxide cream in different colors
                Volleyball equipment
                Summer food (fruits, chips, water,
                 peanut butter and jelly sandwiches)

                Learning Objective
                The objective of this activity is to demonstrate and
                practice sun-safe behaviors. Students will practice
                taking a position and defending that position in a
                logical, respectable way. Assess  what students have
                learned by asking what they would do differently when
                indoors versus outdoors.

                Directions
                Before the students engage in the activity, have a
                discussion about how this event will be different
                from a real day at the beach. Discuss pros and cons.
                Suggest ways to protect yourself when you are at the
                beach (e.g., do not burn, avoid tanning, use sunscreen,
                cover up, seek shade, and check the UV Index). At the
                conclusion of the party, divide students into two groups.
                Assign each group  a position about tanning versus
                protecting one's skin from the sun.  Give the students
                time to form their arguments and prepare their
                presentation.
Questions and Answers

1  Dermatologists believe there is a link between
   childhood sunburns and malignant melanoma later
   in life. What can you do differently to prevent this
   from happening? Answers will list prevention tactics,
   such as wearing sunscreen, limiting time in the sun
   between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., and wearing a hat and
   sunglasses.

2  What does the sunscreen SPF stand for, and how
   does it affect you and what you do when you are
   outdoors? SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor, and
   it reveals the relative amount of sunburn protection
   from UVB radiation that a sunscreen can provide an
   average user (tested on  skin types 1, 2, and 3) when
   correctly used.

3  What does UV stand for, and how does it affect you?
   UV stands for ultraviolet. UV rays can cause skin
   cancer, premature aging of the skin,  cataracts, and
   immune system suppression.

4  Sunscreen with SPF 30+ helps protect you from
   harmful UVB radiation. Prepare a short written
   statement to share with a younger child  to explain
   what this means. Answers will vary and should
   be tailored for a younger audience. Although SPF
   ratings apply mainly to UVB rays, many sunscreen
   manufacturers include ingredients that protect the
   skin from some UVA rays as well. These "broad-
   spectrum" sunscreens are highly recommended.
   Students should understand that higher  SPFs do
   not block more UVA rays unless the sunscreen is also
   labeled broad spectrum. An SPF of 30 protects the
   skin from 97 percent of  UVB radiation, while SPF 50
   blocks 98 percent.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                             24

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UV  Frisbee®  Fun
               Directions
               Before having UV Frisbee Fun, predict the time
               it will take the UV Frisbee to change color once
               it is exposed to sunlight.

               Cover the UV Frisbee as you carry it outside,
               and start timing as soon as you expose it to
               the sun.

               Questions

               1  Why did you cover the UV Frisbee?
                                                              3  How close was your prediction?
                                               4  What part of your body does the UV Frisbee
                                                  represent? Compare the change in the UV
                                                  Frisbee to the change in your body.
               2 How long did the UV Frisbee take to change
                 color once it was exposed to sunlight?
                                                                                                                 25
.. .-=._mofflwl/.S. Environmental Protection Agamy
www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                UV Frisbee®  Fun
                Estimated Time
                30 minutes

                Supplies
                UV Frisbee
                Stop watch
                Additional non-UV Frisbees (optional)

                Learning Objective
                The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the
                effects of UV radiation while exercising at the same
                time. Assess the students' understanding of the effects
                of UV radiation by asking them to list some possible
                outcomes of overexposure to the sun's harmful UV rays.

                Directions
                Use the UV Frisbee included in the SunWise Tool Kit
                to show students the effects of UV radiation. For
                information about UV radiation and the health effects
                of sun overexposure, please review the SunWisdom
                section of the Tool Kit.

                Explain to students how the UV Frisbee works. Before
                you begin UV Frisbee Fun, ask the students to predict
                the amount of time it will take the UV Frisbee to change
                color once it is exposed to outdoor light. Cover the
                UV Frisbee as you carry it outside, and start timing as
                soon as you expose it to the sun. Ask students why you
                covered the UV Frisbee.  Once  exposed to the sun, the
                UV Frisbee will begin changing color almost immediately.
Ask the students to remember their predictions and
compare them to the actual time it took the UV Frisbee
to change colors. Discuss the effects of UV radiation
and the importance of being protected from the sun's
harmful UV rays.

Questions

1  Why did you cover the UV Frisbee? To protect it
   from exposure to the sun's UV rays.

2  How long did the UV Frisbee take to change color
   once it was exposed to sunlight? The UV Frisbee
   changed color almost immediately.

3  How close was your prediction? Answers will vary.

4  What part of your body does the UV Frisbee
   simulate? The skin. Compare the change in the UV
   Frisbee to the change in your body. Answer should
   reflect the idea that our skin changes color like
   the UV Frisbee if it is not protected from the sun's
   harmful UV rays.

Now, search for a sun-safe spot on your playground and
have some UV Frisbee Fun! If your class is large, use
additional Frisbees.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                             26

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             Personal Skin  Assessment
Risk Factor
Light or fair skin
Blue, green, or hazel eye color
Blonde or red hair
Freckles when in the sun
Burn when in the sun
40 or more moles
Family or personal history of melanoma
Living in the Sunbelt
Living in high altitudes
Two or more blistering sunburns
Exposure to UV radiation from tanning
machines or medical treatment
Taking medications that increase the skin's
photosensitivity (some antibiotics and
antihistamines)
SELF
Yes












No












Family
Member 1
Yes












No












Family
Member 2
Yes












No












Family
Member 3
Yes












No












                                                       Adapted from Project S.A.F.E.T.Y., Risk and Risk
                                                       Factors, Elementary Safety Lesson Five.
	„. _m of ffie U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                        27

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                Personal Skin Assessment
                Estimated Time
                30 minutes during one class period

                15 minutes during second class period
                (or optional homework exercise)

                Supplies
                Markers or crayons
                Magazines (optional)
                Glue (optional)

                Learning Objective
                After completing this activity, students will understand
                the need to be careful when at risk of overexposure to
                harmful UV rays. Students who possess risk factors will
                develop a heightened sense of their own risk. To assess
                student comprehension of the risk and prevention
                message, ask them to make a flier, poster, or collage
                for the classroom or school that depicts individuals
                practicing UV safety.
Directions
Teachers are cautioned to be sensitive to the privacy
concerns of students during this activity. Also be aware
that students may answer no to all the questions,
thereby allowing for the misconception that they are
not at risk for overexposure to UV radiation. Instruct
students to evaluate their own risk factors, checking
off yes or no in each column. Have students go back
to their seats and by a show of hands, take a count of
the responses on the risk assessment. Ask students to
predict on paper the risk level of their family members.
As a homework assignment,  have students evaluate their
families for risk factors. During the next class period,
assign one student to be a recorder on the chalkboard
of five to ten randomly selected responses you read aloud.
Discuss risk factors with the class and ask students
to list ways to prevent overexposure to the sun. Have
them relate what they learned about tanning booths.

Using the fact sheets (located in the SunWisdom
section of the Tool Kit) as your guide, discuss the
prevention steps with the class. Stress the importance
of protection from harmful UV rays, especially for
individuals who have several risk factors.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                            28

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                  Bargain Shopper
                                                                            Items
Cost
                  Directions
                  Make a list of items you might purchase to use
                  as protection against the sun's harmful UV rays.
                  Now "go shopping" for these items. Look for
                  them in magazine or newspaper ads, catalogs,
                  or on the Internet. Check whether you have
                  some of the products at home — they may still
                  have a price tag. Develop a list that compares
                  the prices for different items and brands.

                  Imagine that you have $50 to  spend on your
                  protective items. Describe how you will use
                  that money to buy sun-safe items. Keep in mind
                  that some sun-safe items may be free.

                  Share your list with the class  and see who was
                  able to buy the most for $50.
                                                                                            $50.00
a program that radiates good ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   www.epa.gov/sunwise
                       29

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                Bargain  Shopper
                Estimated Time
                45 minutes
                Students may also spend some time doing
                research as homework.

                Supplies
                Newspaper sales flyers
                Catalogs
                Computer

                Learning Objective
                The objective of this activity is to help students
                understand the variety of ways in which they can
                protect themselves from the sun's harmful UV rays.
                After completing this activity, students should
                understand that using sunscreen, hats, and sunglasses
                are examples of Sun Wise behavior. Assess whether the
                students understand that they must protect themselves
                from the sun's harmful UV rays by asking them to draw
                a diagram  depicting their preparation for their next
                visit to the park or beach. Look for the gathering of
                sun safety  gear as a key preparation element.
Directions

Instruct students to develop lists of items used
to protect against the sun's harmful UV rays. For
example: sunscreen, sunglasses, long-sleeved shirts,
umbrellas, etc. Have the students "go shopping" for
these items by looking up prices in advertisements, on
the Internet, or at home. They should then develop a
list of prices for each item. The list may duplicate some
items (e.g., one cost for Brand X sunscreen and another
for Brand Y).

Tell the students that they have $50 with which to
purchase protective items for a day at the beach, a
ski trip, or any type of outing. They should figure out
how to maximize their budget while still buying all
the necessary items. Students can include "free" items,
such as "staying indoors" or "eating lunch in the shade"
in their budget.

Ask the students to share their lists with the class and
see who was able to buy the most for $50.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                           30

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               Skin Cancer in Your State
               Directions
               The estimated number of new melanoma cases
               diagnosed per year in each state is provided,
               along with the total population of each state.
               Calculate the percentage of individual cases of
               melanoma in each state by dividing the number
               of new cases by the total state population. Figure
               your percentage to three decimal places, and
               write it on the line provided for only 10 states,
               including your own. Then plot the data in the
               bar graph for the states you chose. Next,
               figure out the ratio of new cancer cases in
               those 10 states.

               Questions
               1  How high is the risk in your state?
               2.  Rank the states in order from lowest to
                  highest risk. How does the risk in your
                  state compare to others? Why are there
                  differences?
               3  What can you do to lower your risk for getting
                  skin cancer?
	„._ motthe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                 31

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State

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

District of Columbia

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland
          Skin Cancer in Your State

  Estimated U.S. Melanoma Cases, 2012
New Melanoma Cases*     Population**   Percentage

      1,090

         70

      1,650

        570

      9,250

      1,470

      1,290

        280

         80

      5,450

      2,150

        280

        400

      2,460

      1,450

        850

        610

      1,370

        810

        480

      1,420
                                                                                CM
                                                                                CO
                                Ratio
Massachusetts      2,190

Michigan           2,700

Minnesota          1,130

Mississippi           510
 4,822,023

   731,449

 6,553,255

 2,949,131

38,041,430

 5,187,582

 3,590,347

   917,092

   632,323

19,317,568

 9,919,945

 1,392,313

 1,595,728

12,875,255

 6,537,334

 3,074,186

 2,885,905

 4,380,415

 4,601,893

 1,329,192

 5,884,563

 6,646,144

 9,883,360

 5,379,139

 2,984,926
              * 2012 melanoma statistics are from the American Cancer Society:
               www.cancer.org lacs I groups I content I ©epidemiology surueilance I documents I document I
               acspc-031941.pdf.

              ** The census data are from 2012. For more information about the estimated 2012 U.S.
               Census data by state, visit www.census.govIpopestldatolstateltotalsl2012lindex}itml

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                               Skin Cancer in Your State

                        Estimated U.S. Melanoma Cases, 2012
                                                                     CO
                                                                     CO
'.wi
      cr
      .*—
State


Missouri


Montana


Nebraska


Nevada


New Hampshire


New Jersey


New Mexico


New York


North Carolina


North Dakota


Ohio


Oklahoma


Oregon


Pennsylvania


Rhode Island


South Carolina


South Dakota


Tennessee


Texas


Utah


Vermont


Virginia


Washington


West Virginia


Wisconsin


Wyoming


TOTAL
New Melanoma Cases*
1,280
320
380
510
re 470
2,340
560
4,700
a 2,360
130
3,030
750
1,290
3,470
290
a 1,150
170
1,640
4,020
780
220
2,150
2,140
520
1,370
150
76,250
Population** Percentage Ratio
R 091 Q88
1 OOK 141
1 «fifi K9K
9 7fi8 Q21
1 290 718
8 8R4 KQO
9 08K K28
1Q K70 9R1
Q 7K9 072
RQQ R98

2 814890
2 8QQ asa
1 9 7R2 fiafi
i nsn 9Q9
4 792 792
Q O O O C y|
R 4KR 942
9R OKQ 902
9 8fifi 987
R9R011
8 1 8fi 8R7
R8Q7019

R 79R 2Q8 ^
R7R419
313,914,040
                                                                                     i|

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                Skin  Cancer in  Your  State      Questions and Answers
                Estimated Time
                40-50 minutes

                Learning Objective
                This activity will raise student awareness of skin
                cancer statistics. It will also help students gauge the
                risk they incur from  their environment and reinforce
                the Sun Wise message, while they practice math skills.
                Assess whether they understand the importance of
                protecting themselves from harmful UV rays by asking
                them to make a bar chart that demonstrates risk in
                their state and nine others.

                Directions
                This exercise will show students their relative risk for
                melanoma, as determined by location. It will also give
                them practice in calculating percentages and ratios,
                working with decimals, and graphing data.

                The estimated melanoma rates by state, from the
                American Cancer Society, and the estimated state
                populations,  from the U.S. Census Bureau, are listed.
                The students should calculate the percentage (to three
                decimal places) of people in 10 states, including their
                own, expected to be diagnosed with skin cancer. They
                will then graph the information to get a sense of the
                effects of skin cancer on the population. To further
                understand these effects, have the student calculate
                ratios in the  space provided.
1  How high is the risk in your state? Students should
   answer based on their calculations.

2  Rank the states in order from lowest to highest risk.
   How does the risk in your area compare to others?
   Why are there differences? Answers will vary and
   should address location of state. Students should
   have each state ranked from 1-10, and note their
   state's risk relative to other states.

3  What can you do to lower your risk for getting
   skin cancer? Do not burn. Limit time in the midday
   sun, seek shade, always use sunscreen, wear a hat,
   cover up, wear sunglasses that block UV radiation,
   avoid sunlamps and tanning parlors, and check
   the UV Index.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                           34

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State
                Skin Cancer  in Your  State
    Estimated  U.S. Melanoma Cases,  2012
New Melanoma Cases       Population          Percentage
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
TOTAL
          1,090
             70
          1,650
            570
          9,250
          1,470
          1,290
            280
             80
          5,450
          2,150
            280
            400
          2,460
          1,450
            850
            610
          1,370
            810
            480
          1,420
          2,190
          2,700
          1,130
            510
          1,280
            320
            380
            510
            470
          2,340
            560
          4,700
          2,360
            130
          3,030
            750
          1,290
          3,470
            290
          1,150
            170
          1,640
          4,020
            780
            220
          2,150
          2,140
            520
          1,370
            150
          76,250
 4,822,023
   731,449
 6,553,255
 2,949,131
38,041,430
 5,187,582
 3,590,347
   917,092
   632,323
19,317,568
 9,919,945
 1,392,313
 1,595,728
12,875,255
 6,537,334
 3,074,186
 2,885,905
 4,380,415
 4,601,893
 1,329,192
 5,884,563
 6,646,144
 9,883,360
 5,379,139
 2,984,926
 6,021,988
 1,005,141
 1,855,525
 2,758,931
 1,320,718
 8,864,590
 2,085,538
19,570,261
 9,752,073
   699,628
11,544,225
 3,814,820
 3,899,353
12,763,536
 1,050,292
 4,723,723
   833,354
 6,456,243
26,059,203
 2,855,287
   626,011
 8,185,867
 6,897,012
 1,855,413
 5,726,398
   576,412
313,914,040
                                                                           0.023%
0.010%
0.025%
0.019%
0.024%
0.028%
0.036%
0.031%
0.013%
0.028%
0.022%
0.020%
0.019%
0.022%
0.028%
0.021%
0.031%
0.018%
0.036%
0.024%
0.033%
0.027%
0.021%
0.017%
0.021%
0.032%
0.020%
0.018%
0.036%
0.026%
0.027%
0.024%
0.024%
0.019%
0.026%
0.020%
0.033%
0.027%
0.028%
0.024%
0.020%
0.025%
0.027%
0.026%
0.031%
0.028%
0.024%
0.026%
                                                 Ratio
                                                                                                    1:4424
                        1:10449
                        1:3972
                        1:5174
                        1:4113
                        1:3529
                        1:2783
                        1:3275
                        1:7904
                        1:4614
                        1:4973
                        1:3989
                        1:5234
                        1:3617
                        1:4731
                        1:3197
                        1:5681
                         1:2769
                         1:4144
                         1:3035
                         1:3661
                         1:4760
                         1:5853
                         1:4705
                        1:3141
                        1:4883
                        1:5410
                        1:2810
                        1:3788
                        1:3724
                        1:4164
                        1:4132
                        1:5382
                        1:3810
                        1:5086
                        1:3023
                        1:3678
                        1:3622
                        1:4108
                        1:4902
                        1:3937
                        1:6482
                        1:3661
                         1:2846
                         1:3807
                         1:3223
                         1:356
                         1:4180
                         1:3843
                                                                                                                     10
                                                                                                                     o

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                  Sun Wise Surveyor
                  Directions
                  You are a surveyor. You measure and map land
                  areas and have been assigned to determine the
                  current availability of shade on your school's
                  property. This will help school administrators
                  decide if the grounds are sun safe.

                  Take a survey of the grounds during a period
                  when students are using them. Don't forget to
                  be Sun Wise as you walk around the school!

                  Begin by drawing a map of the school grounds.
                  Observe and mark on the map the most popular
                  places where students congregate and play.
                  These Play Areas can include sports fields, jungle
                  gyms, blacktops, eating areas, and any other
                  places where kids hang out.

                  Survey and mark the parts of the Play Areas
                  that are covered in shade. Take note of what
                  time of day it is, and how the movement of the
                  sun might affect the shaded areas.

                  Measure the dimensions of the Play Areas,
                  and write down your results. Then, measure
                  the shade-covered portions of these areas.
                  For circular-shaped areas, such as under a tree,
                  measure the diameter of the shady spot.
                  Record your results.
Questions

1  What is the total area of the Play Areas on
   your school's grounds?
2  What is the total area of the portions of those
   Play Areas covered by shade?
3  What percentage of the Play Areas on your
   school's grounds is sun safe?
4  How will the shaded Play Areas change with
   the movement of the sun?
5  What changes would you suggest for the play
   areas to increase the shaded areas in the
   playground?
a program that radiates good ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                     37

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                Sun Wise  Surveyor

                Estimated Time
                One to two class periods
                Supplies
                Clipboards (optional)
                Measuring tapes, yardsticks, or nietersticks
                Learning  Objective
                This activity will raise student awareness of daytime
                exposure to the sun. Students  will also become more
                aware of the motion of the sun, and that its movements
                can be observed, described, and predicted. Students
                will focus on the amount of shade provided for their
                outdoor hours at school, and the importance of
                providing sun-safe areas on the property. They will
                also describe the movement of the sun across the sky
                in the course of a single day and over the course of a
                year and describe how the movement affects shaded
                areas in outdoor areas of the school. Assess student
                comprehension by asking students to design a more
                SunWise playground (see the "You Are the Architect"
                activity).
Directions
Tell your students that they are surveyors who have
been assigned to determine the current availability of
shade on your school's property in order to help school
administrators decide if the grounds are sun safe.

Have the class take a survey of the grounds during a
period of time when students are present, such as recess
or lunchtime.

Have the students begin by drawing a scaled map of the
school grounds, observing and marking on the map the
most popular places where students congregate and play.
These Play Areas can include sports fields, jungle gyms,
blacktops, eating areas, and any other places where kids
hang out. Now have students survey and mark the parts
of the Play Areas that are covered in shade and consider
if the dimensions of the shaded areas might change over
the course of the day and the school year.

Have the students measure the dimensions of the Play
Areas, record their results, and measure the shade-
covered portions of these areas. For circular-shaped
areas, such as under a tree, students will measure the
diameters and calculate the areas of the shady spot, and
write down these results as well.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                            38

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                Questions and Answers

                1   What is the total area of the Play Areas on your
                    school's grounds? Answers will vary. Students will
                    determine this figure by using algebraic formulas to
                    calculate the area of each Play Area and then adding
                    the sums together. A=l x w

                2   What is the total area of the portions of those Play
                    Areas covered by shade? Answers will vary. Students
                    will determine this figure by using algebraic formulas
                    to calculate the area of each shade-covered area and
                    then adding the sums together.

                3   What percentage of the Play Areas on your school's
                    grounds is sun safe? This answer will be determined
                    by dividing the total area of shady spots by the total
                    area of the Play Areas.

                4   How will the shaded Play Areas change with the
                    movement of the sun? Answers will vary, but should
                    reflect an understanding of the motion of the sun.

                5   What changes would you suggest for the play areas
                    to increase the shaded areas in the playground?
                    Answers will vary.

                  This activity was adapted from California
                  Department of Health Services, School Shade Protocol,
                  Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Section.
Additional Resource
CDC's Shade Planning for America's Schools
www.epa.govlsunwiseldoclcdc_shade_planning.pdf
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                                39

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              You Are the Architect
               Directions
               You are an architect who has been selected
               to submit a design proposal for a SunWise
               playground. First, get together with your
               classmates and brainstorm ideas. You need
               to consider the ways that many of today's
               playgrounds fail to protect children from
               overexposure to the sun's harmful rays.
               How can these problems be solved?

               Blueprint your idea for a SunWise playground
               structure, taking into account the movement
               of the sun across  the sky over the course of a
               single day and over the course of a year. Then,
               build a model of it for presentation. Present your
               design proposal to your class. Be sure to discuss
               how your design offers superior protection from
               overexposure to the sun's harmful rays.

               Vocabulary Words
               Blueprint—A detailed construction plan.

               Brainstorm — Developing new ideas through
               unrestrained participation in discussion.
 m of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                 41

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               You Are  the  Architect
               Estimated Time
               More than one class period
               Supplies
               Toothpicks
               Popsicle sticks
               Glue (for paper and/or wood)
               Construction paper
               Scissors
               Pipe cleaners
               Scotch tape
               Rubber bands
               String/Yarn
Directions
Tell your students that they have been selected to
submit a design proposal for new SunWise playground
structures for a local elementary school. Brainstorm
ideas with the class of how to build a SunWise
playground. Remember to  discuss potential problems
and how to solve them. Ask students to consider
the movement of the sun across the area where the
playground is to be constructed. Have a discussion
about how this information should be used when
planning a "sun-safe" outdoor area.

Have the students draw plans/blueprints of their
ideas. You may want to have them work in teams. Ask
the students to make  a model of their favorite idea.
Have the students present their ideas to the class and
explain the advantages their SunWise model has over
typical playgrounds
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                        42

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                   Detecting  UV  Light
                   Using  Tonic Water
                   Directions
                   In this activity, you will use tonic water to do an
                   experiment with ultraviolet light. Fill the beaker
                   labeled "tonic" almost to the brim with tonic
                   water. Fill the other beaker almost to the brim
                   with tap water.

                   Place the beakers outside, so that direct sunlight
                   strikes the surface of the liquid in both beakers. Hold
                   a black piece of paper or cloth behind the beakers.

                   Observe the surfaces of the tonic and tap waters
                   in the two beakers. Write a paragraph describing
                   what happened in the experiment. Be sure to use
                   all of the vocabulary words when writing your
                   explanation. Then answer the questions.

                   Vocabulary Words
                   Fluorescence—Luminescence caused by the
                   absorption of a photon at one wavelength that
                   triggers the emission of another photon usually
                   at a longer wavelength. The absorbed photon is
                   typically in the ultraviolet range, and the emitted
                   light is usually in the visible range.
Ultraviolet light—Electromagnetic radiation that
has a shorter wavelength than visible light and is
not visible to the human eye.

Photon—The elementary particle that is the
carrier of electromagnetic radiation of all
wavelengths, including ultraviolet light and visible
light.

Wavelength—In a periodic wave, the distance
between identical points (e.g., peaks) in
consecutive cycles. Examples of waves are
light and sound waves. Visible light includes a
wavelength range of 400—700 nanometers and a
color range of violet through red.

Questions

1  What differences do you see between the
   two beakers?

2  What time  of day is it? Where is the sun in
   the sky?

3  How might the position of the  sun affect your
   results?

4  What is contained in the sunlight that causes
   these results?
                                                                     This activity is adapted from the Project LEARN
                                                                     module, Ozone in Our Atmosphere.
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Emtmrmantat Protection Agency
   www.epa.gov/sunwlse
                                                                                                                        43

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                      ST2OS-
                Detecting  UV Light
                Using Tonic  Water
                Estimated Time
                40-50 minutes

                Supplies
                Two beakers, labeled "tap water" and "tonic water"
                Tonic water
                Tap water
                Black paper or cloth
                Sunlight

                Learning Objective
                This activity will demonstrate the presence of UV light
                in sunlight. When a photon of UV energy is absorbed, it
                is re-emitted by the quinine in tonic water as a photon
                of visible light. This process is called fluorescence.
                The amount of fluorescence that occurs is influenced
                by the amount of UV. This will reinforce the concept
                that UV light is always present in sunlight, although
                invisible to the naked eye. Have students write a
                paragraph explaining what has happened in this
                experiment, using the following words: fluorescence,
                photon, wavelength, ultraviolet light. The students
                should demonstrate the ability to research the scientific
                background of a certain phenomenon. Students should
                show comprehension of the idea that it is the size of the
                UV wavelengths that causes them to appear invisible.
                But when a photon of UV energy is absorbed in the
                tonic water, the quinine re-emits the energy as a
                photon of visible light.
After completing the tonic water experiment, students
will investigate the chemical reactions that were
involved in the changes of the tonic water and the
tap water. Students will also understand that when
light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed,
or transmitted through the object depending on the
objects' materials and the frequency (color) of the light.

Directions
Fill the beaker labeled "tonic" almost to the brim with
tonic water. Fill the other beaker almost to the brim
with tap water. Place the beakers outside, so that direct
sunlight strikes the surface of the liquid in both beakers.
Ask the students to predict what they might observe.
Hold a black piece of paper or cloth behind the beakers.
Have the class look across the surfaces of the two beakers.

Questions and Answers

1  What differences do you see? The top 1/4 inch of the
   tonic water should glow blue.

2  What time of day is it? Where is the sun in the sky?
   Answers will vary.

3  How might the position of the sun affect
   your results? Best results occur around noon when
   the sun is directly overhead. The higher the sun is in
   the sky, the shorter the distance the UV light must
   travel through the ozone layer, allowing more UV
   radiation to reach the Earth's surface.

4  What is contained in the sunlight that causes
   these results? UV radiation. Students should grasp
   the concept that UV radiation is always present in
   sunlight.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                           44

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               Gumdrop
               Directions
               As you observe the Gumdrop Science
               demonstration, answer the questions below

               Define the following terms:

               Diatomic molecule
               Triatomic molecule
               Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Questions

1  What effect does an increase in HCFCs and CFCs
   in the stratosphere have on ozone? What effect
   will that have on us?
2  How is the breakup of ozone in the
   stratosphere similar to its formation?
               Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
               UV radiation
3  Why is ozone good in the stratosphere and
   bad in the troposphere?
               Stratosphere


               Catalyst
                                                                                                                      45
	„._ motthe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                                                                                                          (O
                    Gumdrop

                    Estimated Time
                    40-50 minutes

                    Supplies
                    Gumdrops in the following colors:
                     black, red, green, yellow and white1
                    Toothpicks
                    Flashlight
                    Transparent colored plastic sheets,
                     preferably blue, to cover the flashlight lens
                    White piece of paper

                    Learning Objective
                    This activity will demonstrate to students
                    the photochemical reactions involved in the
                    creation and destruction of stratospheric
                    ozone on a molecular level. It will
                    emphasize the damage caused by man-
                    made HCFCs and CFCs in our atmosphere.
                    The students will be able to explain the
                    role of stratospheric ozone, demonstrate
                    the formation of ozone, identify the sources
                    of stratospheric ozone layer depletion,
                    and explain why HCFCs and CFCs are
                    destructive to the ozone layer. Assess the
                    students' comprehension of the HCFC/CFC
                    problem and their absorption of this lesson
                    into their world view: ask students to
                    make a list of everyday products that use
                    or formerly used HCFCs, and formulate a
                    plan for reducing or eliminating the need
                    for HCFCs in their lives.

                    Definitions
                    Diatomic molecule—A diatomic molecule is
                    composed of two atoms. Diatomic oxygen is
                    present in the air we breathe.

                    Triatomic molecule—A triatomic molecule
                    is composed of three atoms. Triatomic
                    oxygen is also known as ozone.
                    1 The colors used in this model are based on the
                    Institute of Physics color scheme, one employed by
                    several producers of molecular modeling sets. If the
                    suggested colors of gumdrops are not available, please
                    substitute with colors that are available, making sure
                    to be consistent in the colors you use to represent each
                    element.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)—Man-made
chemical compounds consisting of chlorine,
fluorine, and carbon.  Releasing CFCs
into the atmosphere causes ozone layer
depletion.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) —Man-
made chemical compounds consisting of
hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon,
which also deplete the ozone layer.
Because HCFCs are less harmful to the
ozone layer than CFCs, they have been
used as an interim replacement for CFCs.

UV radiation—Electromagnetic radiation
that has a shorter wavelength than visible
light and is not visible to the human eye.

Stratosphere—A layer of the atmosphere
above the troposphere, 6 to 30 miles  above
the Earth's surface, where the ozone layer
is located.

Catalyst—A substance that modifies and
increases the rate  of a chemical process
without being consumed in the process.

Questions and Answers

1  What effect does an increase in HCFCs
   and CFCs in the stratosphere have on
   stratospheric ozone? What effect will
   that have on us? Increased HCFCs
   and CFCs in the stratosphere have
   destroyed many ozone molecules for
   several decades and continue to weaken
   the ozone layer that protects us from
   the sun's harmful UV rays. One CFC
   molecule can destroy up to 100,000
   ozone molecules.

2  How is the breakup of ozone in the
   stratosphere similar to its formation?
   Both processes  involve UV radiation.

3  Why is ozone good in the stratosphere
   and bad in the troposphere? In the
   stratosphere, ozone partially filters
    UV radiation. In the troposphere,
   ozone is a major component of smog.
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                   Gumdrop

                   Background Information
                   Ozone, a triatomic molecule of oxygen
                   (O3), is made when short-wavelength UV
                   radiation breaks the bonds of diatomic
                   oxygen (O2) in the stratosphere. The
                   freed single oxygen atoms (O) are highly
                   reactive and bond with diatomic oxygen to
                   form ozone. This is a naturally occurring
                   process in the stratosphere that is kept in
                   balance, unless man-made chemicals like
                   HCFCs or CFCs are  introduced. CFCs are
                   the primary cause of ozone layer depletion
                   around the world, but since 1996, the
                   production of CFCs has been prohibited
                   in the United States. HCFCs, which are
                   also ozone depleting  but less harmful
                   than CFCs, have replaced CFCs in many
                   applications. Although the United States
                   is incrementally decreasing the use of
                   HCFCs, they can still be found in some
                   home air-conditioners, refrigerated display
                   cases in supermarket stores, and foam
                   products. When HCFCs or CFCs reach the
                   stratosphere, they react with UV light, and
                   a chlorine atom is released. The chlorine
                   atom, acting as a catalyst, then bonds
                   with an ozone molecule and destroys it by
                   pulling away the third oxygen atom. Then,
                   the free atoms of oxygen destroy the weak
                   bond between the oxygen and chlorine,
                   pulling it away to form O2. This process
                   replaces the chlorine atom, which is then
                   free to repeat the process for decades,
                   thereby destroying ozone faster than it can
                   be replaced naturally.

                   The ozone  layer is found in the
                   stratosphere, between 6 and 30 vertical
                   miles from the Earth's surface. As ozone
                   in the stratosphere  is depleted, more
                   harmful UV radiation can penetrate
                   through the layer and reach the Earth.
                   In humans, increased UV radiation can
                   cause cataracts,  skin cancer, immune
                   system weakening, and premature aging
                   of the skin.
Directions
Natural Ozone Layer Formation
Instruct the students to connect three or
four pairs of red gumdrops with a toothpick
to simulate diatomic oxygen molecules,
which are present in the air we breathe.
Have another student shine the flashlight
on one of these molecules, with a colored
plastic sheet covering the lens, simulating
UV radiation from the sun.

The molecule bombarded with UV radiation
will break apart, leaving two single oxygen
atoms. The blue plastic represents the
short UV wavelengths that are responsible
for the breakup of diatomic oxygen. The
individual oxygen atoms are now free to
join the other diatomic oxygen molecules to
form triatomic oxygen, or ozone.

Unnatural Ozone Layer Depletion
In the stratosphere,  ozone meets up
with HCFCs such as HCFC-22. Have
the students make a model of HCFC-22
using one black gumdrop for the carbon,
two yellow gumdrops for the fluorine, one
green gumdrop for the chlorine, and one
white gumdrop for the hydrogen.  Stick
three toothpicks into the carbon to form
what looks like a three-legged stool.  Put
the chlorine atom on one free toothpick
end and the fluorine atoms on the other
two. With the "stool" standing on the
desk, put another toothpick in the carbon
and attach the hydrogen to it. Also, have
the ozone models from above and a free
oxygen atom handy.

Lay the HCFC molecule and the ozone
side-by-side on a white piece of paper,
representing the stratosphere. Bombard
them with  simulated UV radiation from
your flashlight. The flashlight should be
covered with a different colored plastic
sheet, representing a longer wavelength
 of UV light. This UV radiation will
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                                                                                                       co
                   Gumdrop Science continued
                   cause one chlorine atom (green gumdrop) to
                   break off the HCFC. The free chlorine then
                   attacks ozone molecules, breaking them up
                   into diatomic and single oxygen molecules,
                   and combines with the free oxygen (red
                   gumdrop). This newly formed molecule is
                   unstable, and the oxygen atom breaks free
                   again to join another free oxygen atom
                   and form diatomic oxygen. This leaves the
                   chlorine atom free to attack and break
                   up other ozone molecules, a destructive
                   process that goes on for decades.
         t—
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                   UV  Frisbee
                   Directions
                   Before observing the UV Frisbee demonstration,
                   make some predictions.

                   What do you predict will happen to the UV
                   Frisbee when your teacher applies sunscreen to
                   the plastic covering it? What about when it is
                   covered with cloth?

                   Predict the amount of time it will take the
                   UV Frisbee to change color once it is exposed
                   to sunlight.

                   Now, observe the UV Frisbee as your teacher
                   applies a variety of materials to it. Record your
                   observations on the data chart below. Record the
                   color of the UV Frisbee after each material is
                   applied to it. Use the data you have collected to
                   answer the questions.

                   Questions

                   1  Did the UV Frisbee change color when exposed
                      to normal room light? Why  or why not?
                   2.  What happened to the color of the UV Frisbee
                      in the sunlight? After five minutes?
3  What effects did the different sunscreens
   have on the UV Frisbee?

4  What did you note about the surface area
   of the UV Frisbee that was covered with
   cotton cloth?
Plain
Indoors
SPFO
SPF30
SPF50
Plain
Sunglasses
UV Blocking
Glasses
Cotton
Fabric
UV Blocking
Fabric
Frisbee
Test One Three Five
Number Minute Minutes Minutes
































                                                                               This activity is adapted from the Project LEARN
                                                                               module, Ozone in Our Atmosphere.
a program that radiates good ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                           49

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                Estimated Time
                30 minutes

                Supplies
                UV Frisbee
                Sunscreen (including baby oil, SPF 30, and SPF 50)
                Regular eyeglasses
                Sunglasses with UV-protective coating on lenses
                2" x 2" swatches of cloth (cotton, UV blocking
                 fabric, and "tan-through" fabric)
                Clear plastic wrap or hotel shower cap
                Stop watch
                Newspaper
                Masking tape and marker

                Learning Objective
                The objective of this activity is to demonstrate the
                effects of UV radiation. After completing this activity,
                students should be able to describe at least three
                ways they can protect themselves against harmful
                UV radiation. Have students describe their outdoor
                behavior before seeing the UV Frisbee demonstration.
                How will they change their outdoor behavior? (See the
                SunWisdom section of the Tool Kit for a list of sun
                safety tips.)

                Directions
                Use the UV Frisbee included in the SunWise Tool Kit
                to show students the effects of UV radiation and
the effects of different materials on blocking out UV
radiation. For more information about UV radiation,
please review the SwreWisdom section of the Tool Kit.
Before you begin the UV Frisbee demonstration, ask
the students to make some predictions.

•  What do you predict will happen to the UV Frisbee
   when your teacher applies sunscreen to the  plastic
   covering it? What about when it is covered with
   cloth? Answers will vary.

•  Predict the amount of time it will take the UV
   Frisbee to change color once it is exposed to  outdoor
   light. Answers will vary.

Students should watch you perform the  experiment
and record their observations on the data chart
provided to them on the Student Page of this activity.

•  Observe the plain UV Frisbee while  still inside
   your classroom.

•  Cover the UV Frisbee with a piece of clear plastic
   or hotel shower cap. Apply a small circle of baby oil
   and of sunscreen (all SPF levels) to the protected
   surface of the UV Frisbee. Use masking tape and
   marker to identify each SPF level. Cover the UV
   Frisbee with the newspaper or place it in a box and
   take it outside. Uncover the UV Frisbee and begin
   timing. The unprotected area of the UV Frisbee will
   change color. The circle with baby oil (SPF 0) will
   change color, but those with SPF 30  and higher will
   not change color.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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                UV Frisbee Science Directions continued

                •   Tape the two pairs of glasses to the UV Frisbee.
                    Cover the UV Frisbee with the newspaper or box
                    and take it outside. Uncover the UV Frisbee and
                    begin timing. The area under the glasses without
                    UV protective coating will change color. The area
                    under the sunglasses with UV protective coating
                    will not change color (might change slightly). Return
                    to your classroom and remove the sunglasses.

                •   Tape the different swatches of fabric to the UV
                    Frisbee. Use masking tape and marker to identify
                    each fabric. Cover the UV Frisbee with the newspaper
                    or box and take it outside. Uncover the UV Frisbee
                    and begin timing. The unprotected area of the UV
                    Frisbee will change color. The area underneath
                    the UV blocking fabric will not change color. Other
                    fabrics will filter out a portion of UV depending
                    on the thickness and tightness of the weave of the
                    fabric. Return to your classroom and remove the
                    fabric swatches.
Questions and Answers

1  Did the UV Frisbee change color when exposed to
   normal room light? Why or why not? The UV Frisbee
   will not usually change color because there is very
   little UV radiation in indoor lighting.

2  What happened to the color of the UV Frisbee in
   the sunlight? After five minutes? The  UV Frisbee
   changed from clear to purple.

3  What effects did the different sunscreens have on
   the UV Frisbee? Generally, results do not differ
   much for sunscreens with SPF 30 or higher. It
   is important  to note that  SPF 50 does not block
   significantly  more UVB rays than SPF 30. SPF 30
   sunscreen blocks approximately 97 percent of the
   sun's  UVB rays while SPF 50 blocks approximately
   98 percent. If the sunscreen is broad-spectrum,
   then the UVA protection is proportional to the
   UVB protection. So, when coupled with the broad-
   spectrum claim, a higher SPF value shows higher
   protection against UVA.

4  What did you note about the surface area of the
   UV Frisbee that was covered with cotton cloth?
   Answers will vary depending on the thickness and
   tightness of the weave of the cotton cloth.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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               Be a SunWise  Traveler
               Directions
               You are planning a trip. Use maps, a world
               globe, and websites to research your assignment
               and answer the questions below. Share your
               findings with your class.
               Vocabulary Word
               Mean — The average value of a set of numbers. A
               mathematical value that is intermediate between
               other values.
               Activities and Questions

               1  Using a world map or globe, identify where
                  you live.

               2  Using the world map or globe, identify where
                  you would like to visit. Why would you like to
                  visit this location? What time of year would
                  you like your visit to occur?
               3  Using the UV Index maps located on the EPA
                  SunWise website, www.epa.gov/uvindex, identify
                  what the UV Index mean (average) is where you
                  live at this time of
                  the year.
4  Using the UV Index maps located on the World
   Health Organization website, www.who.int/uv/
   resources/link/indexlinks/en/, identify what the
   UV Index mean (average) is where you would like
   to visit and at the time of year your visit would
   occur.

5  What is the mean yearly UV Index where
   you live?
6  What is the mean yearly UV Index of the place
   where you want to visit?
7  What do you notice about your local UV
   Index in comparison to the UV Index at the
   location you want to visit during the time
   you want to visit?

8  Are there  similarities and differences? Why?
9  What SunWise  action steps should you take
   when visiting your destination?

10 Develop a "SunWise Travel Alert" for your
   destination. Be  sure to  list the conditions that
   a traveler is likely to encounter and sun-safe
   behaviors they should practice. This alert may
   be in the form of a poster, newspaper
   ad, TV or radio  announcement, or
   a Web page.
                                                                                                                      53
.. .-=._mofflwl/.S. Environmental Protection Agamy
www.epa.gov/sunwise

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                Be a  SunWise Traveler
                Estimated Time
                45-60 minutes (students may work individually or in
                small groups)

                Supplies
                Maps of the United States and the world
                Computers
                Action Steps for Sun Protection (see SunWisdom section)

                Learning Objective
                This activity gives students the opportunity to learn
                about how people all over the world need to protect
                themselves from the sun's harmful UV rays. It will help
                students make connections  and comparisons between
                their local environment and sun-safe behaviors they
                practice when visiting other parts of the world.
                Background/Talking  Points
                People often travel to, or vacation in, locations with
                extreme UV intensity, especially in comparison to the
                UV intensity at that time of year in the traveler's city or
                town. Additionally, travelers may not realize how intense
                the sun is at that time of year and may not adequately
                prepare for the UV radiation that they are exposed to,
                resulting in severe sunburns. Studies have shown that
                as much as 88 percent of sunburns in children occur
                during sunny vacations. A serious potential problem
surfaces when you combine this information with the
fact that sunburn is a risk factor for skin cancer. By
raising awareness of the dangers specifically associated
with travel/vacations to UV intense destinations, our
goal is for children and their caregivers to receive no
sunburns during travel/vacations.

In addition:

• UV rays are reflected by snow, sand, water, and
  pavement. Fresh snow may reflect up to 80 percent
  of the incident UV radiation. This is important at
  higher altitudes and latitudes. Sand and water also
  reflect UV radiation and can increase UV exposure at
  the beach.

• The higher in altitude you go, the more intense the
  UV rays become due to the shorter distance from
  the sun and less atmosphere for the UV radiation to
  travel through.

Directions
Engage students by asking them if they have a place
in mind that they would like to travel to someday. Or
ask them if they have a friend or relative that lives far
away from them (be cognizant of students that may
have family in the military) that they might like to visit.
Have students identify the place they would like to visit
along with the time of year they would like to do this
traveling. Students will identify the UV Index mean
(average) where they live and the place they would
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                              54

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                like to visit, then make a connection or comparison
                of the two locations. They will then identify SunWise
                action steps they should take when visiting their choice
                of destinations. Instruct students to respond to the
                activities and questions individually or in pairs. Then,
                have them share their findings with the class.

                Student Activities and Questions
                Answers should reflect students' research on their
                location.

                1   Using a world map or globe, identify where you live.

                2   Using the world map or globe, identify where you
                    would like to visit. Why would you like to visit this
                    location? What time of year would you like your
                    visit to occur?

                3   Using the UV Index maps located on the EPA
                    SunWise website,  www.epa.gov/uvindex, identify
                    what the UV Index mean (average) is where you
                    live at this time of the year.

                4   Using the UV Index maps located on the World
                    Health Organization website, www.who.int/uv/
                    resources /link / indexlinks /en/, identify what the
                    UV Index mean (average) is where you would like to
                    visit and at the time of year your visit would occur.

                5   What is the mean yearly UV Index where you live?

                6   What is the mean yearly UV Index of the place
                    where you want to visit?
7  What do you notice about your local UV Index in
   comparison to the UV Index at the location you
   want to visit during the time you want to visit?

8  Are there similarities and differences? Why?

9  What SunWise action steps should you take when
   visiting your destination?

10 Develop a "SunWise Travel Alert" for your
   destination. Be sure to list the conditions that
   a traveler is likely to encounter and sun-safe
   behaviors they should practice. This alert may be
   in the form of a poster, newspaper ad, TV or radio
   announcement, or a Web page.
Resources to Learn More About Your Destination
and SunWise Practices
www.weather.com/activities/health/skin

www.intellicast.com

www.weatherbase.com

www.epa.gov/sunwise/kids lkids_actionsteps.html

For full page maps, please see the UV Index maps
located at www.epa.gov/uvindex and www.who.int/uv/
resources I link I indexlinks I en/.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                                55

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 \A
,—*.
A  SunWise Legend

Wise Heart Saves the Day1

Once upon a time, a very long time ago,
there lived a young Indian boy who was
both smart and kind and who longed
to make the world a better place for
his  people. His name was Wise Heart,
and he belonged to the Cahto Indian
Tribe that lived in what is now northern
California. The world in which Wise
Heart lived was cold and barren, with
few plants or trees. During the day, his
world was gloomy and grim, lit by only
a faint, dim light that seemed to come
from very far away. At night, his world
was always cloaked in deep darkness,
a darkness that was broken only by the
campfire and the torches that the elders
alone were allowed to carry.

Wise Heart knew that the world had
not always been such a dark and gloomy
place. Sometimes as his  tribe huddled
around the campfire at night, the elders
told stories—ancient stories—of a time
when a bright light they called the Sun
had warmed the world during the day,
while its distant relatives, the Moon and
Stars, had filled the night.Wise Heart
had also seen the ancient tribal cave
paintings that showed a world filled
with the bright light of the Sun and with
towering trees and plants. Whenever
Wise Heart or the other children asked
the elders how the world had lost its
Sun, Moon, and Stars, the elders would
become quiet and warn the children not
to ask such questions.

One night, while Wise Heart slept, he
dreamed of the beautiful, Sun-filled
world that he had seen in the cave
paintings. There were blue skies, trees
laden with delicious fruit, and smaller
plants with fragrant flowers. Then,
in his dream, he heard the sound of a
fiercely shrieking wind, and the Sun
suddenly seemed to be torn from the
sky, leaving only a dim glow  in its
wake. Wise Heart woke from his dream
troubled and unable to fall back asleep.
When the dim light of day returned,
Wise Heart cautiously approached the
oldest and most respected of the elders,
a stooped old man named Running
Water. The boy recounted his dream
and asked the old man if he knew what
had happened to the Sun so many years
before. At first Running Water scolded
the boy and warned him not to wonder
about such things. Finally, however,
seeing the boy's determination to know
the truth, Running Water relented. He
told the boy that many years before, an
Evil Spirit had become jealous  of the
brilliance and warmth of the Sun and
had stolen it from the  sky and hidden it
in a deep canyon on the far side of the
world.  The Evil Spirit  had also stolen the
Moon and Stars and hidden them away
as well so that the humans would not
have enough light to be able to search for
and free the Sun from its captor. From
that day on, Running Water explained,
the world had been dimly lit. Bound with
thick ropes to a giant boulder, the Sun
could make only a few of its rays reach
above the edge of the deep canyon.

All that day Wise Heart thought about
Running  Water's words. He watched his
people as they struggled to survive by
eating the few fish in the stream and
few small plants on the hillsides. By the
time darkness fell, Wise Heart had made
a decision. He would journey across the
mountains, to the far side of the world.
He would find the deep canyon where
the Sun, Moon, and Stars were being
held by the Evil Spirit, and somehow,
he would free them. That, he decided,
was how  he would help make the world
better for his people.

Early the next evening, Wise Heart
secretly set out for the distant
mountains, carrying only a skin of
water, some dried fish, and a sharp
knife. As he traveled, he asked the kind
spirits of his people to help him, and
they did.  Guided by a fierce and powerful
eagle and thousands of fireflies, Wise
Heart found his way through the steep,
dark mountain range.  A sure-footed
                                                                                     r*
                                                                                     10

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mountain goat led him to the edge of
the deep canyon in which the Evil Spirit
was guarding the Sun, Moon, and Stars.
Just at that moment, a traveling family
of field mice offered to chew through
the ropes that bound the Sun, Moon,
and Stars while Wise Heart distracted
the Evil Spirit.  Accepting their offer of
help, Wise Heart climbed cautiously
over the rim of the canyon and slowly
began to climb down the steep cliff
toward the canyon floor below. Just as
he reached the bottom, the silence was
suddenly pierced by the same sound of
shrieking wind that he had heard in his
dream. The Evil Spirit, red-faced  and
shaking with rage, stepped between
Wise Heart and the Sun, Moon, and
Stars and demanded to know why the
boy had intruded in his canyon. Before
Wise Heart could answer, the Evil
Spirit noticed the boy's water skin and
demanded that he be given some water
to quench his thirst and to cool his sun-
scorched body. In reply, Wise Heart said,
"Powerful spirit, I  am happy to give you
all my water, but first let me add some
special herbs that  will quench your
thirst and cool your sun-scorched  body
better than plain water." The Evil Spirit
agreed, and after Wise Heart had added
the herbs, which were really sleeping
herbs, he drank the water greedily. Soon
after, the Evil Spirit fell asleep.
Immediately, as if on cue, the family
of mice began gnawing through the
thick ropes that held the Sun, Moon,
and Stars captive. When they had
almost completed their task, the Evil
Spirit, feeling the heat of the Sun's rays
as it slowly began  to ascend into the
sky, awoke from his slumber. With a
piercing shriek, the Evil Spirit rushed
to recapture the Sun. Just before  he
could do  so Wise Heart cut through the
remaining fragments of rope with his
knife. With the ends of the rope held
tightly in his hands, Wise Heart and
the mice sailed into the sky. A short
time later, as the Sun passed over Wise
Heart's village, they all jumped safely
into the soft boughs of the tallest fir
trees. From there, Wise Heart looked
up to see the first and most beautiful
sunrise that he would ever see.

Wise Heart returned to his tribe as a
hero. The people hailed him as the Sun
Guard and thanked him for returning
light and warmth to the day and light
to the night. Almost immediately, the
trees and plants began to grow larger,
and the people danced and celebrated in
the warmth and brightness of the Sun.
After several hours, however, the people
began to complain. They said, "It's too
hot! I'm thirsty!" Others complained of
feeling tired and of their skin feeling red
and sore. Wise Heart was amazed that
his  gift that had at first caused so much
joy  was now causing so much pain and
discomfort. He thought for a moment
and then quickly led his tribe to the
river's edge. There he told his people to
drink deeply and to coat their skin with
mud from the riverbank. He told them,
"The mud will soothe your skin and
protect it from the powerful rays of the
Sun," and they found that he was right.
Now Wise Heart was truly a hero. His
tribe could now enjoy the Sun and all
the beauty it gave to the world, without
being hurt by its powerful rays. Even
today, Wise Heart is a hero, for though
he did not know it, he had developed the
first sunscreen with an SPF of 45!

The legend is available with illustrations
at the Children's Melanoma Prevention
Foundation website,
www.melanomaprevention.org.
1 This story has been adapted from traditional tales by
 Jane Shanny and Mary Ellen Maguire-Eisen of the
 Children's Melanoma Prevention Foundation.
00
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               A SunWise Legend
                Estimated Time
                1 hour

                Supplies
                Large paper
                Markers

                Learning Objective
                The students will learn that people from all over the
                world have different stories about the sun. Before
                the story is read, ask the students about the power of
                the sun, both good and bad. Write their ideas on the
                paper. After reading the story assess what they have
                learned by asking them to research other legends
                about the sun or to perform a skit about the sun and
                why it is important to people around the world.
Directions
Have the class read "Wise Heart Saves the Day," a
legend about the origin of the sun inspired by the
Native American Cahto Tribe of California (on the
Student Page of this activity). After the class has
finished reading, explain to them that people from all
over the world have different ideas and beliefs about
the sun. Discuss what they remember from the story
and the lessons it shares about the sun and sun safety.
Ask them why the sun is so important that people from
all over the world tell stories about it (e.g., it makes
plants grow, provides light.) Ask them what other
stories or legends they have heard about the sun and
why they think so many cultures—past and present—
revere the sun. After discussing the legend and the sun,
follow on activities can include:

Ask your students to research other legends and
mythology about the sun and sun gods (e.g., Ra, the
ancient Egyptian sun god, Apollo from Roman and
Greek mythology, Amaterasu from Japanese mythology,
or Sol from Norse mythology). Ask your students to
explain why they think the sun and the sun gods and
goddesses were so important to these ancient cultures.

Divide the class into groups and have each group
create a skit to present to the class about the sun, its
importance to people around the world, and its power.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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Keep an Eye  on Sun  Safety

Directions
UV radiation can cause damage to the eyes of both animals
and humans. One example of eye damage is a cataract. A
cataract is the clouding of the eye's lens, which makes it
difficult to see. Sea lions and seals that live in a zoo may
develop cataracts because of not enough shade in their
enclosure or because of looking up at the sun during feeding
and training with the zookeeper. In addition, the reflection
from the water causes extra UV exposure for both the
animals and the visitors at the zoo.
Design an outdoor zoo exhibit for seals and sea lions that
helps protect their eyes and the zoo visitors' eyes from too
much sun exposure.  How should visitors dress for a sun-
safe day at the zoo?
Many animals have natural adaptations that protect them
from the sun. Find examples of these animal adaptations
by visiting the Sun Wise website www.epa.gov I sunwise or
the website of your local zoo. In your exhibit design, include
signs that point visitors in the direction of these animals.
                                                                            Vocabulary Words
                                                                            Cataract —A clouding of the eye's lens that can
                                                                            blur vision
                                                                            Lens —A transparent structure in the eye that
                                                                            helps focus light
                                                                               Eyelid
a program that radiates good ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Prelection Agency
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                 Keep an Eye  on  Sun  Safety
                 Estimated Time
                 30-45 minutes
                 Supplies
                 Paper
                 Pens or Pencils
                 Learning Objective
                 The aim of this  activity is for students to learn the
                 importance of protecting their eyes from overexposure
                 to the sun's harmful UV rays. By understanding animal
                 adaptations for  sun protection and designing a sun-safe
                 enclosure for zoo animals, students will draw connections
                 to the ways they can protect themselves from overexposure
                 to the sun. Assess if they have learned how to protect
                 their eyes from  UV radiation by facilitating a classroom
                 evaluation of each group's exhibit design.
                 Directions
                 Assign groups to collaborate  on the  design of a sun-safe
                 outdoor exhibit for seals and sea lions. Before the students
                 begin, have a brief discussion on the damaging effects that
                 UV radiation has on the eyes of both animals and humans
                 (for additional background information on cataracts and
                 UV-induced eye  damage, refer to the "Prevent Eye Damage"
                 fact sheet on the Sun Wise website). Use the following
                 questions to guide a discussion:
1  Does the exhibit design provide enough shade for
   the animals?

2  Do the visitors have a shaded area where they can
   watch the animals?

3  How should visitors dress for a sun-safe day at
   the zoo?

4  Where can zoo visitors find other sun-safe animals?

Describe to the students how seals and sea lions in  zoos can
be prone to cataracts due to the following: 1) lack of shade
in the enclosure; 2) reflection of UV rays from the water
and from the light surfaces of the tank/enclosure; 3) looking
up toward the sun during feeding and training with the
zookeepers; and 4) living longer in captivity than in the wild
(in addition to overexposure to UV radiation, cataracts can
also develop from old age).

Ask students to brainstorm animals that have natural
adaptations to protect themselves from the sun. The students
may research animal adaptations on the Sun Wise website
or on your local zoo's website, or you can guide them to
examples of adaptations using the "Search for Sun Wise
Animals" resource on the Sun Wise website. Explain to the
students that humans can "adapt" too with simple sun
safety habits. For eye protection, these habitats include
the following: avoiding overexposure to the sun; wearing a
wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses with 99-100% UVA/UVB
protection; seeking shade when the sun's UV rays are most
intense between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.; checking the UV Index;
and using extra caution around reflective surfaces such as
water, snow, and sand.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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                 When the students have finished their exhibits, lead them in
                 a discussion to evaluate each design. Relate the issue of eye
                 protection to the students' environments. Ask the students
                 where they might get the most UV exposure in their daily lives.
                 Remind the students that sun safety is important for all outdoor
                 activities, including recess at school, swimming, boating, biking,
                 soccer, baseball, etc. Ask the students to think of ways they can
                 better protect their eyes from too much  sun exposure.

                 Additional Resources

                 Search for Sun Wise Animals, available on the
                 Sun Wise website
                 (www.epa.gov I sunwiseldoclanimals_zoo.pdf)

                 Sun Wise Animal Quiz, available on the Sun Wise website
                 (www.epa.gov I sunw ise I doc / Animal_WhoAmI.pdf)

                 Prevent  Eye Damage, available on the Sun Wise website
                 (www.epa.gov/sunwise/doc/eyedamage.pdf)

                 Activity Enrichment

                 • Connect this activity with the UV-sensitive Frisbee
                  activity. Have the students bring  their sunglasses to
                  class and test their effectiveness using the  Frisbee.
                  Place  the sunglasses on the inner surface of the
                  Frisbee and then carry it outside. Once the Frisbee
                  has changed color, carry it back indoors and remove
                  the sunglasses. If there is a white area in the shape
                  of the  sunglasses, then the sunglasses are effective at
                  blocking UV radiation.
• Have students brainstorm activities and occupations
 that may lead to a person's eyes being exposed to
 excessive UV radiation. Answers may include sports
 (baseball, skiing, swimming, surfing, etc.) and outdoor
 jobs (fishing, construction, landscaping, farming, etc.).
 Ask the students how they could protect their eyes
 during each activity.

• In addition to overexposure to UV radiation, risk of
 cataracts also increases with age. Ask the students
 if they know of anyone who has cataracts or other
 eye damage. Offer the students the opportunity to
 interview that person and report back to the class.
 Remind the students to ask their interviewee about
 previous sun exposure and sun protection habits.

• Have the students experience what it is like to have
 cataracts by taking an old pair of glasses and applying
 a light coat of non-toxic snow spray. Students can take
 turns wearing the glasses.

• Connect this activity with a visit to your local zoo
 or aquarium. Plan a sun-safe animal tour using
 the "Search for SunWise Animals" resource on the
 SunWise website.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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                 Wild for Sun  Protection

                 Directions for Activity 1:
                 Use the Internet and other resources to investigate ways
                 animals protect themselves from overexposure to the sun's
                 harmful UV rays. Complete the activities and answer the
                 questions below. Then, share your findings with your class.
                 Vocabulary Words

                 Habitat—The area or natural environment where a
                 particular organism, such as a plant or animal, lives.

                 Adaptation—An alteration or adjustment in a physical
                 or behavioral trait that makes an organism such as a
                 plant or animal better suited to live in its habitat.

                 Pigmentation—A substance such as chlorophyll or
                 melanin that gives color to plant, animal, or
                 human tissue.
                 Ecosystem—A complex set of relationships between
                 a community of living organisms such as plants and
                 animals in conjunction with their environment.

                 Activities and Questions:

                 1  Using the Internet and other resources, investigate how
                    three animals protect themselves from overexposure to the
                    sun's harmful UV rays and complete the provided chart.

                 2  What is the specific environment of the animal? In your
                    answer, include a description of the climate, landforms,
                    temperature, wind, rain, soil, and amount of sun exposure.
3  What characteristics of your animal make it well suited
   to its environment?  In your answer, include both
   physical features and behaviors.

4  Select one animal from your chart and construct an
   argument on how increases in temperature and increases
   in exposure to UV rays would affect that animal's
   chances for survival.

5  How might the animal's ecosystem be affected if it were
   eliminated? Support your arguments  with facts from your
   research.

6  Present your argument to the class in a three minute
   presentation.

Directions for Activity 2:
Using the Internet and other resources, investigate recent
findings on skin damage in whales. Your research should
specifically focus on the rising incidence of "sunburn cells," or
skin cells damaged by UV radiation.  Then, identify possible
causes of this problem. After you complete  your research, meet
with the other team to compare notes and discuss possible
solutions to the problem. Determine a way to present your
findings to the class.
	„._ motthe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 www.epa.gov/sunwise
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Animal #1
Habitat
  Physical
Adaptations
Animal #2
Habitat
  Physical
Adaptations
 Behavioral
Adaptations
 Behavioral
Adaptations
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  Animal #3
Habitat
  Physical
Adaptations
 Behavioral
Adaptations
Notes for argument
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                 Wild  for Sun Protection
                 Estimated Time
                 30-60 minutes per activity

                 Supplies
                 Research materials
                 Internet access
                 Animal and the Sun Chart

                 Learning Objective
                 The aim of this activity is for students to expand their
                 knowledge of animal adaptations in terms of anatomy and
                 behaviors that aid in their survival in a particular habitat.
                 After completing the activity, students  should understand
                 that animals have specific physical and behavioral
                 adaptations that allow them to survive  in a particular
                 environment.  Specifically, they should understand that
                 animals living in places with a lot of sun exposure have
                 unique biological defenses that help protect them from
                 overexposure to  the sun's harmful UV rays.
                 Directions for Activity 1:
                 Divide the students into small teams suitable for your
                 classroom size  and setup. Have each team use the Internet and
                 other resources to investigate ways animals protect themselves
                 from overexposure to the sun's harmful UV rays. You may
                 want to provide some suggested examples. Students will
                 select three animals, complete the provided chart, and write a
                 summary that includes answers to the following questions:
1  What is the specific environment of the animal?
   In your answer, include a description of the climate,
   landforms, temperature, wind, rain,  soil,  and amount of
   sun exposure.

2  What characteristics of your animal  make it well suited
   to its environment? In your answer,  include both physical
   features and behaviors.

Directions for Activity 2:
Divide the students into two teams. Have each team investigate
recent findings on skin damage in whales, specifically focusing
on the rising incidence of "sunburn cells,"  or skin cells damaged
by UV radiation. They will identify possible causes of this
problem. After researching, have the two teams meet together
to compare notes and discuss possible solutions to the problem.
Then, have the teams determine a way to present their findings
to the class.


Additional Resources:

Acute sun damage and photoprotective responses
in  whales http:l /rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/
content/278 /1711/1581.full?sid=7f8644cl-e5cf-4095-bb8a-
376d80c5ea7a

Desert Animals
www.desertusa.com/animals.html
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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                   UV ABCs
                  Directions
                  Research ultraviolet (UV) radiation and answer
                  the questions below. Present your findings with
                  your class.

                  Questions

                  1  What types of energy come from the sun?
                  2 What is UV radiation and how does it travel to
                     Earth?
                  3 Why are UV rays harmful to living organisms?
5  What are the three types of UV radiation, and
   which types can be absorbed by the
   ozone layer?
6  What is the stratospheric ozone layer?
                                                                    7  Describe the phenomenon that we call the
                                                                       ozone hole. What did scientists determine was
                                                                       the cause of the ozone hole?
                                                                    8  What is being done to address the ozone
                                                                       depletion problem?
                  4 How can humans protect themselves from
                     harmful UV rays?
9  Visit the following website:
   http:/ / uv.biospherical.com/student /
   page8.html. Perform the first three
   experiments and present your findings to your
   class.
a program that radiates good ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                        69

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                 UV  ABCs
                 Estimated Time
                 2-3 periods of 45 minutes
                 Learning Objective
                 Students will understand ultraviolet (UV) radiation: what
                 it is, where it comes from, what it does, what stops it, and
                 how it varies over the course of a day or a year.
                 Recommended Resources to Learn
                 About UV Radiation
                 NSF Polar Programs UV Monitoring Network:
                 http://uv.biospherical.com/student/page3.html
                 Sun Wise Program:
                 www.epa.gov/sunwise/doc/uvradiation.html

                 Directions:
                 Assign students to small groups and have them investigate
                 UV radiation using the guiding questions. After students have
                 finished their research, have them present their findings to the
                 class by creating a Powerpoint slideshow, a poster, or a skit.
                 For more information about UV radiation, please review the
                 Sun Wisdom section of the Tool Kit.
Vocabulary:

Ultraviolet Radiation—Electromagnetic radiation that has
a shorter wavelength than visible light and is not visible to the
human eye.

Electromagnetic Radiation —A form of energy which
exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space.
Ultraviolet rays are one type of electromagnetic radiation.

Wavelength—In a periodic wave, the distance between
identical points (e.g., peaks) in consecutive cycles. Examples
of waves are light and sound waves. Visible light includes a
wavelength range of 400 — 700 nanometers and a color range of
violet through red.

Ozone Layer—A layer in the stratosphere, which is located
6 -30 miles above the Earth's surface. It protects people from
the damaging effects of the sun's rays by absorbing some UV
radiation.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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                Questions:
                1  What types of energy come from the sun? Heat,
                   light, and radiation or electromagnetic radiation.

                2  What is UV radiation and how does it travel to
                   Earth? UV radiation is electromagnetic radiation
                   that has a shorter wavelength than visible light.  UV
                   radiation travels in waves to Earth.

                3  Why are UV rays harmful to living organisms?
                   UV rays are very powerful.  They can change the
                   chemical structure of molecules and cause cell
                   damage and deformities by mutating genetic code.

                4  How can humans protect themselves from harmful
                   UV rays? Answers should include: do not burn,
                   avoid tanning,  use sunscreen, cover up, seek shade,
                   and check the UV Index.

                5  What are the three types of UV radiation, and
                   which types can be absorbed by the ozone layer?
                   The three types of UV radiation are UVA, UVB,
                   and UVC. UVA is not absorbed by the ozone layer,
                   UVB is partially absorbed by the ozone layer, and
                   UVC is completed absorbed by the ozone layer and
                   atmosphere.
6  What is the stratospheric ozone layer? The ozone
   layer forms a thin shield high up  in the sky—
   between six and 30 miles above the Earth's surface.
   The ozone layer protects life on Earth from the sun's
   UV rays.

7  Describe the phenomenon that we call the ozone
   hole. What did scientists determine was the cause
   of the ozone hole? In the 1980s, scientists began
   finding clues that the ozone layer  was going away
   or being depleted—causing holes in the ozone
   layer. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were used a lot
   in industry and in households to keep things cold
   and to make foam and soaps. Strong winds carry
   CFCs into the stratosphere where  UV radiation
   breaks them apart, releasing chlorine atoms. The
   chlorine atoms break apart ozone  molecules in the
   stratosphere.

8  What is being done to address the ozone depletion
   problem? Countries around the world, including the
   United States, have seen the threats caused by ozone
   depletion and agreed to a treaty called the Montreal
   Protocol. This Protocol will help humans to stop
   making and using ozone-eating chemicals.

9  Visit the following website: http:I /uv.biospherical.
   com/studentIpage8.html. Perform the first three
   experiments and present your findings to  your class.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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                  SunWise  Flier
                  Supplemental
                  Directions
                  Let's make a SunWise flier on the computer.
                  Use fun images and text to communicate your
                  message. Your flier should teach people how they
                  can protect themselves from the sun's harmful
                  UV rays. Brainstorm ideas with your teacher
                  and classmates before you begin.

                  Helpful Ideas For Your Flier
                  Decide on a theme for your flier. Your theme
                  should focus on having fun and being sun safe.
                  Think about designing your flier in a fun way
                  that shows action. Show students participating
                  in activities during all seasons. You could also
                  focus on one season and make different scenes
                  showing people being sun  safe (e.g., summer
                  scene at the beach or in the park). Make sure
                  you show people wearing sun-safe items to
                  reinforce your flier theme.
Safety Tips You Can Use For Your Flier
Do Not Burn. Overexposure to the sun is the
most preventable risk factor for skin cancer.

Avoid Sun Tanning and Tanning Beds. UV rays
from tanning beds and the  sun cause skin cancer
and  wrinkling.  If you want to look like you've
been in the sun, consider using a sunless self-
tanning product, but continue to use sunscreen
with it.

Generously Apply Sunscreen.  Generously apply
sunscreen to all exposed skin using a Sun
Protection Factor (SPF) of at least 30 that
provides broad-spectrum protection from both
ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB)
rays. Reapply every two hours, even on cloudy
days, and after swimming or sweating.

Wear Protective Clothing. Wear protective
clothing, such as a long-sleeved shirt, pants,
a wide-brimmed hat, and sunglasses, when
possible.

Seek Shade. Seek shade when appropriate,
remembering that the sun's UV rays are
strongest between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
a program that radiates good ideas
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                      73

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Use Extra Caution Near Water, Snow, and Sand.
Water, snow, and sand reflect the damaging rays
of the sun, which can increase your chance of
sunburn.

Check the UV Index. The UV Index provides
important information to help you plan
your outdoor activities in ways that prevent
overexposure to the sun's rays. Developed by
the National Weather Service and EPA, the UV
Index is issued daily nationwide.
                                                                        Vitamin D Safely. Get Vitamin D
                                                                    safely through a diet that includes vitamin
                                                                    supplements and foods fortified with Vitamin D.
                                                                    Don't seek the sun.
                                                                    Early Detection of Melanoma Can Save Your
                                                                    Life. Carefully examine all of your skin once
                                                                    a month. A new or changing spot should be
                                                                    evaluated.
A Partnership Program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    www.epa.gov/sunwise
                                                                                                                         74

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               SunWise Flier
               Supplemental
                Estimated Time
                30-45 minutes
                Supplies
                Computer

                Directions
                Instruct students that they will be creating a flier
                that teaches people about protecting themselves
                from overexposure to the sun's harmful UV rays.
                To help students get started, hold a brainstorming
                session. Touch on issues such as the health effects of
                overexposure to the sun and the ways we can protect
                ourselves.
Students should also incorporate the SunWise safety
tips into their flier. These tips can be found in the
SunWisdom section of this Tool Kit or on the SunWise
website, www.epa.gov/sunwise.

Depending on your resources, ask the students to
print out their fliers in color or black-and-white and
present them to the class. If printing is not available,
the students can rotate around the computer lab to see
each other's work. If possible, post the students' work
on bulletin boards around the school.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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SunWise  Word  Problems
Supplemental
Directions
Answer the following word problems about sun-
safe products and behavior.

1  There are two SPF numbers whose sum is 90.
   Four times the first equals twice the second.
   What are the numbers?
2  Three bottles of sunscreen and two pairs
   of sunglasses weigh 32 oz. Four bottles of
   sunscreen and three pairs of sunglasses
   weigh 44 oz. All bottles of sunscreen weigh
   the same, and all pairs of sunglasses weigh
   the same. What is the weight of two bottles
   of sunscreen and one pair of sunglasses?
   A clothing company can make long-sleeved
   shirts for $4 each with a daily overhead of
   $600. If they sell shirts at $5.20 each, how
   many shirts must they sell to have a profit
   of 10 percent above their daily cost?
Scientists use a mathematical formula to
calculate the UV Index. When calculating
the UV Index, one factor they use is a value
representing the total effect a given day's
UV radiation will have on skin. This value is
then adjusted for the effects of elevation and
clouds. UV radiation at the Earth's surface
increases about 6 percent per kilometer above
sea level. Clear skies allow 100 percent of
the incoming UV radiation from the sun to
reach the surface, whereas scattered clouds
transmit 89 percent, broken clouds transmit
73 percent, and overcast conditions transmit
31 percent. Once adjusted for elevation
and clouds, this value is then divided by a
conversion factor of 25 and rounded to the
nearest whole number. This results in a
number that typically ranges from 0 to the
mid-teens. This value is the UV Index.
The formula for calculating the UV Index is:

(UV radiation effect on skin) x (percent elevation)
x (sky conditions) I conversion factor = UV Index

Now, calculate the UV Index for three days
using the following information. The UV
radiation effect on skin is 300 for each day.
You live one kilometer above sea level. The
first day has clear skies, the second day has
scattered clouds, and the third day has overcast
conditions. What is the UV Index for each day?
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                SunWise  Word  Problems
                Supplemental
                Estimated Time
                40-50 minutes

                Directions
                Have the class solve the following word problems. The
                variables in the problems are not scientifically accurate.

                Questions and Answers

                1  There are two SPF numbers whose sum is 90. Four
                   times the first equals twice the second. What are
                   the numbers? 30, 60

                2  Three bottles of sunscreen and two pairs of
                   sunglasses  weigh 32 oz. Four bottles of sunscreen
                   and three pairs of sunglasses weigh 44 oz. All
                   bottles of sunscreen weigh the same, and all pairs
                   of sunglasses weigh the same. What is the weight
                   of two bottles of sunscreen and one pair of
                   sunglasses? 2(8)+4=20 oz.

                3  A clothing company can make long-sleeved shirts for
                   $4 each with a daily overhead of $600. If they sell
                   shirts at $5.20 each, then how many shirts must
                   they sell to have a profit of greater than 10 percent
                   above their daily cost? 550
Scientists use a mathematical formula to calculate
the UV Index. When calculating the UV Index,
one factor they use is a value representing the
total effect a given day's UV radiation will have on
skin. This value is then adjusted for the effects of
elevation and clouds. UV radiation at the Earth's
surface increases about 6 percent per kilometer
above sea level. Clear skies allow 100 percent of
the incoming UV radiation from the sun to reach
the surface, whereas scattered clouds transmit 89
percent, broken clouds transmit 73 percent, and
overcast conditions transmit 31 percent. Once
adjusted for elevation and clouds, this value is then
divided by a conversion factor of 25 and rounded to
the nearest whole number. This results in a number
that typically ranges from 0 to the mid-teens. This
value is the UV Index.
The formula for calculating the UV Index is:
(UV radiation effect on skin) x (percent elevation) x
(sky conditions) / conversion factor = UV Index

Now, calculate the UV Index for three days using the
following information. The UV radiation effect on skin
is 300 for each day. You live one kilometer above sea
level. The first day has clear skies, the second day
has scattered clouds, and the third day has overcast
conditions. What is the UV Index for each day?
Day 1: 300 x 1.06  x 1.00 I 25 = 13
Day 2: 300 x 1.06  x 0.89 I 25 = 11
Day 3: 300 x 1.06  x 0.31 I 25 = 4

For more information on how the UV Index
is calculated visit the SunWise website at
www.epa.gov/sunwiseluvcalc.html.
www.epa.gov/sunwise
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